The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection and AIDS. However, currently available ART requires life long treatment with significant potential side effects and a cost that places an inordinate burden on public health systems. While reduction of HIV viral loads below detectable limits is often achieved in ART-treated individuals, a treatment that can eradicate or functionally cure HIV infection remains elusive. Many studies indicate that the key obstacle to cure HIV infection is the presence of a persistent reservoir of latently infected cells that are not eliminated by ART [1], [2]. Thus, interruption of ART consistently results in a rebound of viremia to pre-treatment levels [3], [4]. Several biological aspects of this virus reservoir, including its exact cellular and anatomic origin as well as the mechanisms responsible for its establishment and persistence under ART remain poorly understood. This limited ...
Author Summary We explored the consequences of climate change for the spread of leishmaniasis in North America. We modeled the distribution of two sand fly vector and four rodent reservoir species found in northern México and the southern United States. Models were based on occurrence data and environmental and topographic layers. Successful models were projected to 2020, 2050, and 2080 using an extreme (A2) and a conservative (B2) future climate scenario. We predicted potential range shifts of vector and reservoir species varying assumptions about dispersal ability and capacity to persist in habitats with different degrees of ecological suitability. Even with the most conservative assumptions the distributions of both vector and reservoir species expand northwards, potentially reaching as far as southern Canada in the east. Assuming that at least one vector and one reservoir species must be present for a parasite cycle, the extent of this shift is predicted to be controlled by the availability of
Singh, H., D. Herlth, D. OHara, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, R. Talbot, P. Crutzen, and M. Kanakidou (1992), Relationship of PAN to Active and Total Odd Nitrogen at Northern High Latitudes: Influence of Reservoir Species on NOx and O3, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 16,523-16 ...
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To identify viral characteristics that may explain how the SIVs have successfully infected other primate species, we analyzed the types and extent of SIVsm diversification in naturally infected SMs. Our findings of high intra-host extremes of SIVsm V1V2 nt diversity extend previous studies of naturally SIV-infected SMs and African green monkeys (AGMs) [56-63] by demonstrating that viruses found within a single animal can vary by greater than 35% at the aa level. The ranges of aa diversity in some intra-host pairwise SIVsm V1V2 sequence comparisons in this study rival that of inter-animal comparisons [40]. As our diversity calculations exclude V1V2 length variation, they represent an underestimate of the true magnitude of viral diversity. V1V2 length polymorphisms would be predicted to have dramatic effects on SIVsm Env conformation and phenotypic diversity [64,65].. Positive selection in V1V2 appears to explain the observed env diversification. Specific sites in V1 were consistently selected for ...
Isotope methods are important tools to evaluate the genesis of crude gas and oil. They allow the exploration of possible reservoirs near to the surface. The investigation of isotopes from hydrocarbons gains information about the genetic mechanisms of e.g. methane and the maturity of higher hydrocarbons.. In the course of the energy turnaround and the climate protection sustainable resources should replace fossil energy sources. The determination of the radioactive 14C verifies the amount of the renewable part in a product (e.g. synthetics, biogenic lubricants, oils, etc.). It is also possible to analyse the exhaust fumes from e.g. a biomass heating power plant for its fraction of renewable resources which are used in the combustion. ...
The eradication of smallpox by vaccination was achieved through worldwide vaccination programs and also because smallpox virus has no animal reservoir. In Reading 1 you learned that polio has been eliminated from many countries but not eradicated from Earth. What other viral diseases could be candidates for eradication? Which would not be candidates? Eradication of a disease requires an effective vaccine for that disease and no animal reservoir that would harbor the virus. Provided students had experienced Module 1, they should recognize that measles would be a good candidate since an effective vaccine is available and no reservoir host exists. Other candidates for eradication include measles, chicken pox, mumps and rubella.. Ebola would not be a good candidate since there is no vaccine and bats provide a reservoir host. SARS and Zika are also not candidates since they have animal reservoirs and no effective exists to date. You may want to have students do further research on this ...
Putzmeister Buffer storages are reservoirs for intermediate concrete storage & used for feeding stationary concrete pumps especially on large job sites. Visit us online.. Putzmeister provides products includes truck mounted concrete pumps, stationary concrete & placing booms, industrial technology, concrete placement, placing of concrete and more. Visit us online.
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Gas Reservoir Management 21 November, 2019 You are expected to be able to perform the following:Provide guidance and oversight on best-in-class reservoir ...
Parallel reservoir simulators are now widely used with availability of super computers. Modern massively parallel supercomputers demonstrate great power for simulating large-scale reservoir models. However, improving scalability and efficiency for f
Looking for ARGOS TECHNOLOGIES Pipetting Reservoir,Basin,25mL,PK100 (48WG03)? Graingers got your back. Price:$71.00. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log-in or register for your pricing.
Dedicated teams of multi-disciplined field engineers in each of these units perform sampling, and routine and specialized on-site analysis. These teams set the industry standard for high quality fluid measurements. Integrated studies within the Fluids Group provide full solutions to any reservoir fluids-related project. Our services include PVT/compositional analysis, produced oil and water testing, solids deposition evaluation and a complete sample management and storage capability. ...
While trying to figure out what kind of reservoir I wanted to use, it became apparent that there are several different types and there by locations involved. So just for S & Gs I thought I d do a poll to see the what and where on these things. For you rabid W/C aficionados with more than one system with different types hopefully the poll will let you pick more than one if applicable. If not, use your primary system. Also it would be nice if you would post the whys and wherefores on your
Ive got a failing pump in my Koolance PC2 rig, its got a reservoir with two submerged pumps inside (redundancy is a good thing). Problem is, the old part...
... : This product is a non stock item that must be ordered from the manufacturer. As
Looking for ARGOS TECHNOLOGIES Pipetting Reservoir,White,100mL,PK100 (48WG09)? Graingers got your back. Price:$78.75. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log-in or register for your pricing.
Vektora : Jurnal Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit diterbitkan oleh Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit (B2P2VRP) Salatiga
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Epidermal Langerhans cells are not principal reservoirs of virus in HIV disease. AU - Kalter, D. C.. AU - Greenhouse, J. J.. AU - Orenstein, J. M.. AU - Schnittman, S. M.. AU - Gendelman, H. E.. AU - Meltzer, M. S.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - Several reports implicate Langerhans cells of skin as susceptible targets, reservoirs, and vectors for transmission of HIV: 1) numbers of Langerhans cells in skin of HIV-infected patients were decreased about 50% of that in control skin; 2) as many as 30% of Langerhans cells in the skin of HIV-infected patients were morphologically abnormal; 3) viral particles typical for HIV were identified in or around 2 to 5% of these cells; and 4) infectious HIV was isolated from skin biopsies of infected patients. These results were consistent with similar observations of HIV-infected macrophages in such tissues as brain, lung, and lymph node. Despite these findings, other investigators find no evidence for virus infection in the epidermis of ...
These results indicate that it may not be as easy to eradicate dangerous viruses as had been assumed. For eliminating an infectious agent perma¬nently from the population by means of vaccination requires that there are no animal hosts from which a new infection might come. "In bats, we assume that there is a vast reservoir of such agents," said Drosten. "If the vaccination campaigns are stopped once a virus has been eradicated, this might present a potential risk - maybe we will have to rethink." This is why Drosten advocates taking into account ecological data when planning vaccination campaigns. Eradicating bats or other wild animals would be neither possible nor sensible. "Bats and other small wild mammals are of immeasurable value for our planets ecosystems," Drosten summarized his and his colleagues unanimous opinion ...
In infectious disease ecology and epidemiology, a natural reservoir, also known as a disease reservoir or a reservoir of infection, is the population of organisms or the specific environment in which an infectious pathogen naturally lives and reproduces, or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival. A reservoir is usually a living host of a certain species, such as an animal or a plant, inside of which a pathogen survives, often (though not always) without causing disease for the reservoir itself. By some definitions a reservoir may also be an environment external to an organism, such as a volume of contaminated air or water. Because of the enormous variety of infectious microorganisms capable of causing disease, precise definitions for what constitutes a natural reservoir are numerous, various, and often conflicting. The reservoir concept is applicable only for pathogens capable of infecting more than one host population and only with respect to a defined target population - ...
... Source: .M4a Language: English Edition: RVC - Podcast Running Time: 22:51 min. Description Badgers are often blamed for the persistence of tuberculosis in cattle herds in parts of the UK. Here Dr Julian Drewe describes his research on the dynamics of UK badger populations and meerkat communities in Africa and the potential importance of this for the spread of TB within and between species.
Two conformers, cis-cis and trans-perp HOONO, are identified in the 2vOH region by vibrational overtone initiated photodissociation spectroscopy, and the isomerization barrier from the less stable trans-perp to cis-cis HOONO is determined experimentally, statistically, and ab initio to be ~ 40 kJ/mol. This low barrier indicates that only cis-cis HOONO is atmospherically important. The complex vibrational spectroscopy of cis-cis HOONO is assigned with the aid of a simple two-dimensional OH-stretch/torsion coupling model of the planar, partially hydrogen-bound molecule. Combined with nonuniform quantum yield, this model explains the major features in the cis-cis HOONO spectrum. Its application to the fundamental region suggests an upward adjustment of the atmospherically important HOONO/HONO2 product branching ratio in the OH + NO2 association reaction. The rotational spectrum and dipole moment of cis-cis HOONO and DOONO are measured in the submillimeter region to characterize the molecular ...
Because the natural reservoir host of Ebola has not yet been confirmed, the way in which the virus first appears in a human at the start of an outbreak is unknown. However, scientists believe that the first patient becomes infected through contact with an infected animal, such as a fruit bat or primate (apes and monkeys), which is called a spillover event. Person-to-person transmission follows and can lead to large numbers of affected persons. In some past Ebola outbreaks, primates were also affected by Ebola, and multiple spillover events occurred when people touched or ate infected primates. In the current West African epidemic, animals have not been found to be a factor in ongoing Ebola transmission ...
Authors: Robert G. Webster, Yi Guan, Malik Peiris, and Honglin Chen The spread of the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus from eastern Asia to India, Europe, and Africa raises concern that it will become endemic in wild birds throughout the world. Wild aquatic birds are reservoirs for all 16 subtypes of influenza virus, many of which rarely harm these hosts. H... More... ...
Although it prevails in areas where pork is eaten, many animals, including dogs, cats, rats, bears, foxes, and wolves, are reservoirs of infection.. Humans become infected by eating undercooked or raw meat containing encysted larvae, mainly pork. The cysts located in striated muscle, are digested, liberating larvae that mature to adult worms that attach to the wall of the small intestine.. Female worms there liberate larvae that invade the intestinal wall, enter the circulation, and penetrate striated muscle, where they encyst and remain viable for years. The clinical features are highly variable, depending on the number of larvae ingested, and patients may be asymtomatic or die of a fulminating disease. In subclinical disease the only sign is eosinophilia. The invasion of muscle by the larvae is associated with muscle pain, swelling of the eyelids and facial edema, eosinophilia, and pronounced fever. Respiratory and neurologic manifestatations may appear. Fatal cases are usually attributed to a ...
In the mid 1980s, we noticed that a few months after completing a project, the researchers at our laboratory were usually unable to reproduce their own computational work without considerable agony. In 1991, we solved this problem by developing a concept of electronic documents that makes scientific computations reproducible. Since then, electronic reproducible documents have become our principal means of technology transfer of scientific computational research. A small set of standard commands makes a documents results and their reproduction readily accessible to any reader. To implement reproducible computational research the author must use makefiles, adhere to a communitys naming conventions, and reuse (include) the communitys common building and cleaning rules. Since electronic reproducible documents are reservoirs of easily maintained, reusable software, not only the reader but also the author benefits from reproducible documents. On average, two PhD students graduate each year from ...
In the mid 1980s, we noticed that a few months after completing a project, the researchers at our laboratory were usually unable to reproduce their own computational work without considerable agony. In 1991, we solved this problem by developing a concept of electronic documents that makes scientific computations reproducible. Since then, electronic reproducible documents have become our principal means of technology transfer of scientific computational research. A small set of standard commands makes a documents results and their reproduction readily accessible to any reader. To implement reproducible computational research the author must use makefiles, adhere to a communitys naming conventions, and reuse (include) the communitys common building and cleaning rules. Since electronic reproducible documents are reservoirs of easily maintained, reusable software, not only the reader but also the author benefits from reproducible documents. On average, two PhD students graduate each year from ...
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Understanding past zoonotic events to predict future ones. Many infectious diseases that are of high public health relevance today find their roots in past zoonotic events, e.g. the HIV-1 pandemics. Similarly, for these infectious diseases involving recurrent transmission from zoonotic reservoirs, most transmission events lie in the past, e.g. the historical pandemics of Yersinia pestis. These past events are an immense, precious and underexplored record of the processes leading to zoonotic emergence. There are two major ways to reconstruct these past transmission events: infer them from present-day pathogen genetic diversity or directly observe them using ancient DNA. This workshop aims to foster the interdisciplinary dialog of medical and veterinary sciences with disease ecology and evolution. The resulting interactions will promote interdisciplinary scientific progress and may ultimately help uncovering ways to prevent future zoonotic events.. Further information Deadline for registration is ...
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The present work deals with laboratory studies of tracers for geothermal applications. Analytical methods for the detection of molecules being used as non-reactive tracers are presented and investigations of their thermal stability as well. Furthermore, the synthesis of substances is described which can undergo a reaction by hydrolysis. Additionally, these substances are explored for their application as thermosensitive tracers by lab experiments. For the characterization of several geothermal reservoir properties, tracer tests are the method of choice. Only by tracer tests it is possible to track flow paths, to estimate reservoir fluid volumes and fluid dwell times, and various other parameters that are essential for the operation of a geothermal reservoir. But the results gained from tracer tests are often distorted or misguided due to a lack of knowledge of the substance behavior in the reservoir. Also, the analytical methods may be incorrect or not sensitive to the substance. Naphthalene ...
This SAE Recommended Practice specifies the performance test procedures and requirements of a plastic reservoir assembly suitable for use on a hydraulic brake master cylinder (reference SAE J1153). Intended usage is for on-road vehicles using brake fluid conforming to fMVSS-116 (DOT 3), and SAE J1703 specifications. This document includes the cap.cover and diaphragm as integral parts of the reservoir assembly. The fluid level sensor (FLS) is also included as an integral part of the assembly. However, additional FLS standards and/or requirements are applicable and necessary which are not covered in this document.. This document is intended to provide a recommended practice and minimum performance requirements of current established designs on those reservoir assemblies generally used by individual manufacturers which have demonstrated satisfactory field performance. This document is applicable to new reservoir assemblies for commercial or aftermarket production.. ...
SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering covers a wide range of topics, including reservoir characterization, geology and geophysics, core analysis, well logging, well testing, reservoir management, EOR, fluid mechanics, performance prediction, and reservoir simulation. ...
The upper part of the Saiq and lower part of the Mahil formations in the Oman Mountains represent outcrop time-equivalents to the highly prolific, hydrocarbon-bearing subsurface Middle and Upper members of the Khuff Formation (K4-K1 reservoir intervals). In this study, four outcrops sections on the northern flank of the Oman Mountains (Al Jabal al-Akhdar region) are sedimentologically documented and integrated with the sequence-stratigraphic scheme initially developed at the Saiq Plateau reference section.. The focus of this study is the description of the distribution and textural variation of grainstones as potential reservoir facies on a subregional (ca. 60 x 40 km) scale. Stratigraphic cross-sections are constructed based on two sequence-stratigraphic orders: (1) one second-order supersequence (DS2 18) that provides a well-constrained general framework and (2) four third-order depositional sequences (KS1-KS4), within which subtle temporal and spatial variations of grainstones occur. From ...
A method for continual monitoring of a physiologic analyte in a subject includes steps of contacting the subject with a collection reservoir such that the analyte can move from the subject into the collection reservoir, the contents of the collection reservoir being in operative communication with a detector, collecting the analyte in the collection reservoir, using the detector to detect the analyte in the collection reservoir, and, once the analyte has been detected, rendering the analyte undetectable by the detector. Also, apparatus for continual monitoring of a physiologic analyte in a subject includes a collection reservoir for receiving the analyte from the subject, the contents of the collection reservoir being in operative relationship with a detector that detects the analyte in the reservoir, and means for rendering the analyte, once detected, undetectable by the reservoir.
An automated sample-on-solid-support processing system includes a treatment solution supply subsystem which feeds solvent to a dispenser to dispense a measured amount of treatment solution to each well of a multi-well plate. The dispenser measures the solution within a fill container having a plurality of reservoir wells corresponding to the number of wells in the multi-well plate. The fill container is contained within a reservoir chamber that is filled with an excess of solution. Each reservoir well is surrounded by a plurality of bores which drains excess solution from the top of the fill container so that a precise amount of solution is left in the reservoir wells when solution is drained out of the reservoir chamber. Gas pressure is introduced into the reservoir chamber to force the solution out of the reservoir well through a bundle of tubes, with one tube per well, and into the wells of the multi-well plate.
The ecological health of Watauga Reservoir scored at the upper end of the fair range in 2012. Watauga has scored within the mid-fair to good range most years. The score of 60 in 1998 was the lowest recorded for Watauga. This was the result of several indicators concurrently scoring at the lower end of their historical ranges, rather than of a substantial change in any indicator. However, sediment quality has exhibited an overall improvement over the years.. TVA monitors two locations on Watauga Reservoir - the deep still water near the dam called the forebay, and the middle part of the reservoir.. ...
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Researchers at the University of North Carolina identified a better dosing strategy for a drug that exposes HIV hiding inside the bodys viral reservoir, ...
While only representative of a single individual in the trial, these data are very exciting," said Dr. June. "They demonstrate that the ZFN-modified T-cells were well tolerated by the body and persisted in the circulation at stable levels for the duration of our monitoring. In fact, we calculate that more ZFN-modified cells were present at 20 weeks than were initially infused. Total CD4+ T-cell counts were also stable during this time. Interestingly, we also observed ZFN-modified cells in the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) which is a major reservoir of immune cells and a critical reservoir of HIV infection and suggests that the modified cells are functioning and trafficking normally in the body ...
X- Well Tomography (X-WT*) is TGTs latest technique for reservoir management, which integrates measurements obtained by TGTs Spectral Reservoir Platform (SRP*) with those by TGTs Cross-Well Pressure Coding Testing (X-PCT*). The X-Well Tomography helps our Customers to understand reservoir heterogeneity and continuity, improve water-flood balance and maximise sweep. The power of this service is based on the integration of data on actual fluid flow from the reservoir with real reservoir properties obtained by cross-well pressure interference tests, including dynamic permeability, compressibility, diffusivity and skin factor across the reservoir. ...
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While a cure for HIV remains elusive, new research suggests that eliminating HIV from the reservoirs where the virus persists is possible.
Findings in the abstracts are embargoed until 12:01 a.m. PDT, Wednesday Oct. 7th with the exception of research findings presented at the IDWeek press conferences.. ...
The condition of constant temperature is straightforward: the temperature is maintained throughout the process. Assume that there are two heat reservoirs, one at T2 and another at T1. To simplify matters, the reservoirs are so big that the heat extracted or added to the reservoirs is negligible, and the reservoir temperatures do not change. In real life, one could account for such changes, but to keep things simple, we simply assume that the reservoirs are very big ...
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BORD na Mona is ready to apply for planning permission for a controversial new reservoir in the midlands that will provide Dublin with water.