The ROP [Ra/+ (ragged), Os/+ (oligosyndactyly), and Pt/+ (pintail)] mouse possessing the gene for oligosyndactylism (Os) was evaluated as a potential genetic animal model of reduced renal mass. Young male ROP mice that were heterozygotes with respect to the Os gene (Os/+) and their normal homozygote …
The Animal Models module of SFARI Gene examines data from animal models used in laboratory research to elucidate the underlying causes of ASD.
World Health Organization. (‎1988)‎. ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (‎AIDS)‎ : WHO meeting on animal models for HIV infection and AIDS = SYNDROME DIMMUNODÉFICIENCE ACQUISE (‎SIDA)‎ : Réunion de lOMS sur les modèles animaux pour linfection à VIH et le SIDA. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 63 (‎19)‎, 137 - 138. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/226713 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On animal models for studying bone adaptation. AU - Turner, C. H.. AU - Forwood, M. R.. AU - Raab-Cullen, D. M.. AU - Akhter, Mohammed P.. AU - Kimmel, D. B.. AU - Recker, Robert R.. AU - Torrance, A. G.. AU - Lanyon, L. E.. PY - 1994/10. Y1 - 1994/10. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028021440&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028021440&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00310412. DO - 10.1007/BF00310412. M3 - Letter. C2 - 7820784. AN - SCOPUS:0028021440. VL - 55. SP - 316. EP - 318. JO - Calcified Tissue International. JF - Calcified Tissue International. SN - 0171-967X. IS - 4. ER - ...
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PubMed journal article: A review of animal model studies of tomato carotenoids, lycopene, and cancer chemoprevention. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Animal models are an important means of studying diseases as well as normal functions. The animal model must closely mimic the situation we wish to study in humans. Humans are used as subjects in about 30 percent of all biomedical research, but they are not the best research subject when certain problems are studied.. Animal models can be categorized as natural or induced. Natural models are those in which a condition occurs spontaneously, such as atherosclerosis in the squirrel monkey. Atherosclerosis is a prevalent human disease in which fatty deposits occur along the inner walls of the arteries. By studying the natural disease in these monkeys, it is possible to learn facts about the disease that are also true in humans. Other examples of natural animal models are epilepsy in Mongolian gerbils and diabetes in some strains of mice.. Induced animal models are those in which a disease or condition must be artificially produced. Tumor cells, for example, can be injected into animals as a means of ...
Animal models can be used to study the effects that a TBI, or a TBI like brain injury have on memory and cognition. In humans cognitive impairment, and memory deficit have been observed following a TBI. The duration of symptoms may last a few days, or be permanent depending on severity. Animal models have demonstrated the same effects. Using tests like the Morris Water Maze, spatial memory and learning can be tracked following TBI. Remarkably one of the effects that experimenters have seen with the administration of EPO to mice and rats following injury is a decrease in the cognitive impairment, and memory loss, when compared to control animals. It should be noted that different animal models may have used different protocols for inducing TBI. In addition there are differences in the type of EPO isoforms used, the dosing of EPO, as well as the timing of EPO administration. Due to space constraints these differences, and their impact, will not be mentioned in the animal model section, however ...
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial highly-complex disease with numerous etiologies that work synergistically to promote lesion development. The ability to develop preventive and ameliorative treatments will depend on animal models that mimic the human subject metabolically and pathophysiologically and will develop lesions comparable to those in humans. The mouse is the most useful, economic, and valid model for studying atherosclerosis and exploring effective therapeutic approaches. Among the most widely used mouse models for atherosclerosis are apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) and LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr) mice. An up-and-coming model is the ApoE*3Leiden (E3L) transgenic mouse. Here, we review studies that have explored how and to what extent these mice respond to compounds directed at treatment of the risk factors hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, and inflammation. An important outcome of this survey is that the different models used may differ markedly from one ...
Patient derived xenografts (PDX) are in vivo animal tumor models established directly from patient tumor samples without any in vitro manipulation. It has been shown that these tumor xenografts maintain essential histopathological features and genetic profiles of the original tumors, and thus are the most clinically relevant animal models for cancer drug discovery. Comparing to the traditional cell line derived xenograft (CDX) tumor models, however, one challenge encountered by the PDX in vivo studies is the lack of corresponding in vitro cell culture system for cost-effective and high throughput drug screening and model selection. Here we set out to establish such an in vitro platform, so-called PrimePanelTM, by deriving homogeneous primary cancer cell cultures from the PDX tumors in several major tumor types. These cells are early passage cultures (usually p,10), which maintain similar cellular characteristics as the corresponding tumor xenografts, including the genomic mutational status, ...
Acute brain lesions induce profound alterations of the peripheral immune response comprising the opposing phenomena of early immune activation and subsequent immunosuppression. The mechanisms underlying this brain-immune signaling are largely unknown. We used animal models for experimental brain ischemia as a paradigm of acute brain lesions and additionally investigated a large cohort of stroke patients. We analyzed release of HMGB1 isoforms by mass spectrometry and investigated its inflammatory potency and signaling pathways by immunological in vivo and in vitro techniques. Features of the complex behavioral sickness behavior syndrome were characterized by homecage behavior analysis. HMGB1 downstream signaling, particularly with RAGE, was studied in various transgenic animal models and by pharmacological blockade. Our results indicate that the cytokine-inducing, fully reduced isoform of HMGB1 was released from the ischemic brain in the hyperacute phase of stroke in mice and patients. Cytokines secreted
Kulkarni RN, Holzenberger M, Shih DQ, et al.: Beta-cellspecific deletion of the Igf1 receptor leads to hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance but does not alter beta-cell mass. Nat Genet 2002, 31:111-115. In these studies, mice with â-cell-specific disruption of the IGF-1 receptor develop a normal complement of â-cells, suggesting that the IGF-1 receptor is not crucial for the early growth of the â-cells. These KOs manifest defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion secondary to reduced expression of glucokinase and the glucose transporter glut2. These findings have implications for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
The aim of this research line is to develop more appropriate animal models and novel human in vitro CNS/PNS models, including human fetal and adult organotypic sensory ganglion and brain slice cultures, to elucidate the pathological attributes of both virus and host in viral CNS disease. Upon validation of the novel models by comparison with affected nervous tissues of patients with virus-induced CNS disease, they will be used as pre-clinical models to test the efficacy and safety of promising novel antiviral and neuroprotective therapies.. ...
Acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine impart a significant and negative impact on the health and well-being of human and non-human mammalian animals. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory disease is mandatory to develop effective treatment and prevention strategies. As inflammatory disease etiologies are multifactorial, the use of appropriate animal models and associated metrics of disease are essential. In this regard, animal models used alone or in combination to study acute and chronic inflammatory disease of the mammalian intestine paired with commonly used inflammation-inducing agents are reviewed. This includes both chemical and biological incitants of inflammation, and both non-mammalian (i.e. nematodes, insects, and fish) and mammalian (i.e. rodents, rabbits, pigs, ruminants, dogs, and non-human primates) models of intestinal inflammation including germ-free, gnotobiotic, as well as surgical, and genetically modified animals. Importantly, chemical and ...
TRC210258, a novel TGR5 agonist, reduces glycemic and dyslipidemic cardiovascular risk in animal models of diabesity Shitalkumar Zambad, Davinder Tuli, Anoop Mathur, Sameer A Ghalsasi, Anita RÂ Chaudhary, Shailesh Deshpande, Ramesh C Gupta, Vijay Chauthaiwale, Chaitanya DuttTorrent Research Centre, Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Gujarat, IndiaBackground: Patients with diabesity have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Therefore, therapy addressing the multiple metabolic abnormalities linked with diabesity and leading to further reduction of cardiovascular risk is highly desirable. Activation of the TGR5 receptor holds therapeutic potential for diabesity. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of TRC210258, a novel TGR5 agonist, in clinically relevant animal models of diabesity.Methods: A novel small molecule, TRC210258 (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-fluoro phenoxy)-N-methylimidazo (1, 2-a) pyrimidine-3-carboxamide), was synthesized. The in vitro TGR5 receptor
The centre examines the molecular changes in disease states in humans and relevant animal models, particularly using gene chip (microarray) technology. We relate these changes to the current clinical methods use to study these diseases, such as histopathology and diagnostic imaging. Biopsies from patients with organ disease are the principal focus for establishing what the molecular changes mean, and their relationship to the current tests as well as the outcomes in the patients ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Hepatic preconditioning for transplanted cell engraftment and proliferation. AU - Wu, Yao Ming. AU - Gupta, Sanjeev. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Hepatocyte transplantation has therapeutic potential for multiple hepatic and extrahepatic disorders with genetic or acquired basis. To demonstrate whether cell populations of interest will be effective for clinical applications, it is first necessary to characterize their properties in animal systems. Demonstrating the potential of cells to engraft and proliferate is a critical part of this characterization. Similarly, for stem/progenitor cells, demonstrating the capacity to differentiate along appropriate lineages and generate mature cells that can engraft and proliferate is essential. In various animal models, preconditioning of recipients prior to cell transplantation has been necessary to improve engraftment of cells, to stimulate proliferation of engrafted cells, and to induce extensive repopulation of the host liver by transplanted ...
Structure and function of C-terminal histone H4 peptides. The research interest of our laboratory has recently been focussed on the isolation, structural identification, synthesis and determination of the biological activity of histogranin (HN). HN is a slightly modified C-terminal histone H4 peptide present in various rat tissues including the spleen, lungs, bone marrow and brain. It was first coined for its in vivo modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced convulsions in mice. Recently, HN and related peptides were found to display non-opioid analgesic activities in various animal models of pain. The design and synthesis of small molecules (cyclic tetrapeptides and non-peptides) on the basis of the structure of HN were among our first priorities in order to determine the structure requirement and mode of action of HN for its antinociceptive effects. The mechanism by which HN and related compounds alleviate pain is still unknown, but a close correlation was made between the abilities of ...
Primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS) is characterized by a panel of autoantbodies, while it is not clear whether B cells and autoantibodies play an essential role in pathogenesis of the disease. Here we report a novel mouse model for pSS which is induced by immunization with the Ro60_316-335 peptide containing a predominant T cell epitope. After immunization, mice developed several symptoms mimicking pSS, including a decreased secretion of tears, lymphocytic infiltration into the lacrimal glands, autoantibodies and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Disease susceptibility to this novel mouse model varies among strains, where C3H/HeJ (H2-k) and C3H/HeN (H2-k) are susceptible while DBA/1 (H2-q) and C57BL/6 (H2-b) are resistant. Depletion of B cells using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies prevented C3H/HeN mice from development of the pSS-like disease. In addition, HLA-DRB1*0803, a pSS risk allele, was predicted to bind to the hRo60_308-328 which contains a predominant T cell epitope of human Ro60.
Interleukin (IL)-21 is a recently discovered cytokine in early clinical development, which has shown anti-tumor activity in various animal models. In the present study, we examine the anti-tumor activ
Vagal efferent activation can reduce inflammation and disease activity in various animal models of intestinal inflammation, likely via a mechanism involving activation of a a7nAChR subtype. The current hypothesis for this ...
Experimental mouse models are widely used for preclinical research on dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and cardiometabolic diseases
About 70,000 Women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year in Germany alone. Despite significant progress in the treatment of common types of breast cancer, some aggressive subtypes are poorly understood and remain incurable. A new experimental model opens new avenues for mammary gland biology and basic breast cancer research. Researchers at the Helmholtz Center in Munich are now able to create three-dimensional organoid-structures that recapitulate normal breast development and function from single patient-derived cells.
When studying a gene function, in vivo studies are essential to validate data collected from in vitro experiments. The most commonly used animal models for in vivo studies are rodents, mostly mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus), which present several advantages such as the high similarity of their genome with human genome, but also their small size and their capacity to reproduce fast.
The First Animal - Sponges by Kaley Fulk | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
UCL is particularly strong in neuroscience with a substantial international reputation. The capacity to carry out research on NHPs is essential for developing an understanding of complex brain mechanisms at the level most relevant to man for which no other valid model exists. NHPs represent the best available animal model for human function and are particularly important for research into neurological and psychiatric diseases, diseases which now affect over 1 billion people worldwide. We recognise that research using NHPs brings with it additional responsibilities in terms of ethical issues and welfare needs. UCL supports the provision of the best possible facilities and environment for them and is committed to sustaining these facilities and the associated expertise in the long term. UCL is committed to the principle of the 3Rs with regard to all research animals including NHPs.. Last year there were no completed procedures involving NHPs, but 8 are currently involved in ongoing work at UCL ...
Energy homeostasis is accomplished through a highly integrated and redundant neurohumoral system. Recently, novel molecular mediators and regulatory pathways for feeding and body weight regulation have been identified in the brain and the periphery. Because of the multitude and complexity of disturbances in energy intake, expenditure, and partitioning that are associated with obesity, it has been difficult to determine which abnormalities are causative versus less important phenomena that are consequences of the altered neuroendocrine and metabolic milieu. Transgenic technology has provided new opportunities to modify the complex body weight-regulating system and to assess the relative importance of the individual components. Observations of mutant mice have shed new light on the understanding of energy homeostasis equation. Once created, transgenic animal models may be useful in assessing the efficacy or determining the mode of action of potential new therapeutic agents. However, the ...
Recent advances in techniques for manipulating genomes have allowed the generation of transgenic animals other than mice. These new models enable cross-mammalian comparison of neurological disease from core cellular pathophysiology to circuit and behavioural endophenotypes. Moreover they will enable …
Risk factors are things that can be causes. Like smoking is a risk factor and can cause heart disease. I dont think marmalade can cause CCSVI, but Id bet CCSVI, the risk factor (not the movie of the same name), ...
The plasma membrane (PM)1 is an organized system serving as a structural and communication interface with the extracellular environment for exchanges of information and substances. In animal cells, PM proteins represent a point for potential therapeutic intervention, making the PM a source of drug targets, for instance in cancer research (1). In plant cells too, as signaling processes controlling responses to biotic and abiotic factors occur in PM, a better knowledge of the PM proteome would help developing defense strategies. Indeed, in plant cells as well as in animal cells, the PM is controlling many primary cellular functions, such as metabolite and ion transport, endocytosis, cell differentiation and proliferation, etc. All these processes involve a large array of proteins with highly diverse structure and function. In addition, the strength of their association to the membrane varies, some being well embedded in the membrane lipid core while others are more peripheral proteins, sometimes ...
The company was the first to develop a novel proprietary technology to culture mouse primary endothelial cells. These cells have been extremely beneficial for many types of studies in areas such as vascular biology, vascular diseases, blood brain barrier research, cancer research and metastasis, angiogenesis, drug targeting and a verity of other areas basic and clinical/translational studies. We provide these and other cells in a cost effective manner saving investigators time, money, and laboratory costs. We also provide custom ordered cells from genetically modified mice and other animal models in a timely, cost-efficient and reproducible manner ...
Experimental animal models of muscle wasting in intensive care unit patients.: The muscle wasting and loss of muscle function associated with critical illness a
The preclinical development of cancer therapeutics, including the recent trend and focus on cancer immunotherapies, is evolving from the traditional use of mouse models to the use of other animal models including canine, rat, and minipig. Each of these non-mouse models carries its own advantages and abilities to increase the clinical relevance of the model as compared to mouse models. Yet, the wid .... ...
Researchers at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine have developed the first animal model that duplicates the human response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an important step that...
Research Topics: Adjuvants, Animal model studies, B cell immunology and antibodies, Clinical trial site challenges, HIV persistence and latency, HIV transmission and acute infection, Human genomics, Immune escape, Innate immunity, Mucosal immunity, Novel immunogens, inserts and vectors, Pediatric/adolescent infections and trials, Preclinical and clinical vaccine trials, Prevention strategies, Social, ethical, access and regulatory issues, T cell immunity, Vaccine concepts and design, Viral Diversity, ...
Adenosine A3 receptors are involved in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways and physiological functions. They are expressed in a wide range of human tissues, but most predominantly in the lung and liver. Recent animal model studies have shown that A3 receptors play important roles in brain ischemia, immunosuppresion, and bronchospasm. A3 receptor agonists and/or agonists ...
Lack of association between blood pressure, target organ damage and retinopathy in the L-NAME rat hypertension model: Are new animal models of hypertension required? , Ausencia de correlación entre las cifras tensionales, el daño de órgano blanco y la presencia de retinopatía en el modelo animal de hipertentión con L-NAME: ¿Son necesarios nuevos modelos animales en hipertensión arterial ...
A rat with some human genes could provide a better way to test Alzheimer's drugs. The genetically modified rat is the first rodent model to exhibit
Animal models are organisms, often mice or rats, that have been engineered to reproduce the physical or molecular changes that occur during the course of a disease in humans. These models are used to study the biology of the disease, including the genetics and the cellular or molecular pathways involved in the disease. Animal models also have a critical role in developing and testing new therapies before they are tested in humans.. ...
T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) is a MAPKK-like kinase which plays a role in cell cycle regulation and mitotic progression. As a consequence, TOPK expression is minimal in differentiated cells, although its overexpression is a pathophysiological feature of many tumours. Hence, TOPK has garnered interest as a cancer-specific biomarker and biochemical target with the potential to enhance cancer therapy whilst causing minimal harm to normal tissues ...
The leading causes of U.S. deaths in 2007 were heart disease, cancer, stroke, lower respiratory diseases, accidents, Alzheimers, diabetes and influenza.
The researches that continue to happen have revealed that Agnihotra fire and smoke remove biological, chemical, and physical pollutants in the air.
Several different factors and conditions may cause scarring of kidney tissue. The most common ones are the chronic renal failure conditions that develop over…
This Gene Set Enrichment-type test designed for analysis of microarray and RNASeq data is designed to provide a faster, more accurate, and easier to understand test for gene expression studies. QuSAGE extends previous methods with a complete probability density function (PDF).. ...
The Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units (VTEUs), supported by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) since the 1960s, comprise a consortium of contracts with academic centers and organizations that provides a ready resource for the conduct of clinical trials to evaluate pr. ...
Greek & Greek1 claim that because animals and humans are different, Animal models are inaccurate, superfluous, and create risk to humans.
SABOGAL, Angélica María; ARANGO, César Augusto; CARDONA, Gloria Patricia e CESPEDES, Ángel Enrique. Atorvastatin protects GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal system in an experimental rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Biomédica [online]. 2014, vol.34, n.2, pp.207-217. ISSN 0120-4157. http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v34i2.1851.. Introduction: Cerebral ischemia is the third leading cause of death and the primary cause of permanent disability worldwide. Atorvastatin is a promising drug with neuroprotective effects that may be useful for the treatment of stroke. However, the effects of atorvastatin on specific neuronal populations within the nigrostriatal system following cerebral ischemia are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effects of atorvastatin on dopaminergic and GABAergic neuronal populations in exofocal brain regions in a model of transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight male eight-week-old Wistar ...
The first animal model of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), linked with large-scale epidemics that spread to Italy and India in 2007 has been developed by Researchers.
Molecular, metabolic and functional characterization of adult skeletal muscle in Down syndrome mouse model : insights into the muscle weakness seen in human ...
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication of stroke and increases the risk of mortality and disability. Pre-stroke depression is a possible risk factor for stroke and has also been linked to adverse outcomes. The underlying mechanisms linking depression and stroke remain unclear. Preclinical models may provide novel insights, but models reflecting both conditions are lacking.. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of a 45-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) on infarct size in male adult Flinders Sensitive Line rats, a genetic animal model of depression, and their control strains Flinders Resistant Line and Sprague-Dawley rats. Infarct size was assessed by tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) staining after 48 h of reperfusion. Angiograms of the vascular structure of naïve animals were produced with a µ-CT scanner.. RESULTS: Both Flinders strains had significantly smaller infarcts following MCAo compared to Sprague-Dawley ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing disease onset and progression in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS. AU - Weydt, Patrick. AU - Hong, So Yon. AU - Kliot, Michel. AU - Möller, Thomas. PY - 2003/5/1. Y1 - 2003/5/1. N2 - SOD1 transgenic mice are the most widely used animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In addition to providing valuable insights into the pathogenesis of ALS, these animals are used intensively in many laboratories as an in vivo model for investigating novel therapeutic interventions towards this devastating motor-neuron disease. Such pre-clinical studies require objective and reliable quantification of the clinical phenotype of individual mice, most importantly of the neuromuscular abnormalities. Here we compare four parameters of the clinical phenotype: motor signs, body weight, rotarod performance and paw grip endurance for their usefulness in monitoring the SOD1 mouse model. We found that paw grip endurance is a sensitive and inexpensive alternative to the widely used rotarod ...
Suitable animal models of IPF are lacking (Roman et al. 2013) and have been identified as a research priority for the IPF field (White et al. 2016). In our attempt to elucidate the efficacy of GBT1118 drug effects were explored in the most commonly used animal model of lung fibrosis: the bleomycin‐induced model. The results from this in vivo therapeutic study provide support for the potential use in IPF of a molecule that increases Hb-O2 affinity. GBT1118 treatment not only restored arterial O2 to normal levels, but also significantly inhibited the increase in numbers of inflammatory cell infiltrates, reduced collagen in BALF, and resulted in an approximately 50% reduction in fibrosis (histopathological changes in lung tissue). Additionally, GBT1118 administration ameliorated the loss of body weight associated with bleomycin exposure.. Exertional dyspnea and worsening hypoxia associated with hypoxemia are prominent clinical features of IPF progression as fibrosis increases and ...
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In this current study, we tested the efficacy of sorbent strategy-based HA on a porcine ARDS model and found that HA reduced circulating and alveolar levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improved oxygenation and attenuated lung injuries in the exudative phase. This provides some clue that HA330 cartridge may be a novel potential weapon fighting against the cytokine storm on the alveolar-capillary membrane barrier.. The most commonly used large-animal models of ARDS include endotoxin infusion, repeated lavage, oleic acid and smoke/burn injury [17]. To reproduce the most known risk factor and etiology for ARDS, which is sepsis [18], we systemically administrated endotoxin (LPS) to mimic the clinically relevant sepsis-induced ARDS. The susceptibility to LPS is highly variable and differs among different animals. Pigs, sheep, calves, and cats are more sensitive to LPS challenge. Low dosage of LPS (μg/kg range) can induce significant ARDS-like features in these animals. In contrast, animals such ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Potassium (K+) channels serve diverse and critical roles in neuronal signaling and mutations in K+ channel genes have been linked to human neurological diseases such as epilepsy. Nevertheless, significant gaps still exist in our understanding of how K+ channels control neuronal excitability. For example, the Kv12 gene family is among the oldest and most highly conserved K+ channel families, yet the physiological function of these channels has not previously been examined in vivo due to a lack of genetic and pharmacologic tools. To address this knowledge gap, we have generated a mouse knockout of the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv12.2. The knockout mice have spontaneous epilepsy and a pronounced sensitivity to the chemoconvulsant pentylenetetrazol, suggesting a key role for Kv12.2 in the regulation of neuronal excitability. We find that hippocampal pyramidal neurons cultured from Kv12.2 knockout mice have significantly depolarized resting potentials, high input ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Development of a novel murine model of aortic aneurysms using peri-adventitial elastase. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Engel M, Snikeris P, Jenner A, Karl T, Huang XF, Frank E.. BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence from human post-mortem and genetic studies has linked the neurotrophic factor neuregulin 1 (NRG1) to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Genetic animal models and in vitro experiments have suggested that altered NRG1 signaling, rather than protein changes, contributes to the symptomatology of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the effect of NRG1 on schizophrenia-relevant behavior and neurotransmission (particularly GABAergic and glutamatergic) in adult animals.. METHOD: To address this question, we treated adult mice with the extracellular signaling domain of NRG1 and assessed spontaneous locomotor activity and acoustic startle response, as well as extracellular GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus via microdialysis. Furthermore, we asked whether the effect of NRG1 would differ under schizophrenia-relevant impairments in mice and therefore co-treated ...
Theinfluenzaismainlyduetoseriousdamage,andthereisalargeamountofinfluenzavirusinalongtimeintheenvironment.Aslongasclimatemutations(temperaturechanges),impropermanagement,therewillbeflusandevenpopular...
Duringthebreedingprocess,weoftenfindthatsomeindividualsinthechickengrouphaveaphenomenon,andthemainpartofthehairisintheneckandback.Themaincauseofchickenismainlydermatitis(includingfolliculitis),feather...
In 2008, European clinical trials began on twelve children suffering from Progeria. The treatment is based on a combination of two existing molecules: statins (prescribed in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risks) and aminobisphosphonates (prescribed in to treat osteoporosis and to prevent complications in some forms of cancer). The use of both these molecules aims to chemically alter progerin to reduce its toxicity. However, although this treatment aimed to slow down the development of the disease, it did not reduce the quantities of progerin. To study this aspect, researchers needed to obtain a relevant animal model. An authentic Progeria model… To generate a model of this kind, Spanish and French researchers decided to introduce a gene mutation (G609G), equivalent to that identified in humans (G608G), in mice to reproduce the exact pathological mechanism found in the children, with a view to then blocking it. The mice models were created under the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of the fibrin-derived peptide Bbeta(15-42) in acute and chronic rodent models of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. AU - Zacharowski, KD. AU - Zacharowski, PA. AU - Friedl, P. AU - Mastan, P. AU - Koch, A. AU - Boehm, O. AU - Rother, RP. AU - Reingruber, S. AU - Henning, R. AU - Emeis, J. AU - Petzelbauer, P. N1 - Publisher: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - Many compounds have been shown to prevent reperfusion injury in various animal models, although to date, translation into clinic has revealed several obstacles. Therefore, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group to discuss reasons for such failure. As a result, the concept of adequately powered, blinded, randomized studies for preclinical development of a compound has been urged. We investigated the effects of a fibrin-derived peptide Bbeta(15-42) in acute and chronic rodent models of ischemia-reperfusion at three different study centers (Universities of ...
In this study, we identified, using genetic animal models, that the function of p110δ, both in leukemia B cells and in the nonleukemic microenvironment, is critical for CLL pathogenesis. Global inactivation of p110δ in the Eμ-TCL1 murine CLL model blocks leukemia progression in blood and major lymphoid organs. B cells from p110δD910A/D910ATCL1 mice still exhibit partially impaired BCR signaling and migratory function. Inactivation of p110δ in the nonleukemic microenvironment also protects against leukemia through a T cell-dependent mechanism. Despite dampened antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses, p110δ-inactivated T cells remain cytotoxic to leukemia cells. It is possible that p110δ inactivation impairs Treg expansion followed by enhanced host antitumor immunity. Reconstituted p110δD910A/D910A mice with p110δWT/WT Tregs reversed such disease resistance. Nonetheless, p110δ inactivation introduces side effects such as colitis, suggesting autoimmunity. These murine studies further ...
OPH 773. PBL: Animal Models, Regulatory issues, and Research Methods. 2 Credit Hours.. Part I: The aim of this Problem-Based learning course is to provide students the basic understanding and expertise pertaining to generation and implementation of preclinical research IACUC protocol. This course consists of a problem based learning module with a focus on developing students understanding of various animal models in preclinical research and how to refine animal research models that meet the requirement of IACUC regulation. Part II: The purpose of this course is to provide clinical research regulatory expertise with an aim to create future leaders in the drug development industry. This regulatory science course uses a multidisciplinary approach and encompasses course work in regulatory writing techniques, quality systems, and medical device and pharmaceutical regulation. The concentration is designed to develop the students understanding of how to meet regulatory oversight requirements as they ...
The aim of this project is to establish a clinical database and a bank of biological materials which will be used to improve the pathophysiologic understanding of the mechanisms underlying various pregnancy diseases. The US-Mexico Reproductive Health Research Development Workshop, sponsored by the NIH, recommended that the setting up of tissue, blood, and placental banks from human and relevant animal models should be developed to aid in understanding how prenatal conditions relate to pathological consequences in adult life.. A large observational study in the United States of America, the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (NCPP), was conducted over 30 years ago (1959-1966) and has yielded a large amount of useful information. However standards of obstetrical and neonatal care have changed significantly over the last 30 years. Thus the setting up of a contemporary clinical perinatal database and bank of biological materials is required. In order to obtain sufficient data for statistical ...
Video articles in JoVE about tumor cells cultured include Isolation and Characterization of Neutrophils with Anti-Tumor Properties, Depletion of Mouse Cells from Human Tumor Xenografts Significantly Improves Downstream Analysis of Target Cells, Analyzing the Communication Between Monocytes and Primary Breast Cancer Cells in an Extracellular Matrix Extract (ECME)-based Three-dimensional System, A Combined 3D Tissue Engineered In Vitro/In Silico Lung Tumor Model for Predicting Drug Effectiveness in Specific Mutational Backgrounds, Optimization of High Grade Glioma Cell Culture from Surgical Specimens for Use in Clinically Relevant Animal Models and 3D Immunochemistry, A Detailed Protocol for Characterizing the Murine C1498 Cell Line and its Associated Leukemia Mouse Model, Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice, Primary Orthotopic Glioma Xenografts Recapitulate Infiltrative Growth
The recent clinical successes of immune checkpoint inhibitors have fueled the intense interest in novel immuno-oncology (I/O) therapeutics. The lack of relevant animal models remains a major hurdle in understanding the mechanism of action and evaluating the efficacy of such therapeutics. Patient derived xenograft (PDX), considered to most closely mimic patient tumors in both histo- and molecular pathology1,2, is however rarely used in I/O studies because it grow only in immune-compromised hosts. In reality, many PDXs grow well in nude mice where certain immune functions remain intact, excluding T-cells/T-cell functions. Therefore, PDX could still potentially be of practical use for studying T-cell independent I/O therapy. This study set out to evaluate a biologics for the treatment of a patient derived xenograft disease, by activating mouse natural killer (NK). NK and CD8 T cells are two major immune effector cell types that mediate cytotoxicity to tumor cells in vivo. One of the ...
Authors: Woodruff-Pak, Diana S. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: This Special Issue of the Journal of Alzheimers Disease (JAD) provides an overview of animal models of Alzheimers disease (AD). Very few species spontaneously develop the cognitive, behavioral, and neuropathological symptoms of AD, yet AD research must progress at a more rapid pace than the rate of human aging. In recent years, a variety of models have been created - from tiny invertebrates with life spans measurable in months to huge mammals that live several decades. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a powerful genetic tool that has recently emerged as a model of AD with neural features and assessable …learning and memory. Transgenic mice are the most widely used animal models of AD and have yielded significant research breakthroughs. Accelerated aging seen in the SAMP8 mouse is a non-transgenic model with great utility. Rat models provided early evidence about the deleterious impact of amyloid-β (Aβ) on ...
My laboratory is an integrated cardiovascular laboratory studying vascular function with a focus on understanding how reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generation alters mitochondrial and endothelial function both in vitro and in vivo. Our expertise allows us to use of state of the art mass spectroscopy techniques in conjunction with cellular techniques to elucidate how post-translational modifications alter protein structure-function relationships and to elucidate pathways how RNS signaling is regulated in endothelial cells in both physiologic and pathologic situations. Further, we also have the expertise to carry these studies into clinically relevant animal models of endothelial dysfunction both to confirm our cell culture studies and, through directed interventions, to modulate these signaling pathways to determine effects on endothelial function in the intact animal. Further, though collaboration with clinician investigators we are now expanding our studies into humans. My laboratory is ...
Alzheimers disease (AD) is one of the largest global public health crises facing us today, and is predicted to increase dramatically over the next decades as the world population ages. There are no effective therapies available to prevent, cure, or slow the progression of disease, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. We are developing MW151, a small molecule AD drug candidate that targets neuroinflammation, a pathological condition recently recognized as a key contributor to AD-associated neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Dysregulated proinflammatory cytokine (PIC) production is a component of neuroinflammation that drives the progression of diverse degenerative CNS disorders. Data from epidemiological, clinical and preclinical animal model studies converge on the attenuation of PIC overproduction as a potential disease-modifying therapeutic approach to AD.. MW151 is a novel, CNS-penetrant, orally bioavailable, small molecule drug candidate that selectively attenuates ...
The peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family, a new family of proteins with a pivotal antioxidative function, is ubiquitously synthesized and abundantly identified in various organisms. In contrast to the intracellular localization of other family members (PRDX1/2/3/5/6), PRDX4 is the only known secretory form and protects against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species in both the intracellular (especially the endoplasmic reticulum) compartments and the extracellular space. We generated unique human PRDX4 (hPRDX4) transgenic (Tg) mice on a C57BL/6J background and investigated the critical and diverse protective roles of PRDX4 against diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as evaluated its role in the intestinal function in various animal models ...
Charles River has proudly partnered with the EBD Group to provide the scientific program for this years BioPharm America™ Conference. This exciting two-day program aims to bridge the gap between drug discovery and clinical application. Driven by the bedside-to-bench experience, industry leaders will come together to discuss innovations and breakthroughs in translational tools and methods in drug discovery research and development. Attendees will gain insight into how clinical data can be used to successfully develop the next generation of animal models, tools and technologies that lead to the development of effective therapies.. September 26-27, ...
Currently existing psoriasis models implicate the importance of circulating T cells being recruited to the site of lesion (7, 8). However, they do not address the role of resident T cells during development of lesions, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate model system. The present psoriasis model allowed us to address this issue. Immunohistochemical analyses of PN skin before transplantation (Fig. 3, A and B, pre), compared with 6-8 wk after transplantation onto AGR129 mice (Fig. 3, A and B, post), revealed a more than twofold increase in total T cell numbers (P , 0.002), which corresponds to an almost fivefold increase in the tissue. We demonstrated a preference of CD4-positive cells for the dermis, whereas CD8-positive cells were located predominantly in the epidermis or the dermo-epidermal junction zone (Fig. 3 A). This finding corresponds to observations in human psoriasis samples (18). Proliferation of lesional CD3-positive cells paralleled disease formation (Fig. 3 B). T cell ...
Genetic mouse models relevant to schizophrenia complement, and have to a large extent supplanted, pharmacological and lesion-based rat models. The main attraction is that they potentially have greater construct validity; however, they share the fundamental limitations of all animal models of psychiatric disorder, and must also be viewed in the context of the uncertain and complex genetic architecture of psychosis. Some of the key issues, including the choice of gene to target, the manner of its manipulation, gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, and phenotypic characterization, are briefly considered in this commentary, illustrated by the relevant papers reported in this special issue.
Adoptive cellular immunotherapy for metastatic disease has shown efficacy in diverse animal models, yet limited success in clinical settings has been demonstrated (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Initial studies by Cheever and Greenberg (reviewed in Refs. 4 and 5) examined various principles of adoptive immunotherapy using Ag-specific T cells in combination with a potent anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide, in a murine leukemia model. However, the principles for therapy of solid tumors may be inherently different. Subsequent studies by Shu and coworkers (18) began to address the principles for therapy of both early and later visceral metastases. In those studies, the Ag specificity of the transferred cells was undefined, and later experiments made use of polyclonally activated cells derived from tumor-draining lymph nodes (19). More recent studies of adoptive immunotherapy have used animal models that do not necessarily accurately reflect the human disease condition (i.e., tumors transduced with surrogate ...
The use of physiologically regulated, reproducible animal models is crucial to the study of ischemic brain injury--both the mechanisms governing its occurrence and potential therapeutic strategies. Several laboratory rodent species (notably rats and gerbils), which are readily available at relatively low cost, are highly suitable for the investigation of cerebral ischemia and have been widely employed for this purpose. We critically examine and summarize several rodent models of transient global ischemia, resulting in selective neuronal injury within vulnerable brain regions, and focal ischemia, typically giving rise to localized brain infarction. We explore the utility of individual models and emphasize the necessity for meticulous experimental control of those variables that modulate the severity of ischemic brain injury. ...
Pre-Clinical Animal Network. Drug development is long and costly. To protect our investments, we need to be able to efficiently predict the safety and efficacy of drug candidates for PWS prior to sending them into clinical trials. The pre-clinical animal network, composed of expert model laboratories, will improve the predictive value of our PWS models and improve our ability to accurately predict drug safety and efficacy.. New Animal Models. Disease models are critical for therapeutic development in order to test the safety and efficacy of candidate drugs. Based on the input of experts, we will develop the new animal models of PWS needed to advance therapeutic development.. PWS cellular network. Modeling PWS in a cell is critical for screening drugs in a highthroughput fashion. We will develop a network of investigators to develop assays and cellular models of PWS for identifying new drugs, reposition existing drugs or discover new targets and pathways that can be used for investigating disease ...
An in vivo model to study skeletal muscle injury is described. A computer-controlled custom-designed rat dynamometer is used to control biomechanical inputs such as range of motion, velocity, acceleration, and number of repetitions to study skeletal muscle injury in rats. Anesthetized rats are placed supine in the dynamometer and the left foot placed in a load cell with the ankle axis aligned with
This study is designed to evaluate the protective affects of MP101 and MP201 in pre-clinical models of PD injected with a toxin (6 OHDA) that selectively destroys dopamine-producing neurons, the hallmark of PD. The study will look at two outcomes as follows: 1) chronic treatment (two weeks of therapy) administered one day after giving the toxin to evaluate the potential of the drugs to prevent neuronal loss and mimic disease progression; 2) chronic treatment 10 days following toxin administration (allowing for most neurons to die) to determine if the drugs can impact recovery and regrowth of new neurons. In both scenarios, we will measure behavioral effects, brain dopamine levels, neuron counts, BDNF levels and markers of mitochondrial quality.. Impact on Diagnosis/Treatment of Parkinson s disease: ...
Animal studies can, but do not always, predict whether a drug will be teratogenic in humans. The main role of animal studies is to help researchers understand the mechanisms of teratogenicity. Unfortunately, animal studies were poor predictors in the case of thalidomide; the drug was tested on rats and mice, but did not originally produce birth defects.1 On the other hand, some drugs have been found teratogenic in animals and not in humans.2,3 Today, when new drugs are screened for teratogenicity, three different animal models are required for testing. Quite frequently, when certain drugs are tested on different animal species, birth defects occur, as happened in the DM study.4 Interspecies differences regarding the teratogenicity of drugs can result from differing pharmacokinetic processes that determine the crucial concentration-time relationships in an embryo. Protein binding in the mother is also an important determinant of placental transfer because only free concentrates in maternal plasma ...
There is clear evidence that tumor patients are able to generate TAA-specific T cell immunity spontaneously. Whereas the presence of tumor-specific T cells has been shown by many groups and for various tumor types, much less is known about the function of TAA-specific T cells in vivo. Most of the TAAs including differentiation, germ-line, and shared overexpressed antigens are not tumor specific but are also expressed at low levels in certain nonmalignant tissues. This should influence the type of T cell response because deletion of functional high-avidity self-reactive T cells in the thymus as well as peripheral deletion or anergy was shown in various animal models (reviewed in Ref. 74 ). There are a few recent studies analyzing the functional avidity of TAA-specific T cells in patients. In leukemia patients, low-avidity T cells to proteinase 3, which are able to kill leukemia cells, can readily be expanded. However, high-avidity T cells can also be expanded from patients in cytogenetic ...
It is essential to trust your research data but it is even more important to validate it. The flexiWare Software is there to help you with that! It manages the entire experimental session and [...] ...
This page serves as an index of all our scientific posts describing research which has used animal models. We have categorised them by species. Use the links below to jump to the section you want. Also check out our Research Indexed by Disease. Amphibians and Reptiles Birds Cats Cattle Chimpanzees Dogs Ferrets Fish Fruit Flies Gerbils…
Scientists at the University of Oregon have determined the fine-scale genetic structure of the first animal to show an evolutionary response to rapid climate change.
A novel mouse model of soft-tissue infection using bioluminescence imaging allows noninvasive, real-time monitoring of bacterial growth(審査報告)A novel mouse model of soft-tissue infection using bioluminescence imaging allows noninvasive, real-time monitoring of bacterial growth(審査報告) ...
Macrophages contribute to the development of atherosclerosis through pinocytotic deposition of native LDL-derived cholesterol in macrophages in the vascular wall. Inhibiting macrophage-mediated lipid deposition may have protective effects in atheroprone vasculature, and identifying mechanisms that potentiate this process may inform potential therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. Here, we report that dysregulation of exon junction complex-driven (EJC-driven) mRNA splicing confers hyperpinocytosis to macrophages during atherogenesis. Mechanistically, we determined that inflammatory cytokines induce an unconventional nonproteolytic calpain, calpain-6 (CAPN6), which associates with the essential EJC-loading factor CWC22 in the cytoplasm. This association disturbs the nuclear localization of CWC22, thereby suppressing the splicing of target genes, including those related to Rac1 signaling. CAPN6 deficiency in LDL receptor-deficient mice restored CWC22/EJC/Rac1 signaling, reduced pinocytotic ...
Macrophages contribute to the development of atherosclerosis through pinocytotic deposition of native LDL-derived cholesterol in macrophages in the vascular wall. Inhibiting macrophage-mediated lipid deposition may have protective effects in atheroprone vasculature, and identifying mechanisms that potentiate this process may inform potential therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. Here, we report that dysregulation of exon junction complex-driven (EJC-driven) mRNA splicing confers hyperpinocytosis to macrophages during atherogenesis. Mechanistically, we determined that inflammatory cytokines induce an unconventional nonproteolytic calpain, calpain-6 (CAPN6), which associates with the essential EJC-loading factor CWC22 in the cytoplasm. This association disturbs the nuclear localization of CWC22, thereby suppressing the splicing of target genes, including those related to Rac1 signaling. CAPN6 deficiency in LDL receptor-deficient mice restored CWC22/EJC/Rac1 signaling, reduced pinocytotic ...
Luxcel Biosciences Ltd announce worlds first physiologically relevant, in vitro Ischemia-Reperfusion Model in conjunction with BMG LABTECH and Ncardia.
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Research has shown that penetrating soft tissue injuries can cause muscle loss resulting in functional disability and cosmetic deformity.
Principal Investigator:NATA Koji, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:展開研究, Research Field:Functional biochemistry
RHEINBREITBACH, Germany, November 14, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --. Synthetic human-milk-oligosaccharides reduce the risk of infections caused by hazardous pathogens. Human-milk-oligosaccharides, an important component of human mothers milk, play a fundamental role in the protection of infants against viral and bacterial infection. Preclinical studies carried out by Jennewein Biotechnologie GmbH have now shown for the first time that synthetically produced functional sugars protect humans from infectious diseases. The investigations were conducted in collaboration with the University Childrens Hospital Mannheim of Heidelberg University (GER).. In collaboration with the University Childrens Hospital Mannheim of Heidelberg University, Jennewein Biotechnologie GmbH carried out extensive preclinical research to demonstrate for the first time that synthetic human-milk-oligosaccharides achieve the same protective effects as natural sugars in human breast milk. The study focused on the ...
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a cornerstone of clinical studies and research of several neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers, traumatic brain injury, etc. It is one of the primary tools to evaluate the effectiveness of potential treatments due to its ability to provide immediate, predictive data while being non-invasive. Rodent MRI studies on preclinical animal models of neurodegenerative diseases can increase the efficiency of these studies; thereby helping improve translation from preclinical testing to clinical testing of potential therapeutics. MRIs high resolution, image analysis tools, and statistical capabilities provide a robust platform to better understand biological processes and translational readouts to develop new treatment approaches for several CNS diseases. Renovo Neural now offers MRI-based imaging applications-acquisition, post-processing, and data analysis developed for small animal preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases. This ...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
Overcoming HIV latency - induction of HIV in CD4+ T cells that lay dormant throughout the body - is a major step toward creating a cure for HIV. For the first time, scientists at UNC-Chapel Hill, Emory University, and Qura Therapeutics - a partnership between UNC and ViiV Healthcare - have shown that a new approach can expose latent HIV to attack in two different animal model systems with little or no toxicity. Researchers Reverse HIV Latency, Important Scientific Step Toward Cure - Read More… ...
Charles River is committed to providing you with high-quality genetically standardized models such as VAF/Plus® (SPF) and VAF/Elite® (SOPF) animals which are free of select infectious agents and parasites. We understand that selecting the appropriate animal model for your studies is critical to your research success. To assist you, we offer an evaluation program that allows you to assess the quality and compatibility of our animal models before making a purchase.. ...