Synaptic plasticity plays a key role in processes of learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a relatively stable enhancement of synaptic transmission following specific patterns of electrical stimulation. Some types of learning (e.g. motor learning, fear conditioning) result in LTP-like changes at synapses. However, no studies have examined LTP-like plasticity in the visual cortex as a result of visual discrimination learning. A visual discrimination task was used to examine changes in LTP in the primary visual cortex (V1) of adult rats. Rats were placed in a Y-shaped water maze and required to swim to one choice arm containing a hidden platform. Distinct visual cues indicated the presence (CS+) and absence (CS-) of the platform. Rats learned to reliably discriminate the visual cues to successfully navigate the maze. Control rats received the same procedure, but the visual cues did not have a predictive relation with the platform. Following training, trained, control, and ...
Marmosets were trained on a task involving simultaneous and successive visual discrimination performance where responses were required on all trials. Performance of this task was not affected by low doses of amphetamine. From this it is concluded that amphetamine does not cause a narrowing of attention and that the disruptive effect of amphetamine on the go-no go successive discrimination task already reported is due to a loss of response inhibition rather than to difficulties in the recognition of stimuli presented without a comparison stimulus.. ...
Padeh, B; Wahlsten, D; and Fries, J C., "Operant discrimination learning and operant bar-pressing rates in inbred and heterogeneous laboratory mice." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 797 ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Rationale: The neurobiological systems that mediate the discriminative stimulus effects of self-administered drugs are largely unknown. The present study examined the discriminative stimulus effects o
Drug discrimination studies in rats and monkeys with competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists an training drugs have shown that these drugs typically cross-substitute for each other, whereas phencyclidine (PCP)-like NMDA channel blockers produce partial, if any, substitution. In the present study, rats and squirrel monkeys were trained to discriminate the
Elias, M F. and Eleftheriou, B E., " Genetic analysis of water maze discrimination learning for Mus musculus: polygenes and albinism." (1975). Faculty Research 1970 - 1979. 596 ...
Apparatus. For antinociception, schedule-controlled responding, and drug discrimination procedures, monkeys were seated in commercially available primate chairs (model R001; Primate Products, Miami, FL). Monkeys in schedule-controlled responding and drug discrimination studies were placed in ventilated, sound-attenuating chambers equipped with two response levers; stimulus lights, which were located above each lever; and a food cup into which pellets could be delivered from a dispenser (for schedule-controlled responding experiments). Feet were placed into shoes containing brass electrodes to which a brief (250 ms; 3 mA) electric shock could be delivered from a remote a.c. generator. Experiments were controlled, and data were recorded with a microprocessor and a commercially available interface (MED Associates, St. Albans, VT).. Thermal Nociception. A warm water, tail-withdrawal procedure was described in detail previously (Lelas et al., 1999). In brief, monkeys were seated in chairs, and the ...
Spatial properties of stimuli are sometimes encoded even when incidental to the demands of a particular learning task. Incidental encoding of spatial information may interfere with learning by (i) causing a failure to generalize learning between trials in which a cue is presented in different spatial locations and (ii) adding common spatial features to stimuli that predict different outcomes. Hippocampal lesions have been found to facilitate acquisition of certain tasks. This facilitation may occur because hippocampal lesions impair incidental encoding of spatial information that interferes with learning. To test this prediction mice with lesions of the hippocampus were trained on appetitive simple simultaneous discrimination tasks using inserts in the goal arms of a T-maze. It was found that hippocampal lesioned mice were facilitated at learning the discriminations, but they were sensitive to changes in spatial information in a manner that was similar to control mice. In a second experiment it was
A more direct method than the usual ones for obtaining inhibitory gradients requires that the dimension of the nonreinforced stimulus selected for testing be orthogonal to the dimensions of the reinforced stimulus. In that case, the test points along
The investigation tested the hypothesis that tolerance would develop to the discriminative stimulus properties of fentanyl upon discontinuation of discrimination training and injection of fentanyl in doses larger than the training dose. Rats were trained to discriminate an injection of fentanyl, 0.04 mg/kg, from saline using a two-lever choice procedure with food as a reinforcer. Given acutely, morphine substituted for fentanyl and was 100-times less potent. Subsequently, training was stopped, and fentanyl, 0.08 mg/kg, was injected every 12 hr for 1 week. This procedure did not produce tolerance nor did tolerance occur when fentanyl, 0.16 mg/kg every 24 hr, was continued for an additional week. In contrast, a dose of morphine (8.0 mg/kg) that was equated for efficacy to the 0.08-mg/kg dose of fentanyl produced both tolerance to the morphine stimulus and cross-tolerance to the fentanyl stimulus after 3 to 4 days of administration. In an additional experiment, the time course for detection of ...
The problem for an analysis of the activity of type 1 musculature as a learned or operant behavior is that tension is a core component of emotional responses such as anxiety, fear or anger that are difficult to precisely define, and it is hard to tease apart the S-R from the R-S components that are purported to control the neuro-muscular aspect of emotionality. Perhaps the easiest way to analyze the discriminative stimuli that activate Type 1 musculature and to control for the confounding influence of S-R processes is to examine this behavior under conditions that minimize the presence of real or imputed reflexive S-R mechanisms. This is the case when we become tense as we make day to day choices between alternative contingencies wherein the choice of one marks a small opportunity loss of the other, or distractive choices. Because the initiating cause for this tension is a simple discrimination between two alternative contingencies or choices, and not complex linguistic (rumination) ...
Free Online Library: Fatigue strength of vibration-welded unreinforced nylon butt joints. by Polymer Engineering and Science; Engineering and manufacturing Science and technology, general
A sample stimulus in the invisible condition.The left image was presented to the non-dominant eye and the right image was presented to the dominant eye.
This post will look at animal study of pigs, sheep, mice, and some primates to understand what makes them great proxies for human test trials.
Update: In subsequent tests, the performance impact of attaching an interrupt with PCintPort::attachInterrupt has been measured to be near negligible. In the worst case test there was a 5% overhead (over INT0,INT1 ), in the best case it was actually 15% faster. This out performance of PCintPort happens when one or more interrupts trigger more or less at the same instant. The pinChangeInt library is able to handle these within a single hardware interrupt. It will loop through the pins that have changed calling the user supplied interrupt service routines before passing control back to the hardware. This is more efficient than completing a single routine and then passing control back to the hardware each time. Note that this is a special case and most applications will not see any advantage from this ...
Granted, Im still eager to boost my cuss-o-meter rating, but that seems kind of blunt and Ive been puzzled over its directness since reading it a couple days ago. Even the Gray Lady is getting the point across, like in todays piece on McCain being "a little jealous" of the attention Obamas getting ...
Two different discrimination learning experiments, the first using rats and the second cats, provide clear support for facilitation of acquisition rate by physostigmine injections. The results...
Despite vast literature on catecholaminergic neuromodulation of auditory cortex functioning in general, knowledge about its role for long-term memory formation is scarce. Our previous pharmacological studies on cortex-dependent frequency-modulated tone-sweep discrimination learning of Mongolian gerb …
The pattern of wake-state deterioration followed by sleep-state recovery and stabilization is consistent with other sleep consolidation studies, as the same result has been found for perceptual learning of synthetic speech (Fenn et al., 2003) and sensorimotor learning (Brawn et al., 2008). Moreover, although sleep has been commonly reported to enhance visual texture discrimination learning (e.g., Gais et al., 2000), it is plausible that texture discrimination studies may suffer from task-structure confounds that result in similar fatigue or reactive inhibition and could potentially follow the pattern of consolidation demonstrated here. Indeed, texture discrimination training and testing sessions entail ,1000 trials, and performance has been shown to deteriorate if participants are retested multiple times during the day, implicating fatigue in the visual system as a critical factor in the reported pattern of performance changes (Mednick et al., 2002). Additionally, similar inhibition effects were ...
Drug discrimination studies showed that 5-methyl-MDA substitutes for MDA, MMAI, and LSD, but not amphetamine, suggesting that it produces a mix of entactogen and hallucinogenic effects without any stimulant effects.[2]. 5-Methyl-MDA acts as a selective serotonin releasing agent (SSRA) with IC50 values of 107nM, 11,600nM, and 1,494nM for serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine efflux.[1] It is over 5x more potent than MDA, with a suitable active dose possibly being around 15-25 mg.[1][2] Subsequent testing, however, has found that it is not as potent as once thought and is active at at least 100mg. 2-Methyl-MDA is also much more potent than MDA, but is not quite as potent as 5-methyl-MDA.[1] 6-methyl-MDMA (also known as Madam-6) is mostly inactive, likely due to steric hindrance.[1][3]. Recent research has used data on 2-methyl-MDA and 5-methyl-MDA to help guide computer modeling of the serotonin transporter complex.[4]. ...
Survey on discrimination against women in economic and social life. Make your voice heard. Dear all,. the Working Group on Discrimination against Women invites you to contribute to its 2014 report by taking the survey on discrimination against women in economic and social life available at this link:https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/Questionnaire_on_Economic_and_Social_Life. The Working Group on Discrimination against Women is a special procedure established by the Human Rights Council in 2010. It has been tasked to identify, promote and exchange views on good practices to eliminate discrimination against women in law and in practice. The Working Group will devote its thematic report, to be presented to the Human Rights Council in June 2014, on womens economic and social life, in particular during time of economic crisis. The inputs you will provide through the survey will inform the report. The deadline for reply is 1st of March 2013.. Depending on your expertise and experiences, you might want ...
Abstract: Multiply controlled intraverbals commonly occur in social interactions and are important for the acquisition of academic skills. Research on the effectiveness of strategies for teaching multiply controlled intraverbals to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. It has been suggested that multiply controlled intraverbals involve conditional or compound stimulus control. Procedures involving prompt delays have resulted in acquisition of multiply controlled intraverbals for some children with autism spectrum disorder. Blocked-trials procedures (BTP) have also been effective for teaching responses to auditory-visual and visual-visual stimuli involving conditional and compound stimulus control. The purpose of the present study was to extend the literature on teaching multiply controlled intraverbals by evaluating (a) the effects of a constant prompt delay on the acquisition of multiply controlled intraverbals by children with ASD, (b) a BTP on the acquisition of multiply ...
Table 1 gives the relative frequency of choices that were repeated on at least the next trial for both the present experiment and for Thorndike and Tilton. Following Thorndike, data are reported only on those choices made for the first time on Trials 2, 3, or 4 (and, therefore, followed by right or wrong for the first time). Thorndike eliminated from his computations all items that were chosen correctly on the first trial because his correct choices were the actual translations of the Spanish words. Because correct choices were selected randomly in the present experiment, data for Trials 1-4 are also presented in Table 1. All statistical analyses were made on this data.. The most striking result seen in Table 1 was the most unexpected. In all four groups, per cent repetition after choice-alone was markedly higher than after right. This result can be found in Tiltons tabled results, but it has not been previously discussed. Not only do Ss repeat unreinforced responses at greater than the chance ...
class is not necessarily true equality. Very often it is merely an equivalence relation, where two equivalent values may be distinguishable by other means. For example, we might consider two binary trees to be equal if they contain the same elements, even if their shapes are different. Because of this phenomenon, implementations of observable collections (ie, collections where it is possible to inspect the elements) are rather constrained. Such an implementation must retain the actual elements that were inserted. For example, it is not possible in general to represent an observable bag as a finite map from elements to counts, because even if we know that a given bag contains, say, three elements from some equivalence class, we do not necessarily know which three. On the other hand, implementations of non-observable collections have much greater freedom to choose abstract representations of each equivalence class. For example, representing a bag as a finite map from elements to counts works fine ...
Fancy a peek at drunk people cavorting within our recently launched Great Coney Island Spectacularium? The video above was shot at our Obscura Day "Oddities" party a few weeks ago. The sharp-eyed among you might spot yourself, the cast of TVs "Oddities" and their spouses, friends, and my mother ...
RESULTS: The PTZ-kindling animals have shown impaired motor activity, locomotion, discrimination ability, learning, and memory, along with increased emotional tension, anxiety, neuronal damage (increased sNSE), hippocampal pro-inflammatory mediators (increased IL-1β and TNF-α), oxidative stress (increased TBARS, decreased GSH and CAT), and mitochondrial dysfunction. The administration of NF110 in 3 different doses has significantly and dose-dependently corrected PTZ-kindling-induced impaired behavior, learning, memory, locomotion, motor activity, discrimination ability, neuronal damage, hippocampal inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. These beneficial effects of NF110 in PTZ-kindling animals were significantly abolished by the administration of the P2X agonist α, β methylene-ATP ...
... - Reduce fouling and most were present in the. Conditional discriminations in which of critical exit points name of the.
Joe Wos, a Pittsburgh-based cartoonist and performer, is currently working on what he hopes will be the new worlds largest most difficult hand-drawn maze. Creating this thing is one daunting task, but nowhere as difficult as finding someone willing to spend approximately 40 hours trying to solve it.. Like all children, Joe Wos loved to doodle when he was young boy. He grew up to become an cartoonist, and as he approached 40 years old, he felt the need to achieve some "lifelong goals", one of which was setting a Guinness record. He remembered that as a kid, he would create mazes on huge pieces of paper that often ended up on the walls of his home, and realized that could be his shot. After doing some research he learned Guinness had other maze-related records so he asked them if they were willing to acknowledge the world largest hand-drawn maze. They accepted, but with a number of conditions: Wos maze would have to be at least 10 square meters in size, it would have to be solvable, and drawn by ...
Sometimes the human body can be a strange place. All its mechanisms serve a purpose, but sometimes biology even makes mistakes. In this lens, I will highlight some of the weird, gross, and well, odd oddities that can occur in biology and the ever...
... There are several methods for monitoring adverse events in the healthcare system, characterized by strengths and weaknesses. The correct choice should be appropriate to achieve their goals.
How do you locate the best facial cream [ครีมทาหน้าที่ดีที่สุด, which are the term in Thai] for facial lines to stay away from the worries trial-and-error? After going through the post, youll comprehend what you must accomplish while looking for it. At present, many individuals fall short at getting the ideal facial cream for facial lines. […]. ...
Motive: to eliminate the manual trial-and-error play that is currently required to maximize returns from the Artifact system. each player gets 4...
Doctors prescribing blood thinners have had to go through a lengthy trial-and-error process to arrive at the optimal dose for their patients.
The high NLR group had a low complete response (CR) rate compared to low NLR group (51.6% vs. 83.5%; p,0.001). The 5-year PFS and OS rates were 27.4% and 30% in the high NLR group and 61.1% and 63.7% in the low NLR group, respectively (both p,0.001). Multivariate analyses confirmed that NLR is one of the independent risk factors for failure to achieve CR and for worse PFS and OS. The nomogram showed superior discrimination ability for predicting 5-year PFS and OS rates compared with NCCN-IPI (c index 0.78 vs. 0.75 and 0.79 vs. 0.75, respectively).. ...
Heliophiliac . Frigophobiac. The wintertide gain.. icicles sharp and brittle. barren tree limbs. harsh winds. the dark outstripping the days:premature this Achromatic existence. This SADness.. | awakening is strenuous | wide open alongside the roosters howl still snugged under the fondness of blankets spurning to vacant the warmth of Is own body only if... the…
Have you experienced age discrimination? This writer says it exists, and its real. Maybe you are having a hard time getting hired, or worse yet, youve lost your job for flimsy reasons. Here are...
Having breastfed two children, I had a lot of time to ponder our mammal traits. But it turns out lactation in nature is even weirder than I thought.
Seven weeks ago, the management at Gulfstream Park promised that its new $170 million facility, which one official dubbed the Taj Mahal of racing, would be the new paradigm for thoroughbred sport.
Your right to breastfeed in public is protected under the law (ACT Discrimination Act 1991). If you experience discrimination, you can seek advice from, or make a complaint to:. ...
Racing Pigeon products, Pigeon Supplies and Pigeon medicines. We have a massive range of pigeon medicines, such as pigeon antibiotic, vitamins, pigeon stimulant and more.
Racing Pigeon products, Pigeon Supplies and Pigeon medicines. We have a massive range of pigeon medicines, such as pigeon antibiotic, vitamins, pigeon stimulant and more.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of central dopamine depletion on the d-amphetamine discriminative stimulus in rats. AU - Woolverton, William L.. AU - Cervo, Luigi. PY - 1986/6. Y1 - 1986/6. N2 - The discriminative stimulus properties of d-amphetamine, cocaine, and apomorphine were assessed in rats trained in a two-lever, food-reinforced drug discrimination paradigm to discriminate 1.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine from saline. After determination of these dose-response relationships, the rats were divided into two groups. One group (6-OHDA) was given injections of desmethylimipramine (DMI, 30 mg/kg, IP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 100 μg/10 μl each ventricle), while the other group (sham) was given the same dose of DMI and 6-OHDA vehicle (intraventricularly). Beginning approximately 45 days after intraventricular injections, dose-response relationships were redetermined for all three drugs. Larger doses of d-amphetamine were required to elicit the same response in the 6-OHDA group (i.e. the dose-response ...
Rats were trained in a two-lever food-reinforced operant task to discriminate (+)-amphetamine (1 mg/kg) from saline. After discrimination training stabilized, test doses of (+)-amphetamine (0.0625-2.0 mg/kg), (-)-nicotine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg), or (-)-nornicotine (1-10 mg/kg) were assessed for their ability to substitute for the (+)-amphetamine training dose during brief test sessions in which food reinforcement was withheld. As expected, as the test dose of (+)-amphetamine increased, there was a dose-related increase in drug-appropriate responding, with both 1 and 2 mg/kg test doses substituting fully for the (+)-amphetamine training dose. Both (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine showed partial substitution (approximately 50% drug-appropriate responding) for the (+)-amphetamine training dose, with (-)-nicotine being more potent than (-)-nornicotine. Rate suppressant effects prevented the assessment of higher doses of (-)-nicotine or (-)-nornicotine. Thus, while (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine share ...
After decades of opposition, a resurgence of interest in the psychotherapeutic potential of LSD is gaining acceptance in the medical community. Future acceptance of LSD as a psychotherapeutic adjuvant may be predicated on knowledge about its neural mechanisms of action. Preclinical drug discrimination assay offers an invaluable model to determine the neural mechanisms underlying LSDs interoceptive stimulus effects. Unfortunately, current preclinical literature on LSD discrimination is based on results obtained exclusively in male subjects. The present study represents the first known preclinical assessment of possible sex differences in the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD. Adult female (n=8) and male (n=8) Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.08 mg/kg LSD from saline under a fixed ratio 20 schedule of food reinforcement. Once discrimination was established, substitution tests were conducted with other hallucinogens (mescaline, DOM, psilocybin), mixed psychedelic-stimulants (MDMA, (
Results of preliminary measurements and production of equally discriminable color pairs. (a) The JND measurements and the resulting equally discriminable differences in DKL space. The x-axis represents the variation of hue along the isoluminant hue circle in azimuth degree. The y-axis corresponds to JNDs of hue in azimuth degree. Colored areas and the vertical lines between them correspond to categories and their boundaries, respectively. The colors of the areas and the two uppercase initials at the bottom of the areas identify the single categories (from left to right: O = orange, Y = yellow, G = green, B = blue, Pu = purple, and Pi = pink). The solid black curve above the colored areas shows the JNDs measured in the preliminary JND measurements with the first group of participants. The black and white disks represent the colors of the equally discriminable color pairs based on aggregated data and used for the second group of participants. Disks that belong to the same color pair are connected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unconditional discrimination as a paradigm for investigating visual processing in the avian brainstem. AU - Kabai, P.. AU - Kovach, J. K.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Visual discrimination between colors and patterns was studied in telencephalectomized chicks of Japanese quail lines that ware artificially selected for early approach preferences for particular colors and patterns. Since these preferences are not conditional on prior learning, they provide an effective experimental paradigm to study visual discrimination without relience on acquired stimulus discrimination. The data indicate that the quails brainstem-thalamus complex is sufficient for relatively fine discriminations between various colors and achromatic patterns.. AB - Visual discrimination between colors and patterns was studied in telencephalectomized chicks of Japanese quail lines that ware artificially selected for early approach preferences for particular colors and patterns. Since these preferences are not ...
Figure 1. Neural responses in both rat and human OFC during reversal learning signal expectations of a subsequent reward outcome. A, Illustration of generic discrimination reversal task in which the subject is presented with two stimuli and on each trial gets to choose one. One of the stimuli, if chosen, yields a reward (illustrated here as the cherries), whereas the other stimulus yields either an aversive outcome or simply the absence of reward (no cherries). During the acquisition phase, the subject learns to discriminate between the two stimuli, choosing the stimulus associated with reward and avoiding the nonrewarding stimulus. After subjects have reached a criterion (typically after choosing the rewarded stimulus on a number of consecutive trials), a reversal phase ensues, during which the previously rewarded stimulus now yields nonreward, and the previously unrewarded stimulus now yields a reward outcome. Reversals can occur multiple times during task performance. B, Plot of spiking ...
A Relational Learning Circle.. From left to right: Bismillah, Qasim and Nawid in Kabul, Sofia ( Italian ), Paulina ( Mexican ), Iker (Spanish), Hoor ( Afghan ) in United World College Italy. Then, I saw how the Afghan Peace Volunteers. began connecting the dots. of inequality, war, climate change and other issues,. each time they conversed with one another online,. in what has developed further into Relational Learning Circles.. My heart was churning with excitement. when a Syrian, an Armenian, a Peruvian and a Nigerian. spoke with Maryam, Qasim, Nawid and Nasir.. "Can we abolish inter-state war. If not, why? If yes, how?". I saw a revolution:. Seven out of eight said,. "Yes, we can abolish war.. It will take time.. We can do it together.". ...
1) Feeling sick is a complex combination of events that may arise from damaged peripheral tissues as well as from their modulation by psychosocial factors. Therefore, the clinician must consider a symptom not so much as a single and isolated entity, but rather within the psychological and social context of the patient. The mere assessment of peripheral tissue damage considers bottom-up processes only, without taking the top-down modulation into consideration. 2) Interoceptive sensibility is at the very heart of the process of feeling sick. Whereas usually internal organs are not perceived in normal conditions, they may get access to consciousness in particular circumstances. This is due to the activation of receptors that project to a variety of subcortical and cortical regions. For example, several areas of the cerebral cortex are activated by interoceptive stimuli arising from the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. 3) The insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex are key ...