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Generations of readers have learned social psychology from this book-it provides balanced, up-to-date, and accurate coverage of basic topics, research, and theories. Balancing cutting-edge findings and classic work in the field, the user-friendly Social Psychology shows how its methods and theories can be applied to everyday experiences and current social issues. Interesting and easy to read and understand, the topics covered are broad in scope but not overwhelming; these include: perception of people and events; attitudes and influence; social interactions and relationships; helping and hurting others; social psychology and health; and social psychology and the law. Teachers, health professionals, lawyers, business leaders, and people in many different professions will find Social Psychology to be a valuable reference and handbook.
The CPIP uniquely integrates complementary training experiences at the Psychiatry Department's Vermont Center for Children, Youth, and Families (VCCYF) and the Psychology Department's Behavior Therapy and Psychotherapy Center (BTPC). At the VCCYF, interns receive advanced training in the application of evidence-based interventions from the family perspective, directly addressing both child and parent emotional and behavioral strengths and difficulties. In the framework of the Vermont Family Based Approach, interns apply health promotion, prevention, and intervention to help the well families remain well, prevent at-risk children from developing emotional and behavioral problems, and intervene comprehensively with children and families challenged by psychopathology. At the VCCYF, interns collaborate with professionals in psychiatry, psychology, social work, nursing, and genetics. At the BTPC, interns receive advanced training in culturally competent, evidence-based treatment of torture survivors ...
Welcome to Your Pediatric Psychologist. As a committed and expert in pediatric psychology, my mission is to help children with medical conditions and their families succeed and restore normality by elevating psychological care beyond the expected
Local resource for applied behavior analysis therapists in Valdosta. Includes detailed information on local businesses that provide access to applied behavior analysis therapy, applied behavior analysis clinics, applied behavior analysis specialists, autism therapy, autism treatments, autism clinics, and applied behavior analysis support, as well as advice and content on autism support groups and autism societies.
I received my B.A. and M.A. in sociology from the Miami University of Ohio. My Ph.D. in sociology is from Duke University (1975) and my postdoctoral training, in aging, was performed at Duke University School of Medicine. I am a sociologist interested in social psychology, aging and adult development, medical sociology, and family relationships. I have performed extensive research in these areas. My most recent work examines social precursors of depression, the effects of stress on health, and the relationships between religion and health. I enjoy teaching Social Psychology (SOC 106/PSY 116),and graduate seminars in medical sociology and life course and aging. In 1991, I won the Trinity College Distinguished Teaching Award for my outstanding work in the classroom. I collect murder mysteries ...
Synaptic plasticity plays a key role in processes of learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a relatively stable enhancement of synaptic transmission following specific patterns of electrical stimulation. Some types of learning (e.g. motor learning, fear conditioning) result in LTP-like changes at synapses. However, no studies have examined LTP-like plasticity in the visual cortex as a result of visual discrimination learning. A visual discrimination task was used to examine changes in LTP in the primary visual cortex (V1) of adult rats. Rats were placed in a Y-shaped water maze and required to swim to one choice arm containing a hidden platform. Distinct visual cues indicated the presence (CS+) and absence (CS-) of the platform. Rats learned to reliably discriminate the visual cues to successfully navigate the maze. Control rats received the same procedure, but the visual cues did not have a predictive relation with the platform. Following training, trained, control, and ...
In a recent theoretical account of persecutory delusions, it is suggested that anxiety and worry are important factors in paranoid experience [Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., & Bebbington, P. E. (2002). A cognitive model of persecutory delusions. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41(4), 331-347]. In emotional disorders worry has been understood in terms of catastrophising. In the current study, the concept of catastrophising is applied for the first time with persecutory delusions. Thirty individuals with current persecutory delusions and 30 non-clinical controls participated in a cross-sectional study. The group with persecutory delusions was also followed up at 3 months to assess predictors of delusion persistence. At its most severe, 21% of individuals with persecutory delusions had clinical worry, 68% had levels of worry comparable with treatment seeking GAD patients. Further, high levels of anxiety, worry and catastrophising were associated with high levels of persecutory
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing women's sexual arousal in the context of sexual assault history and acute alcohol intoxication. AU - Gilmore, Amanda K.. AU - Schacht, Rebecca L.. AU - George, William H.. AU - Otto, Jacqueline M.. AU - Davis, Kelly Cue. AU - Heiman, Julia R.. AU - Norris, Jeanette. AU - Kajumulo, Kelly F.. N1 - Funding Information: This article was completed by the first author in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master's in Science in clinical psychology under the supervision of Dr. George. This research was funded through a grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (AA13565) to Dr. George. Thanks to Dr. Lori Zoellner for her helpful comments. Portions of this manuscript were presented in November 2009 at the annual meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. N2 - Introduction.: Few studies have examined differences in women's sexual arousal based on sexual assault history ...
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This would be made widespread when more becomes concerned with hythloday's educational psychology research paper to the paragraph, and the environment that he would like hythloday to read it over and correct any insights that appear in the sex. Awards can be played even especially as 20 cultures a educational psychology research paper.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The influence of menstrual cycle phase on sensitivity to ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects of GABA(A)-positive modulators. AU - Green, Kristen L.. AU - Azarov, Alexey V.. AU - Szeliga, Kendall T.. AU - Purdy, Robert H.. AU - Grant, Kathleen (Kathy). PY - 1999/10. Y1 - 1999/10. N2 - Previous studies showed that sensitivity to the ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects of allopregnanolone and ethanol are enhanced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when progesterone levels peak in monkeys trained to discriminate 1.0 g/kg ethanol. The present study further explored the influence of the menstrual cycle phase on the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol, allopregnanolone, and midazolam. Female adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were trained to discriminate 1.0 g/kg ethanol (n = 3) or 2.0 g/kg ethanol (n = 4) (20% w/v; IG) from water (IG). A cumulative dosing procedure was used to test discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol (0.5-2.5 ...
About the Author:. Dr. David Stein is a pediatric psychologist specializing in neuropsychological testing, assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders, and behavioral and cognitive behavioral therapy. Dr. Stein is the founder of New England Neurodevelopment, LLC, in Concord, MA. He was on the faculty of Boston Children's Hospital and an Instructor at Harvard Medical School from 2010 to 2016. Dr. Stein has spoken nationally and internationally regarding neurodevelopment and related disorders. He is the author of several scholarly articles, chapters, and this book.. Dr. Stein is a graduate of Tufts University and William James College. He completed his APA Internship in Child Psychology at Harvard Medical School/The Cambridge Hospital and his post-doctoral fellowship in Pediatric Psychology at Boston Children's Hospital & Harvard Medical School.. ...
Our study revealed that interindividual variation in fornix microstructure and macrostructure was related to visual discrimination accuracy for scenes, but not faces, across two perceptual discrimination tasks. Importantly, this effect was not evident in another white-matter bundle (ILF), implying specificity in the association between scene discrimination ability and fornix macrostructure and microstructure. There was also evidence (based on deterministic tractography) that ILF FA was associated with discrimination accuracy for faces, and not scenes, in Task B, and an exploratory TBSS analysis further revealed a significant correlation between FA in cerebellar white matter and overall scene discrimination accuracy.. By demonstrating selective structure-function associations in the healthy intact brain, our findings extend conclusions from lesion studies that (1) hippocampal damage in humans impairs scene-pair discrimination learning while leaving face-pair discrimination learning intact (Mundy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direction discrimination thresholds of vestibular and cerebellar nuclei neurons. AU - Liu, Sheng. AU - Yakusheva, Tatyana. AU - DeAngelis, Gregory C.. AU - Angelaki, Dora E.. PY - 2010/1/13. Y1 - 2010/1/13. N2 - To understand the roles of the vestibular system in perceptual detection and discrimination of self-motion, it is critical to account for response variability in computing the sensitivity of vestibular neurons. Here we study responses of neurons with no eye movement sensitivity in the vestibular (VN) and rostral fastigial nuclei (FN) using high-frequency (2 Hz) oscillatory translational motion stimuli. The axis of translation (i.e., heading) varied slowly (1° /s) in the horizontal plane as the animal was translated back and forth. Signal detection theory was used to compute the threshold sensitivity of VN/FN neurons for discriminating small variations in heading around all possible directions of translation. Across the population, minimum heading discrimination ...
Through the Loyola Clinical Centers (LCC), psychology students in the master's and doctoral program are able to hone their skills while providing services to those who couldn't typically afford it.
Two different discrimination learning experiments, the first using rats and the second cats, provide clear support for facilitation of acquisition rate by physostigmine injections. The results...
Contrast discrimination is an important type of information for establishing image quality metrics based on human vision. We used a dual-masking paradigm to study how contrast discrimination can be influenced by the presence of adjacent stimuli. In a dual masking paradigm, the observer's task is to detect a target superimposed on a pedestal in the presence of flankers. The flankers (1) reduce the target threshold at zero pedestal contrast; (2) reduce the size of pedestal facilitation at low pedestal contrasts; and (3) shift the TvC (Target threshold vs. pedestal contrast) function horizontally to the left on a log-log plot at high pedestal contrasts. The horizontal shift at high pedestal contrasts suggests that the flanker effect is a multiplicative factor that cannot be explained by previous models of contrast discrimination. We extended a divisive inhibition model of contrast discrimination by implementing the flanker effect as a multiplicative sensitivity modulation factor that account for ...
The professional practice of behavior analysis is one domain of behavior analysis: the others being radical behaviorism, experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis. The professional practice of behavior analysis is the delivery of interventions to consumers that are guided by the principles of behaviorism and the research of both the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis. Professional practice seeks maximum precision to change behavior most effectively in specific instances. Behavior analysts are mental health professionals and, in some states, may hold a license, certificate or registration as a behavior analyst. In other states, there are no laws governing their practice and, as such, the practice may be prohibited as falling under the practice definition of other mental health professionals. This is rapidly changing as Behavior Analysts are becoming more and more common. The professional practice of behavior analysis is a hybrid discipline with ...
Patients at the NJ Craniofacial Center of Morristown benefit from the multidisciplinary expertise of surgical and medical pediatric specialists who share a commitment to using new technology and medical advances for patients and education and support for their families. We offer specialized programs in patients with moderate to severe craniofacial disorders and also mild craniofacial disorders, plagiocephaly and/ or torticollis.. At our Comprehensive Team Meeting, all members of the craniofacial team meet to evaluate a child with moderate to severe craniofacial disorders. We are proud to have a Pediatric Psychologist as part of our team. The craniofacial team's psychologist will assess your child's development and will offer support and treatment to both you and your child. As your child ages, craniofacial disorders will have a varying impact on his or her life as well as the life of your family. For younger children, our psychologist will assess your child's developmental level, refer you for ...
Find Positive Psychology Therapists, Psychologists and Positive Psychology Counseling in Alaska, get help for Positive Psychology in Alaska.
NEW YORK - Children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety or tic disorders are being treated in a new specialized outpatient clinic at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center - one of the only programs of its kind in the New York metro area.. In addition to a clinic in Manhattan, the Pediatric OCD, Anxiety and Tic Disorders (POCAT) program will offer a unique, day camp-style intensive summer treatment program situated in White Plains, N.Y., at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Westchester Division. The POCAT program is co-led by pediatric psychologist Dr. Shannon M. Bennett and psychiatrist Dr. Justin Mohatt.. "Anxiety is a normal part of growing up, but when it interferes with school, friendships or family life, we recommend parents seek treatment for their child. If a family is going to extreme measures to accommodate their child's anxiety, or if their child has a problem with involuntary movements or vocalizations, we can offer help," says Dr. ...
The present study explores two hypotheses: a) women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b) women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting) that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or ...
To assess the discriminative stimulus properties of mixed agonist-antagonist opioids in humans, postaddict volunteers were trained in a three-choice drug discrimination procedure to discriminate among the effects of saline (4 ml i.m.), hydromorphone (3 mg i.m.) and butorphanol (6 mg i.m.). Subjects earned monetary reinforcement by correctly identifying the training drugs by letter code. Other subjective, behavioral and physiological measures were concurrently collected. After training, generalization curves for hydromorphone, butorphanol, pentazocine, nalbuphine and buprenorphine were determined. In generalization testing, both hydromorphone and butorphanol produced dose-related increases in hydromorphone-appropriate and butorphanol-appropriate responses, respectively, and other characteristic subjective effect measures. Nalbuphine produced dose-related increases in discrimination as butorphanol and in those subjective effect measures increased by butorphanol. Buprenorphine produced dose-related ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of central dopamine depletion on the d-amphetamine discriminative stimulus in rats. AU - Woolverton, William L.. AU - Cervo, Luigi. PY - 1986/6. Y1 - 1986/6. N2 - The discriminative stimulus properties of d-amphetamine, cocaine, and apomorphine were assessed in rats trained in a two-lever, food-reinforced drug discrimination paradigm to discriminate 1.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine from saline. After determination of these dose-response relationships, the rats were divided into two groups. One group (6-OHDA) was given injections of desmethylimipramine (DMI, 30 mg/kg, IP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 100 μg/10 μl each ventricle), while the other group (sham) was given the same dose of DMI and 6-OHDA vehicle (intraventricularly). Beginning approximately 45 days after intraventricular injections, dose-response relationships were redetermined for all three drugs. Larger doses of d-amphetamine were required to elicit the same response in the 6-OHDA group (i.e. the dose-response ...
Purpose: : Recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis of macular degeneration has led to potential new treatments for the disease. There is an increasing demand for new visual function tests that are more sensitive than current standards to monitor disease progression and to evaluate treatment effect. Our previous studies demonstrated that patients with macular degeneration have significant loss in global shape discrimination hyperacuity. In this study, we determined the rate of progressive loss of this hyperacuity in patients with Stargardt macular dystrophy (STGD). Methods: : Sixty-eight patients with STGD were selected on the basis of 20/200 or better visual acuity in at least one eye at their first visit. The average age at the first visit was 33±15SD years, and the average follow-up was 4.3±2.8SD years. Visual stimuli were circular shapes (radial frequency patterns). Shape discrimination hyperacuity was determined by using a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Each trial ...
The School of Psychology at Bangor brings together a large group of outstanding scientists with international research reputations in clinical psychology, neuropsychology and clinical and cognitive neuroscience. A number of staff also hold appointments as consultant psychologists or medical consultants with the NHS and contribute to clinical practice as well as to the training of clinical psychologists, medical students and NHS staff. The School runs its own clinical psychology training programme, leading to the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology.. Key research strengths within the clinical psychology domain include dementia, neuropsychology and rehabilitation, learning disability, developmental disorders, addictions, and cognitive-behavioural approaches. Close links with other departments and with NHS services produce tremendous opportunities for collaborative clinical psychology research. The School supports the practical implementation of research findings to improve patient care with close ...
In these population based data from central and eastern Europe, we found that all indicators of alcohol intake and problematic drinking were associated with effort-reward imbalance but not with job control. The association with effort-reward imbalance was independent of deprivation and education but some of it was related to depressive symptoms.. Alcohol accounts for a substantial burden of ill health in the region, especially in the former Soviet Union.20,35 The social and health impact of alcohol in the region is at least partly related to the pattern of binge drinking.21,36 It is therefore important to understand the distribution of drinking and alcohol related problems in the population. Alcohol intake has previously been found to be associated with education and marital status in Russia37 and with education in the Czech Republic38 and Poland (unpublished data). Psychosocial factors are often thought to be at least partly responsible for the association between socioeconomic position and ...
The aim of this module is to provide the student with tangible experience of applying psychology theory to practice. Rather than focus on psychopathology, the module focuses on utilising established positive psychology approaches in supporting psychological growth, well-being and resilience. During the first half of the module, students will study the theoretical underpinnings of positive psychology and will work in small groups to design a positive psychology well-being intervention. During the final half of the module, the well-being intervention will be delivered to fellow undergraduate student across all years. Skills gained in this module will support future applications for assistant psychology posts in addition to other support roles with the aim of pursuing a career as a psychologist. Skills gained in this module are also applicable to other established careers such as social work, nursing, occupational therapy or further academic study (e.g. PhD). The module is a unique opportunity to ...
Rationale: Opioid antagonists are used to reverse the toxic effects of opioids, to diagnose opioid dependence and to treat opioid and other (alcohol) drug abuse. Objectives: This study compared the discriminative stimulus effects of two opioid antagonists (naloxone and naltrexone), after parenteral and oral administration. Methods: The discriminative stimulus effects of naloxone and naltrexone were evaluated every 15 min over a 2-h period in four morphine-treated (3.2 mg/kg per day) rhesus monkeys discriminating between subcutaneous (SC) injections of naltrexone (0.01 or 0.032 mg/kg) and saline, while responding under a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of stimulus shock termination. Results: Within 15 min of SC administration, naloxone and naltrexone produced greater than 90% drug-appropriate responding at doses of 0.032 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. The largest dose of naloxone (3.2 mg/kg) administered orally produced 82% drug-appropriate responding within 90 min; the same dose of naltrexone administered
Our research looks at what studying strategies undergraduate students with disabilities use to learn, why they use some strategies over others, and what metacognitive awareness is involved in these decisions. Previous research has shown that, while practicing information retrieval through self-testing is extremely beneficial to learning, many students tend to use the strategy of repeated reading, which does little in the way of learning more after the initial reading, and the importance of engaging in metacognitive awareness becomes apparent (Karpicke, Butler, & Roediger, 2009).We are looking for a deeper understanding of the connections between metacognitive awareness of learning, working memory, and learning for undergraduate students with disabilities, and how metacognitive strategies can possibly be applied. The participants are undergraduate students at the University of North Florida who are registered with the campus' Disability Resource Center (N=400), with students who are a part of the Access
Dr. Derek Reed is a Licensed Behavior Analyst in the State of Kansas and an Associate Professor in the Department of Applied Behavioral Science at the University of Kansas where he directs the Applied Behavioral Economics Laboratory. Derek received his Bachelor's degree in Psychology from Illinois State University and his Masters and Ph.D. in School Psychology from Syracuse University. He has served as Associate Editor for Behavior Analysis in Practice and The Psychological Record, and guest Associate Editor for The Behavior Analyst, Journal of Behavioral Education, and Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. He serves as a reviewer on the editorial boards of The Behavior Analyst, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, and Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Derek has published over 90 peer reviewed papers and book chapters, coauthored three edited books, and was the 2016 recipient of the American Psychological Association Division 25 B. F. Skinner Foundation New Applied Researcher ...
A. All the time, and a lot of them get relief from it. The one I send them to most often happens to be a doctor who got into acupuncture later. There's a large Asian population in the Berkeley area, so there are many acupuncturists to choose from. But the results are variable. Some people get really good results from acupuncture or acupressure, and others find it's a waste of time. So it's something to have in your therapeutic armamentarium. Particularly if nothing else is working, give it a try!. Q. What about the "psychosocial factors" involved in low back pain?. A. That's a tough one, because as soon as doctors say "psychosocial factors," patients wonder, "do you think this is all in my head, doc?" But it is nonetheless true that pain and psychosocial factors are hard to uncouple. For example, I see a lot of patients who have repetitive strain injuries, and any time you have a chronic injury, there's the possibility that it will be linked with either depression or stress. And what caused what ...
Thomas Swales, PhD, ABPP, has been elected president of the Ohio Psychological Association (OPA).. Dr. Swales specializes in independent psychological, neuropsychological and forensic evaluations. He received his PhD in clinical psychology in the health psychology/pediatric psychology track from the University of Miami. He completed an internship in clinical psychology at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center and fellowship in clinical neuropsychology at the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute. He is board certified in clinical neuropsychology by the American Board of Professional Psychology. For more than 20 years, Dr. Swales has provided psychological and neuropsychological consultations to patients with a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. He has a wealth of clinical experience with both children and adults. He has also served extensively as an expert witness and consultant. Dr. Swales also has extensive academic experience in education and training, research and ...
Shoulder pain is a common secondary condition in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) that often results in loss of function and of independence and imposes limitations on self-care, work, and leisure activities, and leads to decreased quality of life. More than 40% of individuals with SCI report shoulder pain at the beginning of inpatient rehabilitation; this number increases to 50% at hospital discharge. The onset of shoulder pain within the first year after injury may lead to lifelong chronic shoulder pain. Although information is known about shoulder pain in patients with long-term SCI, little is known about the beginning of shoulder problems and how they progress early after the injury. In addition to physical problems, psychosocial factors are also associated with chronic pain.. This study will investigate the progression of musculoskeletal (shoulder muscle flexibility, muscle strength, movement coordination, and rotator cuff health) and psychosocial (fear of movement, pain ...
Rats were trained in a two-lever food-reinforced operant task to discriminate (+)-amphetamine (1 mg/kg) from saline. After discrimination training stabilized, test doses of (+)-amphetamine (0.0625-2.0 mg/kg), (-)-nicotine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg), or (-)-nornicotine (1-10 mg/kg) were assessed for their ability to substitute for the (+)-amphetamine training dose during brief test sessions in which food reinforcement was withheld. As expected, as the test dose of (+)-amphetamine increased, there was a dose-related increase in drug-appropriate responding, with both 1 and 2 mg/kg test doses substituting fully for the (+)-amphetamine training dose. Both (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine showed partial substitution (approximately 50% drug-appropriate responding) for the (+)-amphetamine training dose, with (-)-nicotine being more potent than (-)-nornicotine. Rate suppressant effects prevented the assessment of higher doses of (-)-nicotine or (-)-nornicotine. Thus, while (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine share ...
Victoria Clarke is a senior lecturer in social psychology at the University of the West of England, Bristol, UK. She has published a number of papers on lesbian and gay parenting, same-sex relationships, the history of LGBTQ psychologies, and qualitative methods in journals such as Sexualities, British Journal of Social Psychology, Qualitative Research in Psychology and Lesbian & Gay Psychology Review. She has edited (with Sara-Jane Finlay and Sue Wilkinson) two special issues of Feminism & Psychology on marriage, and edited (with Elizabeth Peel) special issues of Feminism & Psychology, Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, Lesbian & Gay Psychology Review and Psychology of Women Section Review on LGBTQ psychologies. She is also the editor with Elizabeth Peel and Jack Drescher of British LGB Psychologies: Theory, research and practice (Haworth Press, 2007). She is a member of the British Psychological Society's Lesbian & Gay Psychology Section and Qualitative Methods in Psychology Section. She ...
I attended a very good lecture last week on contemporary views of countertransference. It inspired me to write a brief overview of the concept here, with more to follow.. To understand countertransference, it helps to tackle transference first. Transference was a word coined by Sigmund Freud to label the way patients "transfer" feelings from important persons in their early lives, onto the psychoanalyst or therapist. Psychoanalysis was specifically designed to encourage transference. Intentional opacity and non-disclosure by the therapist promotes transference; the patient naturally makes assumptions about the therapist's likes and dislikes, attitude toward the patient, life outside the office, and so forth. These assumptions are based on the patient's experiences with, and assumptions regarding, other important relationships, such as childhood relations with parents. In this way the patient's formative dynamics are re-created in the therapy office for both participants to observe. Patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interoceptive conditioning with a nicotine stimulus is susceptible to reinforcer devaluation. AU - Pittenger, Steven T.. AU - Bevins, Rick A.. PY - 2013/6. Y1 - 2013/6. N2 - Pavlovian conditioning processes contribute to the etiology of nicotine dependence. Conditioning involving interoceptive stimuli is increasingly recognized as playing a role in many diseases and psychopathologies, including drug addiction. Previous animal research on diminishing the influence of interoceptive conditioning has been limited to antagonism and nonreinforced exposures to the drug stimulus. The goal of the present research was to determine whether interoceptive conditioning with a nicotine stimulus could be diminished through an unconditioned stimulus (US) devaluation procedure. In two separate experiments, male Sprague-Dawley rats received nicotine injections (0.4 mg base/kg) followed by intermittent sucrose (26%) access in a conditioning chamber. On intermixed saline sessions, sucrose was ...
Introduction. Behaviourism originated with the work of John B. Watson from 1913. Behaviourism is based on the following sets of claims: (1) Psychology is the study of behaviour. Psychology is not the science of mind. This statement also forms a type of behaviourism: 'Methodological' behaviourism claims that psychology should concern itself with the behaviour of organisms (human and non-human). Psychology should not concern itself with mental states or events or with constructing internal information processing accounts of behaviour. In its historical foundations, methodological behaviourism shares with analytical behaviourism the influence of positivism. One of the goals of positivism was to unify psychology with natural science. Methodological behaviourism is a dominant theme in the writings of John Watson. John Broadus Watson was one of the most prominent psychologist scientists of his era, writing on applied psychology for academic journals, business publications, and popular magazines and is ...
Expert: Dr. Brian Iwata received his Ph.D. in psychology from Florida State University and subsequently held positions at Western Michigan University and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He is Distinguished Professor in Psychology and Psychiatry at the University of Florida, where he also has directed the Florida Center on Self-Injury and the Prader-Willi Syndrome Program. Brian is the former chief editor of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and former president of the Association for Behavior Analysis, the Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis, the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Division 33 of the American Psychological Association, and the Florida Association for Behavior Analysis. His primary areas of interest are disorders of learning and behavior and research methodology. He has published over 240 articles and chapters on these topics, and he has received $7 million in research grants to support that work. Much of Dr. Iwata's research ...
The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test: A Portuguese version of the adults' test. O Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test: Uma versão portuguesa do teste para adultos. José Pestana*1, Sofia Menéres*2, Maria João Gouveia2, Rui Filipe Oliveira3. 1ISPA - Instituto Universitário, Lisboa, Portugal. 2ISPA - Instituto Universitário, APPsyCI-Applied Psychology Research Center Capabilities & Inclusion, Lisboa, Portugal. 3Departamento de Biociências, ISPA - Instituto Universitário, Lisboa, Portugal / Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Lisboa, Portugal / Champalimaud Center for the Unknown, Neurosciences, Lisboa, Portugal. Correspondência. ABSTRACT. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) is a Theory of Mind task that assesses the ability to understand others' mental states in both healthy and clinical populations. The goal of the present study was to translate the revised version of the adults' RMET to the Portuguese (European) language, investigate item validity for this version and differences ...
Generalizations of NMDA-receptor antagonists to the discriminative stimulus effects of κ-opioid receptor agonists in rats were examined. Phencyclidine, MK-801, and ketamine, non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonists, generalized to the discriminative stimulus effects of U-50,488H, but not those of TRK-820, whereas (±)-3-(2-carbaxypiperazine-4-yl) propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), a competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist, and ifenprodil, an NR1/NR2B NMDA-receptor antagonist, did not, suggesting that non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonists possess U-50,488H-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats. Since U-50,488H and phencyclidine both induce aversive effects, our findings indicate that the cue of the discriminative stimulus effects of U-50,488H and non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonists may be associated with their aversive effects.,br,. ...
Experimental psychology emerged as a modern academic discipline in the 19th century when Wilhelm Wundt introduced a mathematical and experimental approach to the field.Introduction to Experimental Psychology Consciousness (Chapter 3 in Myers) Consciousness as a process: The study of consciousness has a frustratingly long history in.Introduction to Educational Psychology What is Educational Psychology.Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental.. The birth of experimental psychology as a discipline in its own right is often dated from the appearance of Wilhelm Wundt's great handbook, the Grundzüge der...Introduction to the basic topics of psychology, including learning, motivation, cognition, development, abnormal, physiological, social, and personality ...
The present study aims to test the adaptive theory of pregnancy sickness to limit fetal exposure to teratogens, by investigating possible shifts in colour discrimination and food imagery preferences in women during their first trimester of pregnancy. We hypothesized that colour discrimination and food imagery preference shifts are part of the changes that occur to the first trimester pregnant woman's perceptual shifts. The reason for this shift is to protect the embryo during its most vulnerable phase of development. We recruited 6 pregnant women in their first trimester and 9 non-pregnant women to participate in the study. Subjects complete the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test in which they were asked to order 85 coloured caps in their order of hue. Next, subjects viewed a slideshow of 10 common food exemplars. Each slide displayed a food at 6 different stages of its ripeness or freshness and subjects were asked to rate how appetizing they found each food. Preliminary results confirm our first ...
Background: Researchers and practitioners have developed numerous online interventions that encourage people to reduce their drinking, increase their exercise, and better manage their weight. Motivations to develop eHealth interventions may be driven by the Internet’s reach, interactivity, cost-effectiveness, and studies that show online interventions work. However, when designing online interventions suitable for public campaigns, there are few evidence-based guidelines, taxonomies are difficult to apply, many studies lack impact data, and prior meta-analyses are not applicable to large-scale public campaigns targeting voluntary behavioral change. Objectives: This meta-analysis assessed online intervention design features in order to inform the development of online campaigns, such as those employed by social marketers, that seek to encourage voluntary health behavior change. A further objective was to increase understanding of the relationships between intervention adherence, study adherence,
The neurobiological mechanisms that regulate how the brain perceives alcohol are not yet fully understood. For decades, researchers have examined the glutamatergic system in the brain to better understand the effects of alcohol. Recently, a specific subtype of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu5) has been identified as a potential target for new therapies for alcoholism and other drugs of abuse.. Joyce Besheer, Ph.D., assistant professor at the UNC Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies and the Department of Psychiatry, and colleagues have recently discovered that mGlu5 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (a brain region known to modulate drug reward) regulates the subjective effects of alcohol. Using a well characterized drug discrimination procedure, rats were trained to discriminate the subjective effects of a moderate dose of alcohol from water. Besheer examined how the subjective effects of alcohol were changed by compounds that are known to block or enhance mGlu5 receptor function. These ...
This paper reports on the child's perception of parental involvement and the effect it has on grades in mathematics, science, social studies, and language arts. The study specifically involved the relationship between the value the children perceive the parents place on education and the value the children themselves place on education, the relationship between the child's perception of parents helping the child with homework in the elementary and middle school years and the amount of time the child spends on homework in high school, and the relationship between the children's perception of expectations the parents have for him/her and the expectations the children place on themselves. Questionnaires were given to 102 9th graders. The data was analyzed using correlation analyses and a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Implications for parents and educators are also noted ...
Russ noted that African American and Native American communities have been especially hard-hit by menthol cigarettes.. On Friday, Courtney Clark, a public health and psychology student at the University of Minnesota Duluth, took part in an American Lung Association press conference designed to draw public attention to the issue.. In a statement, Clark said: "Menthol has been marketed to the African-American community for over 50 years, and as a result, nearly 90 percent of African-American smokers use menthol products. We can sit idly by and hope this malicious targeting by Big Tobacco ends, or we can take initiative to make sure that kids don't have easy access to these deadly products.". Russ said she shares the concern that minority populations have been subjected to targeted menthol cigarette marketing campaigns, but she stressed the proposed ordinance is not intended to be a paternalistic measure. Russ noted that both the Duluth Human Rights Commission and the Indigenous Commission have ...
The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the memory retention effects of methylene blue (MB) in both appetitive and aversive memory tasks in rats. Methylene blue is a metabolic enhancer that improves memory retention in a variety of tasks including inhibitory avoidance, object recognition, spatial memory, and extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning. Low dose MB has no side effects on behavior. MB works as a metabolic enhancer by increasing brain cytochrome oxidase activity and oxygen consumption. The first experiment was conducted to examine the effects of MB treatment in normal rats in the hole board spatial memory task, to determine if it could enhance memory of discrimination learning of rewarded versus non-rewarded trials. Subjects treated with MB discriminated better between rewarded and non-rewarded trials as compared to control subjects, indicated by a greater number of correct responses on rewarded trials than non-rewarded trials. The second experiment was conducted to ...