TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester-mediated killing of cytotoxic lymphocytes. T2 - Dependence on a lysosomal thiol protease, dipeptidyl peptidase I, that is enriched in these cells. AU - Thiele, Dwain L. AU - Lipsky, Peter E.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Exposure of murine or human lymphocytes to L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (Leu-Leu-OMe) results in selective killing of cytotoxic lymphocytes, whereas helper T cells and B cells remain functionally intact. Cytolytic lymphocytes incubated in the presence of toxic concentrations of Leu-Leu-OMe were found to contain membranolytic metabolites of the structure (Leu-Leu)n-OMe, where n ≥ 3. The sensitivity of cytotoxic lymphocytes to Leu-Leu-OMe was found to be dependent upon production of these metabolites by a lysosomal thiol protease, dipeptidyl peptidase I, which is present at far higher levels in cytotoxic lymphocytes than in cells without cytolytic potential or not of bone marrow origin. Thus, this granule enzyme is ...
1. We report observations on transport of the hydrolysis-resistant dipeptide glycylsarcosine by rings of everted hamster jejunum in vitro in the presence and absence of Na+, using several substituents for Na+: Li+, K+, Cs+, Tris, choline and mannitol.. 2. At most concentrations, mediated influx of glycylsarcosine was depressed by Li+, K+, Cs+ and Tris, though not abolished. At high concentrations, it was moderately increased by choline and mannitol. Under conditions in which the tissue could concentrate the peptide in the presence of Na+, uptake was greatly depressed by all the substituents and the ability to concentrate was abolished.. 3. The Kt of mediated influx was affected in different ways according to the substituent used. Kt was reduced by Li+ replacement of Na+ and increased by choline replacement. Vmax. was greatly reduced by all metallic substituents but not by non-metallic substituents.. 4. Though the results cannot yet be satisfactorily interpreted, they suggest possible reasons for ...
Background & Aims: For optimal nutrient absorption to occur, the enterocyte must express a range of specialist ion-driven carrier proteins that function cooperatively in a linked and mutually dependent fashion. Thus, absorption via the human intestinal H+-coupled di/tripeptide transporter (hPepT1) is dependent on maintenance of the trans-apical driving force (the H+-electrochemical gradient) established, in part, by brush-border Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3) activity. This study aimed to examine whether physiologic regulation of NHE3 activity can limit hPepT1 capacity and, therefore, protein absorption after a meal. Methods: hPepT1 and NHE3 activities were determined in intact human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers by measurements of [14C]glycylsarcosine transport and uptake, 22Na+-influx, H+-influx, and H+-efflux. Expression of NHE regulatory factors was determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Optimal dipeptide transport was observed in the presence of a ...
Author(s): Hirst BH; Simmons NL; Thwaites DT; McEwan GTA. Publication type: Article. Publication status: Published. Journal: Pfluegers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology. Year: 1993. Volume: 425. Issue: 1-2. Pages: 178-180. Print publication date: 01/10/1993. ISSN (print): 0031-6768. ISSN (electronic): 1432-2013. Publisher: Springer. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00374520. DOI: 10.1007/BF00374520. PubMed id: 8272376. ...
Alanine dipeptide is one of the simplest molecules that exhibits some important features common to larger biomolecules. In particular, it has more than one long-lived conformation, which we will identify in this exercise by mapping out its potential energy surface. The conformations of alanine dipeptide are characterized by the dihedral angles of the backbone. Below, we color carbons in green, hydrogens in white, oxygen in red and nitrogen in blue, i.e. the torsional angle $\phi$ is C-N-C-C, while $\psi$ is N-C-C-N along the backbone. ...
Functional peptides are expected to be beneficial compounds that improve our quality of life. To address the growing need for functional peptides, we have examined peptide synthesis by using microbial enzymes. l-Amino acid ligase (Lal) catalyzes the condensation of unprotected amino acids in an ATP-dependent manner and is applicable to fermentative production. Hence, Lal is a promising enzyme to achieve cost-effective synthesis. To obtain a Lal with novel substrate specificity, we focused on the putative Lal involved in the biosynthesis of the dipeptidic phytotoxin designated tabtoxin. The tabS gene was cloned from Pseudomonas syringae NBRC14081 and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant TabS protein produced showed the broadest substrate specificity of any known Lal; it detected 136 of 231 combinations of amino acid substrates when dipeptide synthesis was examined. In addition, some new substrate specificities were identified and unusual amino acids, e.g., l-pipecolic acid, hydroxy-l
Intestinal protein digestion generates a massive variety and quantity of short chain peptides that are later absorbed into small intestinal epithelial cells by the di/tri-peptide transporter (PEPT1) on the apical membrane of enterocytes. PEPT1 functions as an electrogenic proton/peptide symporter with the ability to transport most di- and tripeptide arising from food digestion. It also has significance in its ability to transport pharmacologically active drugs. Due to its uniquely broad substrate specificity and high capacity, hPEPT1 has been suggested to be relevant drug targets at the level of drug transport. Substrate docking studies to identify specific interactions between the substrate and transporter would be facilitated by crystallization of hPEPT1; however, crystallization of hPEPT1 protein is currently unapproachable due to the size of the protein and the requirement of a lipid membrane to retain tertiary. My research built on the rudimentary computer model of hPEPT1 generated by Dr. ...
The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, is involved in the biosynthesis of the nonribosomally synthesized dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin, composed
The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, is involved in the biosynthesis of the nonribosomally synthesized dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin, composed
Alanine dipeptide is often studied in theoretical work because it is among the simplest systems to exhibit some of the important features common to biomolecules. It has more than one long-lived conformational state. The relevant angles are the dihedral angles of the backbone, commonly called Φ and Ψ (see figure). In the following scheme, light blue atoms are carbons, white ones are hydrogens, red are oxygens, and blue are nitrogens. So the torsional angle Φ is C-N-C-C and Ψ is N-C-C-N along the backbone ...
Figure seven summarizes the technique adopted during the AMBER drive fields to create the (-)OOC-terminal or C-terminal fragment, having the dimethylalanine residue for example. This C-terminal fragment is attained by utilizing the two molecules strategy reported Earlier for that N-terminal 1: acetate as well as dimethylalanine dipeptide are associated with the technique. Power industry era for this fragment is performed by environment to a worth of get more info zero two different constraints in the course of the fitting stage: (i) an inter-molecular cost constraint between the methyl group of acetate as well as CO-NHMe group of atoms from the capped amino acid, and (ii) an intra-molecular demand constraint for the MeCO group on the capped amino acid ...
Peptide synthesis utilizing isoacyl dipeptides minimizes the formation of impurities and improves the yield of aggregation-prone hydrophobic peptides.
A large number of papers have been published on analysis of microarray data with particular emphasis on normalization of data, detection of differentially expressed genes, clustering of genes and regulatory network. On other hand there are only few studies on relation between expression level and composition of nucleotide/protein sequence, using expression data. There is a need to understand why particular genes/proteins express more in particular conditions. In this study, we analyze 3468 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from Holstege et al., (1998) to understand the relationship between expression level and amino acid composition. We compute the correlation between expression of a gene and amino acid composition of its protein. It was observed that some residues (like Ala, Gly, Arg and Val) have significant positive correlation (r | 0.20) and some other residues (Like Asp, Leu, Asn and Ser) have negative correlation (r | -0.15) with the expression of genes. A significant negative correlation
There is provided a novel process for the preparation of a dipeptide represented by the formula: ##STR1## wherein Ar represents an aromatic group; R1 represents a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group or an aryl group; R2 represents a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group or an aromatic group; Y represents a hydroxy group, an amino group or an acylamino group, which comprises subjecting a β-lactam compound represented by the formula: ##STR2## wherein Ar, R1 and R2 have the same meanings as defined above, and X represents a hydroxy group, an amino group or an acylamino group, an azido group or a benzyloxy group, to hydrogenolysis in the presence of a catalyst. The process can be practiced without any complicated procedure as seen in the conventional processes for the preparation of peptides.
BioAssay record AID 24490 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was evaluated for its stability and enzymatic cleavage of dipeptide linker at pH 7, 37 degree C.; 5-6 h.
287519680 - EP 1483284 A2 2004-12-08 - SELECTIVE DIPEPTIDE INHIBITORS OF KALLIKREIN - [origin: WO03076458A2] Compounds of general formula 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof: wherein R1 is selected from H, lower alkyl, R4-CO, R4-O2CCH2, R5-OCO and R5-SO2 R2 is selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl optionally substituted with an alkyl or alkyloxy group, C5-C12cycloalkylalkyl optionally substituted with an alkyl or alkyloxy group, aralkyl optionally substituted with up to three groups chosen from F, CI, Br, I, OH, lower alkyl, O-lower alkyl, O-benzyl, NH2, NO2, NH-acyl, CN and CF3, and aralkyloxymethyl optionally substituted with up to three groups chosen from F, CI, Br, OH, lower alkyl and O-lower alkyl or R1 and R2 together are an o-xylylene group optionally substituted on the aromatic ring with a group selected from F, CI, Br, OH, lower alkyl and O-lower alkyl R3 is selected from H, OH and O-lower alkyl R4 is selected from H, lower alkyl and phenyl and R5 is selected from lower alkyl,
Derivatives of fluorophore FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) are widely used in bioassays to label proteins and cells. An N-terminal leucine dipeptide is attached to FITC, and we show that this simple conjugate molecule is cytocompatible and is uptaken by cells (human dermal and corneal fibroblasts) in contrast to FITC itself. Co-localisation shows that FITC-LL segregates in pen-nuclear and intracellular vesicle regions. Above a critical aggregation concentration, the conjugate is shown to self-assemble into beta-sheet nanostructures comprising molecular bilayers. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.orgflicenses/by/4.0 ...
We compare recent quantum mechanical computations of alternative reaction pathways for carboxypeptidase A, a zinc proteinase, in an "enzyme environment" to similar calculations in the "gas phase" that include the minimal chemical entities that are required for a non-catalytic reaction. The main question that we address is whether anything may be learned from such reduced representations. Two general acid-general base alternative pathways and one nucleophilic pathway are compared. The original calculations were run on a relatively large model (120 atoms) of the active site of carboxypeptidase A which included zinc and its ligands, as well as the residues Arg145, Arg127, Glu270, a water molecule and a model dipeptide. The "gas-phase" pathways include only the dipeptide, water and Glu270 and serve as models for the non-catalytic pathway. The calculations were performed by semiempirical MNDO/H/d that includes modifications for d-orbital representations as well as for intra- and intermolecular ...
Product Name: Mal-Amido-PEG4-t-butyl esterFormula: C22H36N2O9MW: 472.5Web Site clickPurity: 0.98Availability: In StockCAS NO: 1402601-82-4 Product: TUG-770
Product Name: Amino-PEG12-t-butyl esterFormula: C31H63NO14MW: 673.8Web Site clickPurity: 0.98Availability: In StockCAS NO: 354812-17-2 Product: SC-514 Ships
During exercise and post-exercise, blood is diverted to the periphery [muscles and skin] and the last thing you want is to interrupt this blood flow by redirecting blood to the gastrointestinal tract for digestive purposes. It is important if you use a protein pre, intra [during] and post-exercise, that blood diversion to the muscles is not impaired. By using the wrong type of protein i.e. a slowly digested protein, it will sit in the stomach and small intestine and need intense enzyme action to break the protein down into its constituent amino acids over 1 - 2 hours. During this slow digestive process, blood will be shunted to the gastrointestinal tract [away from your muscles] to help absorption and distribution of the digested amino acids to the rest of the body ...
The digestion of proteins begins, as does all digestion, with the mechanical process of chewing food, and it ends with the absorption of the proteins constituent amino acids by the cells of the...

Effect of the chemical nature of amino acid residues located either at the N- or C-terminal end of dipeptides on the utilization by strains of the SBP penta mut
Regulatpro® Bio je kaskadno fermentiran bio koncentrat, proizveden iz ekološkega sadja, zelenjave, oreščkov in začimb. Edinstven encimski napitek vsebuje vitalne dipeptide, tripeptide, oligopeptide, polifenole, flavonoide (fitokemikalije) in desnosučno mlečno kislino L(+). V patentiranem procesu kaskadne fermentacije se aktivne substance iz prvovrstnih naravnih virov razdrobijo v drobne delce, ki zagotavljajo visoko absorpcijo v obliki koncentriranega napitka Regulatpro® Bio.. ...
New supplement features Sustamine, a unique dipeptide that combines the amino acids L-alanine and L-glutamine to help the body rehydrate.
Thamotharan, M.; Zonno, V.; Storelli, C.; Ahearn, G.A., 1996: Basolateral dipeptide transport by the intestine of the teleost Oreochromis mossambicus
Divalent dipeptides have been introduced as counter ions in aqueous CZE. The dipeptides form ion pairs with amino alcohols in the BGE and facilitate the separation of amino alcohols. High concentrations of dipeptide caused reversed effective mobility for the analytes. The net charge of the dipeptide can be controlled using a buffer or a strong base, and regulates the interaction between the dipeptide and the amino alcohol. A stronger interaction and higher selectivity of amino alcohols was observed when the dipeptides were used as divalent counter ions, than in monovalent or uncharged form. Association constants for ion pairs between divalent dipeptides and amino alcohols can be used to enhance selectivity for amino alcohols in CZE. No chiral separation of amino alcohols was observed when using the dipeptides as ion-pairing chiral selectors in aqueous BGE, but addition of methanol to the BGE promoted enantioselectivity.. ...
An analysis of 11 crystal structures of cyclic dipeptides so far reported in the literature is made, with main reference to the internal parameters of these molecules. Preferred conformations of the side chains of cyclic dipeptides with different α-amino acid residues have been studied by classical energy calculations. The possible conformations of the DKP ring are also studied. The significance of the non-bonded interaction in deciding the pathway for conformational change has also been investigated. The agreement between theoretical results and experimental observations is quite good, both with respect to the conformation of these molecules as well as the enthalpy difference as estimated from n.m.r. studies between different conformers.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effective production of dehydro cyclic dipeptide albonoursin exhibiting pronuclear fusion inhibitory activity. I. Taxonomy and fermentation. AU - Kanzaki, Hiroshi. AU - Imura, Daisuke. AU - Sashida, Reiko. AU - Kobayashi, Akio. AU - Kawazu, Kazuyoshi. PY - 1999/11. Y1 - 1999/11. N2 - Strain KO-23, an actinomycete producing albonoursin as well as streptopyrone, was identified as Streptomyces albulus by morphological and biochemical studies. Fermentation conditions for albonoursin, a dehydro cyclic dipeptide exhibiting a pronounced inhibitory activity toward pronuclear fusion of sea urchin eggs, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the actinomycete produced 16 mg/liter of albonoursin, 30 times higher than that in the original culture. The cells cultivated under these conditions highly express biosynthetic enzymes for albonoursin, and thus are available for biosynthetic studies of dehydro cyclic peptides.. AB - Strain KO-23, an actinomycete producing albonoursin as well as ...
The mechanism of toxicity for cytolytic lymphocytes of Leu-Leu-OMe and related dipeptide derivatives was examined. Selective inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI), a lysosomal thiol protease highly enriched in cytotoxic lymphocytes, prevented all natural killer (NK) toxic effects of such agents. However, many DPPI substrates were found to possess no NK toxic properties. For some such agents, this lack of NK toxicity appeared to be related to the lack of uptake by lymphocytes. In this regard, Leu-Leu-OMe was found to be incorporated by lymphocytes and monocytes via a saturable facilitated transport mechanism with characteristics distinct from previously characterized mammalian dipeptide transport processes. This novel transport process was found to be specific for dipeptides composed of selective L-stereoisomer amino acids and enhanced by hydrophobic ester or amide additions to the COOH terminus of dipeptides. Maximal rates of Leu-Leu-OMe uptake by T8 and NK cell-enriched peripheral blood ...
The strategic localization of peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2), a proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter, to the apical membrane of epithelial cells in the kidney and choroid plexus suggests that it plays an important role in the disposition of peptides/mimetics in the body. Therefore, the in vivo significance of PEPT2 was investigated in wild-type and PEPT2 null mice following an i.v. bolus dose (0.05 μmol/g body weight) of [14C]glycylsarcosine (GlySar). In PEPT2 null mice, the clearance (total and renal) of GlySar was markedly increased (2-fold), resulting in concomitantly lower systemic concentrations. In addition, renal reabsorption was almost abolished, and GlySar was eliminated by glomerular filtration. Of the 46% of GlySar reabsorbed in wild-type mice, PEPT2 accounted for 86% and PEPT1 accounted for 14% of reabsorbed substrate. Analysis of GlySar uptake in kidney sections revealed that PEPT2 was primarily localized in the outer medullary region. Wild-type mice also had greater choroid ...
1. Studies were performed to investigate the metabolic fate of dipeptides when administered intravenously in rats. Glycyl-leucine, glycylglycine or glycylsarcosine was injected into the jugular vein. The plasma disappearance rate after the peak plasma concentrations was most rapid for glycyl-leucine and least rapid for glycylsarcosine.. 2. During urine collection for 40 min, trace amounts of glycyl-leucine and glycylglycine and 13% of the injected glycylsarcosine were excreted.. 3. Neither glycylglycine nor glycyl-leucine was detected in the liver, muscle, intestinal mucosa or renal cortex, but concentrations of glycine or leucine, or both, in these tissues were increased after each injection. In contrast, glycylsarcosine was recovered in all these tissues with concentrations in the renal cortex being far greater than in any other tissue, but sarcosine was found only in the renal cortex and intestinal mucosa.. 4. The changes in plasma concentrations of free amino acids, glucose and glucagon, and ...
Histidylhistidine is a dipeptide composed of two histidine residues. It is an incomplete breakdown product of protein digestion or protein catabolism. Dipeptides are organic compounds containing a sequence of exactly two alpha-amino acids joined by a peptide bond. Some dipeptides are known to have physiological or cell-signalling effects although most are simply short-lived intermediates on their way to specific amino acid degradation pathways following further proteolysis ...
Results and Discussion In this paper several approaches have been applied, in order to examine the different properties of the synthetic Notch receptors and to compare them with those of endogenous Notch. They generated libraries of receptors with different EC domains, each coupled with a different IC domain and expressed them in fibroblast. They found that these synthetic receptors are strongly activated by cell-cell contact, if the sender cell expresses cognate ligand on its surface. To determine if the activation occurs by a cleavage mechanism, they used the drug DAPT (N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-lalanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester). Treatment with DAPT completely blocks the activation of synNotch. These were eliminatory examinations, which have shown the characteristics of the endogenous Notch necessary to conduct further experiments. Also, they found that the response is reversible upon removal of the ligand - expressing cells. The next phase of the research is dedicated to determining ...
Thiourea derivatives demonstrate potent cytotoxic activity against various leukemias and many tumor cell lines. In our previous study, the combination of thiourea and phosphonate has been proven as an effective strategy for developing antitumor agents. Herein, we synthesized and evaluated a series of novel chiral dipeptide thioureas containing an α-aminophosphonate moiety as antitumor agents. Finally, we developed novel dipeptide thioureas 11d and 11f that showed comparable inhibition with that of Cisplatin against BGC-823 and A-549 cells, respectively.
Using human cancer cells, tumour and blood samples from cancer patients, researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine have uncovered the role of a neurotransmitter in the spread of aggressive cancers.. Neurotransmitters are chemical "messengers" that transmit impulses from neurons to other target cells.. The work, described in the journal Cell Reports, found that this neurotransmitter, called N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) NAAG is more abundant in cancers with a tendency to grow and spread rapidly - or so-called higher grade cancers - than in lower grade tumours, making it a potential marker for tumour progression or regression during cancer therapy, the researchers say.. The experiments also demonstrated that NAAG is a source of glutamate, a chemical that cancer cells use as building blocks to survive, in tumours that express an enzyme called glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII).. The group also discovered that stopping the GCPII from being active by using a drug called 2-PMPA to treat human ...
USP Labs Modern BCAA is an incredibly light and voluminous powder that mixes great.. USP Labs Modern BCAA will definitely help you on your game at the gym or at work.. If you want an awesome BCAA product designed for those who truly realize just how important BCAAs are, then USP Labs Modern BCAA was made with you in mind. This product contains just about the right ingredients that would supply you with the necessary supplements that you need. In fact, USP Labs Modern BCAA consists of glutamine dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine), which is more stable and more water soluble than regular L-glutamine. The presence of a unique intestinal transporter for the dipeptide may also suggest an increased amount of glutamine to reach the bloodstream and into skeletal muscle as compared to regular free L-glutamine. Now this is very important to know since up to 65% of regular L-glutamine can be destroyed before it makes its way to your muscles. Thus the constitution of glutamine dipeptide definitely assists ...
Theoretical studies on glycyl-alanyl and seryl dipeptides were performed to determine the probable backbone and side-group conformations that are preferred for solvent interaction. By following the method of Lee & Richards [(1971) J. Mol. Biol. 55, 379-400], a solute molecule is represented by a set of interlocking spheres of appropriate van der Waals radii assigned to each atom, and a solvent (water) molecule is rolled along the envelope of the van der Waals surface, and the surface accessible to the solvent molecule, and hence the solvent accessibility for a particular conformation of the solute molecule, is computed. From the calculated solvent accessibilities for various conformations, solvation maps for dipeptides were constructed. These solvation maps suggest that the backbone polar atoms could interact with solvent molecules selectively, depending on the backbone conformation. A conformation in the right-handed bridge (zetaR) region is favoured for both solvent interaction and intrachain ...
Alitame is an aspartic acid-containing dipeptide sweetener. It was developed by Pfizer in the aboriginal 1980s and currently marketed in some countries beneath the cast name Aclame. Most dipeptides are not sweet, but the abrupt analysis of aspartame in 1965 led to a seek for agnate compounds that aggregate its sweetness. Alitame is one such…
Mp: 255-260℃. Glycylglycine 556-50-3 is a dipeptide used in biochemical research. It is the simplest of all dipeptides and is used as a starting template for preparation of more complex peptides. Also useful as a practical buffer with a buffering range of 7.5 - 8.9 (at 25°C). Valuable agent for experiments investigating peptide transport and absorption.. ChemSpecial , China, wholesale Glycylglycine 556-50-3 with high quality and good price.. ...
The formalism of time-dependent density functional theory and density functional response functions is reviewed from the perspective of partitioning techniques and projections, the hallmark of the school of quantum chemistry represented by P.O. Lowdin. Extension to open-shell density functional theory is described, reviewing some of its common problems. Sample calculations on hyper-Raleigh scattering in the diamagnetic and paramagnetic complexes of copper bound to (glycyl)glycine dipeptide are presented.. ...
IMPORTANCE: Developmental stuttering is a neuropsychiatric condition of incompletely understood brain origin. Our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study indicates a possible partial basis of stuttering in circuits enacting self-regulation of motor activity, attention, and emotion.. OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the neurophysiology of stuttering through in vivo assay of neurometabolites in suspect brain regions.. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Proton chemical shift imaging of the brain was performed in a case-control study of children and adults with and without stuttering. Recruitment, assessment, and magnetic resonance imaging were performed in an academic research setting.. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Ratios of N-acetyl-aspartate plus N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAA) to creatine (Cr) and choline compounds (Cho) to Cr in widespread cerebral cortical, white matter, and subcortical regions were analyzed using region of interest and data-driven voxel-based ...
BT16899DGG datasheet, BT16899DGG pdf, BT16899DGG data sheet, datasheet, data sheet, pdf, Philips, 18-bit latched transceiver with 16-bit parity generator/checker 3-State
Protein is a dietary component essential for nutritional homeostasis in humans. Normally, ingested protein undergoes a complex series of degradative processes following the action of gastric, pancreatic and small intestinal enzymes. The result of this proteolytic activity is a mixture of amino acids and small peptides. Amino acids (AAs) are transported into the enterocyte (intestinal epithelial cell) by a variety of AA transporters that are specific for cationic (basic) AA, neutral AA, and anionic (acidic) AA. Small peptides are absorbed into enterocytes by the PEPT1 transporter. Inside enterocytes peptides are hydrolyzed, and the resulting amino acids are released together with those absorbed by AA transporters into blood via multiple, basolateral, AA transporters. Hydrolysis-resistant peptides, however, are transported out of the cells by a basolateral peptide transporter that has not been identified molecularly ...
Genetic polymorphisms of the LMP/TAP gene coded by the HLA-II region may be associated with outcomes of HBV infection. We conducted a case-control study to test the hypothesis, including a persistent group of 155 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 36 healthy carriers, a recovered group of 165 individuals spontaneously recovered from HBV infection, and an uninfected group of 278 healthy normal controls. Genotypes of eight polymorphisms of the LMP/TAP gene were analysed by PCR-RFLP. A logistic regression model was used to analyse statistical differences in polymorphisms or haplotypes in different groups. Of the eight polymorphisms, two (TAP1 codon 637 and LMP7 codon 145) were observed to have statistically significant association with outcomes of HBV infection (P,0·05). The two-locus haplotype constructed with two such polymorphisms was analysed. The frequencies of haplotypes B (Asp-Lys), C (Gly-Gln), and D (Gly-Lys) were found to be increased significantly in the persistent group, compared to ...
In this article we demonstrate a number of findings: 1) DPP4 expression in VAT macrophages/DCs is significantly higher than that of corresponding peripheral cells; 2) VAT DCs/macrophages in human and experimental obesity (diet-induced and ob/ob) express higher levels of DPP4 compared with lean controls; 3) DPP4 expression in DCs/macrophages is directly related to the degree of insulin resistance and T-cell activation in adipose tissue; 4) DPP4 expression increases with functional maturation of DCs/macrophages; and 5) DC/macrophage-expressing DPP4 binds ADA and contributes to T-cell proliferation via modulation of adenosine concentrations.. DPP4 is widely known for its regulatory role in glycemia control through enzymatic degradation of incretin peptides (23,24). Its role in inflammation has been traditionally postulated as occurring via its enzymatic function, whereby DPP4, through its N-terminal dipeptidase activity, cleaves X-Pro or X-Ala dipeptides from numerous chemokines. This cleavage can ...
Synthetic control of peptide-based supramolecular assemblies can provide molecular cues to understand protein aggregation while also inspiring the development of novel chemical biology tools to deliver cargoes inside cells. Here we show that the trans-to-cis photoisomerization of a pendant azo-group covalent
While the main purpose of DNA is to code for proteins to be built in the cell, we know that a lot of DNA doesnt code for protein after all, such as the repeating region of the C9ORF72 gene. In healthy versions of the gene the repeated region (usually under 30 repeated units) is simply cut out of the RNA copy of the gene before the RNA is exported from the nucleus.. In C9ORF72-MND however, the repeated region is much larger - even up to a thousand repeated units and leads to a build up of the RNA repeats inside the nucleus but also, unexpectedly is made into abnormal toxic constituents in the cell cytoplasm called dipeptide repeat proteins. The discovery of dipeptide repeat proteins was puzzling to scientists as this type of non-protein coding RNA does not normally exit the nucleus to get to where protein can be made.. Dr Hautbergue and colleagues, who have developed expertise in the mechanisms of RNA nuclear export, looked to see how the pathological repeating precursor RNA molecules, that ...
Health, ...EDITORS PICK: Calpain inhibitors never forget: improving memory in Al...Overactivation of proteins known as calpains which are involved in me...It is thought that dysfunctional signaling between nerve cells contrib...TITLE: Inhibition of calpains improves memory and synaptic transmissio...,JCI,online,early,table,of,contents:,July,1,,2008,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news