Diadenosine tetraphosphate or Ap4A is a putative alarmone, ubiquitous in nature being common to everything from bacteria to humans. Adenosine polyphosphates are capable of inducing multiple physiological effects. The molecules role as a second messenger has recently been discovered in The LysRS-Ap4A-MITF signaling pathway. *Luo J, Jankowski V, Güngär N, Neumann J, Schmitz W, Zidek W, Schlüter H, Jankowski J (2004). "Endogenous diadenosine tetraphosphate, diadenosine pentaphosphate, and diadenosine hexaphosphate in human myocardial tissue". Hypertension. 43 (5): 1055-9. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.0000126110.46402.dd. PMID 15066958. *Lee YN, Nechushtan H, Figov N, Razin E (April 2004). "The function of lysyl-tRNA synthetase and Ap4A as signaling regulators of MITF activity in FcepsilonRI-activated mast cells". Immunity. 20 (2): 145-51. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(04)00020-2. PMID 14975237 ...
Diadenosine triphosphate is present in platelet-dense granules and released quantitatively on platelet aggregation. We have found that intact porcine aortic endothelial cells can efficiently hydrolyze extracellular diadenosine triphosphate. The products of diadenosine triphosphate hydrolysis are adenosine monophosphate and adenosine diphosphate. Adenosine diphosphate is a potent stimulus of platelet aggregation. Since platelet-dense granules contain high concentrations of adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate, we examined endothelial cell hydrolysis of a mixture of diadenosine triphosphate and adenosine triphosphate. We find that the presence of adenosine triphosphate severely inhibits the hydrolysis of diadenosine triphosphate. Thus, although endothelial cells can rapidly clear extracellular diadenosine triphosphate, during platelet aggregation the hydrolysis of diadenosine triphosphate may be slow due to the presence of high concentrations of other adenine nucleotides. This ...
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Staphylococcus aureus is an important opportunistic human pathogen that is highly resistant to osmotic stresses. To survive an increase in osmolarity, bacteria immediately take up potassium ions and small organic compounds known as compatible solutes. The second messenger cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) reduces the ability of bacteria to withstand osmotic stress by binding to and inhibiting several proteins that promote potassium uptake. We identified OpuCA, the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) component of an uptake system for the compatible solute carnitine, as a c-di-AMP target protein in S. aureus and found that the LAC*ΔgdpP strain of S. aureus, which overproduces c-di-AMP, showed reduced carnitine uptake. The paired cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) domains of OpuCA bound to c-di-AMP, and a crystal structure revealed a putative binding pocket for c-di-AMP in the cleft between the two CBS domains. Thus, c-di-AMP inhibits osmoprotection through multiple mechanisms. ...
Diadenosine 5′,5‴-P1,P3-triphosphate (Ap3A) and diadenosine 5′,5‴-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) induce distinctive patterns of [Ca2+]i oscillations in single rat hepatocytes. We show here that [Ca2+]i oscillations induced by Ap3A and ADP are indistinguishable and that [Ca2+]i oscillations induced by Ap4A closely resemble those induced by ATP. These similarities embrace the following: (1) ADP and Ap3A invariably induce [Ca2+]i transients of short duration (approx. 9 s). Ap4A, like ATP, can induce, depending upon the individual cell, either transients of short duration (approx. 9 s), transients of much longer duration or a mixture of short and long transients within a single response. We show here that the pattern of oscillations induced by Ap4A is similar to that induced by ATP in the same hepatocyte. (2) Elevated intracellular cyclic AMP concentration modulates Ap3A-induced transients, like ADP-induced transients, through an increase in both the peak [Ca2+]i and the frequency of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sequencing and enhanced expression of the gene encoding diadenosine 5′,5‴-P1, P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) phosphorylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Kaushal, Varsha. AU - Avila, Diana M.. AU - Hardies, Stephen C.. AU - Barnes, Larry D.. PY - 1990/10/30. Y1 - 1990/10/30. N2 - The gene, DTP, coding for diadenosine 5′, 5‴-P1, P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4P) phosphorylase was isolated from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic DNA library in λgt11. In yeast and Escherichia coli transformed with the multicopy vector, YEp352, containing the cloned DTP gene, the Ap4A phosphorylase was produced at levels nine- to 17-fold higher than in untransformed hosts. The nucleotide (nt) sequence was determined. The gene codes for a polypeptide chain of 321 amino acids (aa). Two-aa sequence motifs of possible significance were identified: a potential adenine nt binding site and a potential phosphorylation site. The DTP gene is located on yeast chromosome III and is present as a single copy. ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
In addition to the canonical ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside phosphates and cofactors, cells contain a large number of minor nucleotides. Among these are the diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA, where n = 2-7 [1]). Ap3A and Ap4A are the most intensively studied of these and are generally present in the soluble fraction of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells at concentrations between 10 nM and 5 μM [2]. Platelet dense granules, adrenal chromaffin granules and certain synaptic vesicles have been reported to contain high concentrations of Ap5A and Ap6A in addition to Ap3A and Ap4A, all of which can be exocytosed following appropriate stimuli and bind to target cell purinoceptors causing a variety of physiological responses in the cardiovascular and central and peripheral nervous systems [1, 3-5]. However, although Ap6A has been detected in erythrocytes [6], there are no substantiated measurements of Ap5A and Ap6A in the soluble fraction of nucleated cells, and it is likely that they are typically ...
Curr Protoc Nucleic Acid Chem. 2012 Mar;Chapter 14:Unit 14.8.1-7. doi: 10.1002/0471142700.nc1408s48. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Kit Component:- KN202439G1, NUDT2 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202439G2, NUDT2 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202439D, donor vector…
Couldnt detect gpg so will proceed without verification! , gpg.exe is in C:\texlive\2016\tlpkg\installer\gpg, but is not in the Should be fixed after today, hopefully ;-) Sorry. Norbert ------------------------------------------------------------------------ PREINING, Norbert http://www.preining.info JAIST, Japan TeX Live & Debian Developer GPG: 0x860CDC13 fp: F7D8 A928 26E3 16A1 9FA0 ACF0 6CAC A448 860C DC13 ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kislay Parvatiyar, Zhiqiang Zhang, Rosane M Teles, Songying Ouyang, Yan Jiang, Shankar S Iyer, Shivam A Zaver, Mirjam Schenk, Shang Zeng, Wenwan Zhong, Zhi-Jie Liu, Robert L Modlin, Yong-jun Liu, Genhong Cheng].
Bacterial second messenger cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is implicated in signaling DNA damage and cell wall stress through interactions with several protein receptors and a widespread ydaO-type riboswitch. We report the crystal structures of c-di-AMP riboswitches from Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus …
Best Polyphosphates Dealers. Find the list of best Polyphosphates suppliers & Manufacturers. Yellow Pages Directory of Polyphosphates, Polyphosphates manufacturers, Traders, and Polyphosphates, Polyphosphates Suppliers & Dealers in India.
bis(5-nucleosyl)tetraphosphatase (asymmetrical): forms a nucleoside triphosphate plus a nucleoside monophosphate; for symmetrical cleavage, see bis(5-nucleosyl)tetraphosphatase (symmetrical)
CpG islands are genome regions with an elevated Guanine + Cytosine content (GC content) and a higher CpG dinucleotide frequency than observed in the bulk genome. More than half of the human gene promoters colocalize with CpG islands and their methylation status has been shown to correlate with the expression level of the associated genes. As a consequence, CpG islands are assumed to be hotspots of epigenetic regulation.. However, an exact definition of CpG islands is still not agreed upon. The CgiHunter software tool follows the original sequence-based CpG island definition proposed by Gardiner-Garden and Frommer. They defined three requirements a genome region has to fulfill to qualify as a CpG island: a minimal length, a minimal GC content and a minimal ratio of its observed over its expected CpG dinucleotide frequency. Unlike many other heuristic-based approaches, the CgiHunter algorithm has been proven to identify all genome regions that meet a specified criteria and results in robust and ...
Vaccigrade c-di-AMP is a synthetic cyclic di-nucleotide produced by InvivoGen. It is sterile, endotoxin-free, cell-culture tested on a STING cell-based assay. c-di-AMP VacciGrade™ is suitable for preclinical studies.
Ap4A phosphorylase catalyzes the phosphorolytic degradation of bis(5-adenosyl) tetraphosphate (Ap4A) into ADP and ATP. Can also use other Np4N nucleotides (where N and N stand for A,C,G or U) as substrates with equal efficiency. Cannot catalyze the reverse reaction. Additionally, this enzyme can also catalyze the phosphorolytic degradation of adenosine 5-phosphosulfate (AMPS) into ADP and sulfate, the reversible exchange recation between inorganic phosphate and the beta-phosphate of a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP), and the synthesis of Ap4A from AMPS plus ATP.
The histidine triad (Strike) protein Hint continues to be found to associate with mammalian Cdk7 aswell concerning interact both physically and genetically using the budding yeast Cdk7 homologue Kin28. 32 Aprataxin was discovered through mapping from the gene in charge of ataxia-ocular apraxia in human beings (6 21 To time Hint is not associated with individual disease. Strike hydrolases hydrolyze uncommon adenosine nucleotides. This activity is certainly well characterized for Fhit Foretinib and its own budding fungus orthologue Hnt2 that are both diadenosine triphosphate (Ap3A) asymmetric hydrolases in vitro (1 4 17 and in vivo (5 22 28 The natural need for the hydrolase activity of Fhit/Hnt2 continues to be to become characterized as null fungus does not have any detectable phenotype (aside from the accumulation from the Ap3A substrate) and Fhit hydrolase activity amazingly will not correlate using its tumor suppressor function (29 30 Hint also possesses in vitro affinity (10) and hydrolase ...
The present invention describes terminal phosphate blocked nucleoside polyphosphates that are stable at high temperature and their use in nucleic acid amplification and analysis. Current invention further describes charge modified terminal phosphate blocked nucleoside polyphosphates for improved incorporation and direct loading of nucleic acid sequencing reactions onto separating media.
Im having some strange results with GPG. Im getting quite a few BAD signatures from people whos public keys are on my keyring and even the occasional bad signature from MYSELF. I know that there are some options that are on (or off) by default in GPG due to OpenPGP standards, but that conflict with PGP default settings. However, I dont think Ive ever seen an actual PGP signature on this list (most are GPG). Any suggestions? -Alex ...
APAH 17 April - Ahli Parlimen Bukit Gelugor, Karpal Singh maut dalam satu kemalangan ngeri di kilometer 301.6, Lebuh Raya Utara-Selatan menghala arah utara berhampiran Gua Tempurung pada kira-kira pukul 1.30 pagi ini ...
The Daily Drill Down youve linked to is no longer available, but here are several links to other good TPG Daily Drill Downs on the Windows registry.
Its not surprising KKR and TPG are looking to unload TXU, but first, they need to give the company a debt makeover if they ever expect to bail themselves out of whats become one of the most disastrous leveraged buyouts of all time. … ...
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of experimental and clinical pharmacology. Articles focusing on, but not limited to, biochemical pharmacology, drug mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenetics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology will be considered.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unprecedentedly fast hydrolysis of the RNA dinucleoside monophosphates ApA and UpU by rare earth metal ions. AU - Komiyama, Makoto. AU - Matsumura, Kazunari. AU - Matsumoto, Yoichi. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Rare earth metal(III) ions rapidly hydrolyse adenylyl(3′-5′) adenosine and uridyl(3′-5′)uridine at pH 8,30°C; the half-life of the former is 10 min with 0.01 mol dm-3 TmIII.. AB - Rare earth metal(III) ions rapidly hydrolyse adenylyl(3′-5′) adenosine and uridyl(3′-5′)uridine at pH 8,30°C; the half-life of the former is 10 min with 0.01 mol dm-3 TmIII.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=37049075459&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=37049075459&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1039/C39920000640. DO - 10.1039/C39920000640. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:37049075459. SP - 640. EP - 641. JO - Chemical Communications. JF - Chemical Communications. SN - 1359-7345. IS - 8. ER - ...
Autoimmune dysfunction of certain vasoactive neuropeptides (e.g., vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) m
ID C8W669_DESAS Unreviewed; 275 AA. AC C8W669; DT 03-NOV-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 03-NOV-2009, sequence version 1. DT 16-JAN-2019, entry version 48. DE RecName: Full=Diadenylate cyclase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_01499}; DE Short=DAC {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_01499}; DE EC=2.7.7.85 {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_01499}; DE AltName: Full=Cyclic-di-AMP synthase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_01499}; DE Short=c-di-AMP synthase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_01499}; GN Name=dacA {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_01499}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Dtox_0604 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACV61524.1}; OS Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans (strain ATCC 49208 / DSM 771 / VKM OS B-1644) (Desulfofarcimen acetoxidans). OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Peptococcaceae; OC Desulfofarcimen. OX NCBI_TaxID=485916 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACV61524.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002217}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACV61524.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002217} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC 49208 ...
Polyphosphates are salts or esters of polymeric oxyanions formed from tetrahedral PO4 (phosphate) structural units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms. Polyphosphates can adopt linear or a cyclic ring structures. In biology, the polyphosphate esters ADP and ATP are involved in energy storage. A variety of polyphosphates find application in mineral sequestration in municipal waters, generally being present at 1 to 5 ppm. GTP, CTP, and UTP are also nucleotides important in the protein synthesis, lipid synthesis, and carbohydrate metabolism, respectively. Structure of triphosphoric acid Polyphosphoric acid Cyclic trimetaphosphate Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) The structure of tripolyphosphoric acid illustrates the principles which define the structures of polyphosphates. It consists of three tetrahedral PO4 units linked together by sharing oxygen centres. For the linear chains, the end phosphorus groups share one oxide and the others phosphorus centres share two oxide centres. The corresponding ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0A0H3GM48 (DACA_LISM4), Diadenylate cyclase. Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a (strain 10403S)
Previously, the in vitro production of mRNA was limited in yield and translational activity by the co-transcriptional capping method using cap analog.The presence of dinucleotide cap analog in the transcription reaction mix greatly decreases the mRNA yields and inhibits translation when non-incorporated dinucleotide analogs are not carefully removed. Instead of using a costly and inefficiently incorporated nucleotide cap analog, the C3P3® mRNA Production System uses a virus-derived capping enzyme physically coupled to the RNA polymerase to add the cap at high efficiency capping - versus 80% for other systems using standard m7GpppG cap analog or anti-reverse cap analog (ARCA) and 100% proper cap orientation. The standard cap analog (m7GpppG) used in co-transcriptional reactions can be incorporated in the reverse orientation (33-50% of the time) which is not translated in the cell, thereby decreasing the amount of protein produced per microgram of transfected mRNA.. Simultaneously, the capped ...
AbstractProcedures are proposed for the naming of individual atoms, P, O, F, N, and S in phosphate esters, amidates, thiophosphates, polyphosphates, their mimics, and analogues of transition states for enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer reactions. Their purpose is to enable scientists in very different fields, e.g. biochemistry, biophysics, chemistry, computational chemistry, crystallography, and molecular biology, to share standard protocols for the labelling of individual atoms in complex molecules. This will facilitate clear and unambiguous descriptions of structural results, as well as scientific intercommunication concerning them. At the present time, perusal of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and other sources shows that there is a limited degree of commonality in nomenclature, but a large measure of irregularity in more complex structures. The recommendations described here adhere to established practice as closely as possible, in particular to IUPAC and IUBMB recommendations and to
Hin CpG dinucleotides has been related with a lot of biological functions. For example, methylation plays a important part in genomic imprinting, JNJ16259685 X
Review of the effect of CpG dinucleotide on the immune response and the gene silencing of gene delivery vectors for gene therapy applications. Bacterial DNA is rich in unmethylated 2-deoxyribo (cytidine-phosphateguanosine) (CpG) dinucleotides, in contrast to mammalian DNA which contains a low frequency of CpG dinucleotides that are mostly methylated. Unmethylated CpGs in specific sequence contexts activate the vertebrate immune system. Genes with these sequences are recognized as foreign DNA by the vertebrate host leading to a progressive decline of their expression.
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Dinucleoside phosphorodithioate phosphoramidite precursors useful in the synthesis of oligonucleotide phosphorodithioate which can be used as antisense inhibitors of translation.
Asociația Pacienților cu Afecțiuni Hepatice din România (APAH-RO) a făcut apel, în numeroase rânduri, la grăbirea formalităților pentru reluarea cât mai rapidă a programului fără interferon pentru pacienții diagnosticați cu hepatita C. Faptul că există o pauză între cele două contracte cost-volum-rezultat, aferente programului, a devenit oficial odată cu finalizarea la 31 august 2019 a vechiului contract. La ora actuală, din informațiile pe care le avem, autoritățile se află în perioada de soluționare a contestațiilor primite din partea companiilor și abia apoi se va da startul oficial al negocierilor.. APAH-RO speră la un nivel cât mai înalt de responsabilitate, atât din partea autorităților, cât și a companiilor participante, pentru ca această discontinuitate să nu se prelungească mai mult de 30 de zile.. "Din păcate, am anticipat aceast perioadă de pauză, dar sperăm ca lucrurile să fie rezolvate în termene mai scurte decât cele oficiale pentru ...
Ive had several timeslips as well, involving repetition of entire days, people Ive thought were dead but are alive (or vice versa), strange memories of otherwise familiar places being arranged differently, places that have simply disappeared off the map without anyone knowing they ever existed (one example was a McDonalds I sometimes went to during my highschool days in the CBD, it was down a flight of stairs, drenched in the kind of blue light that people put on alleyways to make junkies not shoot up, or whatever. I stopped going there for a couple of years, then one day I brought it up again to my friend who used to accompany me in skipping school to get cheeseburgers, and he had no idea what I was talking about. No-one did). Ive also had people disappear with no mutual acquaintance seeming to remember them at all ...
Cons. The SF Office is a fashion show. If you are an EA with a family, they look down on you. You are of more value when you are young and fresh or older with older children that need less attention. They work you long hours and through lunch, so have it catered daily, but with no breaks. Its like a cattle call when its lunch time. They also pile work on you and dont ask how you are doing, and will continue until you go under with no remorse. Very cold environment. Not a great place for work/life balance. ...
Revenue Marketing™ consulting firm, The Pedowitz Group (TPG), announces its inclusion in the 2017 B2B US Agencies Benchmarking Report. TPG is ranked #12 out of
Adenylation domains of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) catalyse the formation of aminoacyl adenylates, and in addition synthesize mono- and dinucleoside polyphosphates. Here, we show that NRPS systems furthermore contain an ATPase activity in the range of up to 2 P(i)/min. The hydrolysis rate by apo-tyrocidine synthetase 1 (apo-TY1) is enhanced in the presence of non-cognate amino acid substrates, correlating well with their structural features and the diminishing adenylation efficiency. A comparative analysis of the functional relevance of an analogous sequence motif in P-type ATPases and adenylate kinases (AK) allowed a putative assignment of the invariant aspartate residue from the TGDLA(V)R(K) core sequence in NRPS as the Mg(2+) binding site. Less pronounced variations in ATPase activity are observed in domains with relaxed amino acid specificity of gramicidin S synthetase 2 (GS2) and delta-(L-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS), known to produce a set of ...
The human fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene encodes a protein that is involved in purine metabolism. Aberrant transcripts from this gene, typically from carcinogen-induced damage and translocations, have been found in about half of all esophageal, stomach, and colon carcinomas. Although the exact function of human FHIT protein is not known, animal studies have demonstrated its role as a tumor suppressor in breast and lung cancers. FHIT protein is also known as bis(5-adenosyl)-triphosphatase, diadenosine 5,5-P1,P3-triphosphate hydrolase, AP3A hydrolase, AP3Aase, dinucleosidetriphosphatase, and FRA3B.. ...
The human fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene encodes a protein that is involved in purine metabolism. Aberrant transcripts from this gene, typically from carcinogen-induced damage and translocations, have been found in about half of all esophageal, stomach, and colon carcinomas. Although the exact function of human FHIT protein is not known, animal studies have demonstrated its role as a tumor suppressor in breast and lung cancers. FHIT protein is also known as bis(5-adenosyl)-triphosphatase, diadenosine 5,5-P1,P3-triphosphate hydrolase, AP3A hydrolase, AP3Aase, dinucleosidetriphosphatase, and FRA3B.. ...
The genome of Bacillus cereus contains 26 Nudix hydrolase genes, second only to its closest relative, Bacillus anthracis which has 30. All 26 genes have been cloned, 25 have been expressed, and 21 produced soluble proteins suitable for analysis. Substrates for 16 of the enzymes were identified; these included ADP-ribose, diadenosine polyphosphates, sugar nucleotides, and deoxynucleoside triphosphates. One of the enzymes was a CDP-choline pyrophosphatase, the first Nudix hydrolase active on this substrate. Furthermore, as a result of this and previous work we have identified a new sub-family of the Nudix hydrolase superfamily recognizable by a specific amino acid motif outside of the Nudix box.
In the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the checkpoint protein DisA (DNA integrity scanning protein A) scans the bacterial chromosome at the onset of sporulation; it localizes at sites of DNA damage to temporarily block sporulation and allow the bacterium to repair the damage before proceeding. Witte et al. performed structural analysis of Thermotoga maritima DisA and determined that it formed an octameric complex; intriguingly, they found bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) bound to the purified complex. When nucleotide-deprived DisA was crystallized in the presence of Mg2+-ATPγS, the crystals were again bound to c-di-AMP, indicating that DisA could act as a diadenylate cyclase. c-di-GMP is known to act as a signaling molecule in bacteria; however, fluorescence anisotropy titration analysis revealed that the binding affinity of fluorescently labeled ATP for both T. maritima and B. subtilis DisA was about 20 times greater than that of fluorescently labeled GTP. ...
Methylated/Non-methylated Control DNA & Primer Set DNA ZD5101-2 Methylated/Non-methylated Control DNA & Primer Set DNA ZD5101-2
TPG Growth, the mid-market and growth equity platform of alternatives major TPG, is looking to step up its investments in the Indian healthcare sector after closing a Rs 150 crore or $23.6 million investment to buy a stake in Bangalore-based Sutures India Pvt Ltd.
This report is a comprehensive research of phosphites, phosphates and polyphosphates market in Hong Kong. The report starts with giving brief country profile