Background The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum typically produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, which are known only from cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. While a PSP toxin gene cluster has recently been characterized in cyanobacteria, the genetic background of PSP toxin production in dinoflagellates remains elusive. Results We constructed and analysed an expressed sequence tag (EST) library of A. minutum, which contained 15,703 read sequences yielding a total of 4,320 unique expressed clusters. Of these clusters, 72% combined the forward-and reverse reads of at least one bacterial clone. This sequence resource was then used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray. We analysed the expression of all clusters in three different strains. While the cyanobacterial PSP toxin genes were not found among the A. minutum sequences, 192 genes were differentially expressed between toxic and non-toxic strains. Conclusions Based on this study and on the lack of identified PSP synthesis ...
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The incidence and known distribution of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) have both increased dramatically in recent decades. A concurrent rise in bloom frequency and geographic range of PSP toxin-producing Alexandrium dinoflagellates explains the increase in PSP, but the reasons for changes in Alexandrium occurrence are unknown. This thesis explores the phylogeny, taxonomy, and biogeography of Alexandrium in light of this recent expansion. Alexandrium phylogeny was reconstructed through rDNA sequence analysis and compared to traditional morphological taxonomy. Alexandrium split into two groups, termed the α and ß clades. Interspecific relationships did not correlate with the morphological traits traditionally used to identify and group species, although other traits appeared phylogenetic ally conserved. The ability to produce toxins has been acquired and/or lost multiple times during Alexandrium evolution. Because most PSP events are caused by either the tamarensis or minutum complexes, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Singlet and triplet energy transfer in the peridinin-chlorophyll a protein from Amphidinium carterae. AU - Bautista, James A.. AU - Hiller, RG. AU - Sharples, FP. AU - Gosztola, David. AU - Wasielewski, Michael R.. AU - Frank, Harry A.. PY - 1999/4/8. Y1 - 1999/4/8. N2 - The spectroscopic properties of peridinin in solution, and the efficiency and dynamics of energy transfer from peridinin to chlorophyll a in the peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP) from Amphidinium carterae, were studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence, fluorescence excitation, and fast transient optical spectroscopy. Steady-state measurements of singlet energy transfer from peridinin to chlorophyll revealed an 88 +/- 2% efficiency. Fast-transient absorption experiments showed that the excited S-1 state of peridinin decayed in 13.4 +/- 0.6 ps in methanol and 3.1 +/- 0.3 ps in the PCP complex after direct excitation of the carotenoid. The onset of the bleaching of the chlorophyll absorption band at 672 ...
Dinoflagellates are ubiquitous marine and freshwater protists. The endosymbiotic relationship between dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium (also known as zooxanthellae) and corals forms the basis of coral reefs. We constructed and analyzed a cDNA library from a cultured Symbiodinium species clade A (CassKB8). The majority of annotated ESTs from the Symbiodinium sp. CassKB8 library cover metabolic genes. Most of those belong to either carbohydrate or energy metabolism. In addition, components of extracellular signal transduction pathways and genes that play a role in cell-cell communication were identified. In a subsequent analysis, we determined all orthologous cDNA sequences between this library (1,484 unique sequences) and a library from a Symbiodinium species clade C (C3) (3,336 unique sequences) that was isolated directly from its symbiotic host. A set of 115 orthologs were identified between Symbiodinium sp. CassKB8 and Symbiodinium sp. C3. These orthologs were subdivided into three ...
Amphidinium carterae PsbE protein: involved in RNA editing; isolated from Amphidinium carterae; amino acid sequence in first source
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Development of Real-time Instrumentation for the Robotic Detection of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) Toxins in Massachusetts Coastal Waters. The coastal waters of New England are subject to recurrent outbreaks of Paralytic Shellfish Poisonings (PSP) caused by the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense. Economic impacts are significant - i.e., the losses from a single red tide in 2005 cost the Massachusetts Shellfish Industry $50M. To aid in the elucidation of bloom dynamics of harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, including the toxic dinoflagellate A. fundyense, a novel instrument known as the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) was developed to quantitate real-time in situ cell abundances. Here we propose a study that will develop instrumentation to be incorporated into the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) to provide real-time, in situ data on the PSP toxicity of A. fundyense within the Nauset Marsh System (NMS), a critical part of the Cape Cod National Seashore that experiences ...
Ceratium species are easily identifiable because of their unique shape. They are covered with an armor-like cell wall, made out of polysaccharidel. The most distinguishing characteristic are the arms (also known as horns), the shape and size of which vary from species to species. Ceratium monoceras has a single, apical horn. The arms help Ceratium float, but prevent them from moving very quickly. Ceratium contain peridium. Another important feature is that they contain small plasmids (minicircles). Ceratium have two flagella. These wind around the cell body. The flagella each have different movements and shapes. The transverse flagellum beats in a spiral motion, while the longitudinal flagellum pulses in waves. Most Ceratium species also contain chloroplasts. Certain species are bioluminescent. Under adverse conditions, Ceratium are able to encyst themselves as a form of protection. Ceratium are mixotrophs, obtaining food both through photosyntheis and phagocytosis. Asexual reproduction is most ...
This study shows that the maximum nitrate uptake rates (Vmax) and half saturation constants for nitrate uptake (Ks-NO3) of P. micans at 20 μE m−2 s−1 measured using the nutrient repletion method are similar to those measured using the nutrient depletion method. Thus, the new repletion method of measuring the nitrate uptake rate and Ks-NO3 using cells maintained under a nitrate repletion condition gives results similar to that using cells maintained under a nitrate depletion condition. However, the Vmax of P. micans originally maintained under nitrate repletion at 50 μE m−2 s−1 obtained in this study (7.49 pM cell−1 d−1, equivalent to 21 × 10−3 h−1) is much lower than that at 56-63 μE m−2 s−1 under nutrient depletion (113 pM cell−1 d−1, equivalent to 319 × 10−3 h−1) as observed by Qi and Zhu (1994), while the Ks-NO3 of P. micans originally under nitrate repletion at 50 μE m−2 s−1 in this study was greater than that at 56-63 μE m−2 s−1. Qi and Zhu (1994) ...
Symbiotic dinoflagellates are unicellular photosynthetic algae that live in mutualistic symbioses with many marine organisms. Within the transcriptome of coral endosymbionts Symbiodinium sp. (type C3), we discovered the sequences of two novel and highly polymorphic hemoglobin-like genes and proposed their 3D protein structures. At the protein level, four isoforms shared between 87 and 97% sequence identity for Hb-1 and 78-99% for Hb-2, whereas between Hb-1 and Hb-2 proteins, only 15-21% sequence homology has been preserved. Phylogenetic analyses of the dinoflagellate encoding Hb sequences have revealed a separate evolutionary origin of the discovered globin genes and indicated the possibility of horizontal gene transfer. Transcriptional regulation of the Hb-like genes was studied in the reef-building coral Acropora aspera exposed to elevated temperatures (6-7°C above average sea temperature) over a 24-h period and a 72-h period, as well as to nutrient stress. Exposure to elevated temperatures resulted
Crystal structure of the soluble peridinin-chlorophyll-protein complex from the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae. This complex is found in many photosynthetic dinoflagellates and involves a boat or cradle-shaped protein with two pseudosymmetrical repeats of eight alpha helices (shown in blue and orange) wrapped around a pigment-filled central cavity. Each eight-helix segment binds one chlorophyll molecule (green, with central magnesium ion shown as a green sphere), one diacylglycerol molecule (yellow) and four peridinin molecules (gray).[2] ...
The research presented in this thesis is focused on how carotenoids protect the photosynthetic apparatus by quenching chlorophyll (Chl) triplet states before they can sensitize the formation of the highly reactive ¹Δg* excited singlet state of oxygen. Nanosecond time-resolved flash-transient optical spectroscopy was used to evaluate the effect of structural modifications and environment on the triplet state photophysics of peridinin in solution and in the peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP) from the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae. A series of peridinin analogues with increasing π-electron chain length and with different functionalities were studied in various solvents using Chl a as a triplet state donor. Measurements were also performed on native and reconstituted PCP complexes containing peridinin and various Chls. The data indicate that Chl triplet state trapping and hence, photoprotection of the PCP complexes, is accomplished via a delocalized triplet state involving both the bound
Jaeckisch, N. , Singh, R. , Curtis, B. , Cembella, A. and John, U. (2008): Genomic characterization of the spirolide-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii with special emphasis on PKS genes , Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Harmful Algae, Ed. Moestrup, O. et al., ISSHA and IOC-UNESCO, Copenhagen, Denmark ...
To better understand the effect of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) accumulation in the digestive gland of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, we experimentally exposed individual oysters for 48 h to a PSTs producer, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. In comparison to the effect of the non-toxic Alexandrium tamarense, on the eight apoptotic related genes tested, Bax and BI.1 were significantly upregulated in oysters exposed 48 h to A. catenella. Among the five detoxification related genes tested, the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) was shown to be correlated with toxin concentration in the digestive gland of oysters exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate. Beside this, we observed a significant increase in ROS production, a decrease in caspase-3/7 activity and normal percentage of apoptotic cells in this tissue. Taken together, these results suggest a feedback mechanism, which may occur in the digestive gland where BI.1 could play a key role in preventing the induction of apoptosis by PSTs.
Cachon, J. 1964. Contribution a létude des Péridinies parasites. Cytologie, cycles évolutifs. Ann. Sci. Nat., 12 ser. 6: 1-158.. Cachon, J. & Cachon, M. 1987. Parasitic dinoflagellates. In Taylor, F. J. R. (Ed.). Biology of dinoflagellates. Blackwell, New York. pp. 571-610. Coats, D. W., Adam, E. J., Gallegos, C. L. & Hedrick, S. 1996. Parasitism of photosynthetic dinoflagellates in a shallow subestuary of Chesapeake Bay, USA. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 11: 1-9.. Fritz, L. & Nass, M. 1992. Development of the endoparasitic dinoflagellate Amoebophrya ceratii within host dinoflagellate species. J. Phycol. 28: 312-320.. Taylor, F. J. R. 1968. Parasitism of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Gonyaulax catenella by the endoparasitic dinoflagellate Amoebophrya ceratii. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 25: 2241-2245.. ...
Bérard-Therriault, L., Poulin, M. & Bossé, L. (1999). Guide didentification du phytoplancton marin de lestuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent incluant également certains protozoaires. Publication Spéciale Canadienne des Sciences Halieutiques et Aquatiques 128: 1-387.. Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303, 35 figs, pls I-VIII. London: Her Majestys Stationery Office.. Dodge, J.D. (1985). Atlas of dinoflagellates. A scanning electron microscope survey. pp. [i]-vii, [1]-119. Farrand Press.. Gómez, F., Moreira, D. & López-Garcia, P. (2010). Neoceratium gen. nov., a new genus for all marine species currently assigned to Ceratium (Dinophyceae). Protist 161: 35-54.. Lin Yongshi [Lin, Y.S.] (2009). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus VI Pyrrophyta No. I Dinophyceae Ceratiaceae. pp. [i]-xx, 1-93, pls I-XVIII. Beijing: Science Press.. McDermott, G. & Raine, R. (2006). The dinoflagellate genus Ceratium in Irish shelf seas. pp. [viii] + 1-86, 31 figs. Galway: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Do introduced endosymbiotic dinoflagellates take to new hosts?. AU - Lajeunesse, Todd C.. AU - Loh, William. AU - Trench, Robert K.. PY - 2009/4/1. Y1 - 2009/4/1. N2 - In a recent communication by Stat and Gates (Biol Invasions 10: 579-583, 2008), discovery of a symbiotic combination involving the coral Acropora cytherea and the dinoflagellate endosymbiont, Symbiodinium A1 (Symbiodinium microadriaticum, Freudenthal sensu stricto) in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands was interpreted to be the result of a recent introduction. While introductions of symbiotic dinoflagellates have occurred and are occurring, the authors conclusion was made without sufficient information about the geographic range and host specificity exhibited by A1. The only direct genetic analysis of symbionts from the putative host vector, a jellyfish in the genus Cassiopeia sp., from Kaneohe Bay on the Island of Oahu, found that it contained a different symbiont species, A3. Furthermore, Stat and Gates (Biol ...
Unicellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium are the most common endosymbionts of reef-building scleractinian corals, living in a symbiotic partnership known to be highly susceptible to environmental changes such as hyperthermic stress. In this study, we identified members of two major heat shock proteins (HSPs) families, Hsp70 and Hsp90, in Symbiodinium sp. (clade C) with full-length sequences that showed the highest similarity and evolutionary relationship with other known HSPs from dinoflagellate protists. Regulation of HSPs gene expression was examined in samples of the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora subjected to elevated temperatures progressively over 18 h (fast) and 120 h (gradual thermal stress). Moderate to severe heat stress at 26°C and 29°C (+3°C and +6°C above average sea temperature) resulted in an increase in algal Hsp70 gene expression from 39% to 57%, while extreme heat stress (+9°C) reduced Hsp70 transcript abundance by 60% (after 18 h) and 70%
Dinoflagellates are one of the last major lineages of eukaryotes for which little is known about genome structure and organization. We report here the sequence and gene structure of a clone isolated from a cosmid library which, to our knowledge, represents the largest contiguously sequenced dinoflagellate genomic tandem gene array. These data, combined with information from a large transcriptomic library, allowed a high level of confidence of every base pair call. This degree of confidence is not possible with PCR-based contigs. The sequence contains an intron-rich set of five highly-expressed gene repeats arranged in tandem. One of the tandem repeat gene members contains an intron 26,372 bp long. This study characterizes a splice-site consensus sequence for dinoflagellate introns. Two to nine base pairs around the 3 splice site are repeated by an identical two to nine base pairs around the 5 splice site. The 5 and 3 splice sites are in the same locations within each repeat so that the ...
The number of cingular plates has been used to differentiate Protoperidinium from Peridinium and related genera. Protoperidinium is characterized by the presence of three cingular plates plus a transitional plate (3C+t). However, many Protoperidinium species have been described that exhibit different cingular plate tabulations. How these species should be classified within the genus remains unclear. To address this question, the phylogenetic relationship of four Protoperidinium species, with three or four cingular plates and lacking a transitional plate, were examined in relationship to other Protoperidinium species. These four species were germinated from cysts deposited in surface sediments collected from the East China Sea, the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. Three of the isolated species, P. tricingulatum, P. americanum and P. parthenopes, were described previously. The fourth is here described as P. haizhouense sp. nov. with the plate formula Po, X, 4′, 3a, 7′′, 3C, 6S, 5′′′, ...
Environmental conditions regulate the germination of phytoplankton resting stages. While some factors lead to synchronous germination, others stimulate germination of only a small fraction of the resting stages. This suggests that habitat filters may act on the germination level and thus affect selection of blooming strains. Benthic seed banks of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea are genetically and phenotypically diverse, indicating a high potential for adaptation by selection on standing genetic variation. Here, we experimentally tested the role of climate-related salinity and temperature as selection filters during germination and subsequent establishment of A. ostenfeldii strains. A representative resting cyst population was isolated from sediment samples, and germination and reciprocal transplantation experiments were carried out, including four treatments: Average present day germination conditions and three potential future conditions: high ...
Habitat bias Differences between marine and freshwater species Most dinoflagellate species inhabit marine waters and only 17% of the described species are found in freshwater environments. The freshwater dinoflagellates are highly dominated by plastid-containing species (88%), while in marine environments there is a slight dominance of heterotrophic species (58%) (Gómez 2012b). Consequently, it is easier to establish cultures and to obtain sequences of freshwater species. Overall, the freshwater habitats are usually more accessible and require fewer infrastructures for sampling when compared to open ocean areas. For these reasons, we can expect a higher representation of the freshwater species in the nucleotide databases. However, the percentage of sequenced freshwater species (13%) was lower than for the marine species (22%, Table 1). In part, the marine species are favored by interest in the marine harmful algal blooms (Alexandrium, Dinophysis, Gambierdiscus, etc.). However, the low ...
Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are best known as endosymbionts of corals and other invertebrate as well as protist hosts, but also exist free-living in coastal environments. Despite their importance in marine ecosystems, less than 10 loci have been used to explore phylogenetic relationships in this group, and only the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 have been used to characterize fine-scale genetic diversity within the nine clades (A-I) that comprise the genus. Here, we describe a three-step molecular approach focused on 1) identifying new candidate genes for phylogenetic analysis of Symbiodinium spp., 2) characterizing the phylogenetic relationship of these candidate genes from DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A-H), and 3) conducting in-depth phylogenetic analyses of candidate genes displaying genetic divergences equal or higher than those within the ITS-2 of Symbiodinium clade C. To this end, we used bioinformatics tools ...
Two morphologically distinct species of free-swimming dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Gyrodinium utilize the spine and rhizopodial environments of planktonic foraminifera and colonial radiolaria as microhabitats. Up to 84% of the sarcodines examined in a given population were associated with these dinoflagellates at densities up to 20,000 cells per sarcodine in some radiolarian colonies. Both dinoflagellate species possess chloroplasts, indicating they are capable of autotrophy. C-14-labelling experiments with the radiolarian-associated dinoflagellate demonstrate that it can take up inorganic carbon under both light and dark conditions. Ultrastructural evidence suggests the foraminiferal dinoflagellate may be capable of phagotrophy. Hence, these algae should be considered mixotrophs. An unusual cytoplasmic extension used for attachment and possibly feeding occurs in the foraminiferal-associated Gyrodinium and is documented with electron microscopy. Ultrastructural examination suggests ...
McCoy, G.R., Raine, R., Medlin, L., Chen, J., Kooistra, W., Barra, L., Ruggiero, M.V., Graneli, E., Hagström, J.A., Salomon, P.S., Reguera, B., Rodríguez, F., Escalera, L., Edvardsen, B., Dittami, S.M., Eikrem, W., Lewis, J., Berzano, M., Elliott, C.T., Campbell, K. and Pazos, Y. 2013. Field testing for toxic algae with a microarray: initial results from the MIDTAL project. Pagou, P. and Hallegraeff, G. (ed.) 14th International Conference on Harmful Algae. Hersonissos, Crete-Greece 01 - 05 Nov 2010 International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. MIDTAL (Microarrays for the Detection of Toxic Algae) ...
Alexandrium are toxic organsims. They live in marine environments, mainly in costal regions. They are also associated with high-nitrogen environments. Alexandrium tamarense is noted for its ability to adapt to changes in the amount of nitrogen in its environment. Some species of Alexandrium are colonial organisms. For example, Alexandrium catenella is a catenate (chain-forming) organism. Alexandrium produce paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PST). PSTs are neurotoxins. They inhibit transmisison of nerve impulses by blocking sodium channels. PSTs are extremely dangerous humans if they consume contaminated fish. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) can be fatal. While not all strains and species are harmful, many can have serious consequences on animal health. In addition to PSP, Alexandrium cause the infamous red tides. The most severe red tide outbreak occured in 1972. However, the summer of 2005 yielded another extremely severe outbreak. Although algal blooms are natural, they have increased ...
A luciferase from dinoflagelates such as Gonyaulax polyedra, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Noctiluca scintillans, and Pyrocystis lunula. It is a single protein with three luci
article{58abc87d-16f3-45aa-82de-b3ab1d2a2b48, abstract = {Cell abundances and distributions of Alexandrium catenella resting cysts in recent sediments were studied along time at two locations in the Chilean Inland Sea exposed to different oceanographic conditions: Low Bay, which is much more open to the ocean than the more interior and protected Ovalada Island. The bloom began in interior areas but maximum cyst concentrations were recorded in locations more open to the ocean, at the end of the Moraleda channel. Our results showed a time lapse of around 3 months from the bloom peak (planktonic population) until the number of resting cysts in the sediments reached a maximum. Three months later, less than 10% of the A. catenella cysts remained in the sediments. Maximum cyst numbers in the water column occurred one month after the planktonic peak, when no cells were present. The dinoflagellate assemblage at both study sites was dominated by heterotrophic cysts, except during the A. catenella bloom. ...
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2019). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Karlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen, 2000. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=233037 on 2019-12-05 ...
Guiry, Michael D. (2015). Karlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen, 2000. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2017). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=233037 on 2017-12- ...
Water, Nonfat Milk Maltodextrin, Lactose, Whey Protein Concentrate High Oleic Vegetable Oil (sunflower And/or Safflower Oil), Soy Oil, Medium Chain Triglycerides (mct Oil), Coconut Oil, And Less Than 0.5%: Mortierella Alpina Oil*, Crypthecodinium Cohnii Oil**, Mono- And Diglycerides, Soy Lecithin, Carrageenan, Vitamin A Palmitate, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E Acetate, Vitamin K1, Thiamin Hydrochloride, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6 Hydrochloride, Vitamin B12, Niacinamide, Folic Acid, Calcium Pantothenate, Biotin, Sodium Ascorbate, Ascorbic Acid, Choline Chloride Inositol, Calcium Chloride, Calcium Citrate Calcium Hydroxide, Calcium Phosphate, Magnesium Chloride, Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate Cupric Sulfate, Potassium Iodide, Sodium Selenite, Sodium Citrate, Potassium Citrate, Taurine, L-carnitine, Nucleotides (adenosine 5-monophosphate, Cytidine 5-monophosphate Disodium Guanosine 5-monophosphate, Disodium Uridine 5-monophosphate). *a Source Of Arachidonic Acid (ara). **a Source Of ...
Corn Syrup, Soy Protein Isolate, Palm Olein, Coconut Oil, Soy Oil, High Oleic (safflower Or Sunflower) Oil, And Less Than 2%: Mortierella Alpina Oil*, Crypthecodinium Cohnii Oil**, Vitamin A Palmitate, Beta-carotene, Vitamin D (cholecalciferol), Vitamin E (dl-alpha Tocopheryl Acetate), Mixed Tocopherol Concentrate, Vitamin K (phytonadione), Ascorbyl Palmitate, Thiamin Hydrochloride, Riboflavin, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Cyanocobalamin, Niacinamide, Folic Acid, Calcium Pantothenate, Biotin, Ascorbic Acid, Choline Bitartrate, Inositol, Calcium Carbonate, Calcium Phosphate, Magnesium Chloride, Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Cupric Sulfate, Potassium Bicarbonate, Potassium Chloride, Potassium Citrate, Potassium Hydroxide, Potassium Iodide, Sodium Citrate, Sodium Selenite, Tribasic Calcium Phosphate, Taurine, L-carnitine, L-methionine, Monoglycerides, Soy Lecithin.. ...
Makes 65, 4oz bottles. Ingredients:. Nonfat Milk, Lactose, Vegetable Oils (Palm Olein, Soy, Coconut, High Oleic [Safflower or Sunflower] Oil), Whey Protein Concentrate Galactooligosaccharides, Less than 1%: Mortierella Alpina Oil*, Crypthecodinium Cohnii Oil**, Fructooligosaccharides, Soy Lecithin, Vitamin A Palmitate, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E Acetate, Vitamin K1, Thiamine Hydrochloride, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6 Hydrochloride, Vitamin B12, Niacinamide, Folic Acid, Calcium Pantothenate, Biotin, Ascorbic Acid, Choline Chloride, Inositol, Calcium Carbonate, Calcium Chloride, Calcium Hydroxide, Magnesium Chloride, Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Cupric Sulfate, Potassium Bicarbonate, Potassium Iodide, Potassium Hydroxine, Potassium Phosphate, Sodium Selenite, Sodium Citrate, Taurine, L-Carnitine, Beta-Carotene, Mixed Tocopherol Concentrate, Ascorbyl Palmitate, Monoglycerides, Nucleotides (Adenosine-5′-Monophosphate, Cytidine-5′-Monophosphate, Disodium Guanosine-5′-Monophosphate, ...
In this study we have investigated whether the carbon isotopic signature differs between different groups and species of marine phytoplankton depending on growth phase, nutrient conditions and salinity. The 15 investigated algal species, representing the Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae and Haptophyceae classes were grown in batch monocultures and analysed for delta(13)C in both exponential and stationary phase. For all the cultured species, delta(13)C signatures ranged from -23.5 parts per thousand (Imantonia sp.) to - 12.3 parts per thousand (Nodulania spumigena) in the exponential phase and from - 18.8 parts per thousand (Amphidinium carterae) to - 8.0 parts per thousand (Anabaena lemmermannii) in the stationary phase. Three species (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Rhodomonas sp.. Heterocapsa triquetra) were also grown under nutrient sufficient and nitrogen or phosphorus deficient conditions. Nitrogen limitation resulted in a more negative delta(13)C ...
Yuji Tomaru* and Keizo Nagasaki National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, 2-17-5 Maruishi, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima 739-0452, Japan (Received 27 March 2006; in revised form 11 October 2006; accepted 23 October 2006) Abstract: Sample preparation protocols for flow cytometry (FCM) analysis with five algal viruses were optimized: Heterocapsa circularisquama virus (HcV), Heterosigma akashiwo virus (HaV), Chaetoceros salsugineum nuclear inclusion virus (CsNIV), Rhizosolenia setigera RNA virus (RsRNAV) and H. circularisquama RNA virus (HcRNAV). The optimum staining protocols differed significantly among the viruses tested. FCM counts for the large DNA algal viruses HaV and HcV (~0.2 μm in diameter) were similar to numbers determined by epifluorescence microscopy (EFM). In contrast, FCM counts of viruses smaller than 40 nm that harbor DNA (CsNIV) or RNA genomes (RsRNAV, HcRNAV) were comparable to or lower than most probable number (MPN) values, which indicate only ...
The ability of microalgae to preserve viable in coastal sediments as resting forms provides a reservoir of biodiversity and a useful tool to determine species spreadings. This study represents the first port baseline survey on dinoflagellate cysts, investigated in nine Adriatic ports during a cross border project. 40 dinoflagellate taxa were detected. The assemblages resulted in all ports dominated by Lingulodinium polyedra and Alexandrium minutum/affine/tamutum group. General separation to the western and eastern side of the Adriatic regarding cysts assemblage composition, partially abundance, was observed. Seven taxa were detected as non-indigenous species for the Adriatic. Two taxa are included in the list of harmful aquatic organisms, indicating the potential threat of ballast waters in the Adriatic. Potential spreading of taxa by general circulation and ballast waters, intra- and extra-Adriatic was investigated. The entering in to force of the ballast waters management regulations should ...
Phytoplankton have adapted to survive in the variable and heterogeneous environment that is characteristic of lakes in temperate regions. One strategy for survival during periods unfavorable for growth is to form resting propagules. Dinoflagellates are bloom-forming phytoplankton which have the ability to form resistant and long-lived resting cysts. The role of cysts in the ecology and life history of dinoflagellates was investigated in this thesis. First, it was tested whether cysts have the ability to assimilate phosphorus (P) during dormancy, which could improve the survival of newly germinated cells when returning to the water column. Secondly, the role of resting cysts in regulating the seasonal succession of dinoflagellates in Lake Erken was examined. Also. biotic and abiotic factorscontrolling the timing of germination were tested.. Cysts of the marine dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea which were incubated in P enriched medium attained a P content twice that of cysts incubated in P ...
The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi is highly prevalent in juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, along the eastern seaboard of the USA. Although the parasite is known to kill adult crabs, the mortality rate of naturally infected juvenile crabs remains unknown. We analyzed the influence of temperature and salinity on the mortality of recently recruited blue crab that were naturally infected with H. perezi. Over 492 juvenile crabs (infected, n=282; uninfected controls, n=210) were held individually in six-well plates and held at six temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C) or three salinities (5, 15, and 30 psu) for a maximum of 90 days ...
Dinoflagellates are a major cause of harmful algal blooms, with consequences for coastal marine ecosystem functioning and services. Representatives of Alexandrium tamarense species complex are of the most abundant and widespread toxigenic species, and produces paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins as well as allelochemical substances. This species complex consists of four to five species. The debate of the separation of this complex into real species in long on going and here a concept for the divorce of this group will be proposed. Problems with identification of a toxic member of this species complex in November 2012, which led to the accidental export of toxic mussels to Japan, has now led to severe restrictions on Australian shellfish exports to Japan for a year, and resulting losses of many million $. Furthermore, population genetic insight and adaptive strategies in species interaction processes will be presented. Allelochemical mediated intra-population facilitation, may explain at least ...
Modern transformation and genome editing techniques have shown great success across a broad variety of organisms. However, no study of successfully applied genome editing has been reported in a dinoflagellate despite the first genetic transformation of Symbiodinium being published about 20 years ago. Using an array of different available transformation techniques, we attempted to transform Symbiodinium microadriaticum (CCMP2467), a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals, in order to perform CRISPR-Ca9 mediated genome editing. Plasmid vectors containing the chloramphenicol resistance gene under the control of the CaMV p35S promoter as well as several putative endogenous promoters were used to test a variety of transformation techniques including biolistics, electroporation, silica whiskers and glass bead agitation. We report that we have been unable to confer chloramphenicol resistance to our specific Symbiodinium strain. These results are intended to provide other researchers with an ...
In Fig. 3B, the 13C and 15N enrichment levels in coral host tissue are compared between planulae and adult colonies at 48 hours into the pulse-chase experiment, reflecting the local translocation of compounds from the dinoflagellates. At this time point, the observed isotopic enrichments in the planula tissue generally have reached their maximum (Fig. 1, F to I), hence avoiding underestimation of translocation. From Figs. 2 and 3B, it is obvious that systematically less local translocation of both 13C- and 15N-enriched compounds took place from dinoflagellates to the adjacent planulae gastroderm and epiderm. Quantitatively, these differences amount to factors of ~9 and ~2 for 13C and factors of ~6 and ~3 for 15N in the epidermis and gastroderm, respectively. Lipid droplets in the gastroderm have been demonstrated to be the primary sink for translocated C-bearing photosynthates in adult corals (22). Figure 3B also shows that the 13C-labeling levels in these lipid droplets were higher in adult ...
Members of the marine dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium are known to exude allelochemicals, unrelated to well-known neurotoxins (PSP-toxins, spirolides), with negative effects on other phytoplankton and marine grazers. Physico/chemical characterization of extracellular lytic compounds of A. tamarense, quantified by Rhodomonas salina bioassay, showed that the lytic activity, and hence presumably the compounds were stable over wide ranges of temperatures and pH and were refractory to bacterial degradation. Two distinct lytic fractions were collected by reversed-phase solid-phase extraction. The more hydrophilic fraction accounted for about 2% of the whole lytic activity of the A. tamarense culture supernatant, while the less hydrophilic one accounted for about 98% of activity. Although temporal stability of the compounds is high, substantial losses were evident during purification. Lytic activity was best removed from aqueous phase with chloroform-methanol (3:1). A
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tuning energy transfer in the peridinin-chlorophyll complex by reconstitution with different chlorophylls. AU - Polívka, Tomáš. AU - Pascher, Torbjörn. AU - Sundström, Villy. AU - Hiller, Roger G.. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - In vitro studies of the carotenoid peridinin, which is the primary pigment from the peridinin chlorophyll-a protein (PCP) light harvesting complex, showed a strong dependence on the lifetime of the peridinin lowest singlet excited state on solvent polarity. This dependence was attributed to the presence of an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state in the peridinin excited state manifold. The ICT state was also suggested to be a crucial factor in efficient peridinin to Chl-a energy transfer in the PCP complex. Here we extend our studies of peridinin dynamics to reconstituted PCP complexes, in which Chl-a was replaced by different chlorophyll species (Chl-b, acetyl Chl-a, Chl-d and BChl-a). Reconstitution of PCP with different Chl species ...
First record of Lingulodinium polyedrum (Dinophyceae) resting cysts in coastal sediments from the Inner Sea of Chiloé, Los Lagos Region, southern Chile (~41°-43°S) ...
The goal of this two-year study was to explore the role of nutrients and climatic conditions in promoting reoccurring Alexandrium fundyense blooms in the Northport-Huntington Bay complex, NY, USA. A bloom in 2007 was short and small (3 weeks, 103 cells L-1 maximal density) compared to 2008 when the A. fundyense bloom, which persisted for six weeks, achieved cell densities ,106 cells L-1 and water column saxitoxin concentrations ,2.4 x 104 pmol STX eq. L-1. During the 2008 bloom, both deployed mussels (used as indicator species) and wild soft shell clams became highly toxic (1,400 and 600μg STX eq./100g shellfish tissue, respectively) resulting in the closure of shellfish beds. The densities of benthic A. fundyense cysts at the onset of this bloom were four orders of magnitude lower than levels needed to account for observed cell densities, indicating in situ growth of vegetative cells was responsible for elevated bloom densities. Experimental enrichment of bloom water with nitrogenous ...
ABSTRACT: The diversity of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) in corals at Johnston Atoll in the central Pacific Ocean was assessed using both the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the nuclear rDNA and chloroplast 23S rDNA. More sequences were recovered from corals using the ITS2 primers than with the chloroplast 23S primers, a finding that reflects both the higher taxonomic resolution and level of intragenomic variation in ITS2 in eukaryotes as compared to chloroplast 23S. Parsimony network analysis, Bray-Curtis coefficient of similarity and 1-way analysis of similarity resolved coral species- and/or genus-specific lineages and/or groupings of Symbiodinium that were generally congruent between the 2 genetic markers. Comparison of coral-Symbiodinium assemblages at Johnston Atoll with those in corals sampled on other reefs in the Pacific reveals differences that include novel host-symbiont unions and a Symbiodinium lineage previously reported to be Caribbean-specific in ...
Laboratory grazing experiments compared ingestion of two subclones of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium lusitanicum by gastropod veliger larvae (Nassarius sp.). While the two prey subclones originated from the same monoclonal isolate of A. lusitanicum, one possessed the ability to produce paralytic-shellfish-poisoning toxins (PSTs), while the other did not. Ingestion rates on the two Alexandrium subclones were not significantly different over a range of prey concentrations (approximately 100-660 cells ml(-1)), indicating that PSTs did not serve as a grazing deterrent for these larvae. However, ingestion rates on both subclones were low at the higher prey concentrations tested. Mortality of the predators also increased linearly with concentration of either subclone. These observations indicated that both A. lusitanicum subclones produced an unknown substance that inhibited and killed the grazers. Veliger mortality was not induced by culture filtrates or lysates, suggesting either that the substance ...
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Dinoflagellates collected during red tide events in Bahia Mazatlan, Mexico during the early spring of 1999 and 2000 appeared under LM to belong to Prorocentrum mexicanum Osorio-Tafall. Observations with SEM of those populations showed marked differences in shape and microornamentation from the related species, Prorocentrum rhathymum Loeblich III, Sherley and Schmidt. In P. mexicanum, the presence and dimensions of poroids, the uneven distribution of trichocyst pores not located in depressions, and the general architecture of the periflagellar region are more closely related to Prorocentrum caribbaeum Faust. Also, P. mexicanum has a three-horned (sometimes two-horned) spine and is deeper in the anterior than the posterior region, whereas P. rhathymum has a simple small spine and its sagittal view is oval. Furthermore, the number and distribution of trichocyst pores in the periflagellar area is different between the two species, being located on both valves in P. mexicanum and only on the right ...
The Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) is one of the most valuable shellfish resources in the north east Atlantic ocean and considerable knowledge exists with regard to its biology and life history. During the late 1980s, populations of N. norvegicus were shown to harbour an infection by a parasite of the genus Hematodinium (Dinoflagellata: Syndinidae). Although studies on the pathology, progression and prevalence of infection have since been carried out, considerable gaps exist in our knowledge of the effects of parasitism on host life history and cycling of the parasite in the field. This study aims to develop techniques for monitoring Hematodinium infection in natural populations of N. norvegicus and to study the interactions between parasite-induced pathological changes and the life history of host animals. This study has greatly increased our understanding of the complex relationship between Hematodinium parasites and their hosts. By linking biochemical and physiological data to effects ...
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) can lead to substantial socio-economic losses and extensive damage to aquatic ecosystems, drinking water sources and human health. Common algicidal techniques, including ozonation, ultrasonic treatment and dispersion of algae-killing chemicals, are unsatisfactory both economically and ecologically. This study therefore presents a novel alternative strategy for the efficient control of deleterious algae via the use of host-specific virus-like particles (VLPs) combined with chemically synthesized algicidal compounds. The capsid protein of HcRNAV34, a single-stranded RNA virus that infects the toxic dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli and then self-assembled into VLPsin vitro. Next, the algicidal compound, thiazolidinedione 49 (TD49), was encapsidated into HcRNAV34 VLPs for specific delivery to H. circularisquama. Consequently, HcRNAV34 VLPs demonstrated the same host selectivity as naturally occurring HcRNAV34 ...
Saxitoxin is a potent neurotoxin that occurs in aquatic environments worldwide. Ingestion of vector species can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning, a severe human illness that may lead to paralysis and death. In freshwaters, the toxin is produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria; in marine waters, it is associated with eukaryotic dinoflagellates. However, several studies suggest that saxitoxin is not produced by dinoflagellates themselves, but by co-cultured bacteria. Here, we show that genes required for saxitoxin synthesis are encoded in the nuclear genomes of dinoflagellates. We sequenced |1.2×106 mRNA transcripts from the two saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellate strains Alexandrium fundyense CCMP1719 and A. minutum CCMP113 using high-throughput sequencing technology. In addition, we used in silico transcriptome analyses, RACE, qPCR and conventional PCR coupled with Sanger sequencing. These approaches successfully identified genes required for saxitoxin-synthesis in the two transcriptomes. We focused
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Cyanotoxins are often implicated in what are commonly called red tides or harmful algal blooms. Lakes and oceans contain many single-celled organisms called phytoplankton. Under certain conditions, particularly when nutrient concentrations are high, these organisms reproduce exponentially. The resulting dense swarm of phytoplankton is called an algal bloom; these can cover hundreds of square kilometres and can be easily seen in satellite images. Individual phytoplankton rarely live more than a few days, but blooms can last weeks.[18][19] Generally, these blooms are harmless, but if not they are called harmful algal blooms, or HABs. HABs can contain toxins or pathogens which result in fish kill and can also be fatal to humans.[19] In marine environments, HABs are mostly caused by dinoflagellates,[20] though species of other algae taxa can also cause HABs (diatoms, flagellates, haptophytes and raphidophytes).[21] Marine dinoflagellate species are often toxic, but freshwater species are not known ...
Symbioses between microbes and higher organisms underpin high diversity in many ecosystems, including coral reefs, however mechanisms underlying the early establishment of symbioses remain unclear. Here we examine the roles of Symbiodinium type and cell surface recognition in the establishment of algal endosymbiosis in the reef-building coral, Acropora tenuis. We found 20-70% higher infection success (proportion of larvae infected) and five-fold higher Symbiodinium abundance in larvae exposed to ITS-1 type C1 compared to ITS-1 type D in the first 96 h following exposure. The highest abundance of Symbiodinium within larvae occurred when C1-type cells were treated with enzymes that modified the 40-100 kD glycome, including glycoproteins and long chain starch residues. Our finding of declining densities of Symbiodinium C1 through time in the presence of intact cell surface molecules supports a role for cell surface recognition molecules in controlling post-phagocytosis processes, leading to ...
This paper reports a light sheet fluorescence imaging flow cytometer for 3D sectioning of phytoplankton. The instrument developed has the inherent advantages of high cell counting throughput and high spatial resolution information derived from flow cytometry and light sheet microscopy. The throughput of the instrument is quantified by the sample volume flow rate of 0.5 μl/min with a spatial resolution as achieved by light sheet microscopy. Preliminary results from 3D morphology of the internal chlorophyll-a structure of two dinoflagellates species show promising application potentials of the method for phytoplankton taxonomy of selected species and species groups.. ©2013 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Two samples were analysed from the lowermost Patasar Shale Member of the Patasar Tank section on the western margin of the Wagad Uplift in the Kachchh Basin of Gujarat, western India. One of the samples produced an abundant, diverse and well-preserved palynobiota. The other sample produced a significantly sparser association, but of similar character. The overall assemblage is dominated by relatively long-ranging Jurassic gymnospermous pollen grains, but also includes dinoflagellate cysts of definite Gondwanan affinity. The dinoflagellate cysts are confidently correlated to the Australian Dingodinium swanense Interval Zone, which is of Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) age. This indicates that the Australasian Jurassic dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphical scheme can be applied in western India, and probably throughout the Indian subcontinent. Due to evidence from ammonites and calcareous nannofossils in the Patasar Shale Member, allied with other biostratigraphical evidence from New Zealand and ...
Anderson, D.M., White, A.M. & Baden, G. (1985). Toxic dinoflagellates. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellates, St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada, June 8-12, 1985. pp. i-xv, 1-561, figs. & tables numbered by article. New York, Amsterdam, Oxford: Elsevier.. Created: 17 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry. Verified by: 17 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry. Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 348 times since it was created.. Verification of data ...
Aiptasia. Small, 2 to 4 cm. Excellent for demonstrating feeding and tactile response, asexual reproduction, and regeneration. Very hardy. Feed brine shrimp or marine rotifers. Culture contains 20 to 25 anemones. With instructions.
The effects of added ammonium ion (10-1000 μM) on photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation by tissues slices from the mantle of tridacnid clams, by coral tips, and by isolated zooxanthellae from clam mantle were examined. Ammonium ions stimulated photosynthesis in tissue slices but not in freshly isolated zooxanthellae. When ammonium stimulated 14CO2 fixation by coral tips an increase in water-soluble labelled compounds, especially amino acids, was observed. Even though ammonium ions did not stimulate photosynthesis in isolated zooxanthellae from clam mantle, light stimulated ammonium uptake in these cells. Studies with 15NH+4 confirmed earlier observations (in zooxanthellae isolated from Hippopus) of light-stimulated transfer of ammonium from the amido-N of glutamine to the amino-N of glutamate, glutamine and other amino acids. This observation, in isolated zooxanthellae and tissue slices, suggests that the glutamine synthase-glutamate synthetase pathway of ammonium incorporation is light-driven in these ...
The Norway lobster is one of the most important commercial crustaceans in Europe. A detailed knowledge of the behaviour of this species is crucial in order to optimize fishery yields, improve sustainability of fisheries, and identify man-made environmental threats. Due to the cryptic life-style in burrows, the great depth and low-light condition of their habitat, studies of the behaviour of this species in its natural environment are challenging. Here, we first provide an overview of the sensory modalities (vision, chemoreception, and mechanoreception) of Nephrops norvegicus. We focus particularly on the role of the chemical and mechanical senses in eliciting and steering spatial orientation behaviours. We then concentrate on recent research in social behaviour and biological rhythms of Nephrops. A combination of laboratory approaches and newly developed tracking technologies has led to a better understanding of aggressive interactions, reproductive behaviours, activity cycles, and ...
Scrippsiella is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate genus that is able to form Harmful Algal Blooms in coastal waters. The large physiological, morphological, and genetic variability that characterizes this genus suggest the existence of cryptic species. In this study, flow cytometric analyses were carried out to compare the cell cycle and life cycle of two Scrippsiella strains from two different species: Scrippsiella ramonii (VGO1053) and Scrippsiella acuminata (S3V). Both species were also investigated by internally transcribed spacer rDNA sequencing and high-performance liquid chromatography-based pigment analyses. The reddish-brown color of S. acuminata and yellowish-green hue of S. ramonii were consistent with the quantitative differences determined in their pigment profiles. Our results indicate that the cell cycle is light-controlled and that it differs in the two species. S-phase was detected during the light period in both, whereas the G2/M phase occurred during the light period in S. ramonii ...
Norway lobsters, Nephrops norvegicus were exposed for 18 days to combinations of cadmium, copper and zinc st three sublethal concentrations (1, 5, 25 mu g/L for Cd and Cu, and 8, 40 and 200 mu g/L for Zn). Male animals were exposed to all three concentrations, while female animals were studied only in one (highest) concentration of the metals. Activities of Na,K-ATPase and both oligomycin-sensitive and insensitive Mg-ATPase were investigated in relation to metal exposure. A group of male Nephrops of different size groups from a single location in the Clyde Sea was also sampled to investigate the relationship between size and ATPase activity. ...
A simple preparation method and PCR protocol are described which allow successful PCR amplification of partial ribosomal RNA gene sequences from as little as one dinoflagellate cyst or vegetative cell. Amplification from single or small numbers of cysts can be applied to a range of morphologically identifiable cyst species and produces identical rDNA sequence data to those obtained from DNA extractions from cultured vegetative cells. Applications of the approach have the potential to aid phylogenetic studies of dinoflagellates and other microalgae by: (1) improving taxonomic sampling of unculturable and heterotrophic species; (2) providing data to link cysts of unknown affinity with their potential planktonic cell counterparts; and (3) confirming the identification of cysts that cannot be germinated or are non-viable. Examples are presented where this method was used to confirm the identity and distribution of nonviable microreticulate cysts in coastal marine sediment samples, such as those of ...
amphidinolide D: a cytotoxic macrolide from Amphidinium; RN (from CA Index Guide 1989) refers to amphidinolide B (epimer of amphidinolide D); structure given in first source
Marine and terrestrial palynomorphs from the Middle Jurassic Wanaea verrucosa dinoflagellate cyst zone are documented from subsurface sections of the North West Shelf of Australia. Selected intervals in the Perseus-3A, Sunrise-2 and Sunset West-1 wells were studied in detail and record evidence of brackish to shallow marine successions in the Northern Carnarvon and Bonaparte basins. The palynological data derived from these three wells constitute the basis for the formal definition of this important dinoflagellate cyst biozone and its three constituent subzones. The base of the Lower W. verrucosa Subzone is defined by the first appearance of the index species and is a relatively sparse, low diversity microphytoplankton assemblage; species richness increases up-section. The base of the succeeding Middle W. verrucosa Subzone is defined by the range base of Valvaeodinium spinosum, and the Upper W. verrucosa Subzone is defined by the incoming of the large and distinctive species Endoscrinium ...
Puerto Rico is home to three bioluminescent bays, protected inlets that hold millions of marine bioluminescent dinoflagellates. These bays are huge tourist attractions, and swimming in them, when permitted, is popular. Often the visitors have sprayed themselves with insect repellants containing the active ingredient DEET. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of DEET on the ability of the dinoflagellates to emit light.
article{cf7cf32f-d684-467a-8881-52c1eb20b3ba, abstract = {The relationships among cellular nutrient status, environmental conditions (temperature and nutrient availability), and cyst production were studied in batch cultures of three cold-water dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella hangoei, Gymnodinium corollarium, and Woloszynskia halophila) isolated from the Baltic Sea. We tested the effect of increasing temperature while providing nutrient-replete conditions as well as the effect of ambient nutrient (N, P) deficiency. The results revealed different encystment cues and patterns in the three species. While depletion of ambient nitrogen and subsequent internal N stress were the primary factors behind cyst production of G. corollarium, higher temperature led to substantial encystment of S. hangoei and W. halophila without a direct link to cellular nutrient physiology. In W. halophila, N limitation induced a transition of the population to small cells presumably representing gametes, but this process was ...
Our pewter triquetra flask is suitable for engraving & made to the highest quality, with the best price. We are proud to be a British manufacturer and all our
Neuropeptides are a diverse assemblage of signalling molecules that have key roles in the regulation of behaviour. Understanding the evolutionary relationships and functions of the plethora of neuropeptides has presented a considerable challenge to biologists. Based on presentations and discussions at a Royal Society meeting in 2017, three companion Review articles by Elphick et al., Jékely et al. and DeLaney et al. discuss advances in our knowledge of neuropeptide evolution and function and the techniques that have facilitated progress in this field of research.. ...
The cosmopolitan presence of dinoflagellates in aquatic habitats is now believed to be a direct consequence of the different trophic modes they have developed through evolution. While heterotrophs ingest food and photoautotrophs photosynthesize, mixotrophic species are able to use both strategies to harvest energy and nutrients. These different trophic modes are of particular importance when nitrogen nutrition is considered. Nitrogen is required for the synthesis of amino acids, nucleic acids, chlorophylls, and toxins, and thus changes in the concentrations of various nitrogenous compounds can strongly affect both primary and secondary metabolism. For example, high nitrogen concentration is correlated with rampant cell division resulting in the formation of the algal blooms commonly called red tides. Conversely, nitrogen starvation results in cell cycle arrest and induces a series of physiological, behavioral and transcriptomic modifications to ensure survival. This review will combine physiological,
Gardiner, W. E., Rushing, A. E. & Dawes, C. J. 1989. Ultrastructural observations of Gyrodinium estuariale (Dinophyceae) (Note). J. Phycol. 25: 178-183.. Hulburt, E. M. 1957. The taxonomy of unarmored Dinophyceae of shallow embayments on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Biological Bulletin. 112: 196-219.. Steidinger, K. A. & Tangen, K. 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: Tomas, C. R. (ed.) Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, p. 387-584.. Throndsen, J. 1969. Flagellates of Norwegian coastal waters. Nytt Mag. Bot. 16: 161-216.. ...
A small set of samples from Gullmar Fjord, on the west coast of Sweden, together with published data, has allowed the investigation of the Anthropocene within the fjord. The dinoflagellate cyst record and its statistical analysis fails to show any marked changes within the assemblages either across the proposed boundary or indeed within the youngest sediments at the top of the sequence. However there are some small scale differences in the youngest assemblages that are of interest. In particular these include quantitative shifts in the numbers of some of the species especially Pentapharsodinium dalei, which may be indicative of somewhat cooler environments linked to the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and extra availability of nutrients from Ekman pumping. These small scale shifts in the assemblages point to clear dynamism within the phytoplankton populations reacting to both anthropogenic and natural environmental change; evidence of the complexity of the system. The proven utility of ...
A small set of samples from Gullmar Fjord, on the west coast of Sweden, together with published data, has allowed the investigation of the Anthropocene within the fjord. The dinoflagellate cyst record and its statistical analysis fails to show any marked changes within the assemblages either across the proposed boundary or indeed within the youngest sediments at the top of the sequence. However there are some small scale differences in the youngest assemblages that are of interest. In particular these include quantitative shifts in the numbers of some of the species especially Pentapharsodinium dalei, which may be indicative of somewhat cooler environments linked to the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and extra availability of nutrients from Ekman pumping. These small scale shifts in the assemblages point to clear dynamism within the phytoplankton populations reacting to both anthropogenic and natural environmental change; evidence of the complexity of the system. The proven utility of ...
PANGAEA - Publishing Network for Geoscientific and Environmental Data. (Table 1) Counts and concentrations of pollen, spores and dinoflagellate cysts in sediment core MD01-2378. Occurrence Dataset https://doi.org/10.1594/pangaea.738109 accessed via GBIF.org on 2017-12-15 ...
PANGAEA - Publishing Network for Geoscientific and Environmental Data. (Table 2) Dinoflagellate cysts in surface sediment samples of Meteor cruises M20/2, M23/1, M34/2 and M34/2. Occurrence Dataset https://doi.org/10.1594/pangaea.85166 accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-02-17 ...
Gulden Usman Gitmez, Kaya Ertug; Dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, Northwest Anatolia, Turkey. Micropaleontology ; 45 (1): 69-98. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Exon, Neville F; Kennett, James P; Malone, Mitchell J; Shipboard Scientific Party (2005): Range table from dinoflagellates, acritarchs and prasinophytes in ODP Hole 189-1171A. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.314503
Exon, Neville F; Kennett, James P; Malone, Mitchell J; Shipboard Scientific Party (2005): Range table from dinoflagellates, acritarchs and prasinophytes in ODP Hole 189-1171D. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.314505
ODAK is an FP7 funded project undertaking research and clinical development of PHMB for the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. The aim is to develop the
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I had a single Aiptasia in my tank that was doing nothing except looking ugly and getting bigger everyday. Today, I prepared a gourmet meal for the Aiptasias going away party. I mixed up some nice
Hyposalinity & Aiptasia Follow-up 10/8/05 Thank you James :,. They certainly are Aiptasia as I tried to kill an adult several weeks ago (silly me) and thus spread its tissue to happily regenerate across the entire tank. But Ill either start afresh OR try to get some Stop Aiptasia from Carol Keen in America. Cheers Katja ,OK, good luck with your eradication. James (Salty Dog), Glass Anemones Hi ,,Hi Cheryl, Craig answering for the WWM crew while they attend MACNA.,, I have a glass anemone on one of my live rocks. (the kind that is a pest weed) I have been told to put it in fresh water for two days. Will that kill the live rock? ,,Yes, not a good plan for the rock. Will pretty much kill it dead. Many people inject Kalkwasser into them.,, I also thought I could put the tip of the rock in boiling water (the place the anemone is) and then after 3 min. put it back in the tank. Would that kill the rest of the live rock? ,,I suppose this would work. If you dont heat the rest of the rock too much or ...
If you say a word that does not have a common root, but only sounds like it (example: dinosaur -, dinoflagellate: dino- comes from the Greek deinos, meaning terrifying for dinosaur, and dino meaning rotation for dinoflagellate), you will receive a strike. All strikes are listed on this first post for all to see and laugh at ...
If you say a word that does not have a common root, but only sounds like it (example: dinosaur -, dinoflagellate: dino- comes from the Greek deinos, meaning terrifying for dinosaur, and dino meaning rotation for dinoflagellate), you will receive a strike. All strikes are listed on this first post for all to see and laugh at ...
GIANT CLAMS TRANSFORM LIGHT FOR ALGAE According to reports in ScienceDaily and Journal of The Royal Society Interface, giant clams live [...]. ...
New/old CEO A.G. Lafley is beginning to shake things up at Procter & Gamble, and one of his most interesting first moves reportedly is to explore potential further value in one of the companys most iconic and lucrative brands: Tide.. One of the things that his predecessor/follower as CEO, Bob McDonald, did well was exploit the promise of Tide Pods, which he launched in early 2012 and which already are on their way to becoming another $1 billion sub-brand for P&G. Despite growing concerns and one reported death of kids poisoning themselves by mistaking the colorful Pods for candy, Tide has managed to grow quickly-and dominate-a laundry-detergent segment that it essentially created.. But Tide Pods-which recently debuted in new, opaque packaging to curb temptation from kids-are priced above regular liquid Tide. American detergent buyers have steadily drifted to bargain-priced products to do their laundry over the last few years in adjusting to a stingier new normal, but even regular Tide has ...
Fillun Pyrrophyta (ganggang api) Semua ganggang api memiliki dua flagel. Itulah sebabnya kelompok ganggang ini disebut juga Dinoflagellata (dino=dua). Mereka kebanyakan hidup di laut, meskipun beberapa diantaranya hidup di air tawar. Beberapa jenis ganggang api hidup dengan membentuk koloni. Gangang api mengandung klorofil a dan c. warna ganggang api sangat bervariasi, mulai dari warna kuning kehijauan hingga coklat. Ganggang api dapat menyebabkan laut tampak berchaya pada malam hari (tampak berupa kelip-kelip cahaya). Beberapa jenis ganggang api dapat bersimbiosis dengan hewan laut, mialnya koral sebagai tempatnya. Pada kehidupan tersebut ganggang api menggunakan koral sebagai tempat hidupnya, sedangkan koral memperoleh makanan dari ganggang. Biasanya koral yang hidup dalam bentuk simbiosis tersebut dapat tumbuh sepuluh kali lebih cepat dibandingkan koral lainnya yang tidak melakukan simbiosis. Pada kondisi tertentu, beberpa ganggang api dapat meningkat jumlahnya sehingga menyebabkan suatu ...
Cover image: Juvenile giant clams (of the genus Tridacna) display a variety of brilliant colours reflected from specialized cells in their epithelia that project over the edges of their shells. (see doi:10.1098/rsif.2014.0678). Photograph by D. Morse. ...
Nixon Base Tide Pro. The Base Tide Pro delivers a double-overhead dose of durability and functionality. Featuring 550 pre-programmed tides and sunrise/sunset locations inside a tough-as-nails case, the Base Tide Pro is one of the toughest in the lineup. Nixon