TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy and safety of single-agent pertuzumab, a human epidermal receptor dimerization inhibitor, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. AU - Herbst, Roy S.. AU - Davies, Angela M.. AU - Natale, Ronald B.. AU - Dang, Thao P.. AU - Schiller, Joan H.. AU - Garland, Linda L.. AU - Miller, Vincent A.. AU - Mendelson, David. AU - Van Den Abbeele, Annick D.. AU - Melenevsky, Yulia V. AU - De Vries, Daniel J.. AU - Eberhard, David A.. AU - Lyons, Benjamin. AU - Lutzker, Stuart G.. AU - Johnson, Bruce E.. PY - 2007/10/15. Y1 - 2007/10/15. N2 - Purpose: Pertuzumab, a first-in-class human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2) dimerization inhibitor, is a humanized monoclonal anti-HER2 antibody that binds HER2s dimerization domain and inhibits HER2 signaling. Based on supporting preclinical studies, we undertook a Phase II trial of pertuzumab in patients with recurrent non - small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Experimental Design: Patients with previously treated NSCLC accessible for core biopsy ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of A neu acquaintance for erbB3 and erbB4: a role for receptor heterodimerization in growth signaling. by Kermit L. Carraway et al.
WXG100 proteins form dimeric complexes, studied using FRET.(A) Schematic diagram of the FRET experiments. Fluorescence donor, Alexa 488 (green), and fluorescenc
Pertuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody and the first in the class of agents called the HER2 dimerization inhibitors, impairs the ability of HER2 to bind to other members of the HER family, MW: 148 KD ...
Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Ιδρυματικό Αποθετήριο Ολυμπιάς.2007 . Creators: Kalatzis, F. G.. Contributors: Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Σχολή Θετικών Επιστημών. Τμήμα Χημείας, Kalatzis, F. G..In this work, a stable NEVPT2- based computational procedure was developed, capable of studying weakly bonded OH..pi heterodimer complexes. The procedure was applied to the evaluation of the weak OH..pi intermolecular interaction energy of the ethene-water C2H4- H2O complex, as a model case. The counterpoise method of Boys and Bernardi was used with the strongly contracted (SC) and partially contracted ( PC) variants of the NEVPT2 method and the energetic results were benchmarked against CCSD(T) calculations. In particular, for the first time a computational methodology is proposed for the appropriate specification of the active space in order to study weakly bonded OH..pi heterodimer complexes, using the super-molecular
Comparison of the dimeric interactions of SARAH domains based on computational alanine scanning. (a, b, c) Ribbon representations depicting the side chains of residues having dimeric interactions derived from the computational alanine scanning of SARAH dimeric interfaces are shown for the MST1-RASSF5 SARAH heterodimer (a), the MST2 SARAH homodimer (b) and the MST1 SARAH homodimer (c). Residues with ΔΔGbind > 1.0 kcal mol−1 in computational alanine scanning are represented as stick models. Among the residues, Trp369, Ile374 and Glu387 of RASSF5 and Phe437 and Leu440 of MST2 are not seen in the figure and are not labelled for clarity. Residues that have polar interactions in the dimeric interface are shown in green. Red balls represent the water molecules mediating the hydrogen bonds between the two protomers. For the MST1-RASSF5 SARAH heterodimer (a), the light blue ribbon represents the backbone structure of the MST1 SARAH domain and the light pink ribbon represents that of the RASSF5 SARAH ...
Autor: Richter, Klaus et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2003; Titel: Sti1 is a non-competitive inhibitor of the Hsp90 ATPase - Binding prevents the N-terminal dimerization reaction during the ATPase cycle
Signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) involves ligand-induced dimerization of receptors within the plasma membrane, triggering subsequent downstream signaling events. Although the transmembrane domains play an important role in dimerization, the importance of their interactions in transmembrane signaling is not clearly understood. Here, I highlight recent research that describes the intrinsic propensity of the single transmembrane domains of all 58 human RTKs to self-interact and suggest that these interactions could be exploited for designing peptides to inhibit signaling through these receptors. Such interceptor peptides would be potentially valuable as therapeutic tools for treating disease symptoms caused by excessive or ectopic RTK signaling.. ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in protein dimerization activity pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Journal Article: Structures of the Sgt2/SGTA Dimerization Domain with the Get5/UBL4A UBL Domain Reveal an Interaction that Forms a Conserved Dynamic Interface ...
Christian Ebeling wrote: , , Hello, , i need for my project membran proteins from any organism which forms a , specific heterodimer with a strong affinity. This heterodimer should , also have the property of easy overproduction and purification in , E.coli. Has anyone an idea? Na/K-ATPase and H/K-ATPase both are heterodimers of a catalytic alpha- and a beta-subunit which seems to work as a kind of scaffold for alpha. These proteins have definetly been expressed in Xenopus oocytes and in yeast, I am not sure about E. coli (the beta subunit is a glycoprotein ...
Hello, i need for my project membran proteins from any organism which forms a specific heterodimer with a strong affinity. This heterodimer should also have the property of easy overproduction and purification in E.coli. Has anyone an idea? Christian e-mail: cebelin at gwdg.de ...
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We will determine the contributions of the four receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) domains to the energetics of RTK lateral dimerization. The six receptors chosen f...
S combinations, the sets of GPCR dimers are almost entirely unknown and thus their dominant roles are still poorly understood. Techniques to observe the
Nikki works on characterizing pharmaceutically relevant membrane protein complexes to link changes in structure and dynamics to function. Namely, she works with a G protein-coupled receptor called the adenosine A2a receptor to elucidate structural details and functional consequences of homo-dimerization. The A2a receptor regulates cardiac function and several processes within the central nervous system; the outcome of this research will facilitate improved rational drug design to target A2a receptor oligomers in the treatment of disorders such as inflammation, fibrosis, schizophrenia and Parkinsons disease.. ...
Dimerization of Silaethylene: Computational Evidence for a Novel Mechanism for the Formation of 1,3-Disilacyclobutane via a 1,2 ...
B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) are glycoproteins expressed on antigen-presenting cells. The binding of these molecules to the T cell homodimers CD28 and CTLA-4 (CD152) generates costimulatory and inhibitory signals in T cells, respectively. The crystal structure of the extracellular region of B7-1 (sB7-1), solved to 3 A resolution, consists of a novel combination of two Ig-like domains, one characteristic of adhesion molecules and the other previously seen only in antigen receptors. In the crystal lattice, sB7-1 unexpectedly forms parallel, 2-fold rotationally symmetric homodimers. Analytical ultracentrifugation reveals that sB7-1 also dimerizes in solution. The structural data suggest a mechanism whereby the avidity-enhanced binding of B7-1 and CTLA-4 homodimers, along with the relatively high affinity of these interactions, favors the formation of very stable inhibitory signaling complexes.
ID1 / BHLHB24, 0.4 ml. |div class=value|The protein encoded by this gene is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that can form heterodimers with members of the basic HLH family of transcription factors.
Na+/H+ antiporter of 386 aas and 13 predicted TMSs, NapA. The 3-d structure is known (PDB# 4BWZ; 4BZ2; 4BZ3). In the NapA structure, the core and dimerization domains are in different positions to those seen in the E. coli NhaA, and a negatively charged cavity is open to the outside. The extracellular cavity allows access to a strictly conserved aspartate residue thought to coordinate ion binding directly. To alternate access to this ion-binding site, however, requires a surprisingly large rotation of the core domain, some 20° against the dimerization interface (Lee et al. 2013). ...
May be involved in intracellular vesicle traffic. Inhibits ATF4-mediated transcription, possibly by dimerizing with ATF4 to form inactive dimers that cannot bind DNA. May be involved in regulating bone mass density through an ATF4-dependent pathway. May be involved in cell cycle progression.
It might be tempting to make a 1X soltuion with primers included, store it in the freezer, and thaw it as you need to use it. The problem with this: primer dimers may amplify. Obviously the degree to which this is an issue will depend on your primers, but it is likely worth avoiding by sticking with the 2X freezer stock. Also, there may be issues with the proteins stability upon freezing in a lower buffer/stabilizer concentration ...
1B72: Structure of a HoxB1-Pbx1 heterodimer bound to DNA: role of the hexapeptide and a fourth homeodomain helix in complex formation.
4FMM: Dimeric Sfh3 has structural changes in its binding pocket that are associated with a dimer-monomer state transformation induced by substrate binding.
The importance of ErbB receptors in development is proven from the analysis of genetically modified mice. Indeed, null mutations in individual ErbB loci are lethal. More specifically, depending upon the genetic background of the host, loss of ErbB1 leads to embryonic or perinatal lethality with mice showing abnormalities in multiple organs including the brain, skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract (Miettinen et al., 1995; Sibilia and Wagner, 1995; Threadgill et al., 1995; Sibilia et al., 1998). ErbB2 null mice die at midgestation (E10.5) due to trabeculae malformation in the heart (Lee et al., 1995), a phenotype that is shared by ErbB4 knockout mice (Gassmann et al., 1995). In addition, through genetic rescue of heart development via myocardial expression of an ErbB2 transgene, a further role for ErbB2 in peripheral nervous system development has been demonstrated (Morris et al., 1999). In the case of ErbB3, most knockout mice die by E13.5, displaying normal heart trabeculation but defective ...
The ErbB family of receptors is dysregulated in a number of cancers, and the signaling pathway of this receptor family is a critical target for several anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of receptors activation is critical. However, despite a plethora of biochemical studies and single particle tracking experiments, the early molecular mechanisms involving epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding and EGF receptor (EGFR) dimerization are not as well understood. Due to the large disparity of time and length scales involved in receptor dimerization reactions, we adapt the coarse-grained Monte Carlo (CGMC) simulation framework to enable the simulation of in vivo receptor diffusion and dimerization. Using the CGMC method, spatial modeling of ligand-mediated membrane receptor dimerization reaction dynamics was performed. Furthermore, the simulations demonstrate the importance of spatial heterogeneity in membrane receptor localization. Mathematical models, especially ...
Background In todays research, we describe heterodimerization between human-Somatostatin Receptor 5 (hSSTR5) and 2-Adrenergic Receptor (2AR) and its own effect on the receptor trafficking, coupling to adenylyl cyclase and signaling including mitogen activated protein kinases and calcineurin-NFAT pathways. receptor heterodimerization. Bottom line These data for the very first time unveil a book understanding for the function of hSSTR5/2AR in the modulation of signaling pathways which includes not been dealt with earlier. strong course=kwd-title Keywords: G-protein-coupled receptor, Individual somatostatin receptor-5; 2 adrenergic receptors; Heterodimerization; Photobleaching-fluorescence resonance energy transfer and Somatostatin History We have lately defined homo-and heterodimerization of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes and its own functional implications on receptor trafficking and signaling in response to agonist activation. SSTRs heterodimerization isnt restricted to its family ...
Abstract: Ni functionalized metal organic frameworks (MOF) are promising heterogeneous ethene dimerization catalysts. Activities comparable to or higher than Ni-aluminosilicates have been reported in literature. However, unlike the Ni-aluminosilicates, those Ni-MOFs require a large excess of co-catalyst to initiate the dimerization process and some catalysts generate polymers which lead to catalyst deactivation. Herein, we report a series of Ni(II) and 2,2′-bipyridine-5,5′-dicarboxylate (bpy) functionalized UiO-67 MOF that catalyze the ethene dimerization reaction co-catalyst free. The catalysts were active for ethene dimerization (up to 850 mg butene gcat-1 h-1) after activation at 300 °C in 10 % O2 for 360 min and subsequent exposure to flowing ethene (P(ethene) =26 bar, 250 °C) for 240 min. The catalysts yielded up to 6 % conversion with 99 % selectivity to linear 1- and 2-butenes, which formed in non-equilibrated ratios. Overall, the test data indicate that all three linear butenes are ...
Full title: Berry phase induced dimerization in one-dimensional quadrupolar systems. Lecturer: Karlo Penc (Wigner Res. Inst.). We investigate the effect of the Berry phase on quadrupoles that occur, for example, in the low-energy description of spin models. Specifically, we study here the one-dimensional bilinear-biquadratic spin-one model. An open question for many years about this model is whether it has a nondimerized fluctuating nematic phase. The dimerization has recently been proposed to be related to Berry phases of the quantum fluctuations. We use an effective low-energy description to calculate the scaling of the dimerization according to this theory and then verify the predictions using large scale density-matrix renormalization group simulations, giving good evidence that the state is dimerized all the way up to its transition into the ferromagnetic phase. We furthermore discuss the multiplet structure found in the entanglement spectrum of the ground state wave functions.. ...
To test the hypothesis that the difference in the directions of DNA bending induced by transcription activation domains linked to the bZIP region of Fos versus Jun was due to a preferred orientation of heterodimer binding to the AP‐1 site, we examined bending at additional binding sites. The relative directions of DNA bending induced by the transcription activation domains fused to the Fos versus Jun bZIP domains at the M, X, MX, XM and X6G sites were similar (Figure 5), suggesting that Fos-Jun heterodimers bind to these sites in the same preferred orientation. These AP‐1 sites share an asymmetric central C:G base pair. To examine the influence of this central base pair on the orientation of heterodimer binding and to explore the relationship between binding orientation and DNA bending, we examined DNA bending at two sites that contained a central G:C base pair. One site (W) is identical to the M site with the exception of transversion of the central C:G base pair to a G:C base pair. The ...
To understand how SAS-6 might organise the centriolar cartwheel, we obtained high-resolution crystal structures of SAS-6 fragments at beamlines ID29 and BM14. These structures show that SAS-6 consists of a globular N-terminal head domain and a rod like coiled-coil domain that follows in sequence. Both domains were found to form homodimers: The N-terminal domain formed a slightly curved head-to-head dimer while the coiled-coil domain formed a canonical elongated coiled-coil dimer. We confirmed these interactions in solution and showed that the coiled-coil dimer is stable while head-to-head dimerisation occurs with a rather low affinity. Both interactions are biologically relevant and are essential for SAS-6 function in vivo.. Modelling these interactions in SAS-6 resulted in curved oligomers that were compatible with a 9-fold ring with similar dimensions to that of cartwheel hubs observed in vivo (Figure 117b). Consistent with this model, we found that recombinant SAS-6 constructs do indeed form ...
A RECOMBINANT ECTODOMAIN OF THE RECEPTOR FOR THE STEM-CELL FACTOR (SCF) RETAINS LIGAND-INDUCED RECEPTOR DIMERIZATION AND ANTAGONIZES SCF-STIMULATED CELLULAR-RESPONSES
There are ten isozymes of adenylyl cyclases in mammals, adenylyl cyclase type I-X, (ADCY I-X); In mammals adenylyl cyclase plays an important role in signal transduction pathways in which cAMP is a secondary messenger[13]. ADCY I-IX all share a general structure; They are composed of two trans-membrane regions (M1, M2) which are composed of six membrane-spanning helices and function to keep the enzyme anchored in the membrane, and two cytoplasmic regions (C1, C2) which can be further sub divided (C1a, C1b, C2a, C2b) and are responsible for all catalytic activity, and regulation by G-proteins and forskolin[13]. In solution, the C1a and C2a domains can form heterodimers with each other, either in the same or different enzymes, or they can form homodimers with their identical units on different enzymes[3]. The C1b domain is very large (≈15 kDa) with many regulatory sites, and has a variable structure across isozymes; while the C2b domain is nearly non-existent in many isozymes, and has yet to be ...
There are ten isozymes of adenylyl cyclases in mammals, adenylyl cyclase type I-X, (ADCY I-X); In mammals adenylyl cyclase plays an important role in signal transduction pathways in which cAMP is a secondary messenger[12]. ADCY I-IX all share a general structure; They are composed of two trans-membrane regions (M1, M2) which are composed of six membrane-spanning helices and function to keep the enzyme anchored in the membrane, and two cytoplasmic regions (C1, C2) which can be further sub divided (C1a, C1b, C2a, C2b) and are responsible for all catalytic activity, and regulation by G-proteins and forskolin[12]. In solution, the C1a and C2a domains can form heterodimers with each other, either in the same or different enzymes, or they can form homodimers with their identical units on different enzymes[3]. The C1b domain is very large (≈15 kDa) with many regulatory sites, and has a variable structure across isozymes; while the C2b domain is nearly non-existent in many isozymes, and has yet to be ...
The discovery of potent and selective prostamide antagonists provided definitive evidence for a separate pharmacological entity and, in turn, impetus for cloning the receptor. Clues for the identity of the receptor were provided by taking into account the existent, pertinent information at that point in time. This is summarized as follows: 1) prostamide F2α and bimatoprost-responsive preparations also responded to PGF2α (although in many cases PGF2α activation was not accompanied by responses to prostamide F2α and its analogs); 2) bimatoprost-induced ocular hypotensive activity was abolished in FP receptor knockout mice (Crowston et al., 2005; Ota et al., 2005); 3) an FP receptor mRNA splicing variant was shown to be active (Pierce et al., 1997, Fujino et al., 2000); 4) prostanoid receptor heterodimerization was shown to create novel activation/binding sites (Wilson et al., 2004). These data suggested that the FP receptor gene was key to encoding the prostamide receptor. Thus, attention was ...
Thus, caspase-8 has a crucial pro-survival role in shutting off RIPK1 and preventing it from inducing necroptosis. But how, then, does a cell wherein caspase-8 is activated not die by apoptosis instead? How does it live to develop into a healthy mouse or human? Caspase-8 activates through dimerization; two molecules of caspase-8 are forcefully brought together to form an active complex. The previously mentioned adapter protein FADD is essential for initiating this process of dimerization, but recent evidence has shown that once a few dimers are formed around clusters of FADD, more caspase-8 dimers can form independent of FADD. An important clue comes from the observation that caspase-8 does not only activate when it dimerises with itself to form a homodimer, but can also when it forms a dimer with its cousin, FLIP (FLICE-like Inhibitory Protein), to form a heterodimer. FLIP is similar to caspase-8 but has no protease activity, it is an inactive caspase homologue. The heterodimer is active, but ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Establishment of a new detection system for the dimerization of IRE1α by BiFC assay. AU - Shinjo, Satoko. AU - Tashiro, Etsu. AU - Imoto, Masaya. N1 - Funding Information: We would like to thank Dr. Atsushi Miyawaki for kindly providing cDNA of cerulean. This work is supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI grant no. 23510283, to E.T.) from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan. S.S. was a research assistant for the Global COE Program for Human Metabolomic Systems Biology.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - We developed a new detection system for the activation of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor, inositol requiring kinase 1 α (IRE1α), by evaluating dimerization of it by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. By detecting the fluorescence derived from the reconstituted cerulean, this assay system enabled us to distinguish the activation behaviors of IRE1α as to ER stress-inducing compounds.. AB - We ...
HNF1 homeobox A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox A), also known as HNF1A, is a human gene on chromosome 12. It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the liver and is involved in the regulation of the expression of several liver-specific genes. Mutations in the HNF1A gene have been known to cause diabetes. The HNF1A gene also contains one of 27 SNPs associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. The HNF1A gene resides on chromosome 12 at the band 12q24.2 and contains 9 exons. This gene produces 8 isoforms through alternative splicing. This protein belongs to the HNF1 homeobox family. It contains 3 functional domains: an N-terminal dimerization domain (residues 1-32), a bipartite DNA-binding motif containing an atypical POU-homeodomain (residues 98-280), and a C-terminal transactivation domain (residues 281-631). There is also a flexible linker (residues 33-97) which connects ...
Shop Jun dimerization protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Jun dimerization protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Procaspase-3 is the dimeric precursor of the apoptosis-executioner caspase-3 that displays little activity in vitro. The interface of the procaspase-3 dimer plays a critical role in zymogen maturation, although the active sites are not located at the dimer interface. We show that replacement of valine 266, the residue at the center of the procaspase-3 dimer interface, with arginine or glutamate results in an increase in enzyme activity of about 25-60-fold, representing a pseudo-activation of the procaspase. In contrast, substitution of V266 with histidine abolishes the activity of the procaspase-3 as well as that of the mature caspase. This mutant can be activated by protein exposure at pH 5, followed by dialysis at neutral pH. While the mutations do not affect the dimeric properties of the procaspase, we show that the V266E mutation may affect the formation of a loop bundle that is important for stabilizing the active sites. In contrast, the V266H mutation affects the positioning of loop L3, ...
The major findings of this study are as follows: (1) Adeno-virus-mediated gene transfer of c-jun and c-fos can effectively and specifically establish an experimental model for AP-1 activation in human ECs, (2) AP-1 activation can directly induce gene expression of an adhesion molecule, ICAM-1, and a chemokine, MCP-1, which are considered to be the molecular markers of EC activation and are implicated in various EC pathological processes, from inflammation to atherogenesis, (3) The AP-1-mediated induction of ICAM-1 can occur independently of activation of the NF-κB pathway.. AP-1 transcription factors are formed through dimerization between the members of the Fos and Jun families.27 Recent studies have suggested AP-1 to be an important regulator in endothelial function and pathological processes. First, the AP-1 binding motif has been identified as a recurrent sequence in the promoters of many genes biologically significant in the conversion of ECs into a proinflammatory or procoagulant status, ...
GXXXG-Mediated Parallel and Antiparallel Dimerization of Transmembrane Helices and Its Inhibition by Cholesterol: Single-Pair FRET and 2D IR ...
The invention provides a catalytic method for the dimerization or codimerization or oligomerization, particularly selectively, of olefins, carried out under pressure, in a reaction zone 1 containing a solid catalyst bed into which is disposed a plurality of hollow internal spaces 6.3 defined by walls and through which an autogenous thermoregulation fluid flows, in the form of a sheet, after passing through a central distributing zone 6.1 and distributing zones 6.2 and before passing through collecting zones 6.4 and into a central collecting zone 6.5.
The self heating process of Tetrafluoroethylene caused by an exothermic dimerization reaction was studied. The heat of reaction can lead to a thermal explosion by the decomposition of the Tetrafluoroethylene.. Different reaction kinetics, including multistep kinetics, were used to describe the mass balance. The COMSOL Chemical Engineering Module was used to perform the simulation which was validated by experiments and yielded well-correlating results.. ...
Journal Article: Incomplete Peierls-like chain dimerization as a mechanism for intrinsic conductivity and optical transparency: A La-Cu-O-S phase with mixed-anion layers as a case study ...
MORAN, JAMES PAUL, POLAR EFFECTS ON THE RATES OF FORMATION AND DIMERIZATION OF FREE RADICALSFROM ETHYL ACETATE (1963). Doctoral Dissertations. AAI6403549 ...
Thermochemistry of HO2 + HO2 → H2O4: Does HO2 Dimerization Affect Laboratory Studies?: Self-reaction is an important sink for the hydroperoxy radical (HO2) in t
In dimerization To 1-Butene, Axens proposes a portfolio of technology licenses, catalysts, adsorbents and services such as consulting, software or operations support to respond to your operational n
Dimerization ranitidine - All Drugs Without a Prescription. We accept Bitcoin. We work 20 years. We have over 800.000 satisfied customers.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Stoichiometric and Catalytic Dimerization of Conjugated Dienes with (C,sub,5,/sub,R,sub,5,/sub,)Ru(diene),sup,+,/sup,. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Biological Process: cranial nerve development; endocardial cushion development; ERBB2 signaling pathway; heart development; MAPK cascade; negative regulation of cell adhesion; negative regulation of ERBB signaling pathway; negative regulation of neuron apoptosis; negative regulation of secretion; negative regulation of signal transduction; neuron apoptosis; peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; peripheral nervous system development; phosphatidylinositol phosphorylation; phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; positive regulation of cardiac muscle tissue development; positive regulation of gene expression; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling; regulation of cell motility; regulation of cell proliferation; Schwann cell differentiation; signal transduction; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway; wound healing ...
Filament formation is required for most of the functions of actin. However, the intermonomer interactions that stabilize F-actin have not been elucidated because of a lack of an F-actin crystal structure. The Holmes muscle actin model suggests that a
For the past ten years, we have been interested in the human transcription factor PATZ1. This protein is not only important for T lymphocyte development but also has tumor suppressor functions and we have identified that it functionally interacts with the tumor suppressor p53. PATZ1 belongs to the BTB-zinc finger family which has 49 members in mammals. These proteins often suppress transcription by recruiting corepressors and histone deacetylases. Recently we solved the crystal structures of the murine and zebrafish PATZ1 BTB domains (PDB ID: 6GUV and 6GUW) and showed that these proteins form homodimers like most of the other crystallized family members. The mechanism of preferential homodimerization over heterodimerization of these family members is an outstanding question. We are testing several hypotheses: a) preferential degradation of heterodimers (a degron hypothesis), b) structural restrictions of dimer interfaces, c) co-translational dimerization. To assess these models, we have set up a ...
These links are probably not what we want and we should consider revising how the linking script handles them in the future. 1) Paper ID(s): 131227 Linked Term: synaptic membrane Problem: The link links to a WormBase GO term search page 2) Paper ID(s): 128421 Linked Term: transactivation Problem: The link links to a WormBase GO term search page 3) Paper ID(s): 128421 Linked Term: core promoter binding Problem: The link links to a WormBase GO term search page 4) Paper ID(s): 128421, 128389 Linked Term: dimerization Problem: This term should link to the general protein dimerization activity, but instead links to the more specific protein homodimerization activity 5) Paper ID(s): 128389 Linked Term: E-box binding Problem: The link links to a WormBase GO term search page 6) Paper ID(s): 129064, 129486, 110338 Linked Term: embryogenesis Problem: This term is linked to the GO term embryonic development ending in seed dormancy which is too specific and irrelevant to C. elegans. Should ...
On the cover: Twenty-five TLR4 TIR dimer models in which the BB loop of one TIR domain interacts with the E helix of the other. Toshchakov et al. screened a library of TLR4 TIR-derived decoy peptides to demonstrate that peptides derived from these regions inhibit TLR4 signaling by binding to the TLR4 TIR. Toshchakov, V. Y., H. Szmacinski, L. A. Couture, J. R. Lakowicz, and S. N. Vogel. 2011. Targeting TLR4 signaling by TLR4 Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-derived decoy peptides: Identification of the TLR4 Toll/IL-1 receptor domain dimerization interface. J. Immunol. 186: 4819-4827. ...
To understand the mechanisms by which growth factor signaling can modulate the activity of the AR, we have examined the physical and functional interactions between the AR, the scaffold protein RACK1, and the signaling kinase Src. Our findings provide evidence that RACK1 mediates androgen and growth factor cross-talk by facilitating the interaction of the AR with the Src tyrosine kinase.. RACK1, which was initially identified as a binding protein for PKC ( 5), was subsequently shown to interact with a wide range of signaling molecules and thus can serve as a platform for integrating diverse signaling activities. Src and the AR are among the reported binding partners for RACK1 ( 7, 13). In our study, we showed that the RACK1-AR interaction occurs in LNCaP cells at endogenous levels of protein expression and that the interaction is enhanced when cells are treated with androgen. Interestingly, we found that, when RACK1 and the AR are overexpressed by transient transfection, the dimeric interaction ...
CRI is driven mainly by cells of the innate immune system, predominantly TAMs (2, 34). Previous reports point to the importance of V-ATPases in tumor progression and migration (6, 8, 35). Other investigators have described the fundamental role of V-ATPase during cytokine trafficking and secretion (36-38). Our studies bridge the gap between these two research areas by showing that a peptide signal of V-ATPase origin participates in the induction of an inflammatory response from monocytes.. We show that incubation of monocytes with a2NTD leads to upregulation of several genes/proteins involved in M2 polarization. a2NTD induces an M2-like phenotype in monocytes (Fig. 2) described as IL-12low, IL-23low, and IL-10high (16). The increased levels of IL-10 correspond to the significant levels of p50 in the nucleus after a2NTD stimulation (Fig. 3D). Whereas p50 homodimers are traditionally associated with transcriptional repression (39), p50 induces IL-10 transcription by binding the IL-10 promoter in ...
MMLs stimulate WhNV 480-44-4 protein A self-interaction by selling the homotypic and heterotypic interactions of protein A. (A) MBP-tagged protein A fragments
|P>PKA (Protein Kinase-A) is an enzyme that regulates processes as diverse as growth, development, memory, and metabolism. In its inactivated state, PKA exists as a tetrameric complex of two Catalytic subunits (PKA-C) and a Regulatory (PKA-R) subunit dimer. To date, [...]