Effects of Dietary Lysine and Energy Levels on Growth Performance and Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients in Weanling Pigs - Energy;Lysine;Apparent Total Tract Digestibility;Performance;Weanling Pigs;
An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids and energy of corn distillers meal in pigs. Five growing barrows (initially 150 lb) were allotted to one of two diets in a crossover design. One diet contained corn distillers meal (66.7%) as the sole protein source. The second diet was nitrogen-free to determine basal endogenous AA losses. Ileal digesta and fecal samples were collected during each period and analyzed for amino acid and energy contents. Based on these analyses, apparent ileal digestibility (AID), standardized ileal digestibility (SID), gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME), and net energy (NE) were calculated. Apparent ileal digestibility values of lysine, methionine, and threonine in corn distillers meal were 47.2, 79.4, and 64.1%, respectively while SID values of the same amino acids were 50.4, 80.4, and 66.3%, respectively. The ME, DE, and estimated NE values of the corn
The Concept of Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibilities: Principles and Application in Feed Ingredients for Piglets - Amino Acids;Piglets;Standardized Ileal Digestibility;Protein Supplement;
TY - JOUR. T1 - Standardized ileal digestibility of reactive lysine in distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. AU - Pahm, Ameer A. AU - Pedersen, Carsten. AU - Stein, Hans H. PY - 2009/1/28. Y1 - 2009/1/28. N2 - The Maillard reaction can occur during the production of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a result of the addition of condensed solubles to the wet distillers cake during drying. The Maillard reaction can lead to the formation of unavailable or unreactive lysine as a result of binding of reducing sugars to the epsilon-NH(2) group of Lys. The Lys that remains unbound is called reactive Lys. The conventional procedure to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of total Lys in DDGS may overestimate the amount of digestible Lys in DDGS because this procedure does not discount the unreactive Lys in DDGS, although only the reactive Lys is available for use by animals. By measuring the ileal digestibility of ...
Supplementation of Zinc and Vitamin E on Apparent Digestibility of Nutrient, Carcass Traits, and Mineral Availability in Broiler Chickens
AIMS: To measure the nutritive value of pasture in terms of digestible energy intake (DEI) and dry matter (DM) digestibility, and the effects of increased calcium (Ca) intakes on apparent mineral absorption and bone characteristics in grazing weanling Thoroughbreds. METHODS: DM intake (DMI) and DEI were determined in 16 weanling Thoroughbreds grazing pasture from their daily faecal DM output, measured over 8 days, divided by the DM indigestible fraction (1-digestible DM) determined in a 6-day digestibility trial. The DM, gross energy content, crude protein, soluble carbohydrate, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre, lipid, Ca, phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), potassium(K), sulphur (S) and magnesium (Mg) composition of perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture and faeces were determined and their digestibility and/or apparent absorption calculated. Calcium intake and bone growth studies used 17 weanlings, randomly divided into three groups and fed perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture and ...
University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Animal Science. Six experiments have been conducted to examine digestibility and feeding value of domestic Finnish fibre-rich cereals (barley and oats as compared to maize and wheat) and protein sources (rapeseed meal and cake, peas, faba beans, lupin seeds) for growing turkeys and to investigate effects of age of the birds (from 3 to 12 weeks of age) on digestion process and estimated nutrient digestibility and energy values. Besides, an objective of the study was to test applications of digestibility research methodology for turkeys. Total tract digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) was assayed in experimental cages using excreta collection, and a slaughter method was applied to sample small intestinal digesta for determination of apparent ileal crude protein digestibility (AICPD), jejuno-duodenal digesta viscosity and caecal volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration. Digesta viscosity decreased and caecal ...
• Carbohydrate digestion concludes in microvilli of the small intestine, in brush border epithelial cells. Carbohydrate digestion -brush border enzymes • Four brush-border enzymes are involved: • Alpha-dextrinase breaks down alpha-dextrin chains by removing glucose units. • Sucrase breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose. • Maltase breaks maltose and maltotriose into glucose. • Lactase breaks lactose into glucose and galactose. • The final end products of carbohydrate digestion are glucose, fructose, and galactose. • All end products of carbohydrate digestion (glucose, fructose, and galactose) are absorbed as monosaccharides. • Carbohydrates are ultimately absorbed into capillaries of the villi. • Facilitated diffusion: • Transports fructose from lumen into epithelial cells of intestinal villi. • Transports monosaccharides out of epithelial cells into the interstitial fluid. • The monosaccharide eventually diffuses into the blood stream without using
Eight mature stock-type mares averaging 481.4 kg were used in a 4 x 2 switchback arrangement of treatments to determine nutrient density of an experimental diet. The horses were blocked by age into groups of four and then randomly assigned to a treatment from a group. The treatments were 1) control - feeding oats with alfalfa hay in a 50:50 ratio and 2) experimental - feeding an experimental high-fat, high-fiber concentrate in a 50:50 ratio with grass hay. Daily feed intakes were similar in both groups, averaging approximately 1.5% of body weight. Following 10 d of adjustment to the diets, the horses underwent 4 d of total collections of feces. Feed and fecal samples were analyzed for dry matter, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), nitrogen, ether extract and gross energy concentrations. Dry matter digestibility was higher when horses were fed the control diet (P , 0.01). Likewise, crude protein intake, apparent protein digestibility and digestible protein intake were ...
KING, E.J et al. The effect of lipid saturation on nutrient digestibility of layer diets. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2013, vol.43, suppl.1, pp.131-134. ISSN 2221-4062.. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary lipid saturation on nutrient digestibility of layer diets. Five isoenergetic (12.6 MJ AME/kg DM) and isonitrogenous (170 g CP/kg DM) diets were formulated using different lipid sources at a constant 30 g/kg inclusion level. The control n-3 diet was formulated using a blend (50 : 50) of linseed- and fish oil, while fish oil (polyunsaturated n-3), sunflower oil (polyunsaturated n-6), high oleic acid (HO) sunflower oil (monounsaturated n-9) and tallow (saturated fatty acid) were used as other supplementary lipid sources. The five dietary treatments were randomly allocated to the two hundred (200) individually caged Hy-Line Silver-Brown laying hens (20 weeks of age) (n = 40/treatment). Experimental diets were provided to the birds on an ad libitum basis for a 22 week ...
KING, E.J et al. The effect of lipid saturation on nutrient digestibility of layer diets. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2013, vol.43, suppl.1, pp.131-134. ISSN 2221-4062.. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary lipid saturation on nutrient digestibility of layer diets. Five isoenergetic (12.6 MJ AME/kg DM) and isonitrogenous (170 g CP/kg DM) diets were formulated using different lipid sources at a constant 30 g/kg inclusion level. The control n-3 diet was formulated using a blend (50 : 50) of linseed- and fish oil, while fish oil (polyunsaturated n-3), sunflower oil (polyunsaturated n-6), high oleic acid (HO) sunflower oil (monounsaturated n-9) and tallow (saturated fatty acid) were used as other supplementary lipid sources. The five dietary treatments were randomly allocated to the two hundred (200) individually caged Hy-Line Silver-Brown laying hens (20 weeks of age) (n = 40/treatment). Experimental diets were provided to the birds on an ad libitum basis for a 22 week ...
METHODS: Fourteen yearling horses were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups and rotationally grazed on a ryegrass/white clover pasture for 7 months. One group was supplemented daily with a mineral mix. Liveweight changes were recorded at fortnightly intervals and pasture mineral composition determined at monthly intervals. The DM intake (DMI) was determined from daily faecal DM outputs divided by the indigestible DM fraction (1 - digestible DM) determined from a digestibility study. The DEI was determined from the difference between the gross energy intake and the gross energy faecal output. The DM, gross energy content, crude protein (CP), soluble carbohydrate, acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), lipid and mineral composition of pasture offered and faeces were analysed and their digestibility or apparent absorption calculated ...
Influence of rumen protein degradability and supplementation frequency on performance and nitrogen use in ruminants consuming low-quality forage: cow performance and efficiency of nitrogen use in wethers.
Twenty fine-wool, ruminally cannulated lambs (average weight 45-9 kg) were used in a completely random design to evaluate the ability of three internal markers to predict dry matter digestibility and two external markers to estimate faecal output. Lambs were allotted randomly to one of four diets: 100% prairie hay (PH), 100% lucerne hay (LH), 50% prairie hay:50% sorghum grain (PS) and 50% lucerne hay: 50% sorghum grain (LS). The trial consisted of a 14-day adaptation period followed by a 7-day total faecal collection period. Feed and faecal samples were subjected to 96 h ruminal fluid and 48 h acid-pepsin digestions, followed by extraction with acid detergent (IVADF) or neutral detergent (IVNDF) solution. Dry matter digestibility (DMD) calculated from feed:faeces ratios of IVADF, IVNDF and acid detergent lignin (ADL) was compared with in vivoapparent digestibility. Ytterbium-labelled forage (YLF) and dysprosium-labelled faeces (DLF) were pulse-dosed via ruminal cannulae, and faecal Yb and Dy ...
Bovine milk is commonly exposed to industrial processing, which can alter the structure, biochemical composition, physico-chemical properties and sensory quality. While many of these changes have been studied extensively, little is known about their effect on digestive behaviour. In this study, heat treatments of pasteurisation at 72 °C for 15 s or Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT) treatment at 140 °C for 3 s and homogenisation at pilot-plant scale were applied to whole milk. The gastric behaviour was investigated using a recently developed semi-dynamic adult in vitro model. The emptied digesta were analysed to assess the nutrient delivery kinetics, changes in microstructure and protein digestion. All samples showed protein aggregation and coagulum formation within the first 15 min of gastric digestion at which time the pH ranged from 5.5 to 6. Homogenised samples creamed regardless of heat treatment, whereas all non-homogenised samples exhibited sedimentation. The consistency of the coagulum of ...
These results were interpreted to mean that the quality of lime-treated maize is superior to that of raw maize. This explanation is supported by in vitro studies showing a greater release of essential amino acids (EAA) from tortillas than from maize, even though Ortega, Villegas and Vasal (1986) reported in vitro protein digestibility in maize, dough and tortillas to be 88, 91 and 79 percent respectively. For QPM the respective values were 82, 80 and 68 percent. Recently, Serna-Saldivar et al. (1987) reported on dry matter, gross energy and nitrogen digestibilities of maize cooked with and without lime. No differences in dry matter or gross energy digestibility values were found between the different processing treatments. Cooking maize with lime, however, reduced nitrogen digestibility from 76.5 to 72.8 percent. These values were measured near the end of the small intestine in pigs. Values for dry matter, gross energy and nitrogen digestibility increased when measured over the pigs total ...
Write a Short Essay on Carbohydrates Digestion and Absorption In the Mouth: Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth by saliva. Saliva begins digestion of carbohydrate in the mouth through action of salivary amylase, an enzyme that breaks polysaccharides down into maltose, a disaccharide consisting of two glucose molecules. Digestion in the mouth involves […]. ...
In order to study the effect of different intercropping combinations on some maize qualitative traits, an experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design with three replications in Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran, in 2006 and 2007. Two maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids (704, 301), ...
A three-step in vitro procedure was developed by Calsamiglia and Stern [J. Anim. Sci. 73 (1995) 1459] to estimate intestinal protein digestion after 16 h incubation in the rumen. The objective of our work was to modify this procedure to give an accurate estimation of N digestibility without the use of surgically modified animals by replacing the rumen incubation step by an in vitro protease enzyme incubation, and the use of small nylon bags for samples instead of the time-consuming filtration Show moreA three-step in vitro procedure was developed by Calsamiglia and Stern [J. Anim. Sci. 73 (1995) 1459] to estimate intestinal protein digestion after 16 h incubation in the rumen. The objective of our work was to modify this procedure to give an accurate estimation of N digestibility without the use of surgically modified animals by replacing the rumen incubation step by an in vitro protease enzyme incubation, and the use of small nylon bags for samples instead of the time-consuming filtration step. ...
Experiments were carried out to study the digestibility of a cassava (gari) diet and its effect on growth in young male dogs. Three groups of dogs were fed on diets with rice (control), cassava (gari), and rice + cyanide respectively as the carbohydrate source. Each diet contained 130 g crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25)/kg, was supplemented with vitamins and minerals, and was fed for 14 weeks. Variables measured were body-weight gain, bone growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) activity, total serum 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) and some plasma free amino acids. The apparent digestibilities of dry matter, protein and fat were not significantly different in the three groups, but the digestibility of gari fibre was significantly lower than the digestibility of rice fibre when fed to dogs (P less than 0.05). Proximate analysis of the faeces showed that the group of dogs fed on the gari diet had faeces which had a significantly higher moisture content than the faeces of the other groups (P ...
Canola meal subjected to moist heat has reduced amino acid concentrations and lower digestibility of crude protein and all amino acids, according to research form the Hans H. Stein Monogastric Nutrition Laboratory at the University of Illinois.
The knowledge of food and raw material digestibility is critical to the reliable formulation of animal diets. However, information relating to the digestibility of ingredients in pet foods is limited, The objective of this experiment was to compare the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, starch and nitrogen-free extract of corn, sorghum, rice bran, wheat meal, rice meal, corn germ and pearl millet. Eight adult dogs were distributed in a 8x8 Latin square design, with eight treatments (ingredients) and eight periods. The animals were individually placed in metabolism cages and fed a basal diet (BD) and test diets (70% of BD and 30% test ingredient). All the diets were extruded to cook the starch and to provide a consistent texture. The results presented in Table 1 demonstrate that the nutrient digestibility of corn, rice bran, sorghum and pearl millet were similar to each other and had a higher digestibility compared to corn germ, wheat meal and rice meal. The ...
The current study, was conducted to determines the chemical composition and estimation of nutritive value of Exhausted Dry Olive Cake (EDOC) and evaluate the effect of baker s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SC) on the Metabolizable Energy (ME) and Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD) of exhausted dry olive cake using in vitro gas production technique in sheep. The feed samples (200 mg) were incubated with rumen liquor taken from 3 fistulated Ghezel rams at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36 and 48 h. The results showed that, exhausted dry olive cake was highly fibrous material and CP content of this by-product was low. Cumulative gas production volume in 2, 4 and 6 h increased when exhausted dry olive cake supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Addition of live yeast did not result in significant positive effect on Metabolizable Energy (ME), Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD) and gas production parameters on exhausted dry olive cake ...
in Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition (2008), 92(3), 303-9. Spelt is a covered cereal with large glumellas. In experiment 1, it has been compared in terms of chemical composition with barley, oat and maize. Spelt is characterized by rather low protein and ether ... [more ▼]. Spelt is a covered cereal with large glumellas. In experiment 1, it has been compared in terms of chemical composition with barley, oat and maize. Spelt is characterized by rather low protein and ether extract (EE) contents. The neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content of spelt was slightly higher than that of oat but the acid detergent fibre (ADF) content was lower. Two compound feedstuffs were fed along with hay to six horses used in a cross-over design. Both diets were well appreciated by the horses and there were no significant differences in the apparent digestibility coefficients, except for EE which was significantly higher, when oat was included in the compound feedstuff. In experiment 2, first pressure ...
1….Where does carbohydrate digestion begin? (80-90 words). 2…..What is special about the structure of the cells lining the inside of the small intestines? (80-90 words). 3….What resources would you use for getting health information and what do you use to determine if a resource is reputable. (80-90 words). 4……This is a very good description of how the body can convert other energy sources into our main energy source, which is glucose. Please define the following terms for the class so they can understand the process and have some background information: (just 2-3 lines……not more than that). ...
Need help with your Anatomy and Physiology I homework? In this highly animated and colorful object, learners examine the steps of carbohydrate digestion. A brief quiz completes the activity.
Dale, L.M. , Thewis, A. , Rotar, I. , Boudry, C. , Pacurar, F.S. , Lecler, B. , Agneessens, R. , Dardenne, P. & Baeten, V. (2013). Fertilization Effects on…
Licuri (Syagrus coronate) cake is a biodiesel by-product used in ruminant feed as a beneficial energy source for supplementation in managed pastures. The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, ingestive behavior and diet profitability of eight crossbred Holstein (3/4)×Gyr (5/8) multiparous cows (480±25 kg BW and 100 days milking) grazing and supplemented with licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal in concentrate (0, 200, 400 and 600 g/kg in dry matter (DM)), distributed in an experimental duplicated 4×4 Latin square design. Licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal increased (P,0.01) the intake and digestibility of ether extract and decreased the non-fiber carbohydrates; however, there were no influences on the intakes of DM, CP, NDF and total digestible nutrients (TDN). The digestibilities of DM, CP and NDF were not influenced by licuri cake addition. There was a decrease trend on TDN ...
Understanding NDF Digestibility of Forages by Patrick C. Hoffman, Randy D. Shaver, David K. Combs, Daniel J. Undersander, Lisa M. Bauman, and Tina K. Seege
Almeida CC, Monteiro MLG, da Costa-Lima BRC, Alvares TS, Conte-Junior CA. 2015. In vitro digestibility of commercial whey protein supple-ment. LWT-Food Sci Technol 61: 7-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2014.11.038. Amadou I, Gounga ME, Le GW. 2013. Millets: Nutri-tional composition, some health benefits and processing. Emir J Food Agric 25: 501-508. DOI: 10.9755/ejfa.v25i7.12045. Annor GA, Tyl C, Marcone M, Ragaee S, Marti A. 2017. Why do millets have slower starch and protein digestibility than other cereals?. Trends Food Sci Tech 66: 73-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.tifs. 2017.05.012. Anindita TH, Kusnandar F, Budijanto S. 2020. Sifat fisikokimia beras analog jagung dengan pe-nambahan kacang kedelai varietas grobogan dan detam-1. J Teknol Industri Pangan 31: 29-37. DOI: 10.6066/jtip.2020.31.1.29 Anitha S, Govindaraj M, Kane‐Potaka J. 2019. Balanced amino acid and higher micronutrients in millets complements legumes for improved human dietary nutrition. Cereal Chem 97: 74- 84. DOI: 10.1002/cche.10227. [AOAC] ...
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In pig production, production efficiency is effectuated by formulating diets that meet the pigs nutrient requirement for maintenance and production (i.e. growth, reproduction). The amount of nutrients available to the pig, depends on the nutrient content of the diet and on the ability of pigs to digest and absorb these nutrients from their gastrointestinal tract. The availability, but also the utilization of absorbed nutrients for metabolic processes (e.g. heat production, protein and fat synthesis), depends on the kinetics of nutrient digestion after ingestion of feed. Digestion is the aggregated process of passage, hydrolysis, and absorption of nutrients and endogenous secretions by organs and tissues involved. These processes determine at what rate and to what extent (i.e. kinetics) nutrients are digested and absorbed. Current feed evaluation systems, used to formulate pig diets, do not take into account the kinetics of nutrient digestion. To gain insight into the impact of nutrient ...
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height; plant characteristics; Leucaena leucocephala; Leucaena diversifolia; interspecific hybridization; acid soils; agronomic traits; crop damage; insect pests; soil pH; Heteropsylla cubana; in vitro digestibility; phosphorus; calcium; aluminum; rain; ambient temperature; relative humidity; fiber content; ash; line differences; ...
Enzymes are the most effective tools made by the body to aid digestion and metabolism. They turn the food we eat into energy (ATP) and unlock the energy for use in the body. A tremendous amount of energy is required to produce the metabolic, biochemical and digestive enzymes necessary for health and maintenance. When we fail to properly break down foods, the digestive process is disrupted.. When there is an insufficient quantity of digestive enzymes present in the body, undigested food may pass into the large intestine and be acted upon by intestinal flora.. The resulting reaction produces gas and discomfort. Enzyme supplementation encourages healthy digestion of proteins, fats, fibers and carbohydrates, in addition to promoting an optimally functional GI tract.. Providing the body with a sufficient supply of enzymes decreases the amount of energy required to complete the digestive process.. Enzymes provide therapeutic benefits beyond the GI tract by increasing physical vitality and general ...
More than 85-90% of the forage’s fiber could be degraded in a well working rumen. The forage fiber characteristics represent the key point to ...
For maximum performance gains, broiler starter diets should contain HP AviStart for the first seven to 14 days after hatching.. Feeding HP AviStart longer - up to 28 days - is also used. The recommended dose is 5-10%.. Diets must be reformulated when replacing an existing protein source such as soybean meal with HP AviStart, which is higher in protein and amino acid digestibility. This will ensure the right levels of protein and energy in the starter feed.. ...
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Article Beating treatment to enhance digestibility of fresh grass. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the most popular biomass conversion technologies. AD can be further divided into four stages: pre-treatment, digestion, gas upgrading and digestate....
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33Comparison of the ileal digestibility of amino acids in Moughan P J,et al Comparison of the ileal digestibility of amino acids in ground barley for the growing rat and pig[J] NZ J Agric Res,1987,30:59 ...
Ive had a few people at my gym tell me not to eat more than 20-40 grams of protein at a time because your body cant digest it all and you will just
Organic 16% High Energy Layer-Mini-Pellet Protein (min) 16.0% Crude Fat (min) 2.3% Crude Fiber (min) 7.2% Acid Detergent Fiber (min) 5.1% (max) 5.5%...
We all associate the process of digestion with the stomach, right? But what if I told you, the digestive process starts from the mouth itself. There are various other organs involved in the digestion process occurring in the human body. Let us educate ourselves with this process.
View Notes - Lect10+Protein2 from NUTRISCI 10 at Berkeley. Protein • What are Proteins? • Functions of Protein • Digestion of Protein • How much do we need? • What are the
Sodium plays a critical role in body physiology. It controls the volume of fluid in the body and helps maintain the acid-base level. Sodium is an electrolyte, like potassium, calcium and magnesium; it regulates the electrical charges moving in and out of cells in the body. Sodium is important in proper nerve conduction, in aiding the passage of various nutrients into cells, and in the maintenance of blood pressure. Sodium-dependent enzymes are required for carbohydrate digestion.. ...
Allowable limits for cereal ergot alkaloids in livestock feeds are being re-examined, and the objective of this study was to compare nutrient digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of ram lambs fed a range of alkaloid concentrations, including the maximum currently allowed in Canada (2 to 3 ppm). Four pelleted diets were fed: control, with no added alkaloids; 930; 1402; and 2447 ppb alkaloids based on total R and S epimers. Eight ram lambs (30.0 ± 3.1 kg) were used to examine the impacts of dietary treatments on nutrient digestibility and alkaloid recovery from feces. Concentrations of dietary alkaloids evaluated did not affect nutrient digestibility or N metabolism. Excepting ergocornine and ergocryptine, recovery of alkaloids in feces varied among periods, suggesting that individual lambs may differ in their ability to metabolize ergocristine, ergometrine, ergosine, ergotamine and their S epimers. In a second experiment, ram lambs (n = 47, 30 ± 8 kg) were randomly assigned to
Abstract: This study was aimed to analyze neutral detergent insoluble crude protein (NDICP) and acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP) contents of various commonly used forage and concentrate feedstuffs in Indonesia. A number of forages and concentrates, i.e. gliricidia, trichantera, indigofera, calliandra, papaya leaves, cassava leaves, leucaena, rapeseed meal, corn gluten feed, soybean meal, copra meal, palm kernel meal, fish and bone meal and wheat bran were subjected to proximate analysis, cell wall nitrogen determination and in vitro rumen fermentation evaluation. Chemical composition analysis was done in duplicate. The in vitro incubation was conducted in 14 treatments and 3 replicates by following a randomized complete block design. Variables measured after the incubation were total volatile fatty acid (VFA), ammonia, dry matter digestibility (DMD), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and crude protein digestibility (CPD). Results revealed that among the forages, cassava leaf had ...
Effect of fenugreek seeds supplementation on growth performance, digestion coefficient, rumen fermentation and some blood metabolites of Awassi lambs
Digestive physiology is one of the bottlenecks of octopus aquaculture. Although there are successful experimentally formulated feeds, knowledge of the digestive physiology of cephalopods is fragmented, and focused mainly on O. vulgaris. Considering that the digestive physiology could vary in tropical and sub-tropical species through temperature modulations of the digestive dynamics and nutritional requirements of different organisms, the present review was focused on the digestive physiology timing of O. maya and O. mimus, two promising aquaculture species living in tropical (22 - 30°C) and sub-tropical (15 - 24°C) ecosystems, respectively. We provide a detailed description of how soluble and complex nutrients are digested, absorbed and assimilated in these species, describing the digestive process and providing insight into how the environment can modulate the digestion and final use of nutrients for these and presumably other octopus species. To date, research on these octopus species has
Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [∼23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ∼27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (∼25% forage NDF and ∼30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In ...
22A A COMPARISON OF ILEAL DIGESTIBILITY USING CANNULATION AND DISSECTION TECHNIQUES R.J. VAN BARNEVELD*, E.S. BATTERHAM*, and B.W. NORTON** Ileal digestibility is widely used in diet formulation for pigs, and is normally determined using T-piece or re-entrant cannulas. Ileal cannulation allows multiple sampling from a single animal and causes little disturbance to the digestive tract. Leakage around the cannula is prevalent, however, and the studies are consequently highly labour intensive. An alternative is the intact ileal dissection technique involving removal of the terminal ileum and the collection of its contents. During an investigation into the ileal digestibility of lysine in heat-treated field peas, results were compared from ileal cannulation and dissection techniques respectively (Table 1). Four male pigs (40-45 kg) fitted with T-piece cannulas were utilised in the cannulation study. All pigs were fed 4 diets (4x4 Latin square) for a period of 7 days prior to a continuous 2 day ...
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of grass species on chemical composition and quality parameters of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) of grass silages. The potentially degradable fraction of NDF (b), rate of NDF degradation (c), effective degradability of NDF (EDndf) and indigestible NDF (INDF) were evaluated as quality parameters of NDF. The data were used for testing of prediction options of EDndf and INDF. The highest crude protein (CP) content (PO.05) was detected for fescue grass. Rye grass had the lowest content of NDF and acid detergent lignin (ADL). The highest values for parameter b, c, EDndf and therewithal the lowest INDF were found for rye grass. The ADL was the best single predictor using set of all tested silages (Revalues of 0.433 (EDndf) and 0.636 (INDF)). Using two predictors, the accuracy level increased. The combination of CP and ADL gave R2-values 0.597 and 0.808 for EDndf and INDF, respectively. However, better prediction equations were obtained using data for ...
In a 4 X 4 Latin square experiment, 4 male Friesian cattle with rumen and duodenal cannulae were given a basal diet of grass silage 700, barley 240 and rapeseed meal 60 g/kg total DM at the rate of 5.3 kg DM/day (diet C) or supplemented with sucrose 1.0 kg/day given twice daily (diet S), twice daily with sodium bicarbonate 0.25 kg/day (diet B) or as a continuous intraruminal infusion (diet I). Pool sizes of rumen digesta and its components, and digestion kinetics of cell wall carbohydrates, were derived from rumen evacuation. The potential digestibility of rumen digesta and faeces was estimated by incubating the samples for 240 h in nylon bags in the rumen. The main effect of sucrose supplements was to increase rumen pool size of DM and fibre constituents. The greater rumen pool size of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) with sucrose diets consisted mainly of digestible NDF and ADF. Inclusion of sodium bicarbonate in the diet almost completely eliminated the effect of ...
Recent studies have furthered the understanding of the mechanisms of starch digestion, but be careful when extrapolating these research results to real world feeding situations. Some of these studies investigated starch digestibility using extremes in vitreousness, ranging from 3% to 66% or from 25 to 66%. High yielding commercial hybrids have a much narrower range in vitreousness (typically 55% to 65%). Studies with hybrids containing more typical ranges in vitreousness (55%, 61%, 63% and 65%) show no significant impact in ruminal starch disappearance even when fed as dry rolled corn.. Finally, most studies ignored looking at starch digestion and only focused on the rumen when the small intestines are also capable of starch digestion, and with less gaseous losses than occur in the rumen. It is possible to evaluate total tract starch digestion by analyzing fecal starch. If fecal starch content of lactating cows is less than 4-5%, excellent starch digestion occurred in the animal in the small ...
The effects of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain CNCM I-4407; Actisaf Sc 47; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) administration on nutrient digestibility and fecal micro-flora in dogs were investigated. The study included 24 young beagle dogs. They were allocated in control and live yeast (LY) groups (6 males and 6 females in each). During the Adaptation (d 1 to 28) and Trial (d 29 to 70) periods, the dogs received a standard dry pelleted diet. In the Trial period, the LY dogs were given capsuled Actisaf Sc 47 at 1 g/kg live weight with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 2.9 x 10(8) cfu/g. The control dogs received empty capsules. Live weight and feed consumption were recorded. Blood samples for complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) and fecal samples for pH, microbiology, DM, lactic acid, and ammonia and digestibility evaluation were collected during the Trial period from each dog. The LY ...
In vitro digestibility methods require a microbial inoculum source. In hindgut fermenters like equids, cannulation of the cecum is a high-risk procedure and can be avoided by using feces as a microbial inoculum source. The hindgut microbial population can change with an alteration of concentrate and forage ratios in equids. This studys purpose was to determine if forage type fed to horses providing fecal inoculum alters subsequent in vitro digestibility estimates. Four mature mares were arranged in a 2 × 2 crossover design and used in a 4-wk study using two species of hay fed ad libitum: alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). Each of two periods consisted of 7 d during which the mares were adapted to their respective diets, followed by feeding the experimental forage diet for 7 d. On d 14 of each period, feces were collected via rectal grab from each mare. Fecal samples (200 g) were blended with 400 mL of buffer solution under anaerobic conditions, filtered to ...
Several analytical methods have been developed to measure the lignin content corresponding to different plant species and different regions. The sulphuric acid method is commonly used for objective determinations of lignin content using near-infrared spectroscopy. Lignin is a complex polymer of lignin units. The types and ratios of lignin units vary among taxonomic classes of plants. To compare the lignin content as determined by different methods of chemical analysis, fallen leaves of different species were analysed using both the acid detergent and acetyl bromide procedures. Near-infrared reflectance spectra were obtained for each sample of dried ground leaves, and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to compare the amounts of lignin determined using acid detergent and acetyl bromide. In monocotyledonous herbaceous plants, the lignin content determined by acetyl bromide was more than twice that determined by acid detergent. Despite the difference in the values, ...
The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical and functional properties of hard-to-cook (HTC) bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) protein concentrate to determine their potential practical applications. The respective protein concentrate was obtained from the flour using isoelectric precipitation and the protein content was 73.03%. Proximate composition and in vitro digestibility were measured to evaluate the chemical properties, and nitrogen solubility, emulsifying capacity, emulsion stability, foaming capacity, foam stability and viscosity were measured to evaluate its functional properties. The proximate composition of the HTC bean (P. vulgaris) flour and protein concentrate registered values of moisture, ash, protein, fat, fiber and NFE of 8.92, 4.52, 21.71%, 4.41%, 4.11% and 65.25% for flour and of 2.68%, 2.54%, 73.03%, 2.77%, 1.31% and 20.35% for protein concentrate. The in vitro digestibility was of 76.7%. The hard-to-cook bean protein concentrate exhibited good functional properties
Methods:. dietary treatments consisted of corn substitution with crude glycerin (0, 4, 8, and 12% on a dry matter basis). In vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and organic matter were calculated as the difference between the amount of incubated and undigested substrate. Cumulative gas pressure was measured in vitro using automatic equipment. Gas production kinetics was analyzed using a dual-pool logistic model. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Results of an international phosphorus digestibility ring test with broiler chickens. AU - Rodehutscord, M.. AU - Adeola, O.. AU - Angel, R.. AU - Bikker, P.. AU - Delezie, E.. AU - Dozier, W.A.. AU - Umar Faruk, M.. AU - Francesch, M.. AU - Kwakernaak, C.. AU - Narcy, A.. AU - Nyachoti, C.M.. AU - Olukosi, Oluyinka A.. AU - Preynat, A.. AU - Renouf, B.. AU - Saiz Del Barrio, A.. AU - Schedle, K.. AU - Siegert, W.. AU - Steenfeldt, S.. AU - Van Krimpen, M.M.. AU - Waititu, S.M.. AU - Witzig, Maren. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - The objective of this ring test was to investigate the prececal phosphorus (P) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) in broiler chickens using the trial protocol proposed by the Worlds Poultry Science Association. It was hypothesized that prececal P digestibility of SBM determined in the collaborating stations is similar. Three diets with different inclusion levels of SBM were mixed in a feed mill specialized in experimental diets and transported to 17 ...
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Tenebrio molitor (TM) oil as a total replacement for palm oil and poultry fat in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, pancreatic enzyme activity, selected blood parameters and the lipid fatty acid compositions of liver and breast muscle tissues. A total of 72 seven-day-old female Ross 308 broiler chickens were used. The birds were randomly distributed into three groups with 12 replicates each, using two birds per replicate for 30 days in metabolic cages. The basal diet was supplemented with 5% palm oil, poultry fat or TM oil. There was no effect (p > 0.05) caused by the dietary oil replacement on the birds’ performance and apparent nutrient digestibility. Liver size (p = 0.033), the concentration of hepatic triglycerides (p = 0.049) and total cholesterol (p = 0.048) were reduced by TM oil supplementation. Furthermore, TM oil supplementation increased n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (p = 0.006; p < 0.001, respectively
New research shows that Venus flytraps, usually considered a passive predator of small insects, can keep count in order to maximize its digestive efficiency.
Background: Cooking may impair meat protein digestibility. When undigested proteins are fermented by the colon microbiota, they can generate compounds that potentially are harmful to the mucosa. Objectives: This study addressed the effects of typical cooking processes and the amount of bovine meat intake on the quantity of undigested proteins entering the colon, as well as their effects on the intestinal mucosa. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 88) aged 8 wk were fed 11 different diets containing protein as 20% of energy. In 10 diets, bovine meat proteins represented 5% [low-meat diet (LMD)] or 15% [high-meat diet (HMD)] of energy, with the rest as total milk proteins. Meat was raw or cooked according to 4 processes (boiled, barbecued, grilled, or roasted). A meat-free diet contained only milk proteins. After 3 wk, rats ingested a 15N-labeled meat meal and were killed 6 h later after receiving a 13C-valine injection. Meat protein digestibility was determined from 15N enrichments in intestinal
Alfalfa is a high quality forage and also provides a nitrogen (N) benefit to following nonlegume crops. This study examined growth habit and harvest schedule effects on in vitro digestibility of forage; yield and N accumulation of forage, stubble, crowns, and roots; and structural polysaccharide composition and in vitro digestibility of leaves and stems;Six cultivars varying in growth habit were harvested each time they reached the bud, first-flower, mid-flower, or early-pod stage of development. With winter-dormant cultivars, greatest 2-year forage, root, crown, and in vitro digestible dry matter yields were obtained by using the mid-flower cutting schedule. Greatest 2-year N yields of forage, crowns, and roots were also obtained under the mid-flower management. Differences among cultivars for these traits were also observed;Nonwinter-dormant alfalfa, treated as an annual crop, approached the root, crown, and stubble N yields of 2-year-old winter-dormant cultivars. Seasonal forage yields were about
Digestibility data were determined in 2 replications of a 2 x 3 x 2 x 2 factorial arranged experiment to: (1) determine the effects of forage type (grass vs alfalfa), forage maturity (late vegetative vs midbloom vs fullbloom), diet ingredients (forage only vs 50:50 forage plus corn), and diet texture (coarsely chopped vs pelleted) on the digestibility of diet chemical constituents by sheep; (2) develop equations to estimate digestible energy of sheep diets from nutrient content of the diet; and (3) compare popular chemical methods used to partition feed dry matter into fibrous and soluble components. Diets were fed to growing wether lambs. Crude protein (CP) and available carbohydrates (AC) of diets were nearly 100% digestible (true digestibility) regardless of diet source. However, the apparent digestibility of CP and AC varied significantly with concentration of these components in the diet. Apparent digestibility of cellulose (CL) was significantly different between grass and alfalfa, early and late
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to study the oral performance of furosemide in neonates and young infants using a newly developed in vitro model simulating digestion and drug solubilization in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the human neonate and young infant population (age 0-2months).. METHODS: The utilized in vitro model was designed to mimic the digestion and drug solubilization processes occurring in the stomach, and the small intestine of the neonate and young infant population, using physiologically relevant media, volumes and digestive enzymes. Overall the experimental model setup was based on the dynamic in vitro lipolysis model previously described by Fernandez et al. (2009). The amount of furosemide solubilized in the aqueous phase during a digestion study was used as an estimate for the amount of drug available for absorption in vivo. By varying different factors in the model setup, e.g. presence of food (food-effect), effect of digestion (tested with and without ...
When conducting digestibility experiments with fish many researchers encounter problems that result in erroneous digestibility coefficients. Erroneous digestibility coefficients result from variability in the raw data which is amplified by the formulae used to calculate them. Variation can stem from natural differences in the digestibility of the same diet between individuals or groups of fish. It can also creep insidiously into studies due to poor preparation and mixing of ingredients or problems with the collection of faecal material or the veracity of analytical results. Therefore, it is fairly common to expect variability in data collected from digestibility trials with fish. But what can be done about it? In this paper, we present an experiment with yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) that was done to determine whether the digestibility of extruded wheat (EW) was affected by its inclusion rate (10, 20, 30 or 40% diet(-1)). The experiment, based on the indicator-ratio method, was conducted ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A mechanistic model of small intestinal starch digestion and glucose uptake in the cow. AU - Mills, J.A.N.. AU - France, J.. AU - Ellis, J.L.. AU - Crompton, L.A.. AU - Bannink, A.. AU - Hanigan, M.D.. AU - Dijkstra, Jan. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - The high contribution of postruminal starch digestion (up to 50%) to total-tract starch digestion on energy-dense, starch-rich diets demands that limitations to small intestinal starch digestion be identified. A mechanistic model of the small intestine was described and evaluated with regard to its ability to simulate observations from abomasal carbohydrate infusions in the dairy cow. The 7 state variables represent starch, oligosaccharide, glucose, and pancreatic amylase in the intestinal lumen, oligosaccharide and glucose in the unstirred water layer at the intestinal wall, and intracellular glucose of the enterocyte. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch was modeled as a 2-stage process involving the activity of pancreatic amylase in the ...
Researchers of Hunan Normal University in China studied the digestibility of amino acids in the housefly and black soldier fly prepupea meal fed to pigs.
A metabolism study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing a fibrolytic enzyme (Enspira™) on total tract digestion of a finishing diet. In situ NDF digestibilities of the corn bran, HMC, corn residue, and corn silage were not different between the treatments. Rate of digestion of the corn residue and corn silage was lower for the enzyme treatment compared to the control. Averageruminal pH was not significantly different between the two treatments. Correspondingly, there was no difference in VFA profile. There were no differences in DM, OM, NDF, ADF, or hemicellulose digestibilities between the control and enzyme treatment.
Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
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This study aims to analyze the antioxidant benefits from persimmon leaf tea, fruit and fibres taking into account their changes… Expand ...
In the present study, we used a polyphasic approach to study the effects of four purified NSP fractions of low and high viscosity and fermentability on the taxonomic composition of the ileal and fecal microbiota and, at a metabolic level, on butyrate-producing bacteria and E. coli virulence factors, using TRFLP and qPCR. Because purified NSP fractions may affect the bacterial community structure in a different way when added to a cereal-based diet due to the NSP in the grain matrix (36), a semipurified diet was employed in the present experiment.. The NSP fractions differently affected the small intestinal digestion and markedly changed the availability of fermentable substrate in the large intestine. However, there was no evidence that the shared functional properties affected digestive processes and endogenous nitrogen losses (44) consistently among the NSP fractions, suggesting that the specific chemical structures of the NSP are as relevant as shared rheological properties (8, 48). ...
The values for true intestinal digestibility (TId) of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) were calculated when possible using the results obtained by the technique of mobile nylon bags in the intestine (UMR INRA-ENSAR). In order to increase the diversity of the feed materials, these data were completed by measurements performed using a similar methodology by around 15 other laboratories renowned for their reliability. To be included, each laboratory had to have tested at least 10 feed materials.. The 388 values collected (corresponding to 72 feed materials) were analysed by analysis of variance to obtain TId values corrected for laboratory bias. This also enabled the quantification of the effects of some technological treatments.. The quantities of RUP undigested in the intestine (RUPUI) were estimated by the nylon bag technique (RUPUI = RUP x (1 - Tid / 100)). We verified that this fraction corresponded with the true undigestible RUP by establishing a relationship between the quantities of crude ...
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Using response surface methodology (RSM), the non-linear effects of soaking time (0-8 h) and blanching time (5-35 min) at NaHCO 3 concentrations up to 0.5% were determined on the relative in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD%) of soybean cotyledons. The applied non-linear mathematical model...
Dry matter digestibility estimated by an in vitro method using pepsin, such as the one developed by Tilley and Terry (1963), which involves rumen liquor and pepsin ...
To evaluate the effects of pruning at different data on the parameters of the root, a randomized complete block experiment involving the IAC-14 cassava variety was conducted between years 2008/2010, at UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil. Plants were pruned monthly from the 7th to the 15th month after planted. The chemical analyses were performed at the time of harvest, that is, 22 months after planting (MAP). Production and yield plus the starch, crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), total digestible nutrients (TDN), nitrogen-free extract percentage (NFE) and total sugars (TS) contents of the root were analyzed. Pruning shoots of IAC-14 variety before the physiological rest affects positively yield and the percentage of root, and do not affect the root starch content ...
The results of this study are consistent with our prediction that village weavers have a preference for hexose over sucrose sugar when offered solutions as dilute as those found in plants adapted for pollination by these birds (Fig. 1). A preference for hexose sugars is consistent with most of the previous studies on occasional nectarivores, except that tests on most of these species were conducted with high or intermediate concentration solutions, and most did not use equicaloric solutions (Martínez del Rio et al., 1989; Malcarney et al., 1994; Franke et al., 1997; Lane, 1997). At high concentrations (20% and 25% SE) village weavers showed no sugar preference (Fig. 1). At 15% [which is at the lower end of the range for nectar concentration in specialist-pollinated flowers (Johnson and Nicolson, 2008), and at low concentrations of 5% and 10% [typical of plants pollinated by generalist avian nectarivores (Johnson and Nicolson, 2008)], village weavers preferred hexose nectar solutions (Fig. 1). ...
ADS - ACID DETERGENT SOLUTION - Weigh 400 g Hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide in a 2 L beaker under the hood. (This material is harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin so a respirator and gloves should be worn while making this solution.) Add deionized water to this beaker and stir until mixture can be poured. Transfer this solution to a 4 L beaker. Bring the volume up to about 3 L with water and stir thoroughly with a long stirring rod. Very slowly add 556 mL conc. H2S04 to the solution and continue to stir vigorously with the stirring rod. (If the acid is poured in too quickly without stirring, the solution may turn brown. If this happens add a little more water and continue to stir.) At this point there may still be some undissolved material, so place the beaker on a heater/stirrer and stir with heat until the material is dissolved. Transfer this solution to a 20 L carboy and dilute to 20 L with deionized H20. This may be purchased as a concentrate or straight solution ...
In horses, the quantity of faeces and the faecal concentrations of plant and synthetic alkanes are inconsistent throughout the day. The estimation of feed intake and digestibility can additionally be limited by irregular and incomplete faecal recovery of alkanes that are used as dietary markers. The correction of alkane concentrations minimizes the bias of estimates, but requires the determination of faeces quantity by total collection. However, in consideration of the dynamics of alkane concentrations in faeces, sampling at selected timeframes throughout a day may be useful in avoiding such correction. Five adult horses were fed a hay-based diet offered three times a day in equal amounts. Horses received a bolus with similar quantities of n-octacosane (C28), n-dotriacontane (C32) and n-hexatriacontane (C36) synthetic alkanes twice a day. Total faeces were quantified over 3 consecutive days. Dry matter intake (DMI), output (DMO) and digestibility (DMD) were determined from the total collection ...
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Sorghum grain (Sorghum bicolor) is safe for consumption by individuals afflicted with celiac disease, and its proteins can be used as a supplement in gluten-free foods. However, utilization of sorghum in human foods is limited by the poor digestibility and lack of functionality of its proteins, which result from their entrapment in protein bodies, tight association with starch, and high degree of cross-linking induced by cooking. The first part of this study presents an extensive review of current methods for concentration and isolation of sorghum proteins, which are laboratory-scale techniques used for protein characterization and have no potential for commercial scale-up. Furthermore, these methods typically use non-food grade reagents and do not improve protein digestibility and functionality. In the second part, a novel extrusion-enzyme liquefaction (EEL) process was used to produce sorghum protein concentrates to overcome the aforementioned limitations. EEL involves extrusion pre-treatment ...
Swine nutritionists using low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may have to formulate diets based on lower values for amino acid digestibility than conventional DDGS.
... Majority of our food can be categorized as carbohydrates, lipids (fats), or proteins. These groups are polymers which can be broken ...
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Study Nutrient Digestion 2 flashcards from Emilia Sykes's University of Aberdeen class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
The parity vectors of two Latin squares of the same side n provide a necessary condition for the two squares to be biembeddable in an orientable surface. We investigate constraints on the parity vector of a Latin square resulting from structural properties of the square, and show how the parity vector of a direct product may be obtained from the parity vectors of the constituent factors. Parity vectors for Cayley tables of all Abelian groups, some non-Abelian groups, Steiner quasigroups and Steiner loops are determined. Finally, we give a lower bound on the number of main classes of Latin squares of side n that admit no self-embeddings.. ...
The digestibility of a nonpurified transgenic membrane protein was determined in pepsin, as part of the food safety evaluation of its resistance to digestion and allergenic potential.