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Hexachlorophene, also known as Nabac, is an organochlorine compound that was once widely used as a disinfectant. The compound occurs as a white odorless solid, although commercial samples can be off-white and possess a slightly phenolic odor. It is insoluble in water but dissolves in acetone, ethanol, diethyl ether, and chloroform. In medicine, hexachlorophene is a useful as a topical anti-infective, anti-bacterial agent, often used in soaps and toothpaste. It is also used in agriculture as a soil fungicide, plant bactericide, and acaricide. In 1972, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) halted the production and distribution of products containing more than 1% of hexachlorophene. After that point, most products that contain hexachlorophene were available only by prescription from a doctor. The restrictions were enacted after 15 deaths in the United States and 39 deaths in France were reported following brain damage caused by hexachlorophene. At least three companies manufactured ...
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Hexachlorophene is a toxic chemical that induces edema, membrane damage, and increased sodium /decreased potassium in brain cells. (Hexachlorophene was used in shampoos, soaps and other personal care products until about a decade ago.) Rats were fed hexachlorophene orally for 3 weeks, then given Piracetam or one of 5 other drugs by injection for 6 days. Hexachlorophene seriously disrupted the rats ability to navigate a horizontal ladder without frequently falling off the rungs. Piracetam reduced the fall rate 75% compared to saline-injected controls on the first day of treatment. None of the other drugs came close to that improvement. (24). Piracetam increases the survival rate of rats subjected to severe hypoxia. (1,25) When mice, rats and rabbits have been put under diverse experimental hypoxic (low oxygen) conditions, Piracetam has acted to attenuate or reverse the hypoxia-induced amnesia and learning difficulties, while speeding up post-hypoxic recovery time and reducing time to renormalize ...
Hexachlorophene is a broad spectrum anti-bacterial agent. It is used in hospital scrubs, shampoos, and deodorants. Once widely used in over-the-counter products, hexachlorophene is now prescription-only, after overdose incidents in infants in France in the 1970s. It has been largely replaced by the related compound Triclosan. ...
Human skin is a continual target for chemical toxicity, due to its constant exposure to xenobiotics. The skin possesses a number of protective antioxidant systems, including glutathione and enzymic pathways, which are capable of neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS). In combination with certain chemicals, the presence of ROS might augment the levels of toxicity, due to photoactivation of the chemical or, alternatively, due to an oxidatively-stressed state in the skin which exisited prior to exposure to the chemical. Bithionol is a phototoxic anti-parasitic compound. The mechanism of its toxicity and the possible methods of protection from its damaging effects have been explored. The capacity of keratinocytes to protect themselves from bithionol and other phototoxic chemicals has been investigated. In addition, the potential of endogenous antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E, to afford protection to the cells, has been evaluated. The intracellular glutathione stores of HaCaT keratinocytes ...
Combination drug therapy appears a promising approach to overcome drug resistance and reduce drug-related toxicities in ovarian cancer treatments. In this in vitro study, we evaluated the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in combination with Bithionol (BT) against a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines with special focus on cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant cell lines. The primary objectives of this study are to determine the nature of the interactions between BT and cisplatin and to understand the mechanism(s) of action of BT-cisplatin combination. The cytotoxic effects of drugs either alone or in combination were evaluated using presto-blue assay. Cellular reactive oxygen species were measured by flow cytometry. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to investigate changes in levels of cleaved PARP, XIAP, bcl-2, bcl-xL, p21 and p27. Luminescent and colorimetric assays were used to test caspases 3/7 and ATX activity. The efficacy of the BT-cisplatin combination depends upon the cell type and