Chemically-prepared gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were drop-casted onto bare glassy carbon (GC) and on GC functionalized by two different diazonium salts bearing either nitro (NO2) or thiol (SH) groups. The resulting interfaces were characterized by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and cyclic voltammetry in H2SO4. The micrographs evidenced different densities of AuNPs depending on the substrate, bare GC affording denser deposits than diazonium-functionalized GC. The stability of the interfaces was evaluated over one month and showed higher recovery of active surface area (up to 91% depending on the storage conditions) for AuNPs deposited on diazonium-functionalized GC than on bare GC. The three electrodes were also tested for Hg(II) trace detection by using Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV) and a preconcentration time shortened from 300 s to 30 s. In such conditions, a linear response was obtained in the range 1-10 nmol l-1 together with a normalized ...
A photosensitive mixture comprised of |p| (a) a diazonium salt polycondensation product comprising recurring units of the formulas A--N|sub|2|/sub| X and B, which units are linked by bivalent interme
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a as sulfates and chlorides. hydrophilic group. Patented Sept. 30, 1952 I UNITED STATES i 50F STABILIZED "DIAZONlUM SALTS PROCESS "OF EFFEC EING SAME William von =Glal1n, Loudonv ille and Herman A. Bergstrom, Albany, N.Y.; assignors to General Aniline & Film corporation, "New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware 3 NorDraswing. iApplicationfDecember29, 1948, serial No. 68,073 8 Claims. (019260 142) 1 "This invention relates to the preparation of stable diazonium compounds and refers particuv.la rly to the production of nondusting diazonium salts orFast Color --Sa1ts of abnormal grain or Yr-particle size which can be used effectively as dye-intermediate. t v W In lthe preparation of diazonium -salts, the .diazo compound, asv producedby diazotization of a primary amine, is generally stabilized by form- .ing (1) a complex double salt of the diazonium chloride with an inorganic. salt, such as zinc ch10- ride, tin chloride, cadmium chloride, manganese hloride -or sodium ...
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Deamination Chemistry: Nucleic Acid Alkylation & Cross-Linking. We have been interested in two types of deaminations and their relation to modifications of DNA bases. The first type relates to the deamination of amines (and derivatives) and their role in the alkylation of DNA. The other relates to the deamination of amino groups in DNA bases. Both of these processes have important biological consequences. In this context, we have been studying decomposition pathways from the bottom up beginning with diazonium ions. We proposed a new bonding model and established crucial links between theory and experiment. Current studies of diazonium ions focus on the mechanisms of their SN chemistry and studies of the diazonium ions of DNA bases. To address questions as to the consequences of alkylation on DNA and RNA structure and properties, our initial studies have focused on studies of base pairing. Non-Synergistic Bonding & Thymine Dimerization. Our analysis of H-bonded Adenine-Thymine, A=T, suggests ...
United States Patent ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Two-component thermal diazo sensitizing compositions comprising an azo coupler and a light-sensitive diazonium compound and wherein the latter is employed in the form of the fluoborate, trifluoroacetate or sulfate stabilized salt. The present invention relates in general to the production of light-sensitive, heat-developable diazotype photo- 9 printing materials and in particular to high-speed, twocomponent sensitizing compositions of improved thermal stability useful in preparing same. As is well known, two-component diazotype photoprinting material will usually comprise a supporting sheet, such as paper or film, having a light-sensitive layer thereon containing, inter alia, an azo coupling component and a light-sensitive diazonium compond stabilized against premature coupling by inclusion of an acid stabilizer. Upon exposure of such coating to actinic radiation, the light-sensitive diazonium compound undergoes a photolytic decomposition in the ...
The Chugaev Reaction: Harold R. Synthesis of Peptides with Mixed Anhydrides: Noel F. Desulfurization with Raney Nickel: George R. The Beckmann Rearrangement: L. The Demjanov and Tiffeneau-Demjanov Ring oxazoles: Peter A. Arylation of Unsaturated Compounds by Diazonium Salts: Christian S. The Favorskii download Progress in Wall Turbulence: Understanding and Modeling: Proceedings of the WALLTURB International Workshop held in Lille, France, April 21 23, 2009 2011 of Haloketones: Andrew S. Olefins from Amines: The Hofmann Elimination Reaction and Amine Oxide Pyrolysis: Arthur C. The Coupling of Diazonium Salts with Aliphatic Carbon Atoms: Stanley J. The Japp-Klingemann Reaction: Robert R. The Michael Reaction: Ernst D. The home of geostrategic people with Sodium Amide: K. The Gattermann Synthesis of Aldehydes: William E. The Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones: C. The Alkylation of Esters and Nitriles: Arthur C. The way of Halogens with Silver Salts of Carboxylic Acids: C. The Pschorr
A multilayer analytical element for analysis of analyte in a liquid sample comprising a liquid sample-spreading layer, a reagent layer containing a diazonium salt, and a liquid-impermeable light-transmissive support, being laminated in this order, in which said reagent layer contains a sulfonic acid group-containing polymer having at least 10 molar % of a repeating unit selected from those consisting of a sulfoalkyl group and sulfophenyl group. The analytical element can be an element comprising a porous reagent layer containing a diazonium salt and the liquid-impermeable light-transmissive support, being laminated in this order.
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While the diazotization is being carried out the cuprous chloride solution (A) is cooled to 0°. The cold diazonium solution is now poured rapidly into the well-stirred cuprous chloride solution. The solution becomes very thick, owing to the separation of an addition product between the diazonium salt and the cuprous chloride. The cold mixture is allowed to warm up to room temperature, and stirring is continued for two and one-half to three hours at this temperature (Note 3). When the temperature reaches about 15°, the solid addition compound begins to break down with the formation of nitrogen and o-chlorotoluene. After the specified time the solution is placed on a steam bath and heated to 60° to complete the decomposition of the addition product. The o-chlorotoluene forms a layer on top of the copper salt solution. The water solution is drawn off through a siphon until only 5-6 l. remains. The remaining material is steam-distilled from a 12-l. round-bottomed flask (Note 4) until about 3.5-4 ...
A photosensitive recording material comprising (a) a substrate having a hydrophilic surface, (b) an undercoating layer comprising at least one compound having at least one functional group selected fr
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Fast Red is a widely used chromogen for immunohistochemical staining. When in the presence of alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzyme, intelliPATH FLX™ Fast Red produces a bright fuchsin-red precipitate that is insoluble in organic solvents---and can be coverslipped with a permanent mounting media. This product is available in a stable two-component system, consisting of Fast Red Chromogen and Buffer. When using an alkaline phosphatase system, tris buffer (pH 7.6) should be used as a rinsing buffer. PBS should never be used! Phosphates act as a competitive inhibitor to alkaline phosphatase enzymes. For optimum performance, use Immunocare TBS Wash Buffer with AP activator or TBS Wash Buffer, 20X.
A while back I saw some immunolocalizations in which fast red was used as the enzymatic substrate, I believe for alkaline phosphatase. Does anyone know if fast red can be used for in situ mRNA hyridiziations? Also, sigma has lots of fast red salts, could someone direct me to the appropriate one? thanks a bunch mary williams williams at mendel.berkeley.edu ...
0110]The photoinitiators used for the cationic polymerization substantially comprise three classes: aryldiazonium salts, onium salts (here specifically: iodonium, sulphonium and selenonium salts) and organometallic compounds. Under irradiation, both in the presence and in the absence of a hydrogen donor, phenyldiazonium salts can produce a cation which initiates the polymerization. The efficiency of the overall system is determined by the nature of the counterion used for the diazonium compound. The slightly reactive but very expensive SbF6.sup.-, AsF6.sup.- or PF6.sup.- are preferred here. These compounds are as a rule not very suitable for use in the coating of thin films since the surface quality is reduced by the nitrogen liberated after exposure (pinholes) (Li et al., Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering, 2001, 84, 139). Very widely used and also commercially available in a variety of forms are onium salts, especially sulphonium and iodonium salts. The photochemistry of these ...
University of Canterbury Library This thesis describes the covalent modification of carbon electrodes with a monolayer of polymerisation initiators and the growth of polymer brushes by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerisation (SI-ATRP). Monolayer modification was sought to preserve the underlying electrode properties and topography and to produce a well-organised layer from which the polymer brushes can be grown. This work investigated two approaches for immobilising a monolayer of polymerisation initiators. Firstly, the electrochemical grafting of protected aryl diazonium salts produced a covalently anchored monolayer of tether groups that can participate in subsequent amide coupling and click reactions, to covalently anchor the polymerisation initiator. Secondly, specific reactions between the electrode surface and appropriate polymerisation initiator derivatives have been used to covalently anchor the initiators. For most systems, electro-active ferrocene (Fc) groups were ...
Novel N-arylpyrazole-containing enaminones 2a,b were synthesized as key intermediates. Reactions of 2a,b with active methylene compounds in acetic acid in the presence of ammonium acetate afforded substituted pyridine derivatives 5a-d. Enaminones 2a,b also reacted with aliphatic amines such as hydrazine hydrate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride to give bipyrazoles 8a,b and pyrazolylisoxazoles 9a,b, respectively. On the other hand, treatment of 2a,b with a heterocyclic amine and its diazonium salt yielded the respective [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidines 12a,b and pyrazolylcarbonyl[1,2,4]triazolo-[3,4-c][1,2,4]triazines 14a,b. Moreover, 2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one (17) was prepared via reaction of enaminone 2a with aminothiouracil (15). Cyclocondensation of 17 with the appropriate hydrazonoyl chlorides 18a-c gave the corresponding pyrido[2,3-d][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidin-5-ones 21a-c. The cytotoxic effects of compounds 2b, 14a and 17 against human breast cell line (MCF-7) and
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Papers Published @article{UNKNOWN, Author = {Charbonneau, P and Jean-Claude, B and Whitehead, MA}, Title = {Synthesis of a prodrug: A semi-empirical PM3 study}, Journal = {Journal of Molecular Structure: THEOCHEM}, Volume = {574}, Pages = {85-91}, Year = {2001}, ISSN = {0166-1280}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-1280(01)00586-3}, Abstract = {The semi-empirical PM3 method is used to investigate the synthesis of a prodrug of type I which can regenerate the short-lived anti-tumoral tetrazepinone. The reaction pathway examined involves four consecutive steps: the ring opening of benzo-tetrazepinone (1 → 2), the diazonium coupling (2 → 3), the double-proton transfer (4 → 6) and the dissociation (7 → 8). Geometry PM3 optimisation of all starting material, reaction intermediates and products lead to a qualitative study of this solvent-dependent synthesis. Energetics and substituent effects are analysed using a simple electron-withdrawing, electron-donating argument based on calculated ...
Was this a lab that has a program focused on these diazonium perchlorate salts? If so, then Id expect the PI to ensure that all group members were thoroughly aware of the hazards and appropriate handling practices. If not, and the student had just run across something in the literature and said, hey, I can use this for my work, and then just went ahead and made it, I think its a little more complicated. It is possible that a young grad student wouldnt know that this sounds dangerous. Most of us have a kind of learned intuition that would causes our brain to go danger! danger! when we hear something like diazonium perchlorate. Presumably we all learned this somewhere, but where did we learn it? Things like this should be highlighted in the safety training everyone takes before they join a lab--what classes of chemicals should raise flags and require additional precautions--but I find a lot of safety training is too vague, making everything sound equally dangerous, causing people to ...
Was this a lab that has a program focused on these diazonium perchlorate salts? If so, then Id expect the PI to ensure that all group members were thoroughly aware of the hazards and appropriate handling practices. If not, and the student had just run across something in the literature and said, hey, I can use this for my work, and then just went ahead and made it, I think its a little more complicated. It is possible that a young grad student wouldnt know that this sounds dangerous. Most of us have a kind of learned intuition that would causes our brain to go danger! danger! when we hear something like diazonium perchlorate. Presumably we all learned this somewhere, but where did we learn it? Things like this should be highlighted in the safety training everyone takes before they join a lab--what classes of chemicals should raise flags and require additional precautions--but I find a lot of safety training is too vague, making everything sound equally dangerous, causing people to ...
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Explosive diazoacetonitrile (N2CHCN) was generated in situ and used in the practical synthesis of agrochemistry-related CN-pyrazoles. In situ generated N2CHCN is much safer than the individual reagent. The developed method is, therefore, expected to make this reagent as useful in chemistry as ethyl diazoacetate (N2CHCO2Et).. ...
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Bessant DA, Ali RR, Bhattacharya SS. In- juries that could potentially hтlogramem shock are identified and treated accordingly. Fast red salt reagent (FRS) 0. Prevention of graft-versus-host disease.
Dear Histonetters, An investigator came to me today with a strange request. She is growing small pieces of mouse aortas in a collagen and fibrin gel. She would like to be able to stain the aorta and the cells growing from it, without staining the gel. She wants to perform the stain on the whole 1-2 mm thick plug without sectioning it in order to try and count the number of cells that have grown off of the aorta. I have suggested that processing into paraffin may give her more success, but she is really looking for a quick and dirty instant answer. (Doesnt this sound familiar?) Since, ideally, the method chosen should be relatively simple, I am going to first try a nuclear fast red, or maybe a hematoxylin (without eosin), or even a DAPI stain. My thinking is to stain the nuclei, and avoid cytoplasm (I think that in these cells the cytoplasm and aorta itself will have collagen in them). My second idea is to try a fluorescently labeled S-100 antibody, (using the most abbreviated protocol I can ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Ecto-ganglioside-sialidase activity of herpes simplex virus-transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts. AU - Schengrund, Cara Lynne. AU - Rosenberg, Abraham. AU - Repman, Mary Ann. PY - 1976/9/1. Y1 - 1976/9/1. N2 - Cellular location of ganglioside-sialidase activity was determined in confluent hamster embryo fibroblasts transformed with herpes simplex virus type 2. Approximately equal specific activities of ganglioside-sialidase activity were found to be associated with the crude lysosomal and crude plasma membrane fractions isolated from whole cell homogenates. Whole transformed cells hydrolyzed exogenous ganglioside substrate, suggesting a partial location of the cellular sialidase on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of these cells. Intact cells were treated with the diazonium salt of sulfanilic acid, a nonpenetrating reagent inhibitory to ecto-enzymes (DePierre, J. W., and M. L. Kamovsky. 1974. J. Biol. Chem. 249: 7111-7120). Cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase activity was ...
Sulfanilic Acids: Aminobenzenesulfonic acids. Organic acids that are used in the manufacture of dyes and organic chemicals and as reagents.
This paper briefly introduces the principle of determining aromatic amine with the method of diazotization, and through the experiments, we summaries that the temperature , influence on different kinds aromatic amine diazotization, and result in the expanded temperature rang 0 -40℃ from 0-5℃, at where there is no influence on numerical value of amidpgen while .determined. Thus it makes the analysis reachprs much more easier operation.
The MaxDiscovery Aspartate Transaminase (AST) Color Endpoint Assay Kit is a plate-based colorimetric enzymatic assay for the determination of the aspartate transaminase enzyme in serum samples. Aspartate transaminase (AST) also known as aspartate aminotransferase or (sGOT) is a metabolic enzyme expressed primarily in the liver. Elevation of AST levels is an indication of liver damage and has been associated with liver injury. AST levels are monitored routinely in patients with liver diseases. AST is also a very useful tool for preclinical investigation of experimental drug formulations and AST levels are commonly used to monitor and attenuate the hepatotoxic effects of experimental drugs in rodents. The MaxDiscovery Alanine Transaminase (AST) Color Endpoint Assay Kit uses a colored reaction scheme to detect AST enzymatic activity in serum samples. In this method aspartate and -ketoglutarate are first converted to glutamate and oxaloacetate. The oxaloacetate then reacts with diazonium salt to ...
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Single-layer graphene nanosheets (SLGNs) are prepared by reduction of well-exfoliated graphite oxide aided by a surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, SDBS). Grafting density and polystyrene (PS) chain lengths are controlled by modulating the concentrations of diazonium compound and monomer during the
Abstract. A highly sensitive, simple and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for quantitative determination of sulfamethoxazole(SMX) in both pure form and pharmaceutical preparations. In this method SMX is diazotized with equimolar of sodium nitrite(NaNO2) in acid medium of hydrochloric acid to form diazonium ion , which is reacted with 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid in alkaline medium of NaOH to form a yellow water soluble azo dye that has absorption maximum at 416 nm versus reagent blank. Beers law is obeyed over the concentration range 0.2-16 µg. ml-1 with an excellent determination coefficient (r2= 0.9996) and molar absorptivity 1.84×104 l.mol-1.cm-1. The recoveries are obtained in the range of 97.8 - 99.8% and the relative standard deviation is better than ±0.23% . The stoichiometry of the resulting azo dye has been also worked out and it is found to be 1:1 SMX: 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid. This method has been applied successfully for the determination of SMX in ...
Quartz crystal microbalance studies have been carried out to monitor the fusion of lipid vesicles (pure 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DMPC) and mixed vesicles (DMPC and 4-decylaniline). In order to increase the stability of the lipid deposits onto the electrodes, we have developed an original approach involving electrografting of adsorbed mixed vesicles. Aryldiazonium salts generated in situ from 4-decylaniline (4DA) present in adsorbed and fused mixed vesicles at the electrode surface allow their cathodic reduction and subsequent grafting. The stability of the supported lipid deposit has been shown to significantly increase from less than one day for pure DMPC to about two weeks with the lipid deposition assisted by electrochemical grafting. In this stable lipid deposit, the insertion of the sodium/proton antiporter membrane protein (NhaA) or its inactive mutant has been carried out by fusion of proteoliposomes. This has been followed by characterization of the inserted protein activity
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The present invention provides a negative-working presensitized plate useful for preparing a lithographic printing plate having a negative-working photosensitive layer on an aluminum substrate, which comprises an intermediate layer comprising a compound having at least one diazonium group and molecular weight of 1000 or less formed between said photosensitive layer and said aluminum substrate. The lithographic printing plate prepared from the negative-working presensitized plate of the present invention shows excellent adhesiveness between a substrate and a photosensitive layer and does not cause contamination in non-imaging areas during printing operation, while maintaining high sensitivity, sensitive range and performance of the photosensitive layer.
A method has been devised for the electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets. The method results in quantitative transfer of ribosomal proteins from gels containing urea. For sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, the original band pattern was obtained with no loss of resolution, but the transfer was not quantitative. The method allows detection of proteins by autoradiography and is simpler than conventional procedures. The immobilized proteins were detectable by immunological procedures. All additional binding capacity on the nitrocellulose was blocked with excess protein; then a specific antibody was bound and, finally, a second antibody directed against the first antibody. The second antibody was either radioactively labeled or conjugated to fluorescein or to peroxidase. The specific protein was then detected by either autoradiography, under UV light, or by the peroxidase reaction product, respectively. In the latter case, as little as 100 pg of protein was ...
A method has been devised for the electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets. The method results in quantitative transfer of ribosomal proteins from gels containing urea. For sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, the original band pattern was obtained with no loss of resolution, but the transfer was not quantitative. The method allows detection of proteins by autoradiography and is simpler than conventional procedures. The immobilized proteins were detectable by immunological procedures. All additional binding capacity on the nitrocellulose was blocked with excess protein; then a specific antibody was bound and, finally, a second antibody directed against the first antibody. The second antibody was either radioactively labeled or conjugated to fluorescein or to peroxidase. The specific protein was then detected by either autoradiography, under UV light, or by the peroxidase reaction product, respectively. In the latter case, as little as 100 pg of protein was ...
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A safe and fast method for the production of β-hydroxy-α-diazoesters involves the formation of ethyl diazoacetate in situ and the addition to several aldehydes in a two-step continuous flow microreactor setup. In a three-step sequence, Rhodium acetate catalyzes a subsequent 1,2-hydride shift to give access to β-keto esters ...
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The Ictotest tablets, based on the diazotization reaction, are utilized as a confirmatory assay for the presence of urinary bilirubin when a frontline test (i.e. urine strip or another semi-quantitative method) has provided a positive bilirubin result. The Ictotest reagent tablets can be used to rule-out the presence of interfering substances that may cause a false positive result.. ...
The Ictotest tablets, based on the diazotization reaction, are utilized as a confirmatory assay for the presence of urinary bilirubin when a frontline test (i.e. urine strip or another semi-quantitative method) has provided a positive bilirubin result. The Ictotest reagent tablets can be used to rule-out the presence of interfering substances that may cause a false positive result.. ...