Policymakers in the OECD countries still generally look upon the SDGs as a development policy issue. The task for high-income countries, one might assume, is simply to provide greater levels of offi cial development assistance (ODA), specifically, pushing efforts closer to the target of 0.7 percent of GDP, which few countries have managed so far. The truth is, however, that the SDGs will not just require rich countries to increase development funds for others; they will need fundamental policy changes in their own countries. If the MDGs were the telescope through which rich countries viewed the developing world, the SDGs are the mirror in which they see their own policies and performance reflected. In other words, every country is now a developing country when it comes to an economic and social model which is both sustainable and socially just.
Risk-factor burden was greatest in high-income countries with the mean INTERHEART score highest in these nations, intermediate in middle-income countries, and lowest in low-income countries (p < 0.001). In high-income countries, the INTERHEART score was higher in rural areas, compared to urban areas; in lower- and middle-income countries, the risk score was higher in urban areas, compared to rural areas. Conversely, the rates of major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure) were lowest in high-income countries, intermediate in middle-income countries, and highest in low-income countries, with rates of 3.99, 5.38, and 6.43 events per 1,000 person-years, respectively (p < 0.001). ...
The National Accounts of OECD Countries, Main Aggregates covers expenditure-based GDP, output-based GDP, income-based GDP, GDP per capita, disposable income, saving and net lending, population and employment. It includes also comparative tables based on purchasing power parities (PPPs) and exchange rates. Data are shown for 34 OECD countries and the Euro area back to 2005. Country tables are expressed in national currency. Data are based on the System of National Accounts 1993 (1993 SNA).. ...
Adam, A., Delis, M., Kammas, P., (2011). Public Sector efficiency: Leveling the playing field between OECD countries. Public Choice 146, 163- 183.. Alesina, A., Angeloni , I., Etro, F., (2005). International Unions, American Economic Review 95, 602-15.. Alesina, A., Devleeschauwer, A., Easterly, W., Kurlat, S., Wacziarg, R., (2003). Fractionalization. Journal of Economic Growth 8, 155-194.. Alesina, A., La Ferrara, E., (2005). Preferences for redistribution in the land of opportunities. Journal of Public Economics 89, 897-931.. Afonso, A., St. Aubyn, M., (2005). Non-parametric approaches to education and health: Expenditure efficiency in OECD countries. Journal of Applied Economics 8, 227-246.. Afonso, A., Schuknecht, L., Tanzi, V., (2005). Public sector efficiency: An international comparison. Public Choice 123, 321-347.. Afonso, A., Schuknecht, L., Tanzi, V., (2006). Public sector efficiency: Evidence for new EU member states and emerging markets. ECB Working Paper no. 581.. Anderson, T.W., ...
The international research team found risk factors for cardiovascular disease was lowest in low income countries, intermediate in middle income countries and highest in high income countries. However, the incidence of serious cardiovascular disease such as heart attacks, strokes, heart failure and deaths followed the opposite pattern: highest in the low income countries, intermediate in middle income countries and lowest in high income countries. Hospitalizations for less severe cardiovascular diseases were highest in the high income countries.
ries and do not feed the local population. Furthermore, the production is largely owned by companies residing in rich countries. When agricultural production is largely exported, the poor countries end up as importers of food required by the local people. With regard to industrial production, much of it is done for export. Again, the companies are largely parts of multinational ones with headquarters in rich countries. The reasons for production in poor countries is first that the salaries are very low, but also that environmental standards required for production in rich countries need not be followed whereby production costs are minimized. This type of cutting cost is the greedy economic globalism, which the true sustainable globalism should do its utmost to fight against. The solution to decreasing wealth inequality is actually quite simple. All the products from poor areas are priced as if they were produced in rich countries, and the difference in the present and future price is given to ...
Downloadable! Prevalence of non-communicable diseases has increased in past decades in the OECD. These conditions have many risk factors, including poor quality diet, insufficient physical activity, and excess sedentarism. These behaviours are also at the root of overweight and obesity, which are themselves risk factors leading to non-communicable diseases. Using the most recent data available from individual-level national health surveys and health interviews, this paper paints a picture of the situation in terms of diet and physical activity in eleven OECD countries. Fruit and vegetable consumption remains low in all countries, as daily consumption of five fruit and vegetables per day rarely reaches 40%; diet quality can also be improved, although it is higher in some countries. Physical activity levels are more encouraging, with over 50% of the population reporting to reach the World Health Organization target in all countries, and excess sedentarism is high in two of the seven countries studied.
Downloadable! Recent discussions about rising inequality in industrialized countries have triggered calls for more government intervention and redistribution. Due to obvious behavioral effects caused by redistribution, it is however not clear whether redistributional policies are indeed able to combat inequality. This paper contributes to this relevant research question by using different contextual country-level data sources to study inequality trends in OECD countries since the 1980s. We first investigate the development of inequality over time before analyzing the question of whether governments can effectively reduce inequality. Different identification strategies, using fixed effects and instrumental variables models, provide some evidence that governments are capable of reducing income inequality despite countervailing behavioral adjustments. The effect is stronger for social expenditure policies than for progressive taxation, which seems to trigger more inequality increasing indirect behavioral
Background This study explores the relationship between BMI and national-wealth and the cross-level interaction effect of national-wealth and individual household-wealth using multilevel analysis. Methods Data from the World Health Survey conducted in 2002-2004, across 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries was used. Participants aged 18 years and over were selected using multistage, stratified cluster sampling. BMI was used as outcome variable. The potential determinants of individual-level BMI were participants sex, age, marital-status, education, occupation, household-wealth and location(rural/urban) at the individual-level. The country-level factors used were average national income (GNI-PPP) and income inequality (Gini-index). A two-level random-intercepts and fixed-slopes model structure with individuals nested within countries was fitted, treating BMI as a continuous outcome. Results The weighted mean BMI and standard-error of the 206,266 people from 70-countries was 23.90 (4.84). All
The correlation between a firms size and its productivity level varies considerably across OECD countries, suggesting that some countries are more successful at channelling resources to high productivity firms than others.
The present study is designed to compare the mortality and potential years of life lost of colorectal cancer between OECD countries and Korea before (1990-1999) and after (2000-2009) to provide data of more accurate strategy of public health policy and education about cancer treatment and prevention through examining differences of changes among the OECD countries. We statistically compared mortality and potential years of life lost from 32 OECD countries including Korea, except 2 nations with inadequate data, between before (1990-1999) and after the year 2000 (2000-2009) using OECD Health Data 2012 using the method of paired t-test. Male mortality of colorectal cancer was increased in 8 OECD countries including Korea and the female mortality was only increased in Chile and Korea. In particular, the increased rate of mortality was significantly high in Korean male and female. Moreover, increased rate of potential years of life lost for colorectal cancer was also significantly high in Korea: ...
Chapter 11 EQUITY IN THE USE OF PHYSICIAN VISITS IN OECD COUNTRIES: HAS EQUAL TREATMENT FOR EQUAL NEED BEEN ACHIEVED? by Eddy van Doorslaer *, Xander Koolman * and Frank Puffer ** Abstract This paper uses
Results The 12-month prevalence of reported exacerbations ranged from 1.9% in Guangzhou, China to 14.2% in Lexington, USA, it was higher in subjects with spirometrically defined COPD as compared to subjects without spirometric COPD (14.4% vs 4.2%, p,0.0001) and in low and middle income countries as compared to high income countries (7.9% vs 4.9%, p,0.0001). Exacerbations were associated with doctor diagnosed asthma, COPD stage 1+, chronic bronchitis, increase in MMRC dyspnoea score, current exposures to biomass and dusty jobs and history of TB (see Abstract P209 table 1). Similar trends for overall effect estimates were obtained for low and middle income countries and high income countries with and without biomass exposure information. The variation in reported exacerbations across sites is unlikely to be due to variation in the influence of different risk factors between sites except for COPD stages 1 and 2 (I2=44%, p=0.03), biomass exposure (I2=57%, p=0.01) and reported history of TB ...
JAMA.: February 27, 2013. The United States spends more on health care than does any other country, but its health outcomes are generally worse than those of other wealthy nations. People in the United States experience higher rates of disease and injury and die earlier than people in other high-income countries. Although this health disadvantage has been increasing for decades, its scale is only now becoming more apparent.. A new report1 from the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (NRC/IOM) documents that US males and females in almost all age groups-up to age 75 years-have shorter life expectancies than their counterparts in 16 other wealthy, developed nations: Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The scope of the US health disadvantage is pervasive and involves more than life expectancy: the United States ranks at or near the bottom in both prevalence ...
This review provides a synthesis of literature concerning the acute treatment costs of trauma in high-income countries and the drivers of higher costs. Results showed the cost of acute treatment was a median of $22,448 across studies (IQR: $11,819-$33,701) and identified factors such as injury severity, surgical interventions, ICU and hospital LOS, were consistently associated with higher treatment costs. Across studies, we identified marked variability in reporting, methods of costing and actual costs and charges [15].. The broad inclusion criteria and time period used in this review resulted in a representative sample, although comparison and ranking of costs between studies was limited due to the variety of costing and statistical methods. The predominance of US data may not be generalisable to universal access health systems such as those in Australia and Canada. Although 90% of the worlds deaths from injuries occur in developing countries [51], there is limited external validity of our ...
Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended for adolescent young women prior to sexual debut to reduce cervical cancer related mortality and morbidity. Understanding factors affecting decision-making of HPV vaccination of young women is important so that effective interventions can be developed which address barriers to uptake in population groups less likely to receive the HPV vaccine. We undertook a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis to examine decision-making relating to the HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries. A comprehensive search of databases from inception to March 2012 was undertaken to identify eligible studies reporting the perspectives of key stakeholders including policy makers, professionals involved in programme, parents, and young women. Factors affecting uptake of the vaccine were examined at different levels of the socio-ecological model (policy, community, organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal). Forty-one studies were
The United States spent approximately twice as much as other high-income countries on medical care, yet utilization rates in the United States were largely similar to those in other nations. Prices of labor and goods, including pharmaceuticals, and administrative costs appeared to be the major drive …
For research papers The BMJ has fully open peer review. This means that accepted research papers submitted from September 2014 onwards usually have their prepublication history posted alongside them on thebmj.com.. This prepublication history comprises all previous versions of the manuscript, the study protocol (submitting the protocol is mandatory for all clinical trials and encouraged for all other studies at The BMJ), the report from the manuscript committee meeting, the reviewers comments, and the authors responses to all the comments from reviewers and editors.. In rare instances we determine after careful consideration that we should not make certain portions of the prepublication record publicly available. For example, in cases of stigmatised illnesses we seek to protect the confidentiality of reviewers who have these illnesses. In other instances there may be legal or regulatory considerations that make it inadvisable or impermissible to make available certain parts of the ...
In many high-income countries, national and regional health authorities, along with individual healthcare institutions, are putting into place prevention, control, surveillance and reporting measures. Even if significantly reduced in the recent years, incidence of HAI remains high, particularly among at-risk populations. For example, approximately 25-30% of ICU patients in high-income countries experience at least one HAI episode1,2. In low- and middle- income countries, the challenges are further complicated by underdeveloped infrastructures and issues related to hygiene and sanitation. The WHO estimates that ICU-acquired infection is at least 2-3-fold higher than in high-income countries and that device-associated infection may be up to 13 times higher than in the US1.. HAIs include all types of infections including urinary-tract infections (most common in higher-income countries1,2), surgical site infections (most common in lower-income countries1), respiratory infections, gastro-intestinal ...
NEW ORLEANS, La - Low- and middle income countries have lower per-capita consumption of antibiotics than high income countries yet bear a larger burden of antimicrobial resistance, panelists said at IDWeek. While high-income countries are looking to develop innovative stewardship programs and new drugs to combat antimicrobial resistance, low- and middle-income countries often have limited capacity […]. ...
This report examines how countries perform in their ability to prevent, manage and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The last 50 years have witnessed remarkable improvements in CVD outcomes. Since 1960, overall CVD mortality rates have fallen by over 60%, but these improvements are not evenly spread across OECD countries, and the rising prevalence of diabetes and obesity are threatening to offset gains. This report examines how OECD countries deliver the programmes and services related to CVD and diabetes. It considers how countries have used available health care resources to reduce the overall burden of CVD and diabetes, and it focuses on the variation in OECD health systems ability to convert health care inputs (such as expenditure) into health gains.
AIM: To study uptake of care at the antenatal and child health clinic (CHC), and maternal and child health up to 5 years after the birth, as reported by mothers with a non-Swedish speaking background (NSB). METHODS: A sample of 300 women with a NSB, 175 originated from a poor country and 125 originated from a rich country, were compared with a reference group of 2761 women with a Swedish speaking background. Four postal questionnaires were completed: during pregnancy, and 2 months, 1 year and 5 years after the birth. RESULTS: Mothers with a NSB from a poor country of origin did not differ from the reference group of mothers with a Swedish speaking background regarding number of clinic visits, but they had a lower attendance rate at antenatal and postnatal education classes. Depressive symptoms, parental stress and poor self-rated health were more common in these women, and they reported more psychological and behavioral problems in their 5-year olds. Women with a rich country origin did not ...
Population density , People per sq. km: Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. Land area is a countrys total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes ...
The number of children under five dying has declined substantially in the past 20 years and the rate of decline is speeding up, according to a report in The Lancet medical journal. Some developing countries are doing surprisingly well, but rates in the US and Britain are not good by developed world standards -- for reasons that are not clear.
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Its one of the oldest tricks in politics: Talk down expectations to the point that you can meet them.And it played out again in Berlin as 21 countries-including the United States-pledged nearly $9.5 billion to the Green Climate Fund, a UN body tasked with helping developing countries cope with climate change and transition to clean energy systems.The total-which will cover a four-year period before new pledges are made-included $3 billion from the United States, $1.5 billion from Japan, and around $1 billion each from the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. | By Oscar Reyes
Two-thirds of the worlds population under 50 have the highly infectious herpes virus that causes cold sores around the mouth, the World Health Organization said on Wednesday, in its first estimate of global prevalence of the disease.. More than 3.7 billion people under the age of 50 suffer from the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), usually after catching it in childhood, according to a the WHO study.. That is in addition to 417 million people in the 15-49 age range who have the other form of the disease, HSV-2, which causes genital herpes.. HSV-1 normally causes mouth ulcers rather than genital infection, but it is becoming an increasing cause of genital infection too, mainly in rich countries.. That is because improved hygiene in rich countries is lowering HSV-1 infection rates in childhood, leaving young people more at risk of catching it via oral sex when they become sexually active.. HSV-2 can increase the risk of catching and spreading HIV, the disease that causes AIDS. Little is known ...
LONDON - Politicians and public health leaders have publicly committed to equitably sharing any coronavirus vaccine that works, but the top global ini...
Globally, more children are still underweight rather than obese although the researchers think that will change by 2022 if trends continue.
articles, news, reports and publications on quality of healthcare, quality assurance, quality improvement, quality indicators, quality measures, health services research, patient safety, medical errors, hospital performance, health information technology and more from The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, JAMA, BMJ, CMAJ, MJA, Medical Care, Health Affairs and other leading medical journals and from AHRQ, CMWF, CMS, RAND, NHS and other international health Agency. ...
Although the U.S. spends far more per person on medical care than any other nation, the results have been less than impressive. Relative to other developed nations, the U.S. consistently performs worse on a wide range of health measures, including infant mortality, premature deaths, life expectancy, and prevalence of heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic illnesses. Many health care experts have pointed to inefficiencies in our health care system as the cause for this paradox. Bradley and Taylor identify another culprit - too little attention to the social, environmental, and behavioral factors that impact health.. The book begins with a summary of the authors previous research comparing spending on health care and social services among OECD countries. This research found that when spending on health care is combined with spending on social services, the U.S only ranks in the middle of OECD countries. More importantly, the U.S. is an outlier when comparing the ratio of a nations social to ...
The Netherlands spends relatively more money on short-term admissions for mental and behaviourial disorders than other OECD countries. At hospitals (including GGZ institutions) expenditure on these disorders takes up nearly a quarter of the total ||link 1||, more than twice the amount spent in other OECD countries.
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Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer and while it was once an issue only in high income countries, overweight and obesity has now dramatically risen in low- and middle-income countries.Such countries are now facing a "double burden" of disease, for while they continue to deal with the problems of infectious disease and under-nutrition, they are also experiencing a rapid upsurge in chronic disease risk factors such as obesity and overweight, particularly in urban settings ...
In high-income countries, we have nearly reached optimisation of present anticancer treatments," says Professor Kathy Pritchard-Jones.. "New regulatory approval and research strategies are urgently needed to speed the development of new, effective, and safer treatments for children with cancer if we are to continue to improve the cure rate, reduce toxicity compared to existing treatments, and minimise side effects in later life," she continues.. Although more children and young people in high-income countries are surviving cancer than ever before, cancer remains the leading cause of death from disease in children aged 1 to 15 years. More than 5,000 children still lose their lives to cancer every year in these regions.. Increased participation in international, collaborative clinical trials has successfully raised survival from 30% to 80% over the last half century. "But an increasingly complex and strict regulatory environment for clinical research and data sharing is limiting childrens access ...
The OECD estimates that "5% of working populations in high income countries are affected by severe mental health problems, with a further 15% affected by moderate mental health problems". Guidelines developed for employers to detect, prevent, and manage mental health problems in the workplace were reviewed for quality and completeness. The review authors indicate that although access to employee early assistance programs (EAPs) can be effective, intervention is only "truly preventative" when both individual and organisational factors are considered. Across the 20 guidelines assessed, the Canadian Standard scored highest for quality and comprehensiveness of content, followed by the Australian Heads-Up material from Beyond Blue ...
While many high-income countries observe a relative decline in the population impact of heart disease and deal with the problem of an older patient population who readily survive earlier non-fatal encounters with the condition, Africa contends with a typically younger population with frequently advanced and often fatal heart disease. While high-income countries exclusively deal with non-communicable forms of heart disease, Africa contends with both communicable and non-communicable forms of heart disease ...
A new HIV Medicine study identified several barriers to routine HIV testing in emergency departments and acute medical units in the UK and US.
The economical crisis is affecting everything. We are all familiar with budget cuts, restrinctions, debt, risk premium,... In most high income countries the new mantra are make things profitable, tax-payers money should be used only to support areas with added value, let´s avoid unnecessary things, ... Not surprisingly this politicians view is also affecting science. Five to seven years ago many grant funding agencies, including the European Comission, started to deem basic science as a low priority area. Instead, major funding efforts are increasingly been devoted to those projects/areas showing great promises of transfer the knowledge to the market in a short time. In many places, at least in my own country Spain, basic science is mostly considered a waste of money. Now in every project you write you really need to make a clear business case of the importance of your research, and expected results, for health, society, market,...In the context of biomedical research, my own area ...
This OECD Economic Outlook analyses the current economic situation and examines the economic policies required to foster a sustained recovery in member countries. The present issue covers the outlook to end 2017 for both OECD countries and selected non OECD economies. Together with a wide range of cross-country statistics, the Outlook provides a unique tool to keep abreast of world economic developments.. ...
Cardiovascular disease is ravaging India and China. Preventive cardiovascular treatments widely available in high income countries not yet accessed in the less developed nations.
If you qualify for free access please complete this form to register for the e-learning courses. You will be notified via email about the next steps and how to access the training. If you work in a high-middle or high income country, please visit the Evidentia website for purchasing information (https://www.evidentialearning.com/) Thank you ...
Although central nervous system side effects associated with efavirenz have led to newer drugs being recommended in in high income countries, WHO ...
This paper analyzes the impact of product and labor market policies on technological diffusion and multi-factor productivity (MFP) in a panel of industries in 15 OECD countries over the period 1980 to 2003, with a special focus on Australia. We use a simple convergence empirical framework to show that, on average, convergence of MFP within industries across countries has slowed-down in the 1990s. In contrast, Australian industries have significantly caught-up with industry productivity best practices over the past 16 years, and have benefited from the diffusion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). We show that reforms of both the labor and product markets since the early 1990s can explain Australias productivity performance and adoption of ICTs.
Rich countries should make more vaccine available to poorer nations where the H1N1 virus is starting to hit, U.N. health officials said on Sunday.
Respiratory infection, which causes such as influenza virus or respiratory virus (RSV), are killed each year at least 4.25 million people, while a large proportion of them are children.. Overall, these infections are responsible for six percent of all deaths. Informed the representatives of World Lung Foundation.. The results published in this report shows that the highest risk of death from respiratory infection risk to people in poor countries. Number of deaths from pneumonia in countries with the lowest incomes up to 215-fold higher than in rich countries. Annually worldwide medical record 156 million cases of the disease, while only 97 percent of them occurring in developing countries. The European countries have the highest mortality experts on the disease in the UK. Died of pneumonia in 2008 around the world to 1.6 million children, representing only 20 percent of all child deaths. For comparison, the malaria deaths in that year, 732 thousand and 200-thousand AIDS children.. In the same ...
International comparisons of fetal and neonatal mortality rates in high-income countries: Should exclusion thresholds be based on birth weight or gestational age?
Four classes of center medicines - - aspirin, beta blockers, statins and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors - - ought to be obtainable in 80 % of communities and used by half of eligible patients by 2025, the global world Health Company says. But compliance is definately not those targets currently, the study found. Unless governments in most countries, especially low - and middle-income countries, begin initiatives to make these essential heart medications available and provided free - - as is done for HIV - - then their use is often going to be much less than ideal, said research leader Salim Yusuf, director of the populace Health Study Institute at Hamilton Wellness Sciences and McMaster University in Canada. In rich countries, the main element question differs - - we are in need of health systems in which there are organized approaches to secondary prevention, perhaps run by nonphysicians such as trained nurses or additional health workers, to boost uptake and adherence, Yusuf added in ...
In the Economy category, GDP dollar estimates for countries are reported both on an official exchange rate (OER) and a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. Both measures contain information that is useful to the reader. The PPP method involves the use of standardized international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of final goods and services produced in a given economy. The data derived from the PPP method probably provide the best available starting point for comparisons of economic strength and well-being between countries. In contrast, the currency exchange rate method involves a variety of international and domestic financial forces that may not capture the value of domestic output. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations. In developing countries with weak currencies, the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Most of the ...
In the Economy category, GDP dollar estimates for countries are reported both on an official exchange rate (OER) and a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. Both measures contain information that is useful to the reader. The PPP method involves the use of standardized international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of final goods and services produced in a given economy. The data derived from the PPP method probably provide the best available starting point for comparisons of economic strength and well-being between countries. In contrast, the currency exchange rate method involves a variety of international and domestic financial forces that may not capture the value of domestic output. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations. In developing countries with weak currencies, the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Most of the ...