1. The influence of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension on brain atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in rats was investigated to elucidate the role of central ANF in a renin-independent model of experimental hypertension.. 2. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to uninephrectomy and given either tap water or saline [1% (w/v) NaCl] to drink plus weekly injections of either saline or DOCA (25 mg/kg, subcutaneously). After 32 days, the rats were decapitated and 18 different brain nuclei were removed by a micropunch technique.. 3. The systolic blood pressure of the DOCA-salt rats was significantly higher than that of control rats [154 ± 3 mmHg vs 104 ± 2 mmHg (20.53 ± 0.40 kPa vs 13.86 ± 0.27 kPa), P , 0.001].. 4. Plasma ANF levels were significantly (P , 0.01) higher in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats compared with control rats.. 5. In DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, the ANF content was increased in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (31.4 ± 2.1 vs 22.1 ± 2.5 pg/mg of ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against desoxycorticosterone. 4-PREGNEN-21-OL-3, 20-DIONE 3-CARBOXYMETHYLOXIME. (PAB5150) - Products - Abnova
MULSAND A. Evaluation of the newer antiarthritics and the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with desoxycorticosterone. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1950;50(2):127-128. doi: .. Download citation file:. ...
We found that in mice having only the Ren-1 gene (C57BL/6J), DOCA-salt-induced hypertension was not affected by chronic inhibition of ACE or blockade of AT1 receptors, similar to DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.6 In addition, DOCA-salt reduced PRC by 97% in C57BL/6J mice, similar to Balb/c mice4 and rats1 having only 1 copy of the renin gene, and this reduction was not affected by the ACE inhibitor or AT1 receptor antagonist. In turn, our previous study showed that PRC was only partially reduced in 129/SvEvTac mice (Ren-1/Ren-2) when given DOCA-salt compared with their respective controls, and the development of hypertension was partially prevented by an ACE inhibitor.5 The remaining PRC in DOCA-salt mice (Ren-1/Ren-2) could be due to the presence of the Ren-2 gene, which expresses renin mainly in the convoluted tubular cells of the submaxillary gland with only very low levels in the kidney.16 While expression of renin from Ren-1 was completely suppressed by DOCA-salt,1 it appears that expression of ...
Background: It has been demonstrated that preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific hypertension disorder, is characterized by high blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic overactivity. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key region for controlling sympathetic tone, has been reported to contribute to high level of BP and sympathetic outflow. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the RVLM ROS in mediating the preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular dysfunction.Methods: The animal model of preeclampsia was produced by administration of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) to pregnant rats. Results: Compared with normal pregnant rats without DOCA treatment (NP), the protein concentration and norepinephrine excretion in 24-hour urine, as well as BP in pregnant rats with DOCA treatment (PDS) were significantly increased. The levels of superoxide anion and the protein expression of NADPH oxidase subtype (NOX4) in the RVLM were significantly increased
Used to treat adrenocortical insufficiency, desoxycorticosterone pivalate is a mineralocorticoid hormone and an analogue of desoxycorticosterone. It primarily acts on the metabolism of sodium, potassium and water. When the drug is given, there is decreased excretion of sodium accompanied by increased excretion of potassium; the concentration of sodium in the blood is thereby increased whereas that of potassium is decreased. There is a concomitant increase in the volume of blood and extracellular fluids, with a fall in hematocrit. It increases the rate of renal tubular absorption of sodium ...
Used to treat adrenocortical insufficiency, desoxycorticosterone pivalate is a mineralocorticoid hormone and an analogue of desoxycorticosterone. It primarily acts on the metabolism of sodium, potassium and water. When the drug is given, there is decreased excretion of sodium accompanied by increased excretion of potassium; the concentration of sodium in the blood is thereby increased whereas that of potassium is decreased. There is a concomitant increase in the volume of blood and extracellular fluids, with a fall in hematocrit. It increases the rate of renal tubular absorption of sodium ...
Results DOCA-salt treatment for 5 weeks increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) determined by the telemetry system (144 ± 3 vs. 108 ± 4 mmHg, P , 0.01) and renal hypertrophy (116.3 ± 2.7 vs. 75.7 ± 1.4 mg/10 g of BW, P , 0.01) compared with sham mice. We also found that urinary 8-isoprostane and albumin excretion were increased in DOCA-salt mice compared with sham mice (1.76 ± 0.16 vs. 0.49 ± 0.10 ng/24 h; 41.1 ± 3.5 vs. 5.8 ± 0.6 μg/24 h, P , 0.05). Periodic acid-Schiff and Massons trichrome staining showed that DOCA-salt treatment caused obvious glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial injury in the renal cortex (0.62 ± 0.06 vs. 0.08 ± 0.01; 3.00 ± 0.30 vs. 0.21 ± 0.10, P , 0.05), and tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared with the sham mice. Consistent with the results, renal collagen level determined using hydroxyproline assay was higher in DOCA-salt treated mice compared with the sham mice (26.8 ± 2.4 vs. 12.2 ± 1.3 μg/mg dry tissue, P , 0.05). In addition, F4/80-staining ...
Arteries isolated from hypertensive animals consistently demonstrate potentiated contractions to a variety of agonists, and recent evidence has underlined the importance of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity in this potentiation.1-5 For example, Northcott et al5 have demonstrated that PI3K activity is elevated in aortae from rats with DOCA-salt hypertension and that the increased activity contributes to enhanced arterial reactivity.. To investigate the mechanisms involved in the PI3K-mediated contractile response seen in arteries from DOCA-salt hypertensive animals, we have focused on the downstream serine-threonine kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed kinase that was first characterized as a major regulator of glycogen synthase activity.6 GSK-3 is a direct substrate of PKB/Akt7 and functions in several signaling pathways, including the PI3K pathway, to affect protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, gene transcription, and apoptosis.8 Of ...
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increased left ventricular inflammatory cell infiltration together with increased interstitial collagen and increased passive diastolic stiffness and vascular dysfunction with increased plasma malondialdehyde concentrations. Treatment with L-carnitine (1.2% in food; 0.9 mg⁄g⁄day in DOCA-salt rats) decreased blood pressure (DOCA-salt 169 € 2; + L-carnitine 148 € 6# mmHg), decreased left ventricular wet weights (DOCA-salt 3.02 € 0.07; + L-carnitine 2.72 € 0.06# mg⁄ g body-wt), decreased inflammatory cells in the replacement fibrotic areas, reduced left ventricular interstitial collagen content (DOCA-salt 14.4 € 0.2; + L-carnitine 8.7 € 0.5# % area), reduced diastolic stiffness constant (DOCA-salt 26.9 € 0.5; + L- ...
Definition of 11-deoxycorticosterone in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of 11-deoxycorticosterone. What does 11-deoxycorticosterone mean? Information and translations of 11-deoxycorticosterone in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-B6769, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-Bradykinin acetate salt for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
In this investigation we found that little of intravenously infused [14C]deoxycorticosterone (DOC) was converted to [14C]DOC-SO4 that entered plasma. Moreover little of intravenously infused [3H]DOC-SO4 was metabolized by way of DOC except by intestinal bacterial enzymes. However evidence was obtained that plasma DOC is converted to DOC-SO4 in liver, but little of the DOC-SO4 formed in liver escapes into blood; rather the DOC-SO4 enters bile and in the intestine is converted, in part, to progesterone (or metabolites thereof) by the action of bacterial enzymes. The estimated intrahepatic fractional conversion of DOC to DOC-SO4 was significantly greater in premenopausal women (0.72 +/- 0.118, mean +/- SEM) than in men (0.28 +/- 0.036, P less than 0.005).. ...
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Definition of deoxycorticosterone acetate. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
These clinical signs can vary in severity, and many owners report that the problems seem to wax and wane, sometimes seeming to resolve on their own and sometimes responding temporarily to very nonspecific treatment. Because pets with Addisons disease have a reduced ability to handle stress, the emotional stress of visiting a boarding kennel or the excitement of a family gathering can cause clinical signs to resurface.. Diagnosis of Addisons disease can be complicated; generally more than one type of test is needed to confirm a diagnosis.. What Is Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate (DOCP)? Some pets with Addisons disease arrive at the veterinary office in a state of life-threatening crisis. Low blood pressure, shock, dehydration, impaired heart function, and other complications of the disease can be fatal if not treated immediately and aggressively. In these cases, hospitalization for emergency intravenous fluid therapy and other stabilization is necessary.. In other cases, the clinical signs of ...
Beyond being a catalyst in the rate-limiting step in testosterone reduction, 5α-reductase isoforms I and II reduce progesterone to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP) and deoxycorticosterone to dihydrodeoxycorticosterone (DHDOC). In vitro and animal models suggest subsequent 3α-reduction of DHT, 5α-DHP and DHDOC lead to neurosteroid metabolites with effect on cerebral function. These neurosteroids, which include allopregnanolone, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC), and 3α-androstanediol, act as potent positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors, and have antidepressant, anxiolytic, prosexual, and anticonvulsant effects.[33] 5α-Dihydrocortisol is present in the aqueous humor of the eye, is synthesized in the lens, and might help make the aqueous humor itself.[34] 5α-Dihydroaldosterone is a potent antinatriuretic agent, although different from aldosterone. Its formation in the kidney is enhanced by restriction of dietary salt, suggesting it may help retain sodium.[35] 5α-DHP is a ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. deoxycorticosterone ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Local administration of ETA (but not ETB) blockers into the PAG area of the brain decreases blood pressure of DOCA-salt rats.: The present study investigated th
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Oxidative stress resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species is the major mediator of neuronal cell degeneration observed in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Additionally, hypertension has been shown to be a positive risk factor for VaD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum strain TWK10 (TWK10)-fermented soymilk on the protection of PC-12 cells in H2O2-, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)- and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced rat models of VaD. Notably, the viabilities of H2O2-treated PC-12 cells and OGD model were significantly increased by treatment with TWK10-fermented soymilk ethanol extract (p < 0.05). In addition, oral administration of TWK10-fermented soymilk extract in DOCA-salt hypertension-induced VaD rats resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure (p < 0.05), which was regulated by inhibiting ACE activity and promoting NO ...
[149 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and Chinese Acetate Salt Industry, 2017 Market Research Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese Acetate Salt Industry, 2012-2022 Market...
The desexycorticosterone-mimetic action of ammoniated glycyrrhizin on electrolyte and water metabolism and on pituitary-adrenal function, was demonstrated in rats. Retention of sodium and water was observed in both intact and adrenalectomized rats during 4 hour minerosteroid assays, the degree of retention being a function of log dose. In intact rats, the antidiuretic effect of glycyrrhizin was immediate and cumulative, while retention of sodium appeared only after a latent period and did not increase with time. Adrenalectomized rats, 3 days after the operation, showed a more marked antidiuretic effect than intact rats, but no greater retention of sodium.. Rats receiving glycyrrhizin prior to histamine stress showed a marked decrease in adrenal ascorbic acid depletion, suggesting that glycyrrhizin had suppressed the output of ACTH.. Whether glycyrrhizin acts on the same target organ as desoxycorticosterone in producing sodium and water retention is still an open question. However, the fact that ...
These clinical signs can vary in severity, and many owners report that the problems seem to wax and wane, sometimes seeming to resolve on their own and sometimes responding temporarily to very nonspecific treatment. Because pets with Addisons disease have a reduced ability to handle stress, the emotional stress of visiting a boarding kennel or the excitement of a family gathering can cause clinical signs to resurface.. Diagnosis of Addisons disease can be complicated; generally more than one type of test is needed to confirm a diagnosis.. What Is Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate (DOCP)? Some pets with Addisons disease arrive at the veterinary office in a state of life-threatening crisis. Low blood pressure, shock, dehydration, impaired heart function, and other complications of the disease can be fatal if not treated immediately and aggressively. In these cases, hospitalization for emergency intravenous fluid therapy and other stabilization is necessary.. In other cases, the clinical signs of ...
The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of Aliskiren, a renin inhibitor, on the deoxycorticosterone (DOCA) induced myocardial fibrosis in a rat model and its underlying mechanism. A total of 45 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent right nephrectomy and were randomly assigned into 3 groups: control group (CON group: silicone tube was embedded subcutaneously); DOCA treated group (DOC group: 200 mg of DOCA was subcutaneously administered); DOCA and Aliskiren (ALI) treated group (ALI group: 200 mg of DOCA and 50 mg/kg/d ALI were subcutaneously and intragastrically given, respectively). Treatment was done for 4 weeks. Sirius red staining was employed to detect the expression of myocardial collagen, and the myocardial collagen volume fraction (CVF) and perivascular collagen volume area (PVCA) were calculated. Radioimmunoassay was carried out to measure the renin activity (RA) and content of angiotensin II (Ang II) in the plasma and ventricle. Western blot assay was done to detect the ...
The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of Aliskiren, a renin inhibitor, on the deoxycorticosterone (DOCA) induced myocardial fibrosis in a rat model and its underlying mechanism. A total of 45 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent right nephrectomy and were randomly assigned into 3 groups: control group (CON group: silicone tube was embedded subcutaneously); DOCA treated group (DOC group: 200 mg of DOCA was subcutaneously administered); DOCA and Aliskiren (ALI) treated group (ALI group: 200 mg of DOCA and 50 mg/kg/d ALI were subcutaneously and intragastrically given, respectively). Treatment was done for 4 weeks. Sirius red staining was employed to detect the expression of myocardial collagen, and the myocardial collagen volume fraction (CVF) and perivascular collagen volume area (PVCA) were calculated. Radioimmunoassay was carried out to measure the renin activity (RA) and content of angiotensin II (Ang II) in the plasma and ventricle. Western blot assay was done to detect the ...
Legende: Spalte ohne Skalierung D - add Äußerer Kreis (2 Stück) von brauner Farbe 1.6 in CA 2,6 d = 12 SBN 3. (1 SBN, 1 d) x 6 = 18 SBN 4. (2 SBN, 1 d) x 6 =… Continue Reading →. ...
Browse many computed properties for this hexagonal Ba3SbN compound, including formation energy from the elements, energy of decomposition into the set of most stable materials at this chemical composition, bulk crystalline density, and band gap. Also known as: Barium nitride antimonide (3/1/1). Cite this material using DOI 10.17188/1189212.
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The effects of a stressful environmental stimulus (air stress) on mean arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity, and renal function were studied in conscious deoxycorticosterone acetate-sodium chloride (DOCA-NaCl) hypertensive rats, sham DOCA-NaCl normotensive rats, and DOCA-NaCl rats with renal denervation. In conscious DOCA-NaCl hypertensive rats, air stress decreased urine flow rate [36% from 17.9 +/- 3.0 microliter X min-1 X 100 g body wt-1 (BW)], urinary sodium excretion (39% from 3.1 +/- 0.5 microeq X min-1 X 100 g BW-1), fractional water excretion (24% from 4.72 +/- 1.00%), and fractional sodium excretion (28% from 5.72 +/- 1.08%) and increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (94% from 8.3 +/- 0.6 integrator resets/min), but no changes occurred in glomerular filtration rate (-15% from 0.40 +/- 0.06 ml X min-1 X 100 g BW-1) or effective renal plasma flow (-7% from 2.50 +/- 0.53 ml X min-1 X 100 g BW-1). Air stress had no effect on these measures in conscious sham ...
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This is a list of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5α-RIs), drugs which inhibit one or more isoforms of the enzyme 5α-reductase. This enzyme is responsible for the conversion of the androgen hormone testosterone into the more potent dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and is essential for the production of neurosteroids like allopregnanolone, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC), and 3α-androstanediol from progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, and DHT, respectively. 5α-Reductase inhibitors have medical applications in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, androgenic alopecia (pattern hair loss), and hirsutism (excessive hair growth). 5α-RIs used in medicine include the following: Finasteride (Proscar, Propecia) Dutasteride (Avodart) Epristeride (Aipuliete, Chuanliu) Alfatradiol (Ell-Cranell Alpha, Pantostin) Saw palmetto extract (Permixon) Some of the 5α-RIs in research are as follows: Bexlosteride (LY-191704) Izonsteride (LY-320236) Lapisteride (CS-891) Turosteride (FCE-26073) FCE-28260 MK-386 ...
Although volume and vasoconstriction have been considered polar elements in a useful pathogenetic hypertension model, many observations suggest that vasoconstriction is involved in volume-dependent hypertension, reflecting the effect of a digitalis-like factor. To examine that possibility, we assessed the depressor responses to Digibind, an antibody Fab directed against digoxin, in a volume-dependent model--DOCA-salt-induced hypertension in rats. Digibind (10 mg/kg, intravenously) induced a gradual blood pressure fall over 2 h that was sustained for 4 h (P | .001). Blood pressure did not fall with Digibind when DOCA was administered without salt or a high-salt intake was provided without DOCA. The intracellular sodium content of the rat aorta, measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy after cold choline wash, was increased in the DOCA-high-salt rats (23.3 +/- 2.7 mEq/L) compared to control rats (12.1 +/- 0.8 mEq/L; P | .001). Aorta sodium content, in parallel with blood pressure, was not increased
RECLAIMING OF LEAD IN FORM OF HIGH PURITY LEAD COMPOUND FROM RECOVERED ELECTRODE PASTE SLIME OF DISMISSED LEAD BATTERIES AND/OR OF LEAD MINERALS - An all-wet process for reclaiming the lead content of impure electrode paste or slime from discarded lead batteries and/or lead minerals, in form of high purity lead compound, comprises a) suspending the impure lead containing material in a lead sulphate dissolving aqueous solution of a salt belonging to the group composed of the acetates of sodium, potassium and ammonium; b) adding to the suspension sulphuric acid in an amount sufficient to convert all lead oxides to lead sulphate soluble in the acetate salt solution and slowly adding to the suspension either hydrogen peroxide or a sulphite or bubbling sulphurous anhydride through it, in a measure adapted to reduce any lead dioxide to lead oxide converted eventually to soluble lead sulphate by the sulphuric acid; c) separating a limpid acetate salt solution containing dissolved lead sulphate from a ...
Renin (REN) expression is required to maintain blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis. However, the mechanisms by which REN is transcriptionally regulated remain elusive. We reported a functional role for several nuclear receptors (NRs) on REN gene transcription. To identify other candidate NRs that regulate REN, we analyzed a publicly available microarray dataset (GUDMAP Developing Kidney ST1) to compare the expression pattern of REN and the 48 NRs across different kidney cell types. Our analysis revealed 14 NRs exhibiting a similar pattern as REN. We hypothesized that these NRs are co-regulated with REN and can regulate REN transcription. To test this hypothesis, we set up 2 cohorts of mice in which REN expression was either high or low compared to control mice and measured expression of REN and NRs in renal cortex by qPCR. The high-REN cohort was given the ACE inhibitor captopril (100g/kg/day) for 10 days, and the low-REN group was implanted subcutaneously with a deoxycorticosterone acetate
... human diseases including hypertension however commonly employed antioxidants have proven ineffective in clinical trials. SOD2 depletion with siRNA increased both basal and angiotensin II-stimulated cellular O2?. Treatment of mice in vivo with mitoTEMPO attenuated hypertension when ABT-751 given at the onset of ABT-751 angiotensin II infusion and decreased blood pressure by 30 mm Hg following establishment of both angiotensin II-induced and DOCA-salt hypertension while a similar dose of non-targeted TEMPOL was not effective. In vivo mitoTEMPO decreased vascular O2? increased vascular NO? production and improved ABT-751 endothelial-dependent relaxation. Interestingly transgenic mice overexpressing mitochondrial SOD2 exhibited attenuated angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular oxidative stress much like mice treated with mitoTEMPO. Conclusions: These studies show that mitochondrial O2? is usually important for the ...
Acetate, also known as ethanoate, is the salt of acetic acid (vinegar). It is formed when acetic acid is deprotonated. Its chemical formula is CH2COOH- when it exists as an ion. Acetate salts turn brown when heated, and smell like acetic acid. Acetate is usually found as part of a compound formed as a salt, for example sodium acetate, often as the product of a neutralisation reaction of acetic acid and a base. ...
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The endothelin (ET) system has emerged as a novel target for hypertension treatment where a medical need persists despite availability of several pharmacological classes, including renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers. ET receptor antagonism has demonstrated efficacy in preclinical models of hypertension, especially in low-renin conditions, and in hypertensive patients. We investigated the pharmacology of aprocitentan (ACT-132577), a potent dual ETA/ETB receptor antagonist, on blood pressure (BP) in two models of experimental hypertension: DOCA-Salt rats (low-renin model) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, normal renin model). We also compared the effect of its combination with RAS blockers (valsartan and enalapril) with that of the combination of the mineraloreceptor antagonist spironolactone with the same RAS blockers on BP and renal function in hypertensive rats. Aprocitentan was more potent and efficacious in lowering BP in conscious DOCA-salt rats than in SHR. In DOCA-salt rats, ...
Although acetylcholine has conventionally been used to estimate endothelial function, it is unlikely that it is a major regulator of basal vascular tone and NO release in vivo. In contrast, ET-1 has been shown to be a potent stimulator of eNOS even at picomolar doses.12 We have reported that ETBR stimulation by BQ-3020, particularly at lower doses, more precisely reflects endothelial function than does ET-1, which also stimulates ETAR on VSMCs.12 However, we further examined the effects of ET-1 in rats with hypercholesterolemia and their controls. ET-1 exerted a vasodilatory effect at lower doses but a vasoconstrictive effect at higher doses and a dose-dependent NO release in the kidneys of control rats but only vasoconstrictive effects in the kidneys of hypercholesterolemic rats. In the previous study, we demonstrated that ET-1 had similar effects in the kidneys of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. We therefore speculate that the effects of BQ-3020 on vascular tone and NO release, especially at ...
BioAssay record AID 536444 submitted by ChEMBL: Antihypertensive activity against DOCA-salt induced hypertension in albino rat assessed as reduction in systolic blood pressure at 10 mg/kg, po after 180 mins by tail-cuff method.
Perry et al v. Schwarzenegger et al Doc. 223 Case3:09-cv-02292-VRW Document223 Filed10/13/09 Page1 of 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher LLP GIBSON, DUNN & CRUTCHER LLP Theodore B. Olson, SBN 38137 [email protected] Matthew D. McGill, pro hac vice Amir C. Tayrani, SBN 229609 1050 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 Telephone: (202) 955-8668, Facsimile: (202) 467-0539 Theodore J. Boutrous, Jr., SBN 132009 [email protected] Christopher D. Dusseault, SBN 177557 Ethan D. Dettmer, SBN 196046 Sarah E. Piepmeier, SBN 227094 Theane Evangelis Kapur, SBN 243570 Enrique A. Monagas, SBN 239087 333 S. Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90071 Telephone: (213) 229-7804, Facsimile: (213) 229-7520 BOIES, SCHILLER & FLEXNER LLP David Boies, pro hac vice [email protected] Theodore H. Uno, SBN 248603 333 Main Street, Armonk, New York 10504 Telephone: (914) 749-8200, Facsimile: (914) 749-8300 Attorneys for Plaintiffs ...