What is synthetic marijuana?. Synthetic marijuana is a psychoactive designer drug that is made of natural herbs that are sprayed with synthetic chemicals. When these synthetic chemicals are consumed, they supposedly mimic the effects of marijuana. These synthetic chemicals are known as synthetic cannabinoids. Synthetic marijuana is best known by their brand names K2 and Spice. These brand names have become almost trademarks for synthetic marijuana and are used to refer to any and all synthetic marijuana. There are some people who are against calling K2 or Spice synthetic marijuana because the ingredients in it are mimics and not copies of THC (the active ingredient in actual marijuana).. History of synthetic marijuana. Synthetic marijuana products were first sold under the brand name of Spice. Synthetic marijuana appeared in Europe in 2004. In 2006, the brand gained popularity. Eventually in 2009, competing brands began emerging and they were also referred to as Spice. So spice which is ...
A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance that has been designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug, while avoiding classification as illegal and/or detection in standard drug tests. Designer drugs include psychoactive substances that have been designated by the European Union as new psychoactive substances (NPS) as well as analogs of performance-enhancing drugs such as designer steroids. Some of these were originally synthesized by academic or industrial researchers in an effort to discover more potent derivatives with fewer side effects and were later co-opted for recreational use. Other designer drugs were prepared for the first time in clandestine laboratories. Because the efficacy and safety of these substances has not been thoroughly evaluated in animal and human trials, the use of some of these drugs may result in unexpected side effects. The development of designer drugs may be considered a subfield of drug design. The ...
Looking for Designer drugs? Find out information about Designer drugs. chemical substance synthesized in a laboratory that is intended to have effects similar to those of a drug that is a controlled substance, such as... Explanation of Designer drugs
Well, New Designers is over for another year. But there are just a couple of moments to be relived.. The first is from the opening speech of Week One by Business Design Centre host and managing director Andrew Morris. The bit about how if New Designers was dreamt up now (having never happened) it would never happen. Why not? Because, Morris says: "Our revered design bodies are more bothered about image and rhetoric.". Image and rhetoric? Hmm.. The second is also from the same speech. Morris talks about how he and Peter York dreamed up the New Designers concept over a bottle ten years ago.. Er, didnt Peta Levi set up the first New Designers back in 1984, years before the BDC got involved? What was that rhetoric about image?. Peta, charming and charitable as ever, declines to retort. She has a better and more generous memory, recalling the New Designers debt to the BDC for giving the show a home when the corporate sponsorship largesse of the 1980s dried up.. ...
Recreational so-called "designer drugs" are being produced faster and in growing numbers across the world according to the Vienna-based International Narcotics Control Board (INCB). Drug traffickers have become increasingly sophisticated and have produced legal drugs by modifying the molecular structure of illegal substances. In Europe, 16 new designer drugs are being monitored, in Japan the number is as high as 51 ...
A new designer drug that is similar to bath salts has been linked to multiple cases of unusual and uncontrollable behaviors in south Florida.
Designer drugs have been around for over 20 years. They were created in laboratories by chemists to mimic illegal drugs like marijuana, LSD, cocaine, and heroin. Theyre popular because most are legal, and they usually dont show up in a drug test. Yet theyre more dangerous than the drugs they mimic. Why? Theyre unregulated. In other words, theres no way to know exactly what youre getting when you buy them. For example, teens across the country have been seriously injured and some have died when taking the designer drugs 2C-E and 3C-bromo-dragonfly. These kids thought they were buying one kind of designer drug, but were actually sold a much stronger, more dangerous one.. Most designer drugs have psychedelic properties. Some are mixed with amphetamines. Theyre deadly in high doses, because they affect more areas of the body than the psychedelics they mimic. LSD affects serotonin receptors, but it isnt toxic. Not so with the designer drugs created to mimic LSD. They not only increase ...
A man rushes out of his house in Miami last month, ripping his clothes off in a rage, screaming violently, after smoking a crystal-like drug. Five police
While the Department of Justice continues on their tireless crusade to undermine recreational and medical cannabis legalization, much more dangerous substances are surfacing across the world. From Brooklyn to Manchester, synthetic marijuana (more popularly known as K2 or spice) has plagued the streets, leaving users in a zombie-like states, or even in the hospital. Meanwhile, opioid abuse is also rising at an alarming rate, partly due to the popularity of fentanyl.. In order to combat these highly hazardous drugs, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo is planning to propose legislation that would add various concoctions of synthetic marijuana and fentanyl to the states list of controlled substances. The bills would pertain to 35 types of spice and 11 types of fentanyl.. Although both substances are already illegal under federal law, the governor claims that drug producers continue to tweak their recipe in order to stay ahead of the law. Therefore, Cuomo believes that these newly proposed laws are ...
Party drugs" or "rave drugs" are often associated with designer drugs. Designer drugs are modified restricted drugs (drugs that are normally only available with a prescription or whose purchase is limited by a pharmacy, even when it is sold "over the counter").. They are made by "underground chemists" to create street drugs that arent listed as "controlled substances" by the Drug Enforcement Administration. A designer drug is usually created by changing the molecular structure of an already-existing drug, thereby creating a new substance.. An example of this would be Ecstasy. Street names for these types of drugs vary according to the time, place or the manufacturer or chemist.. Because they are created in labs by unlicensed and untrained amateur chemists, they can be extremely dangerous. Often, there is little, or no, standardization or testing done on dosing, efficacy, tolerances, or toxicity.. In fact, most of the time, designer drugs are more dangerous and potent than the original drug that ...
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a stimulant of the cathinone class which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). It was first developed in the 1960s by a team at Boehringer Ingelheim. MDPV remained an obscure stimulant until around 2004 when it was reportedly sold as a designer drug. Products labeled as bath salts containing MDPV were previously sold as recreational drugs in gas stations and convenience stores in the United States, similar to the marketing for Spice and K2 as incense. The hydrochloride salt exists as a very fine, hygroscopic, crystalline powder that tends to clump to itself, resembling something like powdered sugar. Its color can range from pure white to a yellowish-tan and has a slight odor that strengthens as it colors. Impurities are likely to consist of either pyrrolidine or alpha-dibrominated alkylphenones from either excess pyrrolidine or incomplete amination, respectively, during synthesis. These impurities likely account for its discoloration ...
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Designer drugs are illegal substances that are created synthetically in a lab and typically have a similar effect to the best-known drugs.
Drugs, designer drugs and stimulators. Drugs. Drugs - narcotic substances acting on the central nervous system. Drugs are substances which with a regular intake lead to physical and psychological dependence of used drug, All psychotropic substances that are currently illegal in Poland....
Designer Drugs: Synthetic Marijuana. An emerging trend in the drug world is the use synthetic cannabinoids or synthetic marijuana. Synthetic cannabinoids are psychoactive substances that are chemically similar to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the active ingredient in marijuana) and are applied to plant material. While synthetic cannabinoids are chemically similar to THC, it does not mean that these substances will necessarily have the same or similar effects as marijuana. Synthetic cannabinoids are derived from lab synthesized liquid chemicals which can have adverse and/or unexpected effects on its users: "Little is known of the pharmacological profile of the chemicals or their by-products." (1) Furthermore, these products may also contain other undisclosed toxic chemicals. Like marijuana, smoking is the primary method of consumption. Synthetic cannabinoids are often packaged and sold as potpourri or incense and labeled "not for human consumption." These products go by many names: Spice, K2, Scooby ...
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As soon as I heard that, I walked over there and intervened, punked her ass in front of everyone, in English, so everyone watching could understand me...and I was not quiet about it either. That is very out-of-character for me, but it was so alarming that I didnt care at that point. I guess she thought if she lied in Spanish, no one would understand what she was telling the lady. She was willing to endanger another human beings life to trick her into taking the vaccine...if its "only" flu vaccine, why the deception? Why the pushiness and open hostility toward people who refuse it? Something is up with that, no doubt about it. And you are right...we could all already be "infected" and not even know it. I have thought about this a lot ...
Police show what they suspect is "spice," confiscated during a raid on Outer Edge Gifts in Hampton, Va. (Photo by Rob Ostermaier)Just months after Virginia and dozens of other states banned synthetic marijuana, the chemists who make it have found a way to outfox lawmakers.. Spice manufacturers, who spray herbs with compounds that mimic the active ingredient in marijuana, have altered their recipes just enough to skirt the bans and are again openly marketing spice in stores and on the Web. Some users report that the new generation of products could be more potent than the original formulas, which have sickened hundreds nationwide and been linked to deaths.. Spice, commonly sold in colorful packets as "herbal incense," is smoked to get high. A new National Institute on Drug Abuse study found that it is the second- most frequently used illicit substance among high school seniors, behind marijuana.. Some users have experienced seizures, hallucinations, vomiting, anxiety and an accelerated heart ...
Synthetic marijuana, known as K2, overdoses are challenging the citys first responders and law enforcement. Overdoses are happening everywhere, says one delivery driver.
OKLAHOMA CITY - Synthetic marijuana, better known as K2 or Spice, but sold under varying names. State officials have been trying to outlaw the drugs for years but it seems manufacturers are always one step ahead.
Synthetic marijuana is largely used among adolescents for recreation. Studies show it can increase the risk of addiction, and also trigger violence, other drug use, alcohol abuse, and sexual risk-taking.
Hamilton police have arrested the chief executive of a Toronto-based synthetic marijuana company whose product was being sold in the city.
Cathinones better known as bath salts have been listed as illicit drugs since 2011 and are the structural analog of Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) Schedule I and II substances. They have been banned in numerous countries. Newly synthesized cathinones, which mimic the effects of illegal drugs of abuse and bypass the provisions of drug regulations, are still available. These products have caught concern among law enforcement agencies. Acute toxicity and numerous fatalities have been linked with the abuse of designer cathinones. Despite the increased availability of designer drugs, few studies have focused on the analytical extraction techniques and the matrix effect for their detection and quantification in biological samples. Accurately quantifying the concentration of cathinones in biological samples is important for the regulation of cathinones. LC-MS/MS is commonly used for detecting cathinones ...
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The head of the Drug Enforcement Administration told Congress Thursday that unless new legislation is passed his agency ``will continually be one step behind`` those who deal in so-called designer
A pile of cocaine hydrochloride. Credit: DEA Drug Enforcement Agency, public domain Researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) have used viruses to infect neurons with genes that allow them to switch on brain receptors involved in suppressing addiction relapse. Results of these preclinical studies were published in the September 28th, 2016 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience. The technology, called designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs, or DREADDs, is one of the most promising gene therapies for the future treatment of addiction in humans. The brains of people who use cocaine become hijacked by drug cues. Powerful memories are formed between these cues-such as the using environment and drug paraphernalia-and the dopamine flood that occurs from using the drug itself. In users trying to quit, these ...
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Staack, R.F.; Maurer, H.H., New designer drug 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) piperazine (MDBP): studies on its metabolism and toxicological detection in rat urine using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, J. Mass Spectrom., 2004, 39, 3, 255-261, https://doi.org/10.1002/jms.556 . 7 matching species were found. For each matching species the following will be displayed: ...
But it doesnt say anywhere that we did a Twitter experiment or a Ben Goldacre experiment, we just say that we used an experimental account. Instead of writing that we test something we could have written something like: here is an example of such a tweet to illustrate the features we are talking about. It was more like psychiatrists who treat a patient who took a new designer drug and then, for the case study, the authors take the drug themselves and describe what theyve experienced. The funny thing is, though, that we had a hard time simulating what most patients described as losing control, in this case that "it would not stop". Today I know exactly what they are talking about. I surely had a Twitter overdose. Sometimes I used the live search function and watched the stream of tweets on twitter and psychosis. It was a bit like the Listening Post in the Science Museum in London, just much more disturbing. And after this experience, when thousands of people on Twitter just oafishly ...
The state of Florida has, arguably, been the epicenter of synthetic drug use in the United States. Dangerous, borderline legal chemicals which are sprayed on benign plant matter or crystalline "bath salts" have become somewhat of a scourge in the South Florida region. The most commonly used comes in a form usually referred to as synthetic marijuana-which is a far cry from actual cannabis. Both doctors and the users of synthetic cannabis, sold under the names Spice and K2, will tell you that the side effects witnessed and experienced are quite different than the effects produced by smoking traditional weed.. Just over a year ago we discussed a synthetic drug known as "Flakka" (alpha-PVP) which is chemically similar to bath salts (MDPV) that had been previously abused. In Florida, at the time, the use of Flakka had been linked to 18 deaths.. When it comes to the chemicals used to make synthetic drugs, one country often comes to mind-China. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration(DEA) has long ...
By Fredrik Dahl. VIENNA , Wed Jun 26, 2013 4:13am EDT. VIENNA (Reuters) - A sharp rise in the variety of legal designer drugs with names that entice young people into thinking they pose no risk is alarming from a public health standpoint, the United Nations drugs agency said on Wednesday.. The number of new psychoactive substances - marketed as designer drugs and legal highs - as reported by member states jumped by more than 50 percent in less than three years to 251 by mid-2012, the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime said.. This is an alarming drug problem - but the drugs are legal, it said. Sold openly, including via the Internet, NPS (new psychoactive substances), which have not been tested for safety, can be far more dangerous than traditional drugs.. Names including spice, meow-meow and bath salts mislead young people into believing they are indulging in low-risk fun, UNODC said.. But the adverse effects and addictive potential of most of these uncontrolled substances are at ...
To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the association between ever use of synthetic cannabinoids and health risk behaviors in domains such as injury/violence, mental health, and sexual health among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Furthermore, this study contributes new evidence on how behavioral correlates differ by type of marijuana use. Overall, we observed that ever use of synthetic cannabinoids was associated with the majority of health risk behaviors included in our study and that those associations tended to be more pronounced for ever use of synthetic cannabinoids than for ever use of marijuana only, particularly for substance use behaviors and sexual risk behaviors.. Given that synthetic cannabinoids are a relatively recent issue in the United States, high school students use of the drug was not monitored in national surveillance systems until the 2011 MTF study cycle1 and the 2015 YRBS cycle.21 As a result, much of the available literature ...
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The popularity of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has grown in recent years, with certain NPS commonly and preferentially consumed even following the introduction of preventative legislation. With the objective to improve the knowledge on the use of NPS, a rapid and very sensitive method was developed for the determination of ten priority NPS (N-ethylcathinone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, butylone, methedrone, mephedrone, naphyrone, 25-C-NBOMe, 25-I-NBOMe and 25-B-NBOMe) in influent wastewater. Sample clean-up and pre-concentration was made by off-line solid phase extraction (SPE) with Oasis MCX cartridges. Isotopically labelled internal standards were used to correct for matrix effects and potential SPE losses. Following chromatographic separation on a C18 column within 6 min, the compounds were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ionization mode. The method was optimised and validated for all compounds. Limits of quantification were evaluated by spiking ...
We must each know that each other knows.. Only if all of these conditions are met can we have perfect understanding. Lets pursue the following in the context of a new designer seeking to place work with an experienced sewing contractor.. The problem in working with new designers is not that they dont know much per se, its that there is no meta-cognition. A designer doesnt know what they know and they dont know what the other party knows. The contractor knows the designer must know something but doesnt know what that might be. The two parties have to talk a bit which amounts to a negotiation of sorts. Terminology can be a touch stone; each party takes measure of the other based on how they define terms. Hopefully terms can become a shared language so meta cognition can develop quickly. This is why it is extremely important to use the right definitions.. For example, if a designer were to say "manufacturer" when they meant "sewing contractor", the sewing contractor will know theyre dealing ...
METABOLISM. 12 is better than 1? Not entirely. Myers et al. show that a drug that activates all 12 isoforms of the kinase AMPK has some beneficial metabolic effects for type 2 diabetes but may pose risks to cardiac health (see also Hardie).. CELL BIOLOGY. Removing orphan proteins from the system. Yanagitani et al. and Nguyen et al. identified a protein quality control pathway mediated by the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2O that alters proteome content to promote the differentiation of red blood cells (see also Hampton and Dargemont).. MICROBIOLOGY. Eat more plants for influenza resilience. Steed et al. found that desaminotyrosine (DAT), which is produced by microbial digestion of plant flavonoids, promotes antiviral responses to influenza.. PHARMACOLOGY. DREADD not the designer compound?. Gomez et al. discovered that DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) expressed in the brain are not activated by the designer compound CNO (clozapine N-oxide) itself but rather ...
Ecstasy or MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a stimulant that combines the properties of methamphetamine or speed with mind-altering or hallucinogenic properties. Considered the most commonly used designer drug, Ecstasy is a close derivative of methamphetamine and can be described as a hallucinogenic stimulant. Designer drugs are illicit variations of other drugs. Because of many different recipes used to manufacture Ecstasy, deaths have been caused by some other substances inadvertently created during production, such as PMA (paramethamphetamine). Ecstasy was banned in 1985, and is currently classified as a Schedule 1 substance.
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August 24, 2012. Back in February of 2011 I wrote about the newest drug that nanny-statists were concerned about: bath salts. I called my article: "The War on Drugs Is Expanding." Now I see that President Obama has signed legislation that bans bath salts with the support of most Republicans in Congress. The new law also bans synthetic marijuana, classifying both substances as Schedule I drugs. Possession or sale of bath salts or synthetic marijuana is now punishable by up to 20 years in prison.. The ban is part of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (S.3187). When it originally passed the Senate by a vote of 96-1, only the socialist Bernie Sanders voted against the bill. The bill was amended in the House and then passed by a voice vote. The Senate then voted 92-4 on final passage. Three Republicans joined Sanders in voting against the final version. Not sure why Senators Burr, Coburn, and Paul changed their vote.. ...
One area in the pharmacological industry that was not developed until the middle of the twentieth century was the creation of drugs that were intended to affect the mind. Alcohol and cocaine were mind altering substances that were offered for consumer use, but these substances were provided by a variety of sources and were not necessarily synthesized by pharmaceutical manufacturers (Klass, 1975). It was not until the late 1940s that psychotropic medications were produced by the pharmaceutical industry. These drugs were actually a by-product of pharmaceutical research in other areas. Only very recently have pharmaceutical manufacturers designed medications based on the expected effects of their physical and chemical structure (Kramer, 1993).. In 1946, William Bradly was experimenting on mice in search of new antibiotics. In trials with the drug mephenesin, Bradly found that high doses caused paralysis of limbs and lower doses produced a quieting effect on the demeanor of the animals. Bradly ...
The problem of so-called designer drugs is running out of control in many regions of the world, the UN global drugs watchdog has said.
Hallucinogens have long been a component in the religious rites of various cultures, both in the New and Old Worlds. Among the oldest are substances from mushrooms or cactus that have been in use in Native American rites since before recorded history. Hallucinogenic mushrooms have been used for centuries in rites of medicine men to foresee the future or communicate with the gods.
Environmental transformation processes, including those occurring in natural and engineered systems, do not necessarily drastically alter molecular structures of bioactive organic contaminants. While the majority of generated transformation products are likely benign, substantial conservation of structure in transformation products can imply conservation or even creation of bioactivity across multiple biological end points and thus incomplete mitigation of ecological risk. Therefore, focusing solely on parent compound removal for contaminants of higher relative risk, the most common approach to fate characterization, provides no mechanistic relationship to potential biological effects and is inadequate as a comprehensive metric for reduction of ecological risks. Here, we explore these phenomena for endocrine-active steroid hormones, focusing on examples of conserved bioactivity and related implications for fate assessment, regulatory approaches, and research opportunities.
Trimethoxyamphetamines (TMAs) comprise a family of hallucinogenic drugs that inclu des various different positional isomers, which are important both for their hallucinogenic activity an d their circu
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Synthetic Drugs Designer drugs such as synthetic marijuana and bath salts are becoming popular in the United States by abusers. These particular drugs are