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A negative chronotropic effect is an action to the heart that causes the organ to beat slower than before. This is often achieved by increasing vagal or parasympathetic stimulation or decreasing...
The cardiovascular system plays a key role in sepsis, and septic myocardial depression is a common finding associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Myocardial depression during sepsis is not clearly defined, but it can perhaps be best descr
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Inotropy falls in acidosis due to a direct myocardial depressant effect. May be offset by increased SNS tone in low-grade acidosis. Alkalosis may increase inotropy by increasing responsiveness to circulating catecholamines ...
Numerous studies have shown a beneficial effect of combination therapy with beta-blockers and calcium antagonists in patients with anginal syndrome and/or hypertension. However, because both agents exert a negative chronotropic effect, their combined
The commission may except by rule any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any stimulant or depressant substance listed in subsection (a)(1) and (2) of this section from the application of all or any part of this chapter if the compound, mixture, or preparation contains one or more active medicinal ingredients not having a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system, and if the admixtures are in combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration that vitiate the potential for abuse of the substances having a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system ...
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Connexin. 43 (Cx43) is the predominant gap junction (GJ) protein in the mammalian ventricular myocardium. The precise spatial order of Cx43 GJ channels in the heart is thought vital for maintaining cardiac synchrony. Disruption or remodelng of this order is a hallmark of arrhythmic disease and has been reported in ischemic and diabetic hearts. Protein-protein interactions and modifications of the Carboxyl-terminus (CT) of CX43 are major determinants of GJ function, size, distribution and organization during normal development and disease processes. The extreme CT domain of CS43 interacts directly with the second PDZ domain of the MAGUK protein Zonula Occludens 1 (ZO-1). It has been reported that this interaction regulates phosphorylation of Cx43 and directs Cx43 GJ localization at the intercalated disk. Additionally, levels of this interaction are increased in the ischemic and dilated heart suggesting a role of Cx43 ZO-1 association in disease. Recent work from the Gourdie laboratory has ...
The present study shows a negative inotropic effect of pantoprazole in isolated myocardium. This was dose dependent, induced nearly complete inhibition of twitch force at very high doses, and was partially reversible. Negative inotropy of pantoprazole was present in myocardium from different species (human and rabbit) and in myocardium from different origins (atrial and ventricular), and it was found in different myocardial preparations (multicellular and single cells). The EC50 for contractile force depression was 30.6±1.8 μg/mL in nonfailing human atrial and 17.3±1.3 μg/mL in failing human ventricular myocardium, respectively. Moreover, similar results could be obtained with esomeprazole, which is suggestive of a class effect of PPIs. Furthermore, we could reveal 2 underlying mechanisms for the pantoprazole-dependent inhibition of contractile force: (1) reduction in the amplitude of Ca2+ transients as a consequence of impaired SR Ca2+ uptake and reduced Ca2+ influx via ICa,L and (2) ...
In the present study we showed that neostigmine possessed dual chronotropic effects on the spontaneously beating right atrium in the guinea pig. Neostigmine decreased the beating rate at lower concentrations in a concentration-dependent manner. Subsequent application of higher concentrations of the agent returned the beating rate to the predrug control level. Both responses were abolished by atropine. In contrast, edrophonium did not affect the basal beating rate. Although edrophonium lacked the direct negative chronotropic effect, it potentiated the negative chronotropic effect of endogenous ACh released from the cholinergic nerve terminals by the electrical FS, which indicated that edrophonium could evoke bradycardia only by inhibiting the hydrolysis of ACh molecules released from the cholinergic nerve terminals. The bradycardiac effect of the FS was also potentiated by neostigmine at a concentration lower than concentrations that decreased the beating rate directly. TTX did not inhibit the ...
Myocardial depression in septic patients is well recognized yet still poorly understood. The prognostic significance in terms of overall mortality when it is identified, remains in dispute. Parameters of left ventricular function measured by tissue Doppler imaging may assist in resolving whether dysfunction identified early in the course of sepsis is a good prognostic sign.
Predicted changes in the intensity and frequency of climate extremes urge a better mechanistic understanding of the stress response of microbially-mediated carbon and nutrient cycling processes. This study is the first comprehensive study of the resistance and resilience of microbial C, N, and P cycling processes in decomposing plant litter to severe temperature disturbances. Disturbances led temporarily to a more rapid cycling of C and N but caused a down-regulation of P cycling. In contrast to the fast recovery of C and N processes, we found a slow recovery of P mineralization rates. The functional and structural responses to the two distinct temperature disturbances were markedly similar, suggesting that direct negative physical effects and costs associated with the stress response were comparable. This study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of microbial functional stress responses and illustrates the need for a closer integration of microbial C-N-P interactions into climate ...
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1. Incubation of intact epididymal adipose tissue from fed rats at 37° in an albumin solution at pH7·4 in vitro results in rapid loss of clearing-factor lipase activity until a low activity, stable to prolonged incubation, is attained. The clearing-factor lipase activity of intact tissue from starved rats, which is initially much less than that of tissue from fed rats, is mainly stable to incubation at 37°. 2. Much of the clearing-factor lipase activity of intact epididymal adipose tissue from fed rats is inactivated by collagenase. The enzyme activity of intact tissue from starved rats is not inactivated by collagenase. 3. The clearing-factor lipase activity of fat cells isolated from the epididymal adipose tissue of fed rats is stable to prolonged incubation at 37°. It represents only a small proportion of the total activity of the intact tissue. In starved rats, the isolated fat cells contain a much higher proportion of the activity of the intact tissue. Their activity is also stable at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Depressant effects of phenoxybenzamine on potassium contracture in cat ventricular muscle. AU - Wiggins, Jay R.. AU - Gelband, Henry. AU - Bassett, Arthur L.. PY - 1979/10/26. Y1 - 1979/10/26. N2 - Phenoxybenzamine has been shown to have a depressant action on K+-depolarization contracture in cat ventricular muscle. In the present study, we show that this depressant action is specific for phenoxybenzamine and occurs in the presence of β-adrenergic receptor blockade with nadolol. K+-contracture is not depressed by phentolamine nor augmented by phenylephrine. Thus, the depressant action of phenoxybenzamine is not mediated by its effects on cardiac adrenergic receptors.. AB - Phenoxybenzamine has been shown to have a depressant action on K+-depolarization contracture in cat ventricular muscle. In the present study, we show that this depressant action is specific for phenoxybenzamine and occurs in the presence of β-adrenergic receptor blockade with nadolol. K+-contracture is not ...
Whole-cell voltage clamp measurements were applied to isolated myocytes to examine the effect of sevoflurane on separated calcium and potassium currents, which play key roles in myocardial excitation-contraction coupling. According to an established protocol, guinea pig ventricular myocytes were isolated enzymatically. [24] English Shorthair guinea pigs (weighing approximately 300 g) were anesthetized with 50 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital according to the guidelines of the University of Virginia Animal Research Committee. The heart was quickly excised and perfused (30 mmHg perfusion pressure) using a Langendorff perfusion system. All solutions were passed through a 0.2-micro meter filter, equilibrated with 95% O2and 5% CO2to pH 7.4 and maintained at 37 degrees C. The heart was perfused for 5 min with solution identical to the modified Tyrode solution, except for the omission of calcium and addition of 5 mM pyruvic acid. The calcium-free buffer was then supplemented with 25 micro Meter CaCl2, 0.5 ...
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BioAssay record AID 467401 submitted by ChEMBL: Negative chronotropic activity in guinea pig right atrium assessed as decrease in atrial rate at 50 uM relative to control.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Myocardial depression in sepsis. AU - Raffa, James. AU - Trunkey, Donald. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. N2 - Myocardial failure is uniformly fatal when associated with post-traumatic sepsis and multisystem failure. Controversy exists as to whether endotoxin has a direct effect on the myocardium. A nonanoxic isolated arterially perfused rabbit interventicular septum was used in this study to evaluate the effects of endotoxin, live E. coli, and endotoxin/septic shock plasma on myocardial function and ultrastructure. Purified E. coli endotoxin and live E. coli bacteria did not have a significant direct effect on rabbit cardiac muscle function or ultrastructure. Perfusion of the rabbit septum with plasma from rabbits exsanguinated following a 2-hour septic or endotoxin shock insult, however, caused significant (p ,0.02) myocardial depression when compared with control septa perfused with normal rabbit plasma. Septa perfused with shock plasma demonstrated ultrastructural alterations of ...
Bupivacaine-induced myocardial depression and pulmonary edema: a case report.: Central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity are well-known side effects of
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BioAssay record AID 213359 submitted by ChEMBL: Rate constant of acylation on trypsin was determined at 10 percent and at 95 minutes for maximum inhibition and no enzyme activity was recovered over the 2 h-time.
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The chronotropic responses to repetitive bursts of vagal stimulation were determined in open-chest, anesthetized dogs. Either 5 or 10 electrical pulses were included in each stimulus burst, and the interpulse interval (deltat) was varied over the range of 5 to 150 msec. As the frequency of the stimulus bursts was progressively changed, the sinoatrial (SA) nodal pacemaker cells became synchronized with the repetitive bursts of stimuli over a certain range of burst frequencies. The magnitude of this frequency range varied with deltat. For 5 and 10 pulses/burst, the values of deltat that produced the greatest magnitude of this frequency range were 30.2 and 24.3 msec, respectively. Also, over the range of values of deltat from 5 to 50 msec, the magnitude of the negative chronotropic effect of the vagal stimulus burst varied directly with deltat. It is likely that, as the interpulse interval is increased within the range of values, either more acetylcholine is released from the vagal nerve endings ...
1. Diminishing functional tone or activity. 2. An agent that reduces nervous or functional activity, such as a sedative or anesthetic. [L. de primo, pp. pressus, to press down] * * * de·pres·sant ənt