TY - JOUR. T1 - Supersonic jet multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using nanosecond and femtosecond pulse lasers. AU - Matsumoto, Junichi. AU - Lin, Cheng-Huang. AU - Imasaka, Totaro. PY - 1997/5/12. Y1 - 1997/5/12. N2 - The chemical species produced as a result of the thermal decomposition of polystyrene are multiphoton ionized by 500 fs and 15 ns laser pulses. Femtosecond laser ionization gave a more structured mass spectrum and a higher ionization efficiency. This is likely due to the fact that ionization occurs faster than intramolecular relaxation, e.g. photodecomposition, under femtosecond laser pulses.. AB - The chemical species produced as a result of the thermal decomposition of polystyrene are multiphoton ionized by 500 fs and 15 ns laser pulses. Femtosecond laser ionization gave a more structured mass spectrum and a higher ionization efficiency. This is likely due to the fact that ionization occurs faster than intramolecular relaxation, e.g. photodecomposition, under femtosecond ...
PMID: 11151581 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate loading of Br nemark System implants following placement with a screw-retained provisional prosthesis in edentulous patients. Twelve mandibular and 5 maxillary arches were treated from December 1997, including 3 bimaxillary patients. The provisional prosthesis, made of heat-polymerizing resin, had an inner casting of cobalt-chromium alloy to provide rigidity. The implants whose placement torque was more than 40 Ncm were immediately loaded. Implants that were placed with placement torque of less than 40 Ncm or that were associated with bone grafting were submerged. Following abutment connection, temporary cylinders were incorporated into the provisional prosthesis intraorally with autopolymerizing resin. After the provisional prosthesis was completed extraorally, it was screw-retained. After a 4- to 6-month healing period, a definitive prosthesis was fabricated and placed. Of the 140 immediately loaded implants, 136 ...
a), The amplified femtosecond pulse generation block producing the 4μJ, 800nm, 200 fs pulses. The amplified femtosecond pulses are generated with a system consisting of Tsunami oscillator (Spectra Physics-model 394) seeding a RegA 9000 (Coherent, Inc.) regenerative amplifier, both of which are pumped with CW 532 nm solid-state Verdi-18 laser (Coherent, Inc.). The Raman excitation pump is derived from the Verdi-18 solid state laser nm and is delivered to the microscope using a periscope assembly. Also shown is the "oscillator only output. The photodiode is connected to an oscilloscope to display the repetition rate and the status of the amplified femtosecond pulse train, M: 45 o mirror, BS beam splitter, FM; 45° flip mirror, and (b), the optical system model that represents the fabrication workstation and the integrated Raman microscope. The periscope assembly redirects and changes the elevation of a beam, and consists of a pair of 45° mirrors (0) and (1) with lockable adjustment knobs to ...
Photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes light-induced water-splitting, leading to the generation of electrons, protons and oxygen. PSII is a super complex containing a Mn cluster where the water-splitting takes place. In this study, I will elucidate the mechanisms using femtosecond X-ray free electron laser and visible light laser. This result will reveal the oxygen evolving cycle proposed by Kok and lead to information for design of the artificial photosynthesis.. ...
In the case of cylinders or tubes, it is important that all markings stamped on the shoulder, top end, neck or collar be reported. For a composite cylinder, the markings can be found on the label attached to the side of the cylinder. Examples of markings found on the cylinders are: specification of the cylinder (example TC-3AAM), manufacturing date (2 digits for the month followed by an Inspectors mark followed by 2 digits for the year), serial number, the manufacturers registered mark or symbol, requalification marks (similar format to the manufacturing date), water capacity, retester symbol, and any other markings found on the cylinder. For rail tank cars, the identification markings required to describe the means of containment include the tank cars reporting marks (example TDGX), the tank car number xxxxxx, specification (example 111A100W1), built date and qualification dates, thickness, service equipment and lining or coating, if appropriate. For highway cargo tanks and portable tanks, ...
A paint or other protective coating removal arrangement involving the use of reciprocal motion ultrasonic frequency mechanical energy applied to the coating by a variety of tool and abrasive substrate members in the company of surface preparation agents such as coolant, heating, softening, and/or abrasive agents. The invention is particularly applicable and disclosed in terms of protective coating removal from aircraft, such as is often necessary for replacement or in the reutilization of aircraft with different identification markings. The coating removal arrangement is environmentally and human operator safe in comparison with presently used coating removal arrangements such as abrasive blasting and chemical solvent removal.
Photo-induced molecular dynamics can now be investigated using free electron lasers (FELs) whose attributes are unprecedented brightness, few femtosecond pulses duration and in the near future few hundreds of attosecond pulse duration. These relatively new tools are utilized to investigate photon-induced phy XUV/X-ray light and fast ions for ultrafast chemistry
We have improved the sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of a luminescence upconversion experiment, using a charge-coupled device (CCD) as the detector. We show experimentally and numerically that the bandwidth of a 1-mm-thick β-barium borate crystal is large enough to take full advantage of the multichannel capabilities of the CCD. The improvement is significant in a standard experiment with a single laser as well as in experiments with resonant excitation that use two synchronized femtosecond pulse sources at different wavelengths. The characteristics of the two-color scheme are discussed in detail.. © 1998 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
X-ray crystallography provides the vast majority of macromolecular structures, but the success of the method relies on growing crystals of sufficient size. In conventional measurements, the necessary increase in X-ray dose to record data from crystals that are too small leads to extensive damage before a diffraction signal can be recorded(1-3). It is particularly challenging to obtain large, well-diffracting crystals of membrane proteins, for which fewer than 300 unique structures have been determined despite their importance in all living cells. Here we present a method for structure determination where single-crystal X-ray diffraction snapshots are collected from a fully hydrated stream of nanocrystals using femtosecond pulses from a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source(4). We prove this concept with nanocrystals of photosystem I, one of the largest membrane protein complexes(5). More than 3,000,000 diffraction patterns were collected in this study, and a ...
A miniature tripler for generating femtosecond pulses in the UV has demonstrated three times higher efficiency than previously used devices, in a desi
We discuss the role of evolutionary adaptive algorithms in shaping femtosecond pulses with an eye toward their use in the quantum control of optical properties. In particular, we report preliminary results from an ongoing attempt to implement the recently proposed FAST CARS technique for the detection and identification of bacterial spores. In the initial phase of this project, we are studying the CARS signal from a deuterated water (D2O) solution of Dipicolinic Acid (DPA), which is an important constituent of the spores. We have detected CARS signal associated with the DPA vibrational resonances at ∼ 1,600 and ∼ 3,000cm-1. We also find preliminary evidence of a pulse shaping enhancement of the CARS intensity. This effect is weak, but significant. It is premature to ascribe it to any particular mechanism, but its detection encourages its optimization by searching the space of all possible pulse shapes via an evolutionary feedback algorithm. ...
A Ti:sapphire-pumped intracavity-doubled optical parametric oscillator generates up to 240 mW of sub100 femtosecond pulses tunable in the visible. The OPO consists of a 1.5 mm thick KTP crystal configured in a linear or a ring cavity which is synchronously pumped by a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. Intracavity doubling of the OPO is accomplished by inserting a β-barium borate crystal into an additional focus in the OPO cavity. Continuous tuning of the second harmonic signal from 580 to 657 nm is obtained, with a potential tuning range being approximately 500 to 800 nm.
Sub - 15 Femtosecond Pulse Generation From a Kerr - Lens Mode - Locked Cr:LiSAF Laser Near 850 nm with a Gain - Matched Output Coupler by Ferda CANBAZ A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of Engineering in Partial Fulfillment of the ...
Precise information on dispersion of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of Raman active media is essential in order to get an insight into physics and chemistry of intra- and inter-molecular interactions. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method that is capable of resolving both real and imaginary parts of third-order nonlinearity (χ(3)) in the vicinity of Raman resonances. Dispersion of χ(3) can be obtained from a medium probed within microscopic volumes with a spectral resolution of better than 0.1 cm-1 thus making our approach an essential tool in quantitative microscopic characterization of complex biological media. Time-domain CARS transients traced with femtosecond pulses within orders of magnitude in the signal decay can lead to resolution of fine spectral features in χ(3) dispersion that can not be reliably detected by frequency-domain Raman based spectroscopy/microscopy techniques, including coherent methods. We will present results of the methods application in ...
CDC Split Type: WAES1105USA04184. Write-up: Information has been received from a consumer on 10-MAY-2011 and not medically confirmed. A Female patient (age unknown) had received the second dose of GARDASIL (lot and batch number not reported) on unspecified date. On an unspecified onset of time she experienced significant joints pain. At the time of reporting the patient had still not recovered. Additional information received from a pediatrician on 28-MAY-2011. Case medically confirmed. The patient was 15 year old and had no relevant medical history. She had received the first dose of GARDASIL (lot and batch number not reported) on 22-DEC-2010 together with a dose of MENINGITEC (other manufacturer), and the second dose of GARDASIL (lot and batch number not reported) on 23-FEB-2011. Eight days after the second dose, she complained from violent pain in hands and feet, which awoke her in the morning and disturbed her in her daily activities and went increasing during the weeks. She was seen by the ...
CDC Split Type: WAES1601DNK005224. Write-up:Information has been received from Sanofi Pasteur MSD (SPM) (MFR# DK-1577272925-2016000226) on 15-JAN-2015. Case received from a physician via HA on 13-Jan-2016 under the reference number DK-DKMA-WBS-0002366 and DK-DKMA-ADR 23308286. A 13-year-old female adolescent patient received GARDASIL, (batch number unknown, Dose 1) via intramuscular route on 28-Aug-2009, GARDASIL, (batch number unknown, Dose 2) via intramuscular route on 06-Nov-2009, GARDASIL, (batch number unknown, Dose 3) via intramuscular on 30-Jun-2010. The patient experienced Dizziness in OCT-2013, Hyperventilation in OCT-2013, Muscle pain on an unknown date, Itching on an unknown date, Palpitation on an unknown date, Nausea on an unknown date, Satiety changed on an unknown date, Frequency urinary on an unknown date, Hives on an unknown date, Shortness of breath on an unknown date, Pain menstrual in JAN-2011, Sleep disorder on an unknown date, Fatigue on an unknown date, Involuntary ...
McGeorges 2nd Annual Citizenship Fair on November 13, 2010, proved a popular, successful event as it assisted scores of immigrant attendees on the path to American citizenship.
Corporate citizenship is integrated into every aspect of our work as we strive to fulfill our mission of improving the oral health of all. Learn more.
Analytics is a powerful technology that can be used to improve our world. These stories illustrate how technology plays a role in global citizenship.
Lets find out. Post your score. Could you pass a US citizenship test? - Who signs bills? - CSMonitor.com I missed 8 questions. You have to get 58 or
Analytics is a powerful technology that can be used to improve our world. These stories illustrate how technology plays a role in global citizenship.
Tejashwi Yadav, in his latest attack on Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar, sought to embarrass his former boss with a throwback to what he called the times they sat together and discussed how dangerous is the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the BJPs ideological mentor. The RJD leader was speaking in the Bihar assembly against the controversial citizenship law and National Register for Citizens (NRC).
Home Affairs Minister Hlengiwe Mkhize said the Guptas were granted citizenship based on business investments and social partnerships with 75 North West schools, among other things.
Client Manager | Jobs Board The post is central to the maintenance and growth of the corporate LBG membership across primarily Australia and supporting activities globally.
Nationality by observed duration of migration for people entering or leaving UK. Estimates from the International Passenger Survey, annual table.
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When I first started to research this, I came across many people online that had been using animal medicines for years, they work. And its not a big top secret that veterinary antibiotics do not involve a prescription. Vet drugs such as Fish-MOX unmistakably assert on the label, "For Aquarium and Fish Use Only." But can they really only be used for fish? What makes these medicines any different than what my pharmacist provides me from his drug store?. Yes, using animal drugs may sound more unsafe than buying drugs on a Las Vegas street corner, but I assure you, I have found that it is not. Animal pharmaceuticals are often produced in the same manufacturing factories as human pharmaceuticals and will contain the identical ingredients. They are the same color, shape, and bear the same identification markings as those sold as human drugs; in fact they are the same.. So what does this all of this mean to you? In general, it translates into assuring you that if you find an animal drug that is ...
Naturalization is the process of granting citizenship privileges and responsibilities to residents. Citizenship was usually extended by individual towns to certain of their inhabitants and did not pertain to the country as a whole. National citizenship was rare until the formation of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815. Those who received the rights to citizenship were recorded in citizenship books [burgerboeken or poorterboeken]. Although some Dutch citizenship books date from medieval times, most are for later centuries. They include information about the citizen, including name, former residence, occupation and training, number of family members, name of witnesses or sureties, and sometimes birthplaces and relationships. Only males of the middle or upper classes, usually merchants and craftsmen, were granted citizenship. Citizenship was granted in one of three ways: ...
The interaction between gold nanoparticles and femtosecond laser irradiation has been shown to be effective in damaging malignant cells in two-dimensional cell cultures. Further studies with rodent models have also shown promising results; however, rodent physiology and genetics are known to differ substantially from that of humans, often failing to successfully predict the human response to treatment. For bridging the gap between two-dimensional cell cultures and animal models for plasmonic phototherapy, we use a natural hydrogel extracted from mouse sarcoma as a three dimensional scaffold for growing breast cancer epithelial cells in co-culture with healthy fibroblast cells. The malignant cells were specifically targeted using anti-EGFR-coated gold nanospheres, followed by washout of unbound particles and irradiation by amplified femtosecond pulses at off-resonance wavelength of 800 nm. Irradiated cell colonies seized to develop and grow; after approximately three days, time-lapse imaging ...
Fiber-optic pulse compression of the picosecond laser is used to increase the temporal resolution of the apparatus from 2 ps to 250 fs. The femtosecond pulses are subsequently used to observe back electron transfer in pyrylium borate ( (Py$\sp+$) (Ar$\sb4$B$\sp-$)) ion pairs in benzene. Substituent groups on the borate are varied in a systematic way to change the driving force, $\Delta{\rm G}\sb{\rm bet}$, of the back transfer reaction. Back transfer rates between 6.3 $\times$ 10$\sp{10}$ and 2.6 $\times$ 10$\sp{11}$ s$\sp{-1}$ are observed. Plots of k$\sb{\rm bet}$ vs. $\Delta{\rm G}\sb{\rm bet}$ show a Marcus inverted region. The forward and back rates are not equal because different molecular orbitals are involved depending on the direction of transfer ...
0100] FIG. 11 illustrates a MPBPS apparatus 1001 that uses a light source 92 to alter the surface properties of the polymeric film. In this illustrated apparatus we again have an upper polymeric film 10 a supply of which is stored on roll 14 and a lower polymeric film 12 a supply of which is stored on roll 16. Both the upper film 10 and lower film 12 will move in the direction of arrows 18. The light source 92, that for example can be a laser delivering femtosecond pulses of light, will alter the surface of films 12 to make it hydrophilic. The altered area is designated as 96. The sample fluid 34 is deposited on the altered area 96 by the delivery system 32. Because the altered surface 96 is now hydrophilic this will cause the sample fluid 34 to form a large number of milli- to pico-liter droplets. The two polymeric films 10 and 12 now are joined together as they pass through sealing roller 22 and support roller 86 and the two films now are formed into a bi-layer structure with 42 with sample 34 ...
New millennium began when half of world population is living in the cities. Predictions represent that the proportion of citizenship will reach to 65 percent by 2050. One the phenomena affected by living in the cities is citizenship. Citizenship phenomenon is one of the phenomena that in in the era of social political evolution in the world have received much attention. Presentation of theories and dialogues by sociologists, political philosophers and lawyers in the field of citizenship rights show the need of todays modern world for mechanism of dealing with citizenship rights at societies. The present research tries to study the effective social factors on the rate of awareness of citizenship rights on the citizens of Illam city. Research method in the present research is field method by using the technique of surveying and tool of collecting data is questionnaire. Statistical population is all citizens of Illam city who are over 18 years old and sampling volume is 320 that it has been obtained by
I am promoting a string of comments to a proper answer but its probably important to note that jus sanguinis does not work quite in the way you describe. Countries do not usually "offer" citizenship to children of current citizens. Rather, they typically grant citizenship, at birth, to the children of citizens.. So if one of your parent is, for example, a French citizen at the moment of your birth then you are automatically a French citizen yourself (with some caveats, see below). You might need some paperwork to actually benefit from it in practice (e.g. to get a passport, vote, etc.) but you dont need to become a citizen later on; you already are one, from day one.. On the other hand, if your parents get French citizenship through naturalization after you have reached adulthood, France does not offer you anything. You are not a citizen and your parents French citizenship wont even make it easier for you to become a citizen.. For jus sanguinis, its therefore citizenship at the time of your ...
... | NDTV.com Video | Next week, the BJP government will bring to parliament the controversial Citizenship Amendment Bill which will for the first time in India seek to grant people citizenship based on their religion. The bill clearly says that non-Muslim minorities who face religious persecution in Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan are eligible for Indian citizenship. After huge protests in the northeast, the BJP made changes this week. So that it does not apply to autonomous tribal-dominated regions in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram and also to states that have the inner-line permit regime (Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram). However, that may not be enough in Assam, many groups feel that the CAB will nullify the 1985 Assam Accord, which fixed March 24, 1971 as the cut-off date for deportation of all illegal immigrants irrespective of religion. These groups feel that the CAB will selectively benefit non-Muslim migrants into Assam
This is 400 years overdue. Black Americans have been suffering the psychological brain damage of severed ancestral ties to their true African roots for far too long. At the same time, much of Africa, has been suffering from the deadly virus of colonization, poverty, and disease for longer than neccessary. It is time we showed support for our once ancestral continent. There is an online petition -- http://thiscause.org/p/menu.php... -- that will be printed and sent in bulk by the thousands to the African Union before the summit in 2008. Show your support of the dual citizenship proposal to give African Americans dual citizenship in African Countries. Convince the African Union leaders that Black America wants dual citizenship in Africa and that it is time for the proposal to be turned into law. And let the resurrection of the great continent of Africa Begin ...
What does it mean to become a citizen of the United States? What benefits and rights are enjoyed by citizens? What are the responsibilities of citizenship? These questions, and many others, will be answered in this preparatory course of how to take the U.S. Citizenship Test. This course will prepare you to take each section of the U.S. Citizenship Test and it will cover topics such as Civics, the U.S. Government, History, Geography, Reading, and Writing. It will also cover tips on how to study for the test and how to most effectively prepare yourself for the test.. A citizen is an important part of any country or nation. Unlike an alien, which is the opposite of a citizen, a citizen is free to make choices such as electing the people who govern, such as the president of the United States. Just as it is beneficial to become a partner in a business, you should think of being a citizen as being a partner of the United States government - being a partner in the governments business. American ...
There have been talk of this integration rule been applied for Citizenship. (before you all get judgmental it´s not that I dont want to learn Swedish it´s just that I tried and no very comfortable with having command over Swedish any time soon) Any one has any idea when it would be implemented and will it affect the people who are already eligible or its new comers. I am in dilemma here as I already have Canadian PR and in order to be Citizen I would need to move there 3 years before it expires in Feb 2017 whereas in Aug 2014 i am eligible to apply for Swedish Citizenship. It´s been hard to make up my mind, I have very good job here in Sweden with very good global company but need to change my passport due to obvious reason. So I am not sure if I should take a risk of job and move to Canada to secure Citizenship or should stay here and put chances of having any other passport at risk ...
Outline curriculum for citizenship and commentary. A document planned as the central switching junction to a sound curriculum for citizenship studies.