There are three hard tissues that comprise human teeth: enamel, dentin and cementum. The majority of the tooth structure is formed from dentin, and the enamel serves as the superficial layer of the crown while the cementum serves to cover the root. In the mid-1990s, however, it was discovered that a very thin layer of enamel actually exists between the dentin and cementum on the roots of adult human teeth. This led researchers to conclude that enamel matrix proteins (or EMPs) laid down by Hertwigs epithelial root sheath serve as precursors to acellular cementum during its formation, known as cementogenesis.[1] The presence of acellular cementum acts to signal the development of periodontal ligament fibers, followed by new alveolar bone, thus leading to the formation of the tissues of the periodontium.[2]. ...
Aim: Keratin preparations have been shown to have bioactive effects on various cells including osteoblasts and neurons and offer the potential as a biomaterial in tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effect of keratin preparations on the viability and proliferation of cementoblast OCCM-30 and fibroblast L929 cells and on the mineralisation capability of the OCCM-30 cells.. Method: Cementoblast OCCM-30 cells were grown in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium (DMEM) with 10% Fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic. The fibroblast L929 cells were grown in minimum essential media (MEM) with 10% FBS and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic. The cells of L929 and OCCM-30 were assessed for viability in growth media supplemented with 10 mg/ml, 1 mg/ml and 0.1 mg/ml of keratin with a LIVE/DEAD assay™ Kit using confocal laser scanning microscope. Cell proliferation was tested with similar keratin concentrations using an alamarBlue® proliferation assay at 0, 24, 48 and ...
Meanwhile, since he was sedated for the ultrasound, the vets took a closer look at Fitz teeth. His gums were receding so much that the roots of two teeth were almost entirely exposed. One had a huge tartar cap on it that was so hard it took a Dremel to drill through it and break it apart. (Weve since heard this abnormal tartar buildup called a "cementoblast.") As the vet drilled into the cementoblast, the bit went right through what should have been tooth behind it and into dead bone. The infection in the tooth had moved into the bone and caused some decay. A second infected incisor was also removed, but there was no bone involvement in relation to that one. That left one more incisor with most of the root exposed, but it still seemed to be firmly in place and not infected, so it was left alone for the time being ...
Root cementum represents one of the crucial prerequisites for an intact fixation in the tooths osseous socket, the alveole. Healthy cementum and its self-repair mechanisms are furthermore vital to a sound parodontium and thus for the entire dental health. Central to the thesis at hand was the collection of human cementoblasts from extracted teeth. These had to be cultivated, immortalized and characterized. The ensuing examination covered an analysis of proteins that are presumed typical for cement and bone. Such proteins include collagen type I and III, osteocalcin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein and osteonectin. Other findings include both transcription factors RUNX2 and SOX9, both of which are not extensively researched in context with cementum yet. This holds true in particular for SOX9. Even though typical for the chondrogenic cell line, this transcription factor and its interrelation with cementum is not covered in relevant literature. In contrast to this, the literary research has ...
There is disclosed a novel device for providing heat to dental and periodontal structures and a novel process for brightening teeth, together with a novel use of old known processes for brightening teeth. The novel device comprises a splint/stint or vacumformed dental tray, containing a heating element to be placed around the tooth or teeth to be brightened. The novel process for brightening/whitening teeth entails using the splint containing the heating element in conjunction with standard tooth whiteners with a brightening agent. The heating element is attached to a power source, preferably mobile and transportable, so that the process may be accelerated by the heating of the brightening agent, in accordance with the Q10 rule.
The goal of Periodontal therapy is to halt the disease progression and prevent its recurrence, and restore the lost periodontal structure which occured as the result of the disease destruction. The later goal prompts us to evaluate the concept of "new attachment" or "regeneration", and "reattachment" or "repair". Each concepts will lead to different mode of periodontal therapy, and ultimately different result. New attachment is the ideal, desired goal, which each periodontist today are trying to achieve in every possible way. Continue reading →. ...
Neuro-anesthetic contri- bution to the impedance of complications caused nearby perfunctory cerebral retraction: concept of a chemical thought retractorAge-at-death diagnosis and firmness of life-history param- eters past incremental lines in vulnerable dental cementum as an fingering helpDispensation of N2 O alone or adding it to a fentanyl-midazolam anes- thetic ,,05] or a propofol-remifentanil anesthetic did not interchange the BIS in rhyme study ,,06]If epidemiological statistics put up with inferences about clinical data, 2029 3039 4049 5059 Grow older 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Men Women Ubiquity(%) 6069 ,70 REPRESENTATION 5.1 Age-specific ubiquitousness of metabolic syndrome ,a href=http://eiendomnorge.no/wp-content/notations/c/purchase-fluoxetine-online-no-rx/,purchase fluoxetine 10mg with visa,/a,. The convert an eye to developing engagement amelioration plans in the direction of each core program involves realization of an corroboration reassessment hardened to notify the phenomenon ...
Title:Role of the Epithelial Cell Rests of Malassez in Periodontal Homeostasis and Regeneration - A Review. VOLUME: 10 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Zhenhua Yang, Yanjiao Li, Xiaojie Ma, Lin Shen, Zhihe Zhao and Fang Jin. Affiliation:145 West Changle Road, Xian, Shaanxi 710032, PR China;. Keywords:Hertwigs epithelial root sheath, epithelial cell rests Malassez, periodontium development, periodontal regeneration, cementogenesis, stem cells.. Abstract:Predictable and complete periodontal regeneration following periodontitis has been the ultimate goal of periodontal treatment. It has been recognized that Hertwigs epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells play a crucial role in cementogenesis and root formation. As the descendants of HERS and unique odontogenic epithelium in the adult periodontium, epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) have long been considered as quiescent epithelial remnants devoid of structure and function. Here we will present an overview of our present understanding and putative functions ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Retinoic acid is a potential negative regulator for differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells. AU - Shibuya, Natsuko. AU - Nemoto, Eiji. AU - Kanaya, Sousuke. AU - Kunii, Ryotaro. AU - Shimauchi, Hidetoshi. PY - 2005/9/1. Y1 - 2005/9/1. N2 - Retinoic acid (RA) exerts a wide variety of effects on development, cellular differentiation and homeostasis in various tissues. However, little is known about the effects of RA on the differentiation of periodontal ligament cells. In this study, we investigated whether RA can affect the dexamethasone-induced differentiation of periodontal ligament cells. Human periodontal ligament cells were differentiated via culturing in the presence of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and β-glycerophosphate for mineralized nodule formation, as characterized by von Kossa staining. Continuous treatment with all-trans-RA inhibited mineralization in a dose-dependent manner, with complete inhibition over 1 μM RA. Other RA analogs, 9-cis-RA and ...
The cells of cementum are the entrapped cementoblasts, the cementocytes. Each cementocyte lies in its lacuna, similar to the pattern noted in bone. These lacunae also have canaliculi or canals. Unlike those in bone, however, these canals in cementum do not contain nerves, nor do they radiate outward. Instead, the canals are oriented toward the periodontal ligament and contain cementocytic processes that exist to diffuse nutrients from the ligament because it is vascularized. After the apposition of cementum in layers, the cementoblasts that do not become entrapped in cementum line up along the cemental surface along the length of the outer covering of the periodontal ligament. These cementoblasts can form subsequent layers of cementum if the tooth is injured. Sharpey fibers are part of the principal collagenous fibers of the periodontal ligament embedded in the cementum and alveolar bone to attach the tooth to the alveolus.[2] ...
The case of an elderly female patient with a long-standing history of generalized hypercementosis is described. A thorough review of the literature indicates that this may be one of the most extensive cases of hypercementosis to be reported. Possible
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... may be diffuse or circumscribed. It may affect all teeth of the dentition, be confined to a single tooth, or even affect only parts of one tooth. In localized hypertrophy a spur or prong like exten- sion of cementum may be formed (Fig. 7.17
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No. Subjects Hours Week 1- Development of the oral cavity: a- Fertilization. b- Basic germ layer: c- Ectoderm. d- Mesoderm. e- Endoderm. f- Neural crest formation, migration and derivative. g- Brachial arches. 1 1 2- Development of face and oral cavity: a- Development of the facial process. b- Development of the tongue. c- Clinical considerations: d- Facial clefts. e- Development cyst. f- Lingual anomalies. g- Labial anomalies. 2 2 &3 3- Development and growth of the teeth: a- Enamel organ. b- Dental papilla. c- Dental sac. 2 4&5 4- Root formation: a- Hertwigs epithelial root sheath. b- Uni- and multi-rooted tooth. c- Clinical considerations: d- Initiation stages. e- Proliferation. f- Histodifferentiation. g- Morphodifferentiation. h- Apposition. 1 6 5- Enamel: a- Physical and chemical characters. b- Structure elements. 1 7 6- Amelogensis: a- Amelobolast file cycle. b- Formation of the enamel matrix. c- Mineralization of the matrix. 1 8 7- Clinical consideration in enamel. a- Abnormal enamel ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hypercementosis. T2 - A rare finding in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. AU - Shoor, Hitesh. AU - Sujir, Nitha. AU - Mutalik, Sunil. AU - Pai, Keerthilatha M.. PY - 2014/11/26. Y1 - 2014/11/26. N2 - Hypercementosis is excessive deposition of non-neoplastic cementum over normal root cementum, which alters root morphology. This cementum may be either hypocellular or cellular in nature. The aetiopathogenesis of hypercementosis is ambiguous. Although most of the cases are idiopathic, several local and systemic factors are also linked to this condition, such as Pagets disease, acromegaly, vitamin A deficiency, etc. We report two rare cases of hypercementosis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, not previously described in the literature, and also discuss the possible aetiopathogenesis.. AB - Hypercementosis is excessive deposition of non-neoplastic cementum over normal root cementum, which alters root morphology. This cementum may be either hypocellular or ...
Looking for online definition of periapical cemental dysplasia in the Medical Dictionary? periapical cemental dysplasia explanation free. What is periapical cemental dysplasia? Meaning of periapical cemental dysplasia medical term. What does periapical cemental dysplasia mean?
External apical root resorption is a common phenomenon associated with orthodontic treatment. The factors relevant to root resorption can be divided into biological and mechanical, with some of them associated with an increased risk of root resorption during orthodontic treatment. As far as mechanical factors are concerned, extensive tooth movement, type of movement (eg, root torque and intrusion), and magnitude and duration of orthodontic forces have been highly correlated to root resorption. There is no consensus, nor are there other clinical studies regarding, specific evidence of how jiggling forces can affect the pattern and amount of root resorption. In this study, we investigated how the application of buccopalatal jiggling movement with light and heavy forces affected root surfaces and how the quantitative properties of resorption craters were altered, thus determining whether different buccopalatal jiggling force levels have different adverse effects on root resorption and quantified ...
Looking for online definition of tip of tooth root in the Medical Dictionary? tip of tooth root explanation free. What is tip of tooth root? Meaning of tip of tooth root medical term. What does tip of tooth root mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclic stretch force induces periodontal ligament cells to secrete exosomes that suppress IL-1β production through the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway in macrophages. AU - Wang, Zhuyu. AU - Maruyama, Kentarou. AU - Sakisaka, Yukihiko. AU - Suzuki, Shigeki. AU - Tada, Hiroyuki. AU - Suto, Mizuki. AU - Saito, Masahiro. AU - Yamada, Satoru. AU - Nemoto, Eiji. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - In the oral mechanical environment, periodontal ligament cells (PDL cells) contribute to maintaining periodontal tissue homeostasis. Recent studies showed that exosomes, which are small vesicles secreted by various types of cells, play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication in biological processes. We examined the secretion of exosomes from PDL cells stimulated with cyclic stretch and their role in the inflammatory response of macrophages using the human macrophage cell line THP-1 and human primary monocytes/macrophages. We prepared supernatants from human PDL cells (PDL-sup) ...
Background and Objective: Cell adhesion plays important roles in maintaining the structural integrity of connective tissues and sensing changes in the biomechanical environment of cells. The objective of the present investigation was to extend our understanding of the effect of cyclic mechanical strain on the expression of adhesion-related genes by human periodontal ligament cells. Material and Methods: Cultured periodontal ligament cells were subjected to a cyclic in-plane tensile deformation of 12% for 5s (0.2Hz) every 90s for 6-24h in a Flexercell FX-4000 Strain Unit. The following parameters were measured: (i)cell viability by the MTT assay; (ii)caspase-3 and -7 activity; and (iii)the expression of 84 genes encoding adhesion-related molecules using real-time RT-PCR microarrays. Results: Mechanical stress reduced the metabolic activity of deformed cells at 6h, and caspase-3 and -7 activity at 6 and 12h. Seventy-three genes were detected at critical threshold values <35. Fifteen showed a ...
Detail of the period when the root sheath cells (blue) secrete enamel matrix proteins. Following formation of the protein matrix on the surface of the mineralizing dentin, cementoblasts (Red) start producing cementum (Light blue) which anchors collagen fibers.. The Next Generation. In the mid 1980s, a revolutionary breakthrough in the basic biology of tooth development took place at the Karolinska Institutes department of Oral Pathology in Stockholm. The discovery revealed a native complex of enamel matrix proteins and the key if not crucial , role they play in the development of tooth-supporting tissues. These enamel related proteins mediate the formation of acellular cementum on the root of the developing tooth, providing a foundation for all of the necessary tissues associated with a functional periodontal attachment.. This groundbreaking discovery has fueled the development of a new generation in periodontal therapy, and makes the recreation of lost tooth support an attainable goal in the ...
Definition of fibrous, of periodontal ligament matrix in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is fibrous, of periodontal ligament matrix? Meaning of fibrous, of periodontal ligament matrix as a finance term. What does fibrous, of periodontal ligament matrix mean in finance?
Canine periodontal disease (gum disease) is the most common cause of tooth loss and is a source of chronic bacterial infection, contributing to adverse health conditions including kidney failure and endocarditis. Treatment options are limited and their benefits remain uncertain due to a lack of evidence-based research. The cause of canine periodontal disease is accumulation of plaque under the gum line that leads to inflammation and progressive erosion of normal periodontal structures, including the gums, tooth root and supporting facial bones. The first step in the evolution of gum disease is development of a periodontal �pocket;� a gap between the gum line and tooth margin that traps food and bacteria and promotes continued destruction of these supporting structures. In healthy gums the depth of the periodontal space measures less than 2 millimeters. With periodontal disease this space becomes larger, and consensus opinion is that deep pockets promote rapid progression of gum disease. Detection of
Impacted Tooth: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.
The authors report the clinical and histologic data on the healing of a severe periodontal lesion obtained in a one-walled intrabony defect using anorganic bovine bone under a bovine peritoneum-derived collagen membrane. Eight months after surgery, a bone-like tissue replaced the lost tissues. A biopsy of this tissue was carried out. In the part of the specimen closer to the residual bony wall of the original defect, anorganic bone particles (ABP) appeared to be surrounded by a layer of newly formed bone; its osteocyte lacunae were colonized by osteocytes from the host, and actively secreting osteoblasts were observed in many microscopic fields. No resorption phenomena were observed in the ABP. Newly formed cementum with actively secreting cementoblasts was present on the tooth surface, and well-oriented fibers inserting in both newly formed cementum and bone were observed. In an area far from residual bone, all ABP did not appear to be surrounded by newly formed bone. Osteocytic lacunae ...
Periodontal regeneration - true regeneration of the attachment apparatus (new cementum, new periodontal ligament, and new alveolar bone) on a previously diseased root surface when used specifically in the LANAP® Protocol. 510(k) ...
Normal Periodontium and its components including gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, alveolar bone. Formation, classification and functions of these components.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is expressed in periodontal tissue, and variations in LL-37 levels have been associated with periodontal disease. The effects of LL-37 on periodontal ligament cell function have not been described before. Here, we assess anti-inflammatory properties of LL-37 and investigate the effects of LL-37 on cell differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in human periodontal ligament cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontal ligament cells were obtained from teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. Cytokine (interleukin-6) and chemokine (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) expression was determined by quantitative PCR, cell differentiation by alkaline phosphatase activity, cell proliferation by counting cells in a Bürker chamber, DNA synthesis by incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine and apoptosis by cell morphology and activated caspase 3 quantities. RESULTS: Treatment with 0.1 and 1 μm of LL-37 totally reversed ...
MAPK is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is widely expressed in various cells. Through a cascade reaction, the MAPK pathway transduces signals to the cell nucleus to regulate transcription, and therefore influences cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation (12). In the MAPK family, ERK1/2, p38 and JNK subfamilies have been extensively investigated. ERK1/2 and p38 are involved in osteogenesis-associated gene expression and bone formation in vivo (13,14). However, the full underlying mechanism of ERK1/2 and p38 pathways in osteogenic differentiation remains contradictory. Li et al (14) revealed that when the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways were inhibited in dental follicle cells, osteogenic differentiation in early, middle and advanced stages was promoted. However, Xiao et al (15) reported that inhibition of ERK1/2 resulted in restrained osteoblast activity and bone formation. Therefore, ERK1/2 may exert positive or negative effects on osteogenic differentiation, which may result from ...
Non-contained intrabony defect treated using cerabone®, collprotect® membrane and Straumann® Emdogain® - Dr. T. Schwaar (2 ...
Background. Stem cells have contributed to the development of tissue-engineered-based regenerative periodontal therapies. In order to find the best stem cell sources for such therapies, the biologic properties of stem cells isolated from periodontal ligaments (PDL) of deciduous (DePDLSC) and permanent (PePDLSC) teeth were comparatively evaluated. Methods. PDL stem cells were isolated from six sound fully erupted premolars and six deciduous canines of healthy subjects. In vitro biologic characteristics such as colony formation, viability, stem cell marker identification and osteogenic differentiation (using alkaline phosphatase analysis and Alizarin red staining) were comparatively assessed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests using SPSS 13 ...
Context: Smokers are at a higher risk of contracting periodontitis. This association is established and reported in many studies. Periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease, wherein smoking is an environmental factor which aggravates the damage caused to the tissues. Procalcitonin (ProCT) is a well-known marker for inflammatory and other infectious diseases and has been assessed in this study. It has been observed that the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is exaggerated in smokers. Antioxidants are administered to combat the harmful effects caused by the ROS, and Oxitard™ is a powerful herbal antioxidant that can counteract the action of free radicals. Aims: As smokers are more prone to tissue injury due to excessive release of ROS, this study aimed to understand the benefits of systemic administration of Oxitard after scaling and root planing (SRP) on serum ProCT levels in smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP). Settings and Design: This was a randomized interventional study, wherein ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radiologic Study of Tooth Root Resorption in a case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma. AU - Konouchi, Hironobu. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. M3 - Article. VL - 40. SP - 129. EP - 137. JO - Dental Radiolosy. JF - Dental Radiolosy. IS - 2. ER - ...
The only treatment for affected teeth at an advanced stage is extraction. Horses can manage quite well without their incisor teeth and should be able to eat a normal diet, including hay and even grazing. There are several ongoing studies looking into the causes and potential treatment options for this syndrome.. Molly Rice, DVM, and Travis Henry, DVM, DAVDC, who are currently studying the disease, say that many horses arent diagnosed until the end stages of the disease process, which is incredibly painful. "If horses can be diagnosed and treated at an earlier stage, their quality of life can be improved greatly. In our practice we recommend radiographs of the incisors after the age of 15 to screen for resorptive lesions. This is a quick 10-minute process that can be performed during the horses routine dental examination. "Over the past six years, we have treated over 200 cases similar to Peanuts. The extraction process is performed under standing sedation with local nerve blocks. The ...
Principal Investigator:HONDA Masaki, Project Period (FY):2009 - 2011, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Dental engineering/Regenerative dentistry
Effects of TGF-β1 on the proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells and a human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cell line (2010 ...
A model showing various positions of teeth in the upper and lower jaws. Internal wall is removed to show the incisors, canine premolars, molars in full view to show the tooth roots, spongise, vessels and nerves serving them. Dissectable into 2 parts. Mounted on base. Numbered with English key card ...
Esthetics and Periodontium Online publication: December 24, 2009 Introductory pages (p. 1-5) Contents (p. 6-7) Scientific Editors note (p. 8) Full t...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative gene-expression analysis of the dental follicle and periodontal ligament in humans. AU - Lee, Hyo Seol. AU - Lee, Jongeun. AU - Kim, Seong Oh. AU - Song, Je Seon. AU - Lee, Jae Ho. AU - Lee, Syng Ill. AU - Jung, Han Sung. AU - Choi, Byung Jai. PY - 2013/12/23. Y1 - 2013/12/23. N2 - The human dental follicle partially differentiates into the periodontal ligament (PDL), but their biological functions are different. The gene-expression profiles of the dental follicle and PDL were compared using the cDNA microarray technique. Microarray analysis identified 490 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression, 365 and 125 of which were more abundant in the dental follicle and PDL, respectively. The most strongly expressed genes in the dental follicle were those related to bone development and remodeling (EGFL6, MMP8, FRZB, and NELL1), apoptosis and chemotaxis (Nox4, CXCL13, and CCL2), and tooth and embryo development (WNT2, PAX3, FGF7, AMBN, AMTN, and SLC4A4), ...
Define periodontal ligament nerve. periodontal ligament nerve synonyms, periodontal ligament nerve pronunciation, periodontal ligament nerve translation, English dictionary definition of periodontal ligament nerve. n. 1. Any of the cordlike bundles of fibers made up of neurons through which sensory stimuli and motor impulses pass between the brain or other parts of the...
The good news is that cementum can repair itself. Cementoblasts - cells in your tooth root - make cementum continuously throughout your life as the old cementum ages and thins. This way your teeth stay firmly embedded in your jawbone.. Your goal is to support this natural repair process, to neatly close off your exposed dentinal tubules with cementum.. Cementum is about 50% hydroxylapatite. Tooth enamel is 90% hydroxylapatite, and bone is 70%. Hydroxylapatite is a calcium phosphate mineral, also known as the bone mineral.. Acid food and drinks dissolve hydroxylapatite, and hence cementum. Enamel begins to demineralize at a pH of 5.5.. Yet another reason to eat a high-alkaline diet! When raw fooders eat too much acidic citrus, it dissolves their tooth enamel. They get sensitive teeth. Watch those oranges and lemons. Juice them, or rinse your mouth after eating.. The other 50% of cementum (the part that isnt calcified hydroxylapatite) is mainly collagen and protein polysaccharides (compounds of ...
Dental stem cells, especially dental follicle cells (DFCs) as precursor cells for the periodontium have interesting prospects for regenerative dentistry. During periodontitis, butyrate as a bacterial metabolite and inflammatory agent is often found in millimolar concentrations in periodontal pockets. This study evaluates the effects of butyrate on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of DFCs. We assessed cell viability/proliferation (BCA assay) and osteogenic differentiation (ALP activity, alizarin staining and RT PCR) of DFCs in vitro after butyrate supplementation. Butyrate concentrations of 20 mM or higher are toxic for DFCs. At a non-toxic concentration, butyrate promotes the expression of alkaline phosphatase and collagen type-1 but inhibits the formation of calcified nodules and the induction of RUNX2 and osteocalcin under osteogenic differentiation conditions. In conclusion, DFCs are resistant to physiological high concentrations of butyrate. Butyrate facilitates the ...
The use of guided tissue regeneration procedures has intensified the need to determine the types and quantity of tissues formed in healing. Regeneration is differentiated from new attachment in one basic, but very important manner: alveolar bone formation with new inserted periodontal fibers in new cementum is a prerequisite for the regeneration of periodontium (4-6). Areas of new cementum deposition without adjacent bone, and vice-versa, and areas of ankylosis, for example, do not satisfy the criteria for regeneration (7). Furthermore, recent advances in the understanding of functions and mechanisms of action of growth factors to regulate the healing process have provided evidence that these proteins may serve as therapeutic agents to enhance the healing of periodontal wounds (8-11). Sigurdsson et al. (12) found a significant enhancement in periodontal regeneration using the rhBMP-2 in dog models. They described limited root resorption and ankylosis generally limited immediately apical to the ...
Objective: To evaluate the kinetics of bone formation of Pool 7 EMD, by concentration, on the amount of marrow formation and study factors relating to angiogenesis associated with EMD-induced bone formation. Methods: Fractionated commercial Emdogain® (EMD) was obtained from Straumann International. 60 CDI 7 day old outbred mice were injected using 50 μl aliquots of 10 µg EMD, 10 µg Pool 7 EMD, 2 µg TGF-β (positive control) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, negative control) delivered in a calvarial injection model. Injections were done for 5 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed on days 6, 8, 12, 16 and 21 with 6 animals per factor for each time point and were prepared for histological evaluation. Nikon NIS Elements software was used to analyze vascular growth and new bone formation over the five time intervals at 20x magnification. Immunocytochemistry (IHC) was used to identify the kinetics of osteogenesis by evaluating the osteoblast transcription factor Osterix, and the ...
In the cementum located at the end of the middle third and throughout the apical third the gaps are occupied by cementocytes with numerous interconnecting extensions in the form of a "spider web." The cementocytes are also found in large numbers in furcation areas. Their gaps interconnect with the cementocytes, making metabolic exchanges with the odontoblastic extensions of the neighboring dentin (Figs 4, 5 and 6).. In the bone, a network of osteocytes is formed through contact with approximately twenty cells. This interconnecting network exchanges fluids and mediators, keeping the mineralized bone matrix metabolically active and connected to the internal and external bone surfaces. It is likely that this interconnecting network may capture structural deformations by applying compressive forces and bone stretching, which results in cytoskeleton deformation and release of mediators that stimulate adaptive cellular activities on the surfaces of medullary and cortical spaces.. In the cementum, it ...
A tooth root abscess is a severe infection that develops around the root of a tooth usually occurring from a broken or traumatized tooth.
Used to sever the periodontal ligament prior to an extraction in order to preserve surrounding bone and tissue.|ul||li|Blade shape is slightly rounded and paper thin to slide easily below the gumline|/li||li|Blades are flexible so there is less chance of