A study coordinated by the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country did not detect any increase in antimicrobial susceptibility after applying a selective digestive decontamination (SDD) protocol. The research, conducted in collaboration with the Microbiology Service and the intensive care unit at the University Hospital of Álava (Basque Country), where a selective digestive decontamination (SDD) protocol was implemented in 2002, did not find any increase in the acquisition rate of antibiotic resistance and found that the rate was no higher than that of Spanish intensive care units without the protocol.. The study was coordinated by researcher Alicia Rodríguez-Gascón of the UPV/EHUs Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, and set out to compare the rates of antimicrobial susceptibility at the intensive care unit (ICU) before and after the introduction of SDD and compare them with data on susceptibility of other Spanish ICUs without SDD. The research, titled Antibiotic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of intestinal colonization with gram-negative bacteria as a source for intensive care unit-acquired bacteremia. AU - Oostdijk, E.A.N.. AU - de Smet, A.M.. AU - Kesecioglu, J.. AU - Bonten, M.J.. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - Objective: Selective digestive tract decontamination aims to eradicate Gram-negative bacteria in both the intestinal tract and respiratory tract and is combined with a 4-day course of intravenous cefotaxime. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination only aims to eradicate respiratory tract colonization. In a recent study, selective digestive tract decontamination and selective oropharyngeal decontamination were associated with lower day-28 mortality, when compared to standard care. Furthermore, selective digestive tract decontamination was associated with a lower incidence of intensive care unit-acquired bacteremia caused by Gram-negative bacteria. We quantified the role of intestinal tract carriage with Gram-negative bacteria and intensive care ...
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No hospital stands alone, which is why the Hospital Preparedness Program emphasizes building coalitions that involve the entire health care system, emergency management agencies, non-government organizations and others in the community in planning for and responding to disasters. In planning together, the health care coalition near Scottsbluff, in western Nebraska, decontamination procedures stood out as a gap. Some hospitals had a turnover of staff and new staff were unfamiliar with decontamination procedures; others had procedures that had never been tested. Some facilities had used decontamination on a small scale with farming accidents and had identified areas for improvement for their responses.. So the coalition sponsored its first training for disasters that involve hazardous materials like chemical or biological materials. More than 30 representatives from coalition hospitals and first responder organizations participated May 29 and 30 in the coalitions first Hospital First Receiver ...
Objective : To assess the effectiveness of selective digestive decontamination SDD on the control of nosocomial infection NI in critically ill pediatric patients. Design : A prospective, randomized. non-blinded and controlled clinical microbiology study. Setting : The pediatric intensive care unit PICU of a tertiary level pediatric university...
Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk for acquisition of healthcare associated infections. These infections are often anticipated by overgrowth of potentially pathogenic micro-organisms (PPMO). Several decontamination strategies aim to prevent overgrowth of these PPMO in the respiratory tract, gastro-intestinal tract or both. These include selective decontamination using antibiotics (SDD and SOD) and chlorhexidine mouthwash (CHX). This thesis aims to determine the effects of different decontamination strategies on patient outcomes and the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in European Intensive Care Units (ICU) with low and higher prevalence of antibiotic resistance. Several research questions have been answered for ICUs with low levels of antibiotic resistance, using data from high-quality registries (MARS-cohort, NICE-registry) and in an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPD-MA) of randomized studies. The main study underlying this thesis is a new cluster
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A new self-assessment tool provides hospitals with a means of evaluating decontamination plans and capabilities against current regulatory standards, recommendations from subject matter experts, and national and international health care decontamination best practices. The Hospital Decontamination Self-Assessment Tool helps hospitals plan for, and respond to, small and large-scale incidents requiring the decontamination of patients contaminated by or exposed to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents. The tool is intended for use by hospital emergency preparedness planners, hospital decontamination team members, and other personnel with a responsibility for their facilitys decontamination plans and procedures. ...
Oropharyngeal colonisation with potential pathogens is central in the pathogenesis of VAP. Preventing VAP using oral decontamination with non-absorbable antibiotics is not widespread because of concerns about emergence of antibiotic resistance. Koeman et al used orally applied CHX or CHX plus COL as alternative agents and found both treatments to be effective in VAP prevention.. This placebo controlled trial was methodologically rigorous because it was adequately powered, randomised, blinded, and concealed; had explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria and outcomes; and had complete follow up for the primary end point. It also had standard protocols regarding head elevation to minimise confounders.. In this trial, besides the treatment, normal tooth brushing and saline cleansing of the oral cavity were administered to all patients.* Combining oral hygiene with CHX decontamination may have enhanced the removal of oral micro-organisms. Additionally, the concentration of CHX (2%) and the site ...
Documentation, Approval and Traceability of Decontamination Processes ✓ Secures regulatory filing ✓ Software und memory cards ✓ Label and log printer ✓ Durable test bodies ✓
Many centers continue to report dramatic decreases in VAP rates after implementing ventilator bundles. Interpreting these reports is complicated, however, by the subjectivity and lack of specificity of VAP definitions. More objective data suggest VAP rates may not have meaningfully changed over the past decade. If so, this compels us to re-examine and revise the prevention bundles we have been using to prevent VAP. New analyses suggest that most hospitals ventilator bundles include a mix of helpful and potentially harmful elements. Spontaneous awakening trials, spontaneous breathing trials, head-of-bed elevation, and thromboprophylaxis appear beneficial. Oral chlorhexidine and stress ulcer prophylaxis may be harmful. Subglottic secretion drainage, probiotics, and novel endotracheal cuff designs do not clearly improve objective outcomes. Selective digestive decontamination by contrast appears to lower VAP and mortality rates. Effective implementation is as important as choosing the right bundle ...
From manual washing to transportation and storage, BES understand the importance of reprocessing medical equipment within a hospital. This is why BES offers state-of-the-art solutions to assist your department through the major phases of the decontamination cycle.. Washing. Washing is arguably the most important stage of the decontamination process. Washing the greatest reduction in contamination and bioburden, and the result of the cleaning, impacts the processes that follow it.. BES Decon offers some very neat tools to aid pre-cleaning through part of its Entrhal range. Through our CISA and AquaPhase ranges we have washers for everything from the smallest eye surgery instruments through to full sizes bariatric beds.. Sterilisation. Sterilisation is a critical stage in the decontamination process and sterility can be affected by many factors. BES Decon offers solutions in all of these areas to ensure affective sterilisation and that your sterile goods stay sterile up to the point of use. ...
This disclosure relates to electrolytic decontamination of radioactively contaminated objects such as equipment or parts. The objects to be decontaminated are divided into two types: First, wastes resulting from dismantlement of radioactively contaminated equipment and parts, and second, equipment, vessels, pipes and tools that are to be reused. The electrolyte used for decontamination of the first type may be an inorganic acid aqueous solution of relatively low concentration that is inexpensive and rapid in polishing. A suitable inorganic acid is sulfuric acid that does not generate harmful gases in the process of electrolysis. The concentration of the sulfuric acid should be high to achieve polishing efficiency. About 5 Vol. % is the most suitable for uniform polishing and disposal of waste electrolyte. An electrolyte of this concentration is effective in macroscopic polishing but not in microscopic polishing (mirror finish), however. Therefore, an electrolyte for decontamination of the second
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE. March 2, 2010. Contact: Howard Sutter 714.834.6203 office. ORANGE COUNTY TO CONDUCT RECEPTION AND DECONTAMINATION CENTER EXERCISE AT THE OC FAIR AND EVENTS CENTER. (Santa Ana, CA) - On Wednesday, March 3, 2010, the Orange County Sheriffs Department Emergency Management Bureau, in coordination with the Orange County Health Care Agency and the City of Costa Mesa, will conduct a San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Reception and Decontamination Center Exercise at the OC Fair and Event Center, 88 Fair Drive, Costa Mesa. The three hour exercise will begin at approximately 9:00 a.m. and is not open to the public.. The exercise will test the Countys ability to manage individuals relocating from the 10 mile radius SONGS Emergency Planning Zone. On-site activities will include registration, monitoring, and simulated decontamination procedures. The exercise is a dress rehearsal for a federally graded exercise that will be conducted on Tuesday, March 23, 2010. Continue ...
Concerns have been raised regarding the availability of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) during an in- fluenza pandemic. One possible strategy to mitigate a respirator shortage is to reuse FFRs following a biological decontamination process to render infectious material on the FFR inactive. However, little data exist
Special vehicle configured to perform total chemical, nuclear and biological decontamination for population, intervention teams, equipment and sensitive equipment, in summer or winter, as a result of some CBRN events / incidents or as result of mass destruction use or terrorist CBRN attacks.. Decontamination special vehicle has a capacity of min. 150 persons/h. Special vehicle can work independently or from additional sources (rivers, lakes, tanks, hydrants, etc.) to ensure continuous water supply required in decontamination process.. ...
Simplified Selective Digestive Tract Decontamination for the prevention of ICU infections in a setting of high-level antibiotic resistance. Scientific Background:. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli (AGNB), Gram-positive bacteria and fungi are responsible for hospital acquired infections. This problem is especially typical in intensive care units (ICUs) due to the complexity of disease and wide use of invasive procedures. The common use of empiric wide-range antibiotic therapy had lead to the development significant resistance of these pathogens and this group of bacteria was defined as Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms (MDRO). Among these bacteria the most important and virulent are: Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL), Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) as well as Fluconazol resistant Candida.. The main reservoir of these organisms is the intestinal tract, which raises the possibility that their ...
Wel-Fab, Inc has developed a new Lightweight Inflatable Decontamination System (LIDS) Emergency Management (EM) for use as a field deployable Contamination Control Area (CCA) supporting EM personnel performing decontamination processing procedures.. LIDS EM was specifically designed and engineered for todays quick response Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), Emergency Management (EM) Teams. This system provides complete Contamination Control Area (CCA) decontamination capability for Ambulatory and Non-Ambulatory EM personnel while wearing the Level A, B, and C Hazmat Suits.. The LIDS EM package provides a Tactical Decon System, which meets all of the stand-alone requirements for worldwide deployment. LIDS EM provides a complete stand-alone decontamination capability, which can be rapidly and easily re-supplied by WFI when needed. LIDS EM can be expediently and effortlessly setup on all improved and unapproved surfaces, using minimal EM manpower.. LIDS EM provides a quantum leap forward in ...
We started all necessary preparations mid-2012, says Jan Zwaan, head of technical support at Mourik Global BV. Although we are familiar with the removal of mercury, we never handled a project this size before. In close consultation with the SABIC engineers we therefore decided to divide this huge project into 28 smaller projects and a mercury removal area was defined. In this area of approximately 40 x 40 meters and with special safety measures in place, hundreds of meters of pipes had to be installed. The area also had to host a compressor installation made of several large compressors, a number of integrated cooling circuits and a complete absorption unit with filters. Another crucial task during the preparation phase was to align the process drawings with the reality of the plant. 28 different circuits had to be cleaned in seven days. From a logistics point of view the challenge was the different locations and various altitudes of each of the circuits. In addition, every circuit had its own ...
Bristol Uniforms will be unveiling a new provision for Fire & Rescue Services (FRSs) at this year’s Emergency Services Show, to specifically help with the swift and safe cleaning and...
I know that my Vertex Vent version 1 and 2 are rated to 50*C+ so I may start with water at 140*F in my huge stock pot and see the temp results after 15 minutes and adjust from there. I may have to add a little flame but Im kinda scared to do that since almost all my gear is synthetic. I havent found any temp. specifications for my harness or webbing so good luck with that. Im just going for it when I need to and thanking God I wont have to decon every month consistently ...
The decontamination formulation original technology, Patent No. 6,566,574B1, was developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy and National Security Administration for their Chemical and Biological National Security Program (CBNSP). The formulations unique characteristics provide tactical advantages in the decontamination process that previously required the dedication of large numbers of resources, personnel and time.. The original SNL technology has been reformulated through advanced chemical compounding to maximize performance and neutralization capabilities against molds, mold spores, mycotoxins, viral, bacteriological and chemical contaminants. Unique formulation compounding allows application as foaming, fogging, wet spray and dry mist methods utilizing specifically designed delivery systems.. IDS decontamination formulation is designed specifically as a general non-acid based antibacterial decontaminant cleanser and disinfectant. It is USEPA registered for ...
As interest in watercraft inspection and decontamination (WID) grows, there is an increased risk that someone might be injured or a boat damaged during the decontamination process. This can raise concerns that the person or organization performing the decontamination could be held liable for any injury or damage that occurs ...
City-commissioned decontamination work was conducted in this citys Matsukawamachi district after the area was contaminated with radioactive materials emanating from the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant disaster. While about 500 yen per square meter is paid to decontaminate forests in affected areas, the reward shoots up to around 5,100 yen per square meter if bamboo forests are involved as it is necessary to cut thick bamboo groves before starting decontamination work.. […]. According to the Fukushima Municipal Government, now-defunct Zerutech Tohoku, a third-tier subcontractor of a joint venture that undertook the decontamination work, fabricated photos to be attached to decontamination work reports as if bamboo trees were felled for the work. The reports were submitted to the city by way of the joint venture, based on which unduly higher amounts of compensation were paid to the organization.. […]. The third-tier subcontractor in question, which was based in the prefectural city of ...
Impact of three biological decontamination methods on filtering facepiece respirator fit, odor, comfort, and donning ease.: The objective of this study was to d
Decontamination of bio-waste is crucial to ensure that pathogenic organisms which may pose a risk to the environment are neutralized. The Bio-Waste Decontamination Systems from Budzar Industries are designed to ensure that all active organisms are completely neutralized, and the effluent PH and temperature are within acceptable ranges prior to discharge.. Decontamination may be achieved with batch or continuous process and with our experience, engineering and manufacturing expertise to produce for you either process. The Budzar Industries Bio-Waste Decontamination Systems provide you the flexibility to develop the system best suited to your process.. Features include:. ...
When it comes to owning a decontamination franchise, there are many options out there, many names you may hear, but which do you choose? What qualifies a franchise as the best? Should you base it on the number of franchises? Or rather the quality of service the franchise offers? Maybe its that the franchise owner is more hands on? Or maybe the fact that they are hands off is what sells you? Lets take a look at two of the biggest names in the decontamination industry, Serv Pro, and Spaulding Decon.. Serv Pro was founded in 1967, for almost 50 years they have been helping the entrepreneurs succeed, according to their website. Which off the bat tells us that their focus is on the franchise, not the customer. While Spaulding Decon was founded in 2005, it has been a leader in the decontamination business for over 10 years and its focus is on helping the franchise succeed in order to provide the best possible service or the customer.. Both Serv Pro and Spaulding Decon are decontamination ...
The purposes of selective decontamination of the digestive tract are to treat infections that may be incubating at the time a patient is admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), by intravenous administration of antibiotics during the first days of a stay in the ICU, and to prevent ICU-acquired infections, by topical application of antibiotics in the oropharynx and the gastrointestinal tract. Despite multiple trials in which a considerable reduction in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia was demonstrated, major objections against the routine use of selective decontamination of the digestive tract have included a lack of demonstrated reductions in mortality rates and in length of stay (in individual trials), a lack of cost-efficacy data, and the threat of selection of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Recently, 2 controlled, randomized studies reported significant reductions in mortality rates among patients in ICUs who underwent selective decontamination of the digestive tract in ...
Learn about the Ecosense decontamination and infection control process. We protect you from infectious diseases and cross-contamination.
In Part 2 of this 2 part article, Zach McGovern of Attention to Detailing elaborates on the order of operations in which specific decontamination...
Following an outbreak of MRSA at a major Irish maternity hospital, the Special Care Baby Unit was isolated for high level decontamination with hydrogen peroxide. The rooms had high efficiency HVAC systems to provide clean air to the fragile newborns and this was turned off for the duration of the decontamination process.. The images above show the fogging in progress which included the bio-decontamination of a number of baby incubators. ...
Identification of unexpected taxa in 16S rRNA surveys of low-density microbiota, diluted mock communities and cultures demonstrated that a variable fraction of sequence reads originated from exogenous DNA. The sources of these contaminants are reagents used in DNA extraction, PCR, and next-generation sequencing library preparation, and human (skin, oral and respiratory) microbiota from the investigators. For in silico removal of reagent contaminants, a pipeline was used which combines the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in V3-4 16S rRNA gene amplicon datasets with bacterial DNA quantification based on qPCR targeting of the V3 segment of the 16S rRNA gene. Serially diluted cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used for 16S rDNA profiling, and DNA from each of these species was used as a qPCR standard. OTUs assigned to Escherichia or Staphylococcus were virtually unaffected by the decontamination procedure, whereas OTUs from Pseudomonas, which is a major
Boise, Idaho - March 18, 2020 - US Ecology, Inc. (NASDAQ-GS: ECOL) (US Ecology or the Company), in response to the COVID-19 Coronavirus outbreak, offers a comprehensive range of decontamination response and disposal services to customers, providing safe solutions for all disinfecting and decontamination needs to combat the spread of COVID-19.. Safety. Service. Professional Standards.. An unwavering commitment to safety, unequaled service and the highest professional standards has made US Ecology an industry leader with a proven track record spanning over 65 years. With a nationwide footprint of disposal facilities and service centers in place, US Ecology stands ready to serve new and existing customers. US Ecologys highly-trained professionals are currently providing COVID-19 decontamination services for a wide range of customers including retail establishments, government agencies, cruise lines, restaurants, as well as insurance, transportation and other companies across the ...
Thank you for visiting the website of Decontamination Solutions LLC. Were a commercial decontamination company based out of Lake Charles, LA that was started to help business owners keep their buildings clean and safe during the COVID-19 outbreak. We offer daily, weekly and monthly decontamination services, depending on your needs. Call 337-912-1806 today to find out what we can do for you ...
Our decontamination services are able to tackle pet odors that seem nearly impossible to combat!. At our Rug Care Center, your rug(s) will be placed individually in one of our 5×9 decontamination tanks which contain a cold-water solution including a natural enzyme that digests and breaks down urine residue as well as a counteractant that deodorizes and cleans the rug. A Rug Care Center technician gauges how long the rug stays in the tank by determining the type of rug and the type of dye theyre dealing with. This will tell us how tolerant your rug will be to color migration so we dont ruin the coloring of your rug(s). During the soaking process the technician will agitate the tank contents. After the rug soaks in the tank, it is then removed, rinsed, and cleaned. Our most successful outcomes have been with rugs we could rinse and clean through our MORTM Machine upon completion of decontamination. However, whether yours can be cleaned through the MORTM Machine or needs to be hand-cleaned, we ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Decontamination After Toxin Exposure, Decontamination After Toxin Ingestion, Gastric Decontamination.
Handprinted in the UK, 100%Heavy Cotton Fruit of the Loom Decontamination tshirt in BlackThe printing wont fade or crack even when tumble dried so your shirt will stay as soft and silky for years to come. an Ideal gift for anyone interested in decontamination Sizes are Small 35 - 37, Medium 38 - 40, Large 40 - 41, XL 44 - 46, XXL 47 - 49, XXXL 50 -52
Bio Decontamination Market(Health-NewsWire.Net, October 08, 2019 ) What is the future growth analysis of global Bio Decontamination Market?The Bio Decontamination Market is projected to reach USD 175 million by 2024 from USD 130 million in 2019, at a CAGR of 6.1%What are key factors driving growth
OPUS (Open Publications of UTS Scholars) is the UTS institutional repository. It showcases the research of UTS staff and postgraduate students to a global audience. For you, as a researcher, OPUS increases the visibility and accessibility of your research by making it openly available regardless of where you choose to publish.. Items in OPUS are enhanced with high quality metadata and seeded to search engines such as Google Scholar as well as being linked to your UTS research profile, increasing discoverability and opportunities for citation of your work and collaboration. In addition, works in OPUS are preserved for long-term access and discovery.. The UTS Open Access Policy requires UTS research outputs to be openly available via OPUS. Depositing your work in OPUS also assists you in complying with ARC, NHMRC and other funder Open Access policies. Providing Open Access to your research outputs through OPUS not only ensures you comply with these important policies, but increases opportunities ...
Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) decontamination and reuse may need to be considered as a crisis capacity strategy to ensure continued availability. This document summarizes research about decontamination of FFRs before reuse.
Definition : Prepackaged collections of the necessary devices and supplies (either custom or standard) designed to decontaminate the skin either by physical removal, chemical decontamination, or a combination of both. Items in these kits typically include a ready-to-use and properly sealed decontamination agent and a set of applicators (e.g., pads, mitts) that permit quick and easy preliminary self-decontamination. The kits may be supplied in supporting trays (i.e., procedure trays) consisting of a flat-bottomed receptacle with a border around the periphery supporting all the instruments and supplies needed for the procedure; the trays are usually covered or wrapped. Skin decontamination kits and trays are usually intended for decontamination below hazardous levels for the individual from chemical (either warfare or toxic industrial) agents and radiation contaminated materials, and less frequently from biological agents. All products used for skin decontamination should be safe for individual ...
It is interesting to note that one recent study of antimicrobial prophylaxis in the intensive care setting that did not use a systemic antimicrobial at the beginning of oral decontamination did not show statistically significant reductions in nosocomial infection [5]. We attempted to limit the provision of cefotaxime prophylaxis to approximately 72 hours, the time required in our experience to decontaminate the digestive tract of potential pathogenic microorganisms as assessed by surveillance cultures. In our study, 2 of 12 (17%) and 6 of 36 (17%) infections occurred in the first 72 hours in cefotaxime-treated and non-cefotaxime-treated patients, respectively ...
Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) has been with us since the early days of our specialty, and in some ways it marks our
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An anthrax bioterrorism attack in a transportation hub will require the use of various decontamination approaches, including fogging of sporicidal liquids.
The Lightweight Inflatable Decontamination System Civil Support Team (LIDS CST) model was specifically designed for todays quick response Weapons of Mass Destruction, Civil Support Teams. This system provides complete Contamination Control Area (CCA) decontamination capability for CST personnel while wearing Level A Suits. LIDS CST can be set up quickly and easily on all improved and unimproved surfaces in an expedient amount of time.. LIDS CST System Capabilities and Benefits:. • Rapid Deployment and Setup ...
Before we can send you to the surface to join the rest of the gnomes, you have to go through the decontamination process. Just head into the next room and board the Sanitron 500. It will do the rest! It shouldnt even hurt... much ...
2014/06/16. The government will adjust decontamination operations near the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant by changing how it selects land to scrub.. The goal is to limit individual radiation exposure for residents to 1 millisievert. While decontamination work currently places priority on exposure estimates based on atmospheric radiation readings, that will soon be changed to factor in readings from residents portable dosimeters.. The change came after a meeting between the Environment Ministry and representatives of four cities in the prefecture. Many residents and experts demanded that greater emphasis be placed on dosimeter readings.. They said the readings on their individual dosimeters are often lower than 1 millisievert, even though the corresponding atmospheric radiation readings in their area were higher ...
The Tristel Trio Wipes System is a three-part decontamination system for non-lumened medical devices. It comprises of three wipes which in sequence perform the steps of the decontamination procedure in a matter of minutes:
Seacoast Science, Inc., proposes to fabricate a detector that will monitor the presence and concentration of two chemicals commonly used for building decontamination. Ultimately, this project will yield a small, rugged, lightweight, low-power system designed for continuous unattended operation or handheld battery operation. In unattended mode, the proposed detector will monitor chemical concentration and transmit levels and a detector location identification code wirelessly back to a central control unit. When used in handheld mode, the system will display chemical concentration on an LCD display. The system includes a chemical sensor array optimized for detection of two decontamination chemicals (chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide); a gas sampling system; a radio for wireless communication; and a small, rugged lightweight, and low-power system. Seacoast Science?s microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) chemicapacitor technology utilizes an array of surface micromachined capacitors, coated ...