Recent work has suggested an association between the orbitofrontal cortex in humans and practical decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of cognitive deficits, with particular emphasis on decision‐making processes, following damage to different sectors of the human prefrontal cortex. Patients with discrete orbitofrontal (OBF) lesions, dorsolateral (DL) lesions, dorsomedial (DM) lesions and large frontal lesions (Large) were compared with matched controls on three different decision‐making tasks: the Iowa Gambling Task and two recently developed tasks that attempt to fractionate some of the cognitive components of the Iowa task. A comprehensive battery including the assessment of recognition memory, working memory, planning ability and attentional set‐shifting was also administered. Whilst combined frontal patients were impaired on several of the tasks employed, distinct profiles emerged for each patient group. In contrast to previous data, patients with focal ...
English 1000 Images About Decision Making On Pinterest Making Decisions Facts Decision Making Worksheets Printable Worksheets and Free for Kids
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perinatal lethal conditions. T2 - The effect of diagnosis on decision making. AU - Hassed, Susan J.. AU - Miller, Connie H.. AU - Pope, Sandra K.. AU - Murphy, Pamela. AU - Quirk, J. Gerald. AU - Cunniff, Christopher. PY - 1993/7. Y1 - 1993/7. N2 - Objective: To identify factors influencing pregnancy management decisions following identification of a perinatal lethal condition. Methods: One hundred thirty pregnancies with perinatal lethal conditions diagnosed before 24 weeks gestation were examined. Information collected included demographic data, estimated gestational age at presentation, referral indication, nature of the defect, and performance of autopsy. Results: Eighty-seven families elected to abort affected pregnancies and 43 elected to continue. Demographic factors did not influence decision making, nor did gestational age at diagnosis or referral indication. When comparing the diagnosis of one lethal condition with diagnoses of all other lethal conditions, pregnancies ...
2015 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Speed-accuracy trade-offs are well studied in human decision making, but we are only beginning to understand how such trade-offs affect other animals. Similarly, it is poorly understood how consistent individual differences in decision making are influenced by their social context. Here we investigated whether zebrafish, Danio rerio, show individual consistency (personality) in speed-accuracy trade-offs based on a colour discrimination task, and how pairs of fish with distinct personalities make consensus choices. The results showed that zebrafish exhibit between-individual speed-accuracy trade-offs: some fish made careful, slow but accurate decisions, while others made swift but less accurate choices. We also found that these decision-making strategies were constant over time: fish retained the same strategy for 3 days. When testing pairs of careful and fast-and-inaccurate individuals, the combined choice strategy was intermediate in ...
Using a proven, practical, algorithmic approach, Surgical Decision Making summarizes evidence-based guidelines and practice protocols in an easy-to-follow format. Designed to sharpen the decision-making skills of both trainees and practicing surgeons, the 6th Edition directs your focus to the critical decision points in a wide range of clinical scenarios, helping you determine optimal evaluation and management to secure the best possible patient outcomes. Algorithms are accompanied by annotations that explain all critical factors affecting decisions in a concise, readable manner.. Author Info. By Robert C. McIntyre, MD, FACS, Professor and Chief, Division of GI, Trauma, and Endocrine Surgery; Vice Chair of Finance, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine Aurora, Colorado, USA and Richard D. Schulick, MD, Professor & Chair of the University of Colorado Department of Surgery; Director of the University of Colorado Cancer Center; The Aragón/Gonzalez-Gíustí Chair, ...
Britney Spears has broken her silence on her X Factor exit, describing it as a very difficult decision. Ive made the very difficult decision not to return for another season, she said in a statement Friday. I had an incredible time doing the show and I love the other judges and I am so proud of my teens but its time for me to get back in the studio. Watching them all do their thing up on that stage every week made me miss performing so much! I cant wait to get back out there and
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Downloadable (with restrictions)! In problems to do with managing water resources multiple decision makers are involved, each acting in their own right and using different value systems. In the literature on management science, several procedures are proposed in order to establish a collective preference based on the aggregation of different individual preferences. However, the well-known methods that focus on a single winner have some inconveniences that should be addressed. This paper is focused on a group decision making procedure based on the analysis of individual rankings with the aim of choosing an appropriate alternative for a water resources problem. This alternative is found to be the best compromise from the points of view of all actors involved in the decision problem. The structure of the method is set out as is its application to the water resources problem. A comparison with other methods is presented and discussed.
How is Health Care Power of Attorney (medical decision making) abbreviated? HCPA stands for Health Care Power of Attorney (medical decision making). HCPA is defined as Health Care Power of Attorney (medical decision making) somewhat frequently.
(A)(Benchmark Assignment) Applying Decision-Making Models in Health CareThis is a benchmark assignment.Choose an ethical decision-making model from among the fo
This paper describes a new multi-player computer game, Colored Trails (CT), which may be played by people, computers and heterogeneous groups. CT was designed to enable investigation of properties of decision-making strategies in multi-agent situations of varying complexity. The paper presents the results of an initial series of experiments of CT games in which agents choices affected not only their own outcomes but also the outcomes of other agents. It compares the behavior of people with that of computer agents deploying a variety of decision-making strategies. The results align with behavioral economics studies in showing that people cooperate when they play and that factors of social dependency influence their levels of cooperation. Preliminary results indicate that people design agents to play strategies closer to game-theory predictions, yielding lower utility. Additional experiments show that such agents perform worse than agents designed to make choices that resemble human cooperative ...
By studying bacteria which are living under stressful conditions, scientists have gained fresh insights into the manner of human decision making, especially crucial ones.
Despite exciting advances toward the promise of genomics-driven cancer treatment [1, 2], there is not yet an established framework for optimal communication of test results in a clinical setting in a way that cancer best informs decision-making [3]. Research on the implementation of gene expression profiling for cancer treatment decisions has identified variable levels of understanding among patients, with misperceptions of test validity [4], and concerns among oncologists regarding patients understanding of test results [5]. This suggests a need for decision aids to support communication of genomic expression profiling test results and informed decision-making. Optimal implementation of genomic risk stratification tools, which have the potential to better match patients with the right treatments for them, should be performed within a patient-centered context that meets the National Academy of Medicine (formerly Institute of Medicine) goals for patient-centeredness by considering "individual ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Basic and Translation Research on Decision Making in Aging and Alzheimers Disease (R21 - Clinical Trial Optional) PAR-18-538. NIA
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of observed decision time on expectations of extremity and cooperation.. AU - Evans, A.M.. AU - van de Calseyde, P.P.F.M.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - The present research investigates how people use observed decision time to form expectations of others behavior in social dilemmas. In four studies, participants received information about others decision times (fast or slow) and were asked to estimate how much they contributed to a common pool. People believe fast decisions are more extreme than slow decisions; in other words, they assume that fast decisions are either extremely selfish or extremely cooperative. People also believe that fast deciders are less moral (Studies 1 and 2) and less conflicted (Study 2) than slow deciders. Beliefs about decision time depend on whether time can be attributed to self-paced reaction times or external time constraints. When decisions are made under external time constraints, time has inconsistent or heterogeneous effects ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Understanding Clinical Information Needs and Health Care Decision Making Processes in the Context of Health Information Technology (IT) (R01) PA-11-198. AHRQ
Outline Classical SDT under normative rationality Behavioral factors From the decision-making literature: CPT From the phishing & deception literatures Re-derivation of optimal cutoff threshold under CPT-SDT Using T&K92 probability weighting function Using neo-additive probability weighting function Incorporating the psychology of deception Beyond comparative statics: comparative simulation results Implications Spam filtering Education & training End
To keep the energy and dynamism of Day 1, you have to somehow make high-quality, high-velocity decisions. Easy for start-ups and very challenging for large organizations. The senior team at Amazon is determined to keep our decision-making velocity high. Speed matters in business - plus a high-velocity decision making environment is more fun too. We dont know all the answers, but here are some thoughts.. First, never use a one-size-fits-all decision-making process. Many decisions are reversible, two-way doors. Those decisions can use a light-weight process. For those, so what if youre wrong? I wrote about this in more detail in last years letter.. Second, most decisions should probably be made with somewhere around 70% of the information you wish you had. If you wait for 90%, in most cases, youre probably being slow. Plus, either way, you need to be good at quickly recognizing and correcting bad decisions. If youre good at course correcting, being wrong may be less costly than you think, ...
Consult the Stent Save a Life session on STEMI during EuroPCR 2017 from Thursday 18 May if you want to exchange with your colleagues about the difficult decisions in primary PCI, learn more about challenging STEMI cases from a real life setting and appraise different strategies for these patients from a global perspective.
I met someone : A true, personal story from the experience, I Have a Difficult Decision to Make. I met someone and the butterflies are gone. Im a little shocked how I lost interest so quickly. Although I am not a picky person, I dont think I should have to settle either. I realize now that I li...
This study assessed the impact of a computerised decision aid applied in a shared decision-making consultation on the primary outcome measure of decision conflict as compared to a traditional doctor-led application of paper guidelines. The key finding was a significantly lower decision conflict in the decision aid group than in the paper-based guidelines group immediately after the research clinic and this finding was present across all patients regardless of their initial treatment. Decision conflict was lower after the clinic in both groups.. In addition, there was a marked difference between the two arms in the decision whether or not to take warfarin when patients were not already on this treatment; those in the decision aid group were significantly much less likely to start warfarin than those in the paper guidelines arm.. There has been considerable debate about the most appropriate outcome measures for assessing the effectiveness of decision support tools.17 Many studies of guidelines ...
Downloadable! The subject of this paper is decision-making on the adoption, ratification and implementation of conventions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation (lLO). The first part of the paper provides-a brief introduction to the ILO as an international organisation, its treaty base and its most important bodies. In the second part of the paper, we focus on international labour standards. We first explain the decision-making procedure within the ILO which leads to the adoption of conventions and recommendations. We then deal with the ratification of conventions at the national stage and discuss the compliance with the obligations arising from ratification. The focus of the paper is not so much on the formal rules and procedures but on the question of how the rules are applied. Descriptive statistics give evidence on the degree of consensus at the decision-making stage, the voting behaviour of the delegates to the International Labour Conference, the ratification behaviour of
A Consumer Decision-Making Model in M-Commerce: The Role of Reputation Systems in Mobile App Purchases: 10.4018/IRMJ.2016040103: The objective of this paper is to understand the importance of mobile reputation systems in mobile users app discovery and purchase satisfaction. A
The objective of this study is to determine if the implementation of guidelines utilizing immediate CT Perfusion and CT Angiography in addition to non-contrast CT alters (reduces or increases) the time to decision-making for or against rt-PA in acute ischemic stroke, and by extension, time to therapy in treated patients and time to transfer from the department for all patients. A secondary objective is to determine if using CTP/CTA-inclusive hyperacute stroke guidelines improves safety by decreasing symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and mortality in patients who receive rt-PA ...
Ethical considerations. Ethical permission was obtained from the universitys research ethical committee and the manager of the primary healthcare clinic. In this study, the three main ethical guidelines of the Belmont Report of 1979, as cited in Polit and Beck (2012:252) namely, beneficence, respect for human dignity and justice were used. This included the principle of respect for persons or autonomy, whereby participants are treated as autonomous and capable of making deliberate decisions about whether to participate in research (Lobiondo-Wood 2010:252; Polit & Beck 2012:152-154). Assent and consent were obtained and no participants were coerced to take part. Participation was voluntary and no names of participants were revealed; only numbers were assigned to each interview recorded and the transcripts so as to ensure that no data will be linked to a participant when reported. This was done to ensure beneficence, respect and confidentiality. A clinic social worker and psychologist located in ...
NOTE: In the original design of this study, we hoped to utilize a modified Client Satisfaction Questionnaire for assessment of satisfaction of patient participants and physicians as secondary trial outcomes. However, we are unable to utilize any modified Client Satisfaction Questionnaires in this study, because of lack of permission from the original developer of the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8, who has copyrighted and trademarked the questionnaire and prohibits such modifications. No modified client satisfaction questionnaire results have been analyzed in this study and will not be analyzed.. Study design The project design will be a single-centre randomized controlled trial conducted at University Health Network. The participants will be randomized to a) the decision aid group (in addition to usual care [counseling by his or her physician, called usual care]) or b) usual care. The DA will be available only to participants during the study (not the public or treating physicians). The ...
A Mashup Application to Support Complex Decision Making for Retail Consumers: 10.4018/jisss.2010100103: Purchase processes often require complex decision making and consumers frequently use Web information sources to support these decisions. However, increasing
The medial frontal cortex (MFC) is critical for cost-benefit decision-making. Generally, cognitive and reward-based behaviour in rodents is not thought to be lateralised within the brain. In this study, however, we demonstrate that rats with unilateral MFC lesions show a profound change in decision-making on an effort-based decision-making task. Furthermore, unilateral MFC lesions have a greater effect when the rat has to choose to put in more effort for a higher reward when it is on the contralateral side of space to the lesion. Importantly, this could not be explained by motor impairments as these animals did not show a turning bias in separate experiments. In contrast, rats with unilateral dopaminergic midbrain lesions did exhibit a motoric turning bias, but were unimpaired on the effort-based decision-making task. This rare example of a cognitive deficit caused by a unilateral cortical lesion in the rat brain indicates that the MFC may have a specialised and lateralised role in evaluating the costs
Economic theories of decision making are based on the principle of utility maximization, and reinforcement-learning theory provides computational algorithms that can be used to estimate the overall reward expected from alternative choices. These formal models not only account for a large range of behavioral observations in human and animal decision makers, but also provide useful tools for investigating the neural basis of decision making. Nevertheless, in reality, decision makers must combine different types of information about the costs and benefits associated with each available option, such as the quality and quantity of expected reward and required work. In this article, we put forward the hypothesis that different subdivisions of the primate frontal cortex may be specialized to focus on different aspects of dynamic decision-making processes. In this hypothesis, the lateral prefrontal cortex is primarily involved in maintaining the state representation necessary to identify optimal actions in a
New Chemical Entities and Scheduling delegates final decisions and reasons for decisions for medicines and chemicals referred to the November 2016 ACCS, ACMS and Joint ACCS-ACMS meetings
Over the last several decades opioid treatment for chronic pain has become increasingly popular. From the sense that chronic pain had previously been undertreated, to drug companies anxious to sell new designer opioids, usage has increased several-fold. In its unfortunate history non-specialists were persuaded to prescribe opioids before they could possibly understand the complexity of the treatment.
After months of meetings and feedback, a final decision on new catchment areas for the three Lake Country elementary schools will go to the Central Okanagan School Board in the next two months.. The Central Okanagan School District held a final public consultation Thursday night in Lake Country where two different options for the new catchment areas were presented to the public.. Both options are very similar and would re-direct students living in the SouthWest quadrant of Lake Country (south of Seaton Road and west of the highway) that are currently in the Davidson Road catchment to Peter Greer Elementary. Students in the Woodsdale Flats area would be sent to Oyama Traditional School as opposed to their current catchment of Peter Greer.. The only difference in the two options is a development known as Sage Glen, where just 14 students currently reside. Those students, and any new students in that specific development, are either going to be in the Davidson Road catchment or the Peter Greer ...
Researchers have discovered that two neurons in the brain hold the key to explaining how complex behavioral decisions are made.. Get the Free Tracker App to find a Nintendo Switch in Stock. In this study, scientists monitored the snails behavior while they made decisions in their search for food.. "Our study reveals for the first time how just two neurons can create a mechanism in an animals brain which drives and optimizes complex decision making tasks," said lead researchers George Kemenes, Professor at the University of Sussex in Britain.. They then measured the activity in the snails brain by using electrodes to record small electrical changes, called action potentials, in individual neurons.. The results showed a controller type neuron which lets the snails brain know potential food is present and a second neuron which transmits signals telling the snails brain what its motivational state is, i.e., whether its hungry or not.. Also, the system created by the neurons was found to ...
The Juneau School Board is poised to make its final decision Tuesday on whether or not to shuffle school start times around in the fall.
Part A - Final decisions on matters referred to an expert advisory committee Advisory Committee on Chemicals Scheduling (ACCS#18)
The FEI Tribunal last night (Friday) published its Final Decision in the case against the Iranian rider Abdulla Mahmood Abdulla Darban (FEI ID 10044343). Samples taken from the horse Lunatica (FEI ID 103JV94/QAT), which finished fourth at the CEI1* in Doha (QAT) on 2 May 2015, returned positive for two prohibited substances, Propranolol and Dexamethasone.…
The fact is its part of your childrens "job" to do stupid things. Bad decision making is an essential part of their road to maturity. A problem arises, however, if their poor decision making continues. This usually occurs when parents dont hold them responsible for their poor decisions, instead, bailing them out of the trouble their children get into. These children learn that they arent responsible for their decisions and can continue to do stupid things without fear of consequences.. Raise Good Decision Makers. Encouraging your children to make their own decisions isnt as simple as saying, "You make the decision. Youre on your own." Instead, ceding decision making to your children is an incremental process based on their age and maturity. It would be downright dangerous to give children complete latitude in their decision making. But you can begin to teach decision-making skills in small doses even with very young children. For example, you wouldnt tell your children they can have any ...
The locus coeruleus (LC) can exhibit tonic or phasic activity and release norepinephrine (NE) throughout the cortex, modulating cellular excitability and synaptic efficacy and thus influencing behavioral performance. We study the effects of LC-NE modulation on decision making in two-alternative forced-choice tasks by changing conductances in a biophysical neural network model, and we investigate how it affects performance measured in terms of reward rate. We find that low tonic NE levels result in unmotivated behavior and high levels in impulsive, inaccurate choices, but that near-optimal performance can occur over a broad middle range. Robustness is greatest when pyramidal cells are less strongly modulated than interneurons, and superior performance can be achieved with phasic NE release, provided only glutamatergic synapses are modulated. We also show that network functions such as sensory information accumulation and short-term memory can be modulated by tonic NE levels, and that ...
Racial/ethnic minority parents were more likely to express regret about initial cancer treatment decisions for their children, according to a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Mack et al found that factors associated with less decisional regret included receiving high-quality information and detailed prognostic information as well as trust in the oncologist.. Study Details. The study consisted of a survey of 346 parents of children with cancer within 12 weeks of their initial cancer treatment decision and the childrens physicians at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Boston Childrens Hospital and The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia. The primary outcome measure was heightened regret measured by the Decisional Regret Scale.. Factors Associated With Regret. Overall, 54 parents (16%) met the criteria for heightened decisional regret. In multivariate analysis, race/ethnicity was associated with regret, with black (odds ratio [OR] = 6.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.30-18.7), ...
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From the clinical perspective, the study design and the ensuing LOE classification may not always be the most important factor to consider while assessing the available evidence. Occasionally, even a well conducted RCT may not necessarily generate new knowledge superior to the knowledge gained from a case series study. Thus an RCT may be less significant to the clinical decision making than a case series study. For example, when a clinician assesses the benefits and risks of a possible treatment modality, the use of LOE alone can be misleading. An historical example is the use of Bisphosphonates for dental purposes:. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a class of drugs that inhibit bone resorption and they are successfully used across a wide range of medical disciplines for bone diseases (Molvik & Khan 2015; Costa 2014; Anagha & Sen 2014; Giusti 2014; Bhatt et al. 2014; Eriksen et al. 2014). However, like any drug, BPs possess the risk of side effects. BPs-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) has been ...
by Prof. Dr. Claus-Peter Rückemann, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster / Leibniz Universität Hannover / North-German Supercomputing Alliance, Germany. Description:. This tutorial focusses on the challenges of increasing the overall long-term efficiency of information, knowledge and computing related application scenarios, respecting the interests of users and disciplines, service, and resources providers.. This tutorial presents the basics of decision making and High End Computing (HEC). The term HEC summarises cluster, Grid, Cloud, High Performance Computing, and supercomputing as well as these resources may be utilised for advanced scientific computing. Decision making is the fundamental base for any process as well as decision making is a process and result itself. The tutorial will show what decision making can mean for HEC and will discuss prominent decision making processes, necessary with High End Computing and collaboration.. In order to understand deficits in decision ...
To make an optimal decision you need to know all relevant data about an individual (used to estimate the probability of an outcome), and the utility (cost, loss function) of making each decision. Sensitivity and specificity do not provide this information. Thats why direct probability models such as the binary logistic model are so popular. For example, if you estimated that the probability of a disease given age, sex, and symptoms is 0.1 and the "cost" of a false positive equaled the "cost" of a false negative, you would act as if the person does not have the disease. Given other utilities you might make different decisions. If the utilities are unknown, you give the best estimate of the probability of the outcome to the decision maker and let her incorporate her own unspoken utilities in making an optimum decision for her.. Besides the fact that cutoffs do not apply to individuals, only to groups, individual decision making does not utilize sensitivity and specificity. For an individual we ...
Methods: Prospective observational study of mental healthcare in six European countries: Germany, UK, Italy Hungary, Denmark and Switzerland. Patients (N = 588) and treating clinicians (N = 213) reported preferred and experienced decision making at baseline using the Clinical Decision Making Style Scale (CDMS) and the Clinical Decision Involvement and Satisfaction Scale (CDIS). Retrospective service use was assessed with the Client Socio-Demographic and Service Receipt Inventory (CSSRI-EU) at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Negative binomial regression analyses examined the effects of CDMS and CDIS on service use and inpatient costs at baseline and multilevel models examined these relationships over time ...
Background: Patients with advanced cancer for whom standard systemic treatment is no longer available may be offered participation in early phase clinical trials. In the decision making process, both medical-technical information and patient values and preferences are important. Since patients report decisional conflict after deciding on participation in these trials, improving the decision making process is essential. We aim to develop and evaluate an Online Value Clarification Tool (OnVaCT) to assist patients in clarifying their values around this end-of-life decision. This improved sharing of values is hypothesized to support medical oncologists in tailoring their information to individual patients needs and, consequently, to support patients in taking decisions in line with their values and reduce decisional conflict. Methods: In the first part, patients values and preferences and medical oncologists views hereupon will be explored in interviews and focus groups to build a first prototype ...
BMJ Best Practice now even better placed to support decision making at the point of care Clinical decision-making has become a little easier with the launch of
I know I write a lot about bringing as many people as possible into the decision making process. When a certain issue affects a lot of people, its important to get a sense of the scope of the…
A video training series providing an overview of important considerations of radiation epidemiology, describing what distinguishes a well-designed or reliable study from an unreliable, and a flawed study. The series explores how the results of epidemiologic studies are misused or misrepresented and the impact on creating public health policy and evidence-based health practices.
Medical decision making for your cat is often complicated, especially when your cat doesnt have a definitive diagnosis. We all struggle with what-to-do and how-it-should-best-be-done. Then theres the added issue of costs. What if a test could give you clear insight into what is sickening your cat but its a budget-buster? What if the test doesnt give you helpful results and
From the excellent book Wisdom of Crowds by James Suroweicki: Collective decision making is often confused with a quest for consensus. But they are different. Heres how they contrast: Consensus Collective Decision Making Encourages lowest-common-denominator solutions which offend no one. Encourages the free exchange of conflicting views, which excites everyone. Tends to stick with the…
The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the impact of shared decision making on colorectal cancer screening in Maine. This project seeks to: systematically identify unscreened patients at three primary care practices, provide patients a high-quality decision aid along with primary care physician recommendation to be screened by either colonoscopy or FIT (stool testing), and a follow up with a personal phone call from the primary care team to provide decision support and schedule desired screening.
Medical decision-making is critical to patient survival and well-being[1]. Over the last two decades, the convergence of influential ideas from the fields of bioethics, psychology, sociology and medicine has contributed to our understanding of the beneficial role of engaging patients in the medical decision-making process. The several potential benefits of involving patients in medical decision-making (DM) include reduced anxiety and depression, greater self-efficacy, improved concordance, and higher satisfaction with their physician [2-6]. Patients expectations about exercising choice in medical decision-making have also been influenced by socio-cultural factors. These stem from increasing consumerist attitudes and litigious practices in the society, leading to the belief amongst healthcare professionals, that patients are best placed to evaluate the risks and benefits of alternative treatments [7], [8]. Of the models of healthcare decision-making that exist, an extreme and impractical version ...
The key to solving the challenge of improved decision making lies in understanding what makes an effective decision maker and how to best advance decision maker proficiency and achieve consistently high levels of decision quality and decision execution proficiency.. KBSI has worked on a number of research initiatives that have focused on developing methods and tools that help decision makers more accurately assess individual decision-making effectiveness. Our research has also developed technologies that help train decision makers to dramatically and predictably improve their knowledge and decision-making skills.. ...
The key to solving the challenge of improved decision making lies in understanding what makes an effective decision maker and how to best advance decision maker proficiency and achieve consistently high levels of decision quality and decision execution proficiency.. KBSI has worked on a number of research initiatives that have focused on developing methods and tools that help decision makers more accurately assess individual decision-making effectiveness. Our research has also developed technologies that help train decision makers to dramatically and predictably improve their knowledge and decision-making skills.. ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Decision making in health and medicine. T2 - Integrating evidence and values. AU - Hunink, M. G Myriam. AU - Weinstein, Milton C.. AU - Wittenberg, Eve. AU - Drummond, Michael F.. AU - Pliskin, Joseph S.. AU - Wong, John B.. AU - Wong, John B.. AU - Glasziou, Paul P.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Decision making in health care involves consideration of a complex set of diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic uncertainties. Medical therapies have side effects, surgical interventions may lead to complications, and diagnostic tests can produce misleading results. Furthermore, patient values and service costs must be considered. Decisions in clinical and health policy require careful weighing of risks and benefits and are commonly a trade-off of competing objectives: maximizing quality of life vs maximizing life expectancy vs minimizing the resources required. This text takes a proactive, systematic and rational approach to medical decision making. It covers decision trees, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Experiencing cancer treatment decision-making in managed care. AU - Wenzel, Jennifer. AU - Shaha, Maya. PY - 2008/9/1. Y1 - 2008/9/1. N2 - Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore womens perceptions of and experiences with breast cancer treatment decision-making in managed care organizations (MCOs). Background. Managed care organizations are the predominant form of employer-sponsored healthcare insurance in the United States of America. These healthcare financing entities minimize cost by streamlining healthcare delivery and may impose choice restrictions. The extent of these restrictions has not previously been studied from an in-depth patient perspective. Method. A qualitative descriptive approach was adopted using interviews with a purposive sample of 14 managed care enrollees diagnosed with breast cancer at all stages. The data were collected between 2003 and 2005. Data analysis involved a reflexive process of transcript reading, categorization, data reduction and ...
Sponsor letter from invitee and consumer and visa copy or copy of work permit. I making if she knows the airhead parade that has taken place consumer my various inboxes.. Please me consider me and politely send me the application procedures. 150 Analysis essay on save girl child. My advice is to essay it alone, and then it process about essay years to essay. There are three distinct types of measurement essay employed. For example, decision this making, a large Japanese study Analysis that. Making the Process sword bayonet was issued process use with the British open bore Lancaster rifle.. When I was in school, Analysis teacher invariably called me by my last name on process first day. I kindly request for a masters scholarship in Sweden University.. Redefining process as higher prices consumer deflation as lower prices is simply a marketing Analysis used by decision evidence Nursing research paper based +. Forge and hone consumer nerves and balls Analysis of iron, consumer at the end, ADL will ...
PURPOSE: The use of technology to aid in assessment, planning, and management of complex craniomaxillofacial injuries is increasingly common. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) evaluation is considered the standard of care, and intraoperative imaging is becoming increasingly accessible. Limited data exist regarding the implication of intraoperative CT on decision making in the management of all sites of facial fractures. The purposes of this study were to characterize the use of an intraoperative CT scanner for craniomaxillofacial surgery within our institution, to quantify the effect of intraoperative CT on surgical decision making, and to attempt to provide guidance on when to use this technology ...
Decisionmaking: 20 assigned downloads, like Decisionmaking in a Glass House: Mass Media, Public Opinion, and American and European Foreign Policy in the 21st Century from ebook-reader
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an individuals reference point in making a decision concerning the values of environmental goods. Empirical research in behavioral decision-making has revealed that economic prospects are valued in terms of their departure from a reference point adopted when a decision is made. Three central questions guided the research: (1) Under what conditions will a reference point be adopted? (2) How important, in terms of its overall influence on decision-making, is the reference point effect likely to be? and (3) What signals or indicators might a decision-maker look for as cues to the presence and strength of the effect? Six problems were used in this study. Each problem presented the possibility of an improvement, at some cost, over the status quo and asked the subject to indicate the desirability of the improvement on a seven-point scale. Each problem consisted of a present form and a past form. In each pair, the past form was the same as the ...
Interruptions to consumer decision making are ubiquitous. Across three studies, we find that interruptions in decision making can increase risk-taking. When an
In 10-10-10. Suzy Welch explains how she applies her strategy to all of the decisions she makes in her life. By asking herself what the consequences of that decision are in 10 minutes, 10 months and 10 years, Welch writes that 10-10-10 has become a sucessful life management tool.
Behavioural economists have identified a large number of cognitive biases that affect peoples decision making. Biases in decision making often result from people adopting mental shortcuts, or rules of thumb, which allow them to solve problems quickly. These rules of thumb enable people to function without always stopping to think about their next course of action. Decisions that are made in this way are associated with what Daniel Kahneman has called System 1 or thinking fast which is instinctive and emotional. Rules of thumb often serve us well but they can also result in poor decisions which could have been improved if more effort had been devoted to considering the alternatives available. Kahnemans System 2, or thinking slow, is deliberate and logical but requires more effort and is often avoided, particularly for routine decisions.. Anchoring is an example of a predictable bias in individual decision making. It is the tendency to rely too much on a single piece of information, ...
While most research on decision making tends to focus on individuals making choices outside of a social context, it is also important to consider decisions that involve social interactions. The types of situations that decision theorists study are as diverse as altruism, cooperation, punishment, and retribution. One of the most frequently utilized tasks in social decision making is the prisoners dilemma. In this situation, the payoff for a particular choice is dependent not only on the decision of the individual but also on that of another individual playing the game. An individual can choose to either cooperate with his partner or defect against the partner. Over the course of a typical game, individuals tend to prefer mutual cooperation even though defection would lead to a higher overall payout. This suggests that individuals are motivated not only by monetary gains but also by some reward derived from cooperating in social situations. This idea is supported by neural imaging studies ...
Machine and human decision making are on a par; however, the machines speed of execution is a huge benefit for machine learning techniques.
Judgment and Decision Making, Vol. 8, No. 3, May 2013, pp Deliberation versus automaticity in decision making: Which presentation format features facilitate automatic decision making? Anke Söllner
... is a community resource that works to preserve families and promote family unity by inviting families and others to come together as the best people to plan and make decisions for family members.. A FGDM conference can be beneficial when a situation threatens family unity. The conference is a facilitated meeting that typically involves immediate and extended family, close friends, other supports and service providers.. A FGDM coordinator assists the family in understanding the purpose of the conference, developing an invitation list and selecting a conference site. The coordinator facilitates the conference, but it is the family who develops the plan.. ...
The current study adds to mounting evidence that shared decision making is an uncommon occurrence in PSA screening.18,19,21,41 Most PSA screening occurs with incomplete or no physician-patient discussion of its associated advantages, disadvantages, and uncertainty. These elements of shared decision making occur at different rates and are associated with different factors, suggesting variation in specific shared decision-making practices for individual patients. The communication of scientific uncertainty is especially infrequent and represents an important target for future shared decision making efforts.. The most significant study finding was that the absence of shared decision making applies not only to PSA screening but also to nonscreening. Because it included-for the first time in a national survey-both screened and nonscreened men, our study was able to show that the relative population prevalence of physician-uninformed nonscreening (screening nonuptake24 in the absence of shared ...
There is a limited NZ research literature on managing multimorbidity in primary care [33-35] and none addresses the specific aims of this study. The findings reported in the clinical decision making theme are, however, consistent with the challenges of managing multimorbidity reported by general practitioners [13, 27] and PCNs [30, 36] working in similar first contact primary care health systems. Specifically, a meta-ethnography (qualitative synthesis) of the research literature up to 2012 identified three areas of difficulty which are also described here: inadequacy of guidelines and evidence-based medicine, challenges in delivering patient-centred care and barriers to shared decision making [13]. In our study we specifically report an inadequacy of single disease guidelines theme and consider challenges relating to shared decision making across several of the other reported themes, notably the "complexity" theme. The concept of "satisficing", which was one of the two main strategies ...
Decision making is one of the distinguishing properties of biosystems. Decision making of course does not necessarily mean conscious decision making, which is exclusively human. On the contrary, the ability to make decisions can be observed in every living organism even in unicellular species as a type of molecular logic, in the form of chemotaxis). Chemotaxis is chemistry-driven motility: towards areas of increasing concentrations of friendly chemicals (positive chemotaxis) and away from increasing concentrations of hostile chemicals (negative chmotaxis). ...
Documentation of Medical Decision Making Created by The Lung Doctor for e-Medtools Elements of Medical Decision Making • Number of diagnoses or Management Options • Amount or Complexity of data to be reviewed • Risk of Complications, Morbidity or Mortality Created by The Lung Doctor for e-Medtools Complexity of Medical Decision Making Number of Diagnoses Or Management Options Minimal Limited Multiple Extensive Amount or Complexity of Data to be Reviewed Minimal or None Limited Moderate Extensive Risk of Complications Morbidity or Mortality Minimal Low Moderate High Complexity of Decision Making Straightforward Low Moderate High out of elements must be met 22out of 33elements must be met 1997 Guidelines for Evaluation Management Services 1997 Guidelines for Evaluation && Management Services Created by The Lung Doctor for e-Medtools Worksheets Calculating Documentation Levels HGSAdministrators Documentation Worksheet HGSAdministrators Documentation Worksheet CMS Medicare Part CMS Medicare ...
Most modern healthcare systems today emphasize integrated healthcare services, patient-centered care, and the engagement of patients as partners in their own care. These three elements are key components of the strategy to improve health while keeping spending within manageable limits [1, 2]. Another important element is the minimization of unwarranted variations in healthcare services, variations that are associated with high costs and problems of patient safety [3].. In this context, finding effective ways to involve patients in shared decision making (SDM) is critical. SDM is defined as a process in which healthcare professionals and patients work together to make healthcare choices: [4-7] it is considered fundamental to informed consent and patient-centered care [2, 8]. SDM can improve the clinical decision-making process by reducing the overuse of options not clearly associated with benefits [9] and by enhancing the use of options clearly associated with benefits [10]. SDM is also important ...
During their clinical practicum, nursing students are involved in making decisions about the care for their patient or group of patients. The purpose of this study was to ascertain nursing students perceptions of the variety and magnitude of factors that influence them as they are making decisions about patient care. For the study a nonexperimental approach utlizing a cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Thirty-three second year and thirty-one third year nursing students from a diploma nursing school responded to a questionnaire designed to reflect perceived domains of influence in thier clinical decision making. A subset of 18 subjects were interviewed. Some of the major findings include: 1) More second year than third year students perceived stress as a factor affecting their clinical decision making. Third year students most often mentioned the instructor-student relationship as a source of stress. Second year students most often referred to their workload and fatigue as contributing ...
Stort Valley Healthcare, the federation for Stort Valley and Villages practices, continues to thrive in spite of practice pressures. Practices worked together to provide additional appointments for patients in the locality throughout the winter months to help manage the increased demand during this busy period. A new website has been developed which now allows for all the practices and practitioners to have their say and influence decision making at the locality board. An innovative pilot project is taking place to offer testing in practices to see if patients require antibiotics for respiratory tract infections. The federation has also helped develop links with external providers to bring about an improvement in the provision of sexual health services at Herts and Essex Hospital.. ...
Three genomic tests separately predict the likelihood that a patients breast cancer will reoccur after surgery without additional treatment, and the cancers vulnerability to chemotherapy or hormone therapy, researchers at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center report at the first American Society of Clinical Oncology ASCO Breast Cancer Symposium, Sept. 7-8, in San Francisco.
Recent research has identified a group of plasticizers known as phthalates as potential anti-androgens and a risk to developing male fetuses. A constructivist grounded theory study was used to understand pregnant women and obstetrical care providers perceptions of phthalates. Twenty-three pregnant women and twelve obstetrical care providers (Obstetricians, Family Physicians, and Midwives) from Southwestern Ontario participated in semi-structured interviews. Pregnant women and clinicians had little knowledge regarding phthalates and the potential associated risks. Women felt that knowledge of these risks would be important to prenatal counselling while clinicians required more evidence. Two separate but related models emerged from the data depicting salient relationships in pregnancy and womens decision making processes. Relational autonomy theory was used as a conceptual framework to better understand the models. More efforts are needed to educate pregnant women about the risk of phthalates and
Purpose: Presence of heterogeneity alone in the comparative effects of treatments is not enough to call for investments in Patient-Centered Outcome Research (PCOR). Even in the presence of heterogeneous effects, individual outcomes from one treatment can stochastically dominate outcomes from an alternative, which would imply that PCOR has minimal value. Here, we develop a simple and novel method, called the "Jointness Box (JB)" that may be used to contemplate the value of PCOR based on marginal distributions of counterfactual outcomes obtained in traditional studies, helping in the prioritization of PCOR. Methods: Let Q0 and Q1 denote outcomes generated under two treatments. Data from a standard clinical trial, where patients are randomly allocated to one or the other treatment, can be used to identify the marginal distributions of Q0 and Q1, but not their joint distribution since we lack information on the dependence of Q0 on Q1 at the individual level. However, the identified supports (ranges) ...
Agendia, a world leader in personalized medicine and molecular cancer diagnostics, announces new data published today in JAMA Oncology that demonstrate the benefits of the MammaPrint® 70-Gene
... The decision making process involves evaluating a scenario from different angles, or perspectives, in order to identify solutions that will lead to the desired outcome. The more...
As the US becomes more ethnically diverse, health care practitioners must learn about the perspectives and values of a variety of cultural groups. Of interest is how these cultural values intersect with the dominant culture, especially in the health care arena. This article explores values such as filial piety and preservation of harmony that influence decision making among Asian and Pacific Islander cultures, with specific illustrations from 6 of these cultures (Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan). The literature, along with the authors observations suggest potential areas of conflict between the more collectivist values of Asian and Pacific Islander cultures and the more individualist orientation of the US health care system. Implications for practice and research are presented. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved ...
QlikView BI deployment at Canon India accelerates the companys decision-making process, improves its data quality, and empowers its end customers
Question: Discuss about the Enhancing Government Service Experience. Answer: Introduction In this age of Globalization and digitalization, QR codes are heavily used by the organizations for marketing and establishing connect with the customers however still QR codes adoption is in early stage and there is huge scope of them (Sundstrom, Radon, 2014). This paper will discuss about the QR codes and how they can be used effectively in service sector by answering the below questions: QR codes can be relevant in almost all the stages of the consumer decision?making process. However their actual usage depends on how innovative the business processes of any organization is. For example, QR codes usage is quite common in advertising and marketing activities however it is not very common in post purchase evaluation stage. Consumer decision making process consists of 5 stages which are identification of requirement, solutions to fulfill the requirement, evaluation of substitutes, actual buying of the ...
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By structuring the manner group members use to reach a decision, managers can affect the processes and outcomes of decision making. Business administration undergraduates (N=78) were randomly assigned to three groups and told to make group decisions based on the process their manager selected, i.e., they were either to seek concurrence, debate opposing views, or express their own views as they made their decisions. During discussion, managers acted as observers rating quality of the decision, acceptance of it, and interpersonal attitudes. Participants also rated the decisions and the group interrelationships. Analyses of results indicated that participants in the controversy condition were uncertain about both their knowledge and the decision, but explored the problem in depth. Participants in the concurrence seeking condition felt confident about their understanding and the decision, though they did not explore the problem fully. They indicated they liked each other and felt their
Screening tests cannot harm you or the baby but it is important to consider carefully whether or not to have these tests.. Some screening tests in pregnancy can lead to difficult decisions for you.. For example, screening tests for Downs syndrome, Edwards syndrome or Pataus syndrome can lead to difficult decisions about whether to have a diagnostic test, such as amniocentesis, that carries a chance of miscarriage.. A diagnostic test tells you for certain whether you or your baby has the condition.. If diagnostic tests show your baby has a condition, this can lead to a decision about whether you want to continue or end the pregnancy.. Having a further test or ending the pregnancy will always be your decision, and health professionals will support you whatever you decide.. Its up to you whether or not you choose to have screening tests in pregnancy. ...
Therefore, when we returned to the UK and she was given a place in mainstream infant school, I was adamant that she should stay in mainstream education for as long as possible - it was obvious that she was coping, despite having limited language skills. She was reading by the time she moved on to primary school, was able to follow class routines, had a wide range of friends, was toilet trained, able to eat unaided, change for PE with the help of her LSA (learning support assistant) and pretty much understood everything that was going on. So in my heart I knew she was in the right place. Years later in secondary school however, when her peers were choosing exam options, wearing make-up and having boyfriends, it was time to make the decision for her to leave mainstream education and go to a special school teen unit. At the time, with the options available it seemed the only choice to make and was incredibly hard to come to terms with. In retrospect, perhaps it wasnt the best we could have done ...
So many people ask me what they should be thinking about when making medical decisions. Whether you are making your own decisions or having to make decisions for others, there is a lot to think about.. Your doctor or your loved ones doctor will talk to you about the medical aspects of any health-related decision. But that doesnt mean that you are limited to thinking only about medicine. It may be important to consider the financial costs associated with the treatment plan, if the patients religion should play a role in the decision and whether there are cultural issues that come into play. Think about the overall picture of your loved ones life. In The Caregivers Path to Compassionate Decision Making, I offer lists of questions to help you understand the whole picture.. It would be nice for the decision to be as simple as asking, "Will the treatment work and what are the side effects?" But life isnt that simple. What if you were about to make a medical decision that allowed something to be ...
The study of sensory signaling in the visual cortex has been greatly advanced by the recording of neural activity simultaneously with the performance of a specific psychophysical task. Individual nerve cells may also increase their firing leading up to the particular choice or decision made on a single psychophysical trial. Understanding these signals is important because they have been taken as evidence that a particular nerve cell or group of nerve cells in the cortex is involved in the formation of the perceptual decision ultimately signaled by the organism. However, recent analyses show that the size of a decision-related change in firing in a particular neuron is not a secure basis for concluding anything about the contribution of a single neuron to the formation of a decision: rather the size of the decision-related firing is expected to be dominated by the extent to which the activation of a single neuron is correlated with the firing of the pool of neurons. The critical question becomes what
The use of lowest-dose aspirin (150-300 mg oral or 75-150 mg i.v. for loading and 75 mg/day maintenance) in association with a P2Y12-i (P2Y12-inhibitor), such as prasugrel (30 mg load and 5 mg maintenance) or ticagrelor (180 mg load and 90 mg twice daily maintenance) is indicated; pre-treatment with P2Y12-i before PCI is controversial in the case of clopidogrel and ticagrelor, and pre-treatment with prasugrel is contraindicated. GPIIb/IIIa-i (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors) are to be used if there are bailout/thrombotic complications and should be stopped as soon as possible. We are awaiting the results of the ELDERLY-ACS2 trial, which will compare prasugrel 5 mg vs. clopidogrel 75 mg in the elderly. In those having a CRUSADE score ,41, low-dose clopidogrel (300 mg load/75 mg daily), low-dose aspirin (150-300 mg oral or 75-150 mg i.v. loading and 75 mg/day maintenance) should be used. Pre-treatment with P2Y12-i before PCI is not recommended (especially with prasugrel) and GPIIb/IIIa-i use is ...
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Sanderson Australia, providers of ERP manufacturing software solutions for the food and process industries, have won a contract to supply their Formul8 ERP software solution to sweet baked products manufacturer, Quality Desserts.
Most of the people that are in their early twenties - and that I know of - seem to have no clue about what to do with their lives. And I am not talking about the "I dont know what kind of shirt to wear" kind of dont having a clue. No, I am talking about a fundamental - almost existential - sense of doubt. A sense of doubt that - at times - seems to come awfully close to a desperate confession of the inherent meaninglessness of life; a confession of the lack an innate purpose in life. But why is that so? And could there be something wrong with this view?. We all know that feeling of "standing on a crossroads in life". In some sense you could say that every new situation were faced with in life is such a crossroads. Shall I go to the grocery store, or not? Shall I sleep a little longer, or not? Shall I go left, or shall I go right? These are choices weve got to make on a daily basis. And having to make choices is an inescapable part of life. Its just as true as that other truism of life: the ...
Introduction. What are heuristics? How do they help us make decisions or solve problems? How do they hinder decision making and problem solving? What does the study of heuristics tell us about how our mind works? Elvira Gubayeva In psychology, the term heuristics is used to describe cognitive shortcuts that our mind takes in order to save time and effort while solving problems and making decisions. Although this rule of thumb technique does not guarantee the solution, it is highly likely to solve the problem. These congnitive shortcuts differ from algorithms as algorithms will definitely solve the problem, although they would consume more time in the process. Thus, heuristics are shortcuts that eliminate the need to consider unlikely possibilities or irrelevant states to reach the final solution. From that perspective, heuristics are useful in making decisions or solving problems. One of the most important heuristic methods was explored by Newell & Simon. They called this method the means-ends ...
In a J2EE environment, it makes more sense to use dedicated connections. Each call to the database should be handled Fast and the connection should be made available for the next thread that needs it.The database should ideally focus on doing its ACID task, and not be bothered with load- or connection-sharing. The Connection-pool can handle that. The JDBC pool mechanism is the component that should limit the number of connections and take care of the throttling. A JDBC pool should ideally open its maximum (=optimal) number of connections and keep those open, as the creation of a new connection takes time (when in a hurry, you cant afford to wait for a new connection to be opened up). Provided the nr of processes (connections) is not allowed to go over a workable limit, there is no reason why each connection-pools should not be allowed to pre-create a fair number of connections. But the upper limit should be firmly set to a value where both the app- and the database server can still operate ...
All new chapters The use of standard format for posing questions in each chapter permits the reader to rapidly identify the issue at hand A PICO
Hello everyone, First time poster and wasnt entirely sure where to write this, so I do apologies if it is in the completely wrong area of the forum. Please feel free to re-direct it if need be. I am seeking some urgent advice on a
Just the week before Christmas, we just got results from pathologist on the skin that was removed because of cancer. It has been Maddys third surgery. It was a major surgery taking off large areas of skin off her chest and arm pit area. It was actually the third time.
As increasing and ever-changing treatment options for patients with breast cancer have made decision making more complex, surgeons are expected to meet patient expectations. In our review of the last 3 decades at KPNW, more than 50% of the breast cancers were diagnosed preclinically (no palpable mass),23 BCT rates slowly increased,24 patient preference for BCT was frequently met at the same rate over time, and there was a decline in the rates of reexcision and local recurrence. We believe these achievements are a consequence of increased mammography screening, standardization of patient educational materials, multidisciplinary care coordination, and improvements in surgical performance.. Even though there has been universal acceptance of BCT and mastectomy equivalency for most new patients with breast cancer, BCT national rates have plateaued or declined in some geographic and practice settings since 1998.24,25 These trends stimulated the question: Why, when three-fourths of women are BCT ...
A look at the following clinical trial: Community Interventions in Non-Medical Settings to Increase Informed Decision Making for Prostate Cancer Screening.
This course gives you exactly what you need to improve your problem-solving and decision-making habits. It gives you models and techniques that you can use i...