To address the physiological significance of AID phosphorylation at Ser38, analysis of a mouse model (in which AIDS38A is expressed at physiological levels utilizing its endogenous control elements) was required. Two recent studies reported the generation and analysis of mice expressing only the AIDS38A mutant protein, which occurred at levels quite comparable with those of wild-type mAID expression in activated B-cells, from their endogenous AID alleles [45,51]. In addition, one of these studies also demonstrated that the AIDS38A protein expressed from the endogenous AID allele failed to associate with RPA in vivo [51]. Both studies found that mice homozygous for the AIDS38A (AIDS38A/S38A) mutation have quite severe CSR defects, demonstrating clearly that the apparently normal levels of CSR reported for this mutant form of AID by others [49] probably resulted from overexpression of the mutant protein as proposed in [47].. Activation of AIDS38A/S38A B-cells with αCD40 and IL-4 (interleukin 4) ...
Deoxyuridine (dU) is a pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside, and a derivative of the nucleoside uridine, with the only difference being that, in dU, a hydrogen (-H) group is substituted for uridine s OH group located at the 2 -position of the ribose. dU is generated in cellular DNA as a deamination product of dC (deoxycytidine), with the deamination process catalyzed by the enzyme AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) (1). AID is a B cell-specific gene that is necessary for antibody gene diversification via class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation (2, 3). The dC-to-dU conversion(s) by AID occurs in the IgG locus, with various gene diversification pathways arising from the different DNA repair mechanisms used by B-cells to repair the dU lesion (1).. dC-to-dU conversion via cytidine deamination is also implicated in innate immunity to retroviruses. Here deamination of dC is mediated by the enzyme APOBEC3G, which is present in T cells, acting on the first (minus) strand cDNA of ...
It has been argued that no engineer would have used cytosine as part of the genetic material because of its predisposition for deamination. But its exactly this predisposition that might cause an engineer of evolution to include it. Life itself appears to have been designed to minimize errors. The universal nature of the proof-reading/repair machinery,…
It is easily picked up because uracil is not a natural base in DNA. It is found normally in RNA, and it is quite possible that RNA evolved first in the earliest life on earth, and when DNA took over the role it has today of storing genetic information thymine was substituted in place of uracil so that the deamination process could be detected and repaired. In other words, if uracil was a natural base in DNA, there would be no way for the proof-reading machinery to detect that a base change occurred. Pretty ingenious of nature, dont you think ...
Normal and cancer cells express more diversity in proteins than can be accounted for by the predicted number of expressed genomic DNA sequence. Expansion of the genomically encoded expressed sequences through alternative processing of RNA, such as mRNA editing, is a logical hypothesis for how protein diversity and variations seen as tissue-specific and regulated expression of proteins can be achieved. The specific focus of the research is to identify and characterize novel mammalian mRNA editing systems that employ a zinc-dependent deamination mechanism for the post-transcriptional conversion of cytidine to uridine at select sites within mRNAs. Computational modeling has suggested a family of mammalian enzymes known as Cytidine Deaminases Active on RNA or CDARs as responsible for C to U editing of mRNAs ...
Background Putative nucleoside deaminase. May catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine or some similar substrate and play a role in purine metabolism. Description ADAL Polyclonal Antibody. Unconjugated. Raised in...
Looking for online definition of deamination in the Medical Dictionary? deamination explanation free. What is deamination? Meaning of deamination medical term. What does deamination mean?
1BW9: Phenylalanine dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus sp. M4: high-resolution X-ray analyses of inhibitory ternary complexes reveal key features in the oxidative deamination mechanism.
1. Esnault C, Heidmann O, Delebecque F, Dewannieux M, Ribet D, Hance AJ, et al. APOBEC3G cytidine deaminase inhibits retrotransposition of endogenous retroviruses. Nature. 2005;433(7024):430-3. Epub 2005/01/28. doi: 10.1038/nature03238 15674295.. 2. Harris RS, Bishop KN, Sheehy AM, Craig HM, Petersen-Mahrt SK, Watt IN, et al. DNA deamination mediates innate immunity to retroviral infection. Cell. 2003;113(6):803-9. Epub 2003/06/18. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(03)00423-9 12809610.. 3. Mangeat B, Turelli P, Caron G, Friedli M, Perrin L, Trono D. Broad antiretroviral defence by human APOBEC3G through lethal editing of nascent reverse transcripts. Nature. 2003;424(6944):99-103. Epub 2003/06/17. doi: 10.1038/nature01709 12808466.. 4. Suspene R, Aynaud MM, Koch S, Pasdeloup D, Labetoulle M, Gaertner B, et al. Genetic editing of herpes simplex virus 1 and Epstein-Barr herpesvirus genomes by human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in culture and in vivo. J Virol. 2011;85(15):7594-602. Epub 2011/06/03. doi: ...
Cells with DNA repair defects have increased genomic instability and are more likely to acquire secondary mutations that bring about cellular transformation. We describe the frequency and spectrum of somatic mutations involving several tumor suppressor genes in the rectal carcinoma of a 13-year-old girl harboring biallelic, germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair gene PMS2. Apart from microsatellite instability, the tumor DNA contained a number of C:G→T:A or G:C→A:T transitions in CpG dinucleotides, which often result through spontaneous deamination of cytosine or 5-methylcytosine. Four DNA glycosylases, UNG2, SMUG1, MBD4 and TDG, are involved in the repair of these deamination events. We identified a heterozygous missense mutation in TDG, which was associated with TDG protein loss in the tumor. The CpGs mutated in this patients tumor are generally methylated in normal colonic mucosa. Thus, it is highly likely that loss of TDG contributed to the supermutator phenotype and that most of ...
As aforementioned, APOBEC3G behaves in a highly processive way in that it is able to scan and jump around the transcripts to find the deamination motifs. The researchers decided to run an assay that could aid in discerning how the different Vif variants cause this decrease in APOBEC3G processivity. The assay consisted of adding a complementary DNA oligonucleotide in between the two CCC motifs. This new partially double stranded DNA segment is unable to bind with APOBEC3G, and thus the sliding characteristic in scanning is inhibited. However, since APOBEC3G can disassociate and reassociate, microscopic jumping, it can transverse the blocking. The results showed that this was the case, although the processivity factor of APOBEC3G decreased with the double stranded DNA segment, it was still able to deaminate both 5 and 3 motifs due to this jumping. When VifHBX2 was added, the processivity factor dropped from 4.5 to 1.1 and almost no double deamination events were seen. Thus the researchers ...
Kinetic analysis of CDAHyor- and CDAHuman-catalyzed deamination of natural nucleosides and nucleoside analogues Deamination of different concentrations of Cyd (
The data obtained from the ADA Assay was not consistent with previous findings, so new solutions were prepared with the following concentrations. These concentrations are within the ideal range of concentrations for deamination of adenosine by ADA, according to literature ...
Human semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) is a homodimeric copper-containing monoamine oxidase that occurs in both a membrane-bound and a soluble form. SSAO is also known as vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1). A truncated soluble form of human SSAO (comprising residues 29-763) was expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and purified to homogeneity. Tetragonal crystals were obtained and a data set extending to 2.5 A was collected. The crystals are merohedrally twinned and the estimation of the twinning fraction was complicated by pseudo-symmetry and the anisotropic character of the crystals. Using a recently developed method for twinning detection that is insensitive to phenomena such as anisotropy or pseudo-symmetry [Padilla & Yeates (2003), Acta Cryst. D59, 1124-1130], the twinning fraction was estimated to be 0.3. The structure was eventually solved by molecular replacement in space group P4(3).. ...
Indole As we have discussed in class, bacteria can catabolize many different organic substances. Some bacteria possess the enzyme tryptophanase, which converts the amino acid tryptophan to pyruvate and indole through a deamination reaction. The pyruvate, then, can be used in fermentation or respiration reactions. Production of indole is used as a test to differentiate tryptophanase positive and tryptophanase negative organisms. We will test E. coli and S. typhimurium for the presence of tryptophanase. Add several colonies of bacteria to a tube containing 1mL of indole broth (0.03% tryptophan, 0.1% peptone, and 0.5% dipotassium phosphate). Incubate at 37 degrees C for 2 hours. Squeeze an indole reagent dropper to break the glass ampule inside the plastic tube. Invert the dropper and add the contents to the bacterial culture. If indole is present, it will react with the p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde present in the reagent to produce a red ring at the surface of the broth. This reaction should occur ...
Involvement of cerebrovascular semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease and vascular dementia.: Fibrillary tangles and s
10 Feb 2016. Mutations are the replacement of DNA bases known as Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G) and Thymine (T) with other bases.. When mutations such as C to T or G to A are found within a specific DNA sequence, this is known as a mutation signature.. These mutation signatures are like spelling mistakes that carry signs of the agents that caused the mutations.. Ultraviolet light, tobacco smoke and other cancer-causing agents leave behind such signatures in the DNA of tumours.. Recently, a new mutation signature found in cancer cells was suspected to have been created by a family of enzymes found in human cells called the APOBEC3 family.. The study, Strand-biased Cytosine deamination at the Replication Fork causes Cytosine to Thymine Mutations in Escherichia coli, led by Ashok Bhagwat, Ph.D., professor of chemistry in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Wayne State University, was recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.. In addition to ...
The posttranscriptional modification of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) by base deamination can profoundly alter the physiological function of the encoded proteins. The recent identification of tRNA-specific adenosine deaminases (ADATs) has led to the suggestion that these enzymes, as well as the cytidine and adenosine deaminases acting on pre-mRNAs (CDARs and ADARs), belong to a superfamily of RNA-dependent deaminases. This superfamily might have evolved from an ancient cytidine deaminase. This article reviews the reactions catalysed by these enzymes and discusses their evolutionary relationships.. ...
Deamination Chemistry: Nucleic Acid Alkylation & Cross-Linking. We have been interested in two types of deaminations and their relation to modifications of DNA bases. The first type relates to the deamination of amines (and derivatives) and their role in the alkylation of DNA. The other relates to the deamination of amino groups in DNA bases. Both of these processes have important biological consequences. In this context, we have been studying decomposition pathways from the bottom up beginning with diazonium ions. We proposed a new bonding model and established crucial links between theory and experiment. Current studies of diazonium ions focus on the mechanisms of their SN chemistry and studies of the diazonium ions of DNA bases. To address questions as to the consequences of alkylation on DNA and RNA structure and properties, our initial studies have focused on studies of base pairing. Non-Synergistic Bonding & Thymine Dimerization. Our analysis of H-bonded Adenine-Thymine, A=T, suggests ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits cytosine deaminase activity (ortholog); enzyme activator activity (ortholog); mRNA 3-UTR AU-rich region binding (ortholog); INVOLVED IN cellular response to insulin stimulus (ortholog); defense response to virus (ortholog); DNA cytosine deamination (ortholog); ASSOCIATED WITH colon cancer (ortholog); Experimental Liver Cirrhosis (ortholog); familial hyperlipidemia (ortholog)
Decreased diameter of the hepatic arteries following closing of a portacaval shunt Tandem-repeat protein domains, composed of repeated units of conserved stretches of 20-40 amino acids, are sildenafil 100mg required for a wide array of biological functions. Active demethylation in mouse zygotes involves cytosine deamination and base excision repair. Kruskal-Wallis test followed by post-hoc analysis was performed to test for differences between controls and OSA subgroups for testosterone, fatigue components and sleepiness. Cosmic voids refer sildenafil citrate 100mg to the large empty regions in the Universe with a very low number density of galaxies. To date, relapse risk can be female viagra pills predicted by leukocyte and platelet counts only. Rapamycin shows beneficial effects by reducing UUO-induced renal hypoxia, inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Left-handedness: association with college major, familial sinistrality, allergies, and asthma.. Given that increased TNF-alpha ...
VSR recognises a TG mismatched base pair, generated after spontaneous deamination of methylated cytosines, and it creates a nick on a single strand by cleaving the phosphate backbone on the 5 side of the thymine.[1] Then DNA Polymerase I removes the T and some nucletides on the 3 strand and then resynthesises the patch.[2]. Additionally, GT mismatches can lead to C-to-T transition mutations if not repaired. VSR repairs the mismatches in favour of the G-containing strand. In Escherichia coli, this endonuclease nicks double-stranded DNA within the sequence CT(AT)GN or NT(AT)GG next to the thymidine residue, which is mismatched to 2-deoxyguanosine.[3] The incision is mismatch-dependent and strand specific.. ...
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ENDOD1 - ENDOD1 (untagged)-Human endonuclease domain containing 1 (ENDOD1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Berezov, T T., "Activity of omega-amidase in human and animal malignant neoplasms. (russ.)" (1966). Subject Strain Bibliography 1966. 266 ...
My work in grad school was on retroviruses, which have a viral RNA genome that they reverse transcribe into proviral DNA once theyre established in the cell, either integrated into the host genome, or floating in the nucleus as an episome; so the ways that RNA can act as a template for DNA are something I know well. We also worked on viral nucleotide metabolism (dUTPase) for infecting terminally differentiated cells, which is relevant here. Fully mature cells (not stem cells) accumulate deoxyuridine (dUTP) through the deamination of deoxycytodine, which can be incorporated into either DNA or RNA, but dUTP acts as a wobble base, producing non-Watson/Crick base pairing with G or A. Any retrovirus that infects fully mature cells has to have a strategy to deal with misincorporation of non-standard nucleotides. This work on nucleotide metabolism has implications for RNA World to DNA switchover. Some modern enzymes and ribozymes have no ability to discriminate between deoxyribose (DNA) and ribose ...
When fat is used as energy source, glycerol will be converted into PGAL and enter the glycolysis pathway. Fatty acid will also be changed into acetyl- CoA and enter the respiration pathway to be oxidated in mitochondria. Amino acid and protein can also function as energy sources which can be obtained from deamination process. The amino acid will enter respiration pathway with some of the following possibilities ...
... According to the recently published report Alpha L-Iduronidase (IDUA or EC 3.2.1.76) - Pipeline Review, H1 2018; Alpha L-Iduronidase (IDUA.
What is Nitrous acid? Nitrous acid is a weak and monobasic acid known only in solution, in the gas phase and in the form of nitrite salts.
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It has been shown that the combination of benzylamine or tyramine and low concentrations of vanadate markedly stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes by a mechanism that requires semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity and H2O2 formation. Here we have further analysed the insulin-like effects of the combination of SSAO substrates and vanadate and we have studied the signal-transduction pathway activated in rat adipocytes. We found that several SSAO substrates (benzylamine, tyramine, methylamine, n-decylamine, histamine, tryptamine or β-phenylethylamine), in combination with low concentrations of vanadate, stimulate glucose transport in isolated rat adipocytes. Furthermore, SSAO substrates together with vanadate stimulated the recruitment of GLUT4 to the cell surface in isolated rat adipocytes. Benzylamine plus vanadate also stimulated glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Benzylamine or tyramine in combination with vanadate potently stimulated the ...
2-Aminobenzenesulphonic acid (2AS) is degraded by Alcaligenes sp. strain O-1 via a previously detected but unidentified intermediate. A mutant of strain O-1 was found to excrete this intermediate, which was isolated and identified by m.s., 1H- and 13C-n.m.r. as 3-sulphocatechol (3SC). Proteins from cell extracts of strain O-1 were separated by anion-exchange chromatography. A multicomponent oxygenase was observed to convert 1 mol each of NADH, O2 and 2AS into 1 mol each of 3SC, NH3 and NAD+. The enzyme presumably catalysed formation of the ring of a 2-amino-2,3-diol moiety, and elimination in the amino group led to a rearomatization. 3SC was further degraded via meta ring cleavage, which could be prevented by inactivation of the 3-sulphocatechol-2,3-dioxygenase (3SC23O) with 3-chlorocatechol. In Tris buffer, the separated 3SC23O catalysed the reaction of 1 mol each of 3SC and O2 involving a transient yellow intermediate, and release of 1 mol of sulphite and two organic products. The major ...
promoter differs between paraffin-fixed and fresh-frozen tissues of glioblastoma (Hamilton et al., 2011). On evaluating 38 patients with GC, LINE-1 was reportedly more hypermethylated in FFPE tissues than in paired fresh-frozen tissues (Song et al., 2016).. Since the patient tissues were dissected for different purposes, they were preserved in various forms and given different pre-treatments. For pathological examination, GC tissues were fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin. In contrast, for genomic analysis, tissues were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen without fixation following gastrectomy. Bisulfite conversion can be affected by formalin fixation, as sequence artifacts such as cytosine deamination can be caused by formaldehyde (Do and Dobrovic, 2015). Therefore, we screened the LINE-1 methylation patterns in each tissue type separately to determine whether LINE-1 can be used as a marker under all circumstances. In the current study, we used samples from different patient groups, ...
A phosphooligosaccharide has been proposed as a second messenger of insulin. It is believed to be structurally related to the carbohydrate moiety of phosphatidylinositol glycan anchors of many cell surface proteins. Herein we demonstrate that [32]phosphate in freshly isolated adipocytes and [3H]galactose in cultured hepatoma cells (H4IIE) labeled the same set of three different glycolipids. With all three, the radiolabel was made water soluble by phosphatidylinositol(glycan)-specific phospholipase C or D catalyzed hydrolysis. We isolated the three phospholipase C-released substances. One of them was susceptible to nitrous acid deamination, indicative of a hexosamine with a free amino group. This phosphooligosaccharide structure had an apparent molecular mass between tetra- and pentaglucose by gel filtration. By anion-exchange chromatography it was separated into two differently charged and interconvertible species. Adipocytes stimulated with insulin accumulated the nitrous acid sensitive ...
CpG islands are associated with genes, particularly housekeeping genes, in vertebrates. CpG islands are typically common near transcription start sites and may be associated with promoter regions. Normally a C (cytosine) base followed immediately by a G (guanine) base (a CpG) is rare in vertebrate DNA because the Cs in such an arrangement tend to be methylated. This methylation helps distinguish the newly synthesized DNA strand from the parent strand, which aids in the final stages of DNA proofreading after duplication. However, over evolutionary time, methylated Cs tend to turn into Ts because of spontaneous deamination. The result is that CpGs are relatively rare unless there is selective pressure to keep them or a region is not methylated for some other reason, perhaps having to do with the regulation of gene expression. CpG islands are regions where CpGs are present at significantly higher levels than is typical for the genome as a whole.. The unmasked version of the track displays potential ...
CpG islands are associated with genes, particularly housekeeping genes, in vertebrates. CpG islands are typically common near transcription start sites and may be associated with promoter regions. Normally a C (cytosine) base followed immediately by a G (guanine) base (a CpG) is rare in vertebrate DNA because the Cs in such an arrangement tend to be methylated. This methylation helps distinguish the newly synthesized DNA strand from the parent strand, which aids in the final stages of DNA proofreading after duplication. However, over evolutionary time, methylated Cs tend to turn into Ts because of spontaneous deamination. The result is that CpGs are relatively rare unless there is selective pressure to keep them or a region is not methylated for some other reason, perhaps having to do with the regulation of gene expression. CpG islands are regions where CpGs are present at significantly higher levels than is typical for the genome as a whole.. The unmasked version of the track displays potential ...
This gene encodes a member of the AID/APOBEC family of polynucleotide (deoxy)cytidine deaminases, which convert cytidine to uridine. Other AID/APOBEC family members are involved in mRNA editing, somatic hypermutation and recombination of immunoglobulin genes, and innate immunity to retroviral infection. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The generation of viral mutants in vitro was demonstrated by treatment of the isolated RNA of Tobacco Mosaic Virus by nitrous acid. This agent causes deaminations converting cytosine into uracil, and adenine into hypoxanthine. Our assay for mutagenesis was the production of local lesions on a tobacco variety on which the untreated strain produces systemic infections only. A variety of different mutants are generated in this way. Quantitative analysis of the kinetics of mutagenesis leads to the conclusion that alteration of a single out of the 6000 nucleotides of the viral RNA is sufficient for causing a mutation ...
This gene encodes the enzyme responsible for pre-mRNA editing of the glutamate receptor subunit B by site-specific deamination of adenosines. Studies in rat found that this enzyme acted on its own pre-mRNA molecules to convert an AA dinucleotide to an AI …
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Creative Biolabs has established a platform predict and assess deamidation of antibody therapeutics as part of manufacturability assessment.
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Inhibition of liver mitochondrial monoamine oxidase activity by alkaloids isolated from Chelidonium and Macleaya and by their derivative drugs]. [Article in Russian]. Iagodina OV, Nikolskaia EB, Faddeeva MD.. I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry RAS, St. Petersburg.. It has been shown that the major alkaloids from plants Chelidonium majus L. and Macleaya (Bocconia) cordata and microcarpa, namely, berberine, sanguinarine, chelidonine, and drugs "Ukrain" (thiophosphoric acid derivative of a sum of the alkaloids isolated from Ch. majus L.) and "Sanguirythrine" (a mixture of the alkaloids sanguinarine and chelerythrine, w/w 3:7, isolated from Macleaya), are irreversible inhibitors of oxidative deamination reaction of serotonin and tyramine as substrates, catalyzed by rat liver mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO). At the same time these substances do not influence the oxidative deamination reaction of benzylamine as substrate (in concentration 1 mM or less). The ...
A significant leap forward got here in 2000 with the invention that activation-induced deaminase (AID) is actually required for hypermutation. This used to be in 2002 by means of proof that reduction without delay edits the DNA that encodes an antibody in an activated B mobile. a lot has seeing that been learnt concerning the biochemistry and rules of reduction, however the mechanism during which it truly is recruited particularly to antibody-encoding genes continues to be enigmatic. figuring out this recruitment is clinically major simply because off-target relief job at oncogenes may end up in chromosomal translocations and tumorigenesis ...
casSAR Dugability of Q9Y2T3 | GDA | Guanine deaminase - Also known as GUAD_HUMAN, GDA, KIAA1258. Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of guanine, producing xanthine and ammonia. Homodimer.
Caspases are important players in programmed cell death. Normal activities of caspases are critical for the cell life cycle and dysfunction of caspases may lead to the development of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. They have become a popular target for drug design against abnormal cell death. In this study, the recognition of P5 position in substrates by caspase-3, -6 and -7 has been investigated by kinetics, modeling and crystallography. Crystal structures of caspase-3 and -7 in complexes with substrate analog inhibitor Ac-LDESD-CHO have been determined at resolutions of 1.61 and 2.45 Å, respectively, while a model of caspase-6/LDESD is constructed. Enzymatic study and structural analysis have revealed that Caspase-3 and -6 recognize P5 in pentapeptides, while caspase-7 lacks P5-binding residues. D-arginine dehydrogenase catalyzes the flavin-dependent oxidative deamination of D-amino acids to the corresponding imino acids and ammonia. The X-ray crystal structures of DADH and its complexes with
Degradation pathways of pyrimidine bases are common to uracil, thymine, and the halogenated analogues of uracil and involve the same enzymes (Fig. 1). Cytosine nucleotides undergo deamination to form...
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) deamination is a functionally important modification of RNA that occurs in many metazoan nuclear transcripts, in several types tRNAs, and in mitochondrial...
During deamination, γ-amino acids can undergo concomitant decarboxylation. Aiming at studying the course of the involved reaction, the following γ-amino acids were synthesized and characterized: (-)-3c-amino-1,2,2-trimethylcyclopentane-1r-carboxylic acid (= (-)-aminolauronic acid = (-)-3-aminocamphonanic acid; 39), cis-3-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid (41), (+)-3c-amino-2,2,3-trimethylcyclopentane-1r-carboxylic acid (= (-)-aminodihydrocampholytic acid; 42), and the novel (±)-cis-3-amino-2,2-dimethylcyclopentanecarboxylic acid (43). These γ-amino acids were deaminated by means of 4-diazoniobenzenesulfonate (= p-diazobenzenesulfonic acid; generated from p-sulfanilic acid = 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid), under moderately basic aqueous conditions (pH 8-9). The formed product mixtures were separated, the products identified, and their structures correlated with the starting γ-amino acids, thus establishing that decarboxylation occurs whenever the carbenium ion formed by loss of nitrogen can ...
General Information: Psychrotrophic lactic acid Gram-positive bacterium. This lactic-acid bacterium is associated with gaseous spoilage of raw tomato-marinated meat strips. This contamination is characterized by an increase in pH in conjunction with extreme bulging of the product packaging, known as "protein swell". The package bulging is caused by excessive production of gas due to amino acid decarboxylation, and the rise in pH is associated with subsequent deamination of amin acids. The consumption of marinated, raw, ready-to-cook poulty meat products has been increasing in Europe. Although these products are typically manufactured in high-quality modern processing plants, this unusual spoilage occurs occasionally during periods of quality fluctuation. ...