Patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia are often treated with a combination of daunorubicin and 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C). Both daunorubicin and ara-C exert their effects in the cell nucleus but by different mechanisms, i.e. daunorubicin causes double stranded DNA breaks by inhibition of the nuclear enzyme, topoisomerase (topo) IIα, whereas ara-C is an anti-metabolite that integrates with DNA during DNA synthesis and causes cell cycle arrest. Despite the initial efficacy of these drugs, resistance often develops in the clinical setting. The mechanisms underlying clinical resistance to these drugs are poorly understood, but may be associated with an increase in the proportion of topo IIα negative cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether daunorubicin treatment results in increased numbers of topo IIα negative subpopulations in vitro. Acute myeloid leukaemia cells isolated from 12 consenting patients were treated for 24 h with increasing ...
Puerarin extracted from Radix Puerariae is well known for its pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective properties. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of puerarin on the daunorubicin (DNR)-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cells and to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved. MTT assay and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis, respectively. Western blot analysis was used to assess changes in the expression levels of proteins, including caspase-3, Akt and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt). Ratiometric imaging of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) using cells loaded with Fura-2 was also carried out. Our results revealed that puerarin pre-treatment protected the H9c2 cells against DNR-induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting cell apoptosis, which was also confirmed by the decrease in the expression of cleaved caspase-3. Additionally, p-Akt activation was associated with the suppressive effects of puerarin. ...
Daunorubicin liposomal is a cancer (antineoplastic) medication. Daunorubicin liposomal interferes with the growth of cancer cells and slows their growth and spread in the body. Daunorubicin liposomal is used to treat advanced HIV-associated Kaposis sarcoma. Daunorubicin liposomal may also be used for purposes other...
OUTLINE: This is a multicenter, pilot study.. Patients receive liposomal daunorubicin citrate IV days 1 and 15. Treatment repeats every 4 weeks for at least 3 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. Biopsies are performed at baseline and once during treatment to evaluate Kaposis sarcoma- associated herpes virus (KSHV) viral gene expression in tumors and skin tissue using reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples are collected at baseline and periodically during treatment to evaluate KSHV viral gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and viral load in plasma.. PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 30 patients will be accrued for this study. ...
The potential of marine benthic cyanobacteria as a source of anticancer drug candidates was assessed in a screen for induction of cell death (apoptosis) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Of the 41 marine cyanobacterial strains screened, more than half contained cell death-inducing activity. Several strains contained activity against AML cells, but not against non-malignant cells like hepatocytes and cardiomyoblasts. The apoptotic cell death induced by the various strains could be distinguished by the role of caspase activation and sensitivity to the recently detected chemotherapy-resistance-associated prosurvival protein LEDGF/p75. One strain (M44) was particularly promising since its activity counteracted the protective effect of LEDGF/p75 overexpressed in AML cells, acted synergistically with the anthracycline anticancer drug daunorubicin in AML cells, and protected cardiomyoblasts against the toxic effect of anthracyclines. We conclude that culturable benthic marine cyanobacteria from temperate
Through the use of drug-adapted tissue culture cells, correlations have been observed between the level of specific enzymes and drug resistance. Drug resistance, however, may be due to multiple factors. To test whether the activity of daunorubicin reductase or NADPH diaphorase independently influences in vitro daunorubicin-induced cytotoxicity, we developed somatic cell hybrid clones to partially isolate these factors. This was accomplished by fusing daunorubicin-resistant myeloblast cells obtained from a patient with monosomy 7 leukemia to a daunorubicin-sensitive Chinese hamster cell line. The in vitro cytotoxicity of daunorubicin was compared in hybrid clones having variable enzyme activities; the concentrations of daunorubicin that inhibited the growth of clones by 50% did not differ by more than 2-fold, whereas daunorubicin reductase activities and NADPH diaphorase isozyme activities differed by more than 100-and 15-fold, respectively. These large differences in enzymatic activity were ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To compare the rate of complete remission (CR) after 1 course of induction therapy with the timed-sequential combination of alvocidib (flavopiridol), cytarabine (cytosine arabinoside [ara-C]), and mitoxantrone hydrochloride (FLAM) vs traditional 7+3 cytarabine and daunorubicin hydrochloride (ara-C + Daunorubicin) for adults (age 18 to 70) with newly diagnosed, previously untreated, intermediate-risk or poor-risk acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To evaluate and compare the toxicities of FLAM vs 7+3. II. To compare the 2-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in response to FLAM vs 7+3.. III. To detect and compare the presence of minimal-residual disease (MRD) remaining after FLAM vs 7+3.. IV. To determine the expression of ABC transport proteins multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1, ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) on AML blasts pretreatment and correlate the expressions of one or both proteins with CR and ...
Review the safety profile for VYXEOS® (daunorubicin and cytarabine) liposomal encapsulation. See full Prescribing Information including BOXED Warning about not substituting with other daunorubicin and/or cytarabine containing products.
The model describes daunorubicin resistance protein C in bacteria. This protein confers the function of daunorubicin resistance. The protein seems to share strong sequence similarity to UvrA proteins, which are involved in excision repair of DNA. Disruption of drrC gene showed increased sensitivity upon exposure to duanorubicin. However it failed to complement uvrA mutants to exposure to UV irradiation. The mechanism on how it confers duanomycin resistance is unclear, but has been suggested to be different from DrrA and DrrB which are antiporters ...
The first consolidation cycle should be given at 5 to 8 weeks after the start of the last induction cycle. The consolidation dose is daunorubicin at 29 mg/m2 and cytarabine at 65 mg/m2 liposome via 90-minute infusion on days 1 and 3. Cardiac function, complete blood cell counts, and liver and renal function tests should be assessed before each consolidation cycle. Consolidation should not be started until the absolute neutrophil count recovers to , 0.5 Gi/L and the platelet count recovers to , 50 Gi/L in the absence of unacceptable toxicity. The second consolidation cycle should be started at 5 to 8 weeks after the start of the first cycle in patients without disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. For hypersensitivity reactions of any grade, infusion should be interrupted immediately and symptoms managed. For mild symptoms, once they resolve, infusion should be reinitiated at half the prior infusion rate; premedication with antihistamines and/or corticosteroids should be considered for ...
Brand Names Daunoxome® (There may be other brand names for this medication.) How is it Administered? Your medicine will be given by given intravenously (IV), which means it will be given through a tube placed in a vein, usually in your arm, wrist, hand or chest. What is it Used For? This drug is used to treat advanced Kaposis sarcoma. How Does it Work?
An FDA-approved liposome for the treatment of secondary AML subtypes, t-AML and AML-MRC. Visit the official HCP site. See full Prescribing Information including BOXED Warning about not substituting with other daunorubicin and/or cytarabine-containing products.
This trial will investigate the tolerability of sunitinib [SU11248, Sutent; Pfizer] with standard chemotherapy with cytarabine and daunorubicin in patients with
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as clofarabine, daunorubicin hydrochloride, cytarabine, and decitabine, work in different ways to stop the gro
Between August 1978 and September 1982, 642 patients with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were entered onto a Southwest Oncology Group Study which addressed four questions. (i) What is the comparative utility of rubidazone versus Adriamycin in remission induction? (ii) What is the role of prophylactic intrathecal therapy in AML? (iii) Does late intensification affect treatment outcome? (iv) Does maintenance with levamisole affect disease-free survival or overall survival? Among 611 evaluable patients, 329 (54%) achieved complete remission. There was no difference in the remission rate between those patients receiving rubidazone (54%) and those receiving Adriamycin (54%) as part of the induction regimen. Prophylactic intrathecal therapy with cytosine arabinoside had no effect on the incidence of central nervous system disease or survival. After nine months of complete remission, patients were randomized between late intensification with POMP (mercaptopurine + vincristine + ...
Daunorubicin Injection is a medicine that is used for the treatment of Cancer Of White Blood Cells, Kaposi Sarcoma In Hiv Patients and other conditions.
The Université Laval and BCM Oncologia (formerly BCM Développement) in Québec, Canada, were developing a monoclonal antibody conjugate of daunorubicin (BCM
62327-71-3 - XJXFAWUIKCXQAL-UHFFFAOYSA-N - N-Dodecanoyl daunorubicin - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
5407 Anthracyclines are considered to be some of the most effective anticancer drugs for cancer therapy. However, drug resistance and cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines limit their clinical application. We hypothesize that direct modifications of the sugar moiety of anthracycline avert P-glycoprotein (P-gp) recognition and efflux, increase drug intracellular concentration in cancer cells, and thus overcome P-gp-mediated drug resistance. Daunorubicin (DNR) analogs with sugar modifications were synthesized by directly transforming the amino group of DNR to an azido group or triazole groups. Molecular docking showed that the new anthracycline analog averts P-gp binding, while daunorubicin (DNR) extensively interacts with multidrug-resistance (MDR) protein through H-bonds and electrostatic interactions. FACS assay demonstrated that these new compounds abolished P-gp drug efflux and accumulated high intracellular concentration in the drug-resistant leukemia K562/Dox. P-gp inhibition by CsA confirmed ...
A Phase 1, Multicenter, Open-Label, Safety Study of AG-120 or AG-221 in Combination with Induction Therapy and Consolidation Therapy in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia with an IDH1 and/or IDH2 Mutation ...
In a Phase III trial that supported FDA approval, treatment with Rydapt (midostaurin), combined with Cytosar-U (cytarabine) and Daunorubicin, improved overall survival (74.7 mo vs 25.6 mo) in patients with FLT3-mutant (D835X and I836X) or FLT3-ITD (exon 14 insertions) acute myeloid leukemia compared to Cytosar-U (cytarabine) and Daunorubicin with placebo (PMID: 28644114 ...
These electron microscope images show the structures empty (left) and loaded with the cancer drug daunorubicin (right). The researchers have demonstrated for the first time that such "DNA origami" structures can be used to treat drug-resistant leukemia …. ...
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Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.. ...
Provides information on usage, precautions, side effects and brand names when available. Data provided by various government agencies and health-related organizations. ...
Vc-seco-DUBA 是抗体-药物偶联物的一部分。由 Modified Daunorubicinol (DNA 拓扑异构酶 II 抑制剂)和 ADC linker 连接而成 ...
Daunorubicin (DNR) and doxorubicin (DOX) are two of the most effective anthracycline drugs known for the treatment of systemic neoplasms and solid tumors. However, their clinical use is hampered due to profound cardiotoxicity ...
In this study, we present evidence that Dox rapidly upregulates p53, phosphorylated p53, p42/p44ERK, p38, and p46/p54JNK. We also demonstrate that Dox increases the activity of caspases-2, -3, -8, -9, and -12, leading to apoptosis. Most importantly, we demonstrate for the first time that PFT-α attenuates the apoptotic process by blocking Dox-induced expression of p53, phosphorylated p53, p42/p44ERK, p46/p54JNK, and the caspases listed above.. In our study, we found that Dox has an immediate effect on cell signaling pathways. Within 5-10 min, Dox rapidly phosphorylated all three MAPKs (Fig. 2). These results are in line with a study on the effect of daunomycin on the MAPKs in cardiomyocytes by Zhu et al. (72). In addition, we also found that Dox induced an upregulation of p53 level.. Given that Dox triggered an increase in the proapoptotic p53, it is reasonable to assume that Dox has proapoptotic effects. In line with this hypothesis, our study showed that Dox induced a p53-dependent activation ...
START 062413 --, ,div id=june-24-13 style=height:auto;overflow:hidden;, ,h2,06/24/13,/h2, ,/p, ,img src=http://openwetware.org/images/c/c7/OSU062412.gel.jpg style=float:right; width:80%; max-width:400px; min-width:200px; /, ,p, ,p, Ran gel of 8 Benet Linkage to purify the DNA ,br, Cut the gel and mixed with Daunorubicin (2mM) ,br, Made a 2mM solution of DR from other 10 mM, 117µL stock solution ,br, Also mixed other Benet Linkages, 18 Helix bundles, and flat 18 helix bundles ,br, Made 184.4 µL of 10mM DR stock solution ,br, Performed half of Trial with PEG to increase visibility of precipitate and other under same procedure as before ,br, Suspended structures in 50µL of PBS. ,/p, ,/div, ,!-- START 062013 --, ,h2,6/20/13,/h2, ,img src=http://openwetware.org/images/0/09/OSUwetlab3.jpg style=float:right; width:80%; max-width:400px; min-width:200px; /, ,p, 10:30 AM ,br, Began centrifuging - ran for 50 minutes at 20˚C at 20 gs. The solutions that were used were OBL18 and CBL22 which ...
1D36: Facile formation of a crosslinked adduct between DNA and the daunorubicin derivative MAR70 mediated by formaldehyde: molecular structure of the MAR70-d(CGTnACG) covalent adduct.
110D: Anthracycline-DNA interactions at unfavourable base-pair triplet-binding sites: structures of d(CGGCCG)/daunomycin and d(TGGCCA)/adriamycin complexes.
DORLHIAC-LLACER, P.E. et al. In vitro cytotoxicity of the LDE: daunorubicin complex in acute myelogenous leukemia blast cells. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 2001, vol.34, n.10, pp.1257-1263. ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2001001000004.. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) blast cells show high-affinity degradation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), suggesting an increased expression of cellular LDL receptors. LDE is a lipid microemulsion easily synthesized in vitro which is known to mimic the metabolic pathway of LDL. We used LDE as a carrier for daunorubicin and assayed the cytotoxicity of the complex using AML blast cells since RT-PCR analysis showed that AML cells express LDL receptor mRNA. The LDE:daunorubicin complex killed 46.7% of blast cells and 20.2% of normal bone marrow cells (P,0.001; Student t-test). Moreover, this complex destroyed AML blast cells as efficiently as free daunorubicin. Thus, LDE might be a suitable carrier of chemotherapeutic agents targeting these ...
Sequence analysis of a 3.4-kb region Streptomyces peucetius daunorubicin (DNR) gene cluster established the presence of the dnrH and dnmT genes. In dnrH mutants, DNR production increased 8.5-fold, compared with that in the wild-type strain, while dnmT mutants accumulated epsilon-rhodomycinone (RHO), which normally becomes glycosylated in daunorubicin biosynthesis. Hence, dnmT may be involved in the biosynthesis or attachment of daunosamine to RHO or in the regulation of this process. Since the DnrH protein is similar to known glycosyl transferases, this protein may catalyze the conversion of DNR to its polyglycosylated forms, known as baumycins. Overexpression of dnmT in the wild-type and dnrH mutant strains resulted in a major decrease in RHO accumulation and increase in DNR production. ...
What is the mechanism of action? Daunorubicin belongs to a class of drugs called anthracycline antitumor antibiotics. Daunorubicin produces its anti-cancer effects by binding to DNA and inhibiting the production of proteins necessary for sustaining life of a cell.. How is daunorubicin typically given (administered)? Daunorubicin is administered intravenously (into a vein) and the dose depends on several factors, including the condition being treated, the size of the patient, the particular treatment regimen being used, and the overall health of the patient. During administration, if daunorubicin escapes from the vein in which it is being given, it can cause serious damage to tissues that it may come in contact with. Although patients will be monitored for this, patients should notify their healthcare provider immediately if they experience pain, redness or swelling at the area of intravenous administration.. How are patients typically monitored? Patients will usually have scheduled meetings ...
Shop Daunorubicin/doxorubicin resistance ATP-binding protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Daunorubicin/doxorubicin resistance ATP-binding protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Streptomyces peucetius DnrS protein: involved in daunorubicin biosynthesis in Streptomyces peucetius; encodes a glycosyltransferase; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank L47164
The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has today recommended the use of liposomal cytarabine with daunorubicin to treat previously untreated therapy-related AML (t-AML) and AML with myelodysplastic changes (AML-MRC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:. Chemicals and Reagents: Both Daunorubicin and Cytarabine (API) were obtained as a gift sample from Spectrum Pharma Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad, India. The marketed formulation in the brand name Vyoxeos (Dauno-29 mg & Cyta-65 mg) procured from the local pharmacy. All the chemicals and reagents used in this work were HPLC grade water, acetonitrile, phosphate buffer, methanol, potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer, orthophosphoric acid was obtained from Rankem.. Instrumentation: A HPLC system with waters 2695 separation module provided with a photodiode array detector, autosampler injection with Empower-2 software. Electronic balance, ultrasonicator, hot air oven were used.. Chromatographic Conditions: The chromatographic separations achieved on a kromosil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm particle size) as a stationary phase. The mobile phase was composed of 55:45 v/v of 0.1% orthophosphoric acid (OPA) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.8ml/min and injection volume is 10 ...
Yesterdays infusion didnt go as well as the three in September. The catheter was in the vein in my left arm correctly, so the Daunorubicin was flowing into my bloodstream, not into my flesh where it would cause damage. But the veins in my left arm had their own adverse reaction to it. The top and underside of my forearm were experiencing a burning sensation. So was my left shoulder. The nurse slowed down the injection and applied hot compresses, but I didnt begin to feel better until shed finished the two chemo vials and had given me pain medicine ...
Author: SUSAN MANI, SREEJITH NAIR, HARIHARAN. Category: Pharmacology. [Download PDF]. Abstract:. Aim: - A prospective study to evaluate the adverse effects occurring during chemotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with cytarabine & daunorubicin. Materials & Methods: A total 35- subjects with de novo AML under-going chemotherapy with cytarabine and daunorubicin at Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, were selected and followed up during the entire course, and the adverse effects documented as per WHO Toxicity Guidelines. Preventability assessments were also done using modified Schumock and Thornton scale.Results: Three fourth of the patients attained complete remission after the first two cycles. Out of the 35 patients enrolled, 17 died during the course of chemotherapy as a result of infection and bleeding. Myelosuppression, gastrointestinal manifestations, fever and alopecia, were the common adverse effects, while hepatic and electrolyte disturbances were encountered to a lesser ...
n. an anthracycline antibiotic that interferes with DNA synthesis and is used in the treatment of acute leukaemias and AIDS-related Kaposis sarcoma. It is administered by intravenous infusion. Possible side-effects include loss of hair and damage to bone marrow and heart muscle. Trade name: DaunoXome. ...
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2009;24(5-6):567-76. Epub 2009 Nov 4 [abstract] SAUVANT, C., NOWAK, M., WIRTH, C., SCHNEIDER, B., RIEMANN, A., GEKLE, M. AND THEWS, O.: Acidosis induces multi-drug resistance in rat prostate cancer cells (AT1) in vitro and in vivo by increasing the activity of the p-glycoprotein via activation of p38. Int. J. Cancer 123(11), 2532-2543, 2008 [abstract] SAUVANT, C, THEWS, O., WIRTH, C. AND GEKLE, M.: Direct determination of intracellular daunorubicin in intact confluent monolayers of AT1 prostate carcinoma cells using a multiwell-multilabel counter. Anal. Biochem. 381(1), 81-85, 2008 [abstract] THEWS, O., GASSNER, B., KELLEHER, DK. AND GEKLE, M.: Activity of drug efflux transporters in tumor cells under hypoxic conditions. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 614, 157-164, 2008 [abstract] THEWS, O., GASSNER, B. KELLEHER, DK., SCHWERDT, G. AND GEKLE, M.: Impact of hypoxic and acidic extracellular conditions on cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 599, 155,161, 2007 ...
Erythroleukemia is considered a rare form of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia that is particularly resistant to chemotherapy. We have treated nine adults with erythroleukemia with daunorubicin, 1 mg/kg · day, and prednisone, 60 mg/day, for 5 days. Four (44%) complete remissions and three (33%) partial remissions were obtained. Median duration of remission was 6 months (range, 2 to 16 months). All patients who had received no prior therapy responded. Median duration of survival was 12 months (range, 4 to 27 months). We conclude that the combination of daunorubicin and prednisone may be especially useful in inducing remissions in erythroleukemia and that erythroleukemia is more responsive to chemotherapy than previously realized. ...
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Huiyuan Hou, Kristyn Huffman, Sandy Rios, William R Freeman, Michael J Sailor, Lingyun Cheng].
Aclarubicin is one of the derivatives of anthracycline drugs exhibiting less side effects in comparison with the commonly used anthracyclines Generation - doxorubicin and daunorubicin. This article presents the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of the cytotoxic effect of the ACL, such as the effect on the activity of topoisomerase I and II, the processes of replication and transcription. Also discussed was the impact of the ACL with the cell membrane, drug transport through the membrane and the plasma membrane involved in the acquisition of multidrug resistance. ...
Induction chemotherapy: Three drug induction therapy using vincristine, prednisolone/ dexamethasone, L-asparaginase in conjunction with intrathecal therapy results in complete remission rate of greater than 95%. For patients with high risk, an anthracycline (daunorubicin) may be included. The aim of induction phase is to induce remission. In general, patients will achieve complete remission within the first 4 weeks. Patients who require more than 4 weeks to achieve remission or those who demonstrate more than 25% blasts in the bone marrow or have persistent blasts in the peripheral blood after 1 week of intensive induction therapy have a poor prognosis. (A bone marrow is done at the end of induction to establish remission status ...
ChemoGLO - is a useful tool to monitor your environmental exposure to five common antineoplastic agents 5-fluorouracil, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel, methotrexate, platinum analogues, paclitaxel, Busulfan, Etoposide, Cytarabine, Doxorubicin, Daunorubicin, Vincristine with HDClean product.
ChemoGLO - is a useful tool to monitor your environmental exposure to five common antineoplastic agents 5-fluorouracil, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel, methotrexate, platinum analogues, paclitaxel, Busulfan, Etoposide, Cytarabine, Doxorubicin, Daunorubicin, Vincristine with HDClean product.
Remisijos indukcijai visų rūšių ŪML (išskyrus ūminę promielocitinę leukemiją) skiriama chemoterapija antraciklinu ir citarabinu.[4] Tris dienas skiriant daunorubiciną arba idarubiciną kombinacijoje su septynių dienų trukmės citarabino infuzija, vadinamąją 7+3 schemą pavyksta pasiekti remisiją 65-75 % jaunesnio amžiaus ligonių (,60 metų) ir 40-60 % vyresnio amžiaus pacientų. Tyrimai, analizavę vaistų dozių modifikacijas ar kombinacijas su kitais medikamentais gydymo rezultatų iš esmės nepagerino, nors yra studijų, kurių duomenimis antraciklino dozės padidinimas (daunorubicino dozė 90 mg/m2 vietoje 45 mg/m2) padidina remisijos indukcijos tikimybę[5], ypač pacientų grupėje nuo 60 iki 65 metų. Remisijos indukcijos rezultatas nulemia paciento prognozę, nepasiekus remisijos daugelis ligonių miršta per vienerius metus nuo diagnozės nustatymo. Kita vertus, vyresnio amžiaus ligoniams yra nemaža rizika mirti dėl gydymo komplikacijų. Tokiais atvejais ...