هیدروکربن-های نفتی از جمله آلاینده-های پایدار سمی بوده که تهدیدی اساسی برای اکوسیستم به-شمار می-رود. گیاه-پالایی، شامل استفاده از گیاهان برای پاکسازی خاک-های آلوده، یک روش مؤثر و اقتصادی در کاهش آلودگی-های نفتی خاک است. در این پژوهش پتانسیل گیاه-پالایی گیاهان مرتعی Agropyron intermedium و Dactylis glomerata بر خاک آلوده با غلظت-های مختلف نفت خام (20، 30، 40 و 50 درصد) برای مدت 120 روز در شرایط گلخانه-ای مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در انتهای تحقیق، تغییرات فاکتورهای زیستی (ارتفاع اندام-هوایی، وزن خشک اندام-هوایی و وزن خشک ریشه) هر کدام از گونه-ها و تغییرات هیدروکربن-های نفتی خاک اندازه-گیری
Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) is a common perennial grass that is frequently found in woodland edges, rough grassland, meadows and permanent pastures. In the UK and continental Europe, orchard grass, together with other native species, including fescues, occupies around 30% of pastoral land. Polyphenol oxidases are enzymes that cause enzymatic browning by conversion of natural phenolic compounds, such as monophenols to o-dihydroxyaryl compounds and subsequent oxidation to o-quinones [1]. These highly electrophilic species bind rapidly to nucleophilic sites on other compounds (e.g. phenols, amino-acids and proteins) and condense with phenols to form brown-, black- or red-colored polymers, associated with the undesired discoloration of fruit and vegetables. Recently, high levels of PPO activity have been reported in orchard grass [2]; however, to date, no endogenous substrates have been identified. In the present study, we report the isolation and structural elucidation of PPO substrates in ...
ABSTRACT: Genetic diversity is the fundamental level of biological diversity. In the discussion of biological diversity in agricultural ecosystems, this level is of major importance, but often neglected. Tools for the direct measurement of genetic diversity, especially in highly diverse systems such as permanent grassland, are demanding and the relationship between genetic diversity and management practices or environmental factors is poorly understood. Genetic diversity of the common grassland species Dactylis glomerata was assessed using genetic diversity indices based on 29 SSR markers. Phenotypic diversity within and among selected populations was evaluated in a replicated field experiment based on ten phenotypic plant characters of agronomic relevance. Twenty populations of D. glomerata from permanent grassland from the Swiss Alps were included in the analysis. We investigated correlations between genetic diversity (genotypic/phenotypic) and farming system (conventional/organic), management
Numerous studies have confirmed Antigen E (AgE) as the major antigen associated with Short Ragweed pollinosis. In a well-controlled study, purified Antigen E was significantly superior to placebo in amelioration of symptoms associated with Short Ragweed pollinosis.¹ Therefore, it is essential that the physician be aware of AgE content of allergenic extracts administered for hyposensitization therapy. Some studies have indicated that for most patients a cumulative Antigen E dosage of less than 0.1 unit is not immunizing (sufficient to stimulate specific IgG antibodies).² This, however, does not suggest that a 0.1 unit is a maximum tolerated dose. Most moderately sensitive patients may tolerate a dosage ten to fifty times greater. For exquisitely sensitive patients who cannot tolerate an immunizing dose of this preparation, the physician should consider immunotherapy with alternatives to conventional aqueous allergenic extract. Alum precipitated bacterial and viral vaccines and alum precipitated ...
The Tennessee-Kentucky Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. The website also provides access to a database and images of plants photos and herbarium specimens found at participating herbaria.
Agyneta dactylis (Tao, Li & Zhu, 1995) Type locality: Jian (300m), Changbai Mts., China Holotype: NBUMS. male ♂. 10-12.VII.1988. T88-31. ...
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The samples of grass silages, made from the five most widely used grass species in ruminant nutrition (Dactylis glomerata L., Phleum pratense L., Lolium perenne L., Festuca arundinacea L. and hybrid Felina) were tested in the present study. These grass species conserved by an ensiling process were compared among each other according to dry matter (DM) rumen degradability parameters. Based on the chemical composition of grass silages the regression equations for prediction of effective degradability of DM (EDDM) were evaluated. The influence of the ensiling process on dry matter degradability parameters was also assessed. The best values of EDDM were determined for Lolium perenne. The best predictor was neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Using two predictors the accuracy level increased. The regression equations based on the most important grass species harvested in different vegetation periods seem to be a useful tool for practical use.. ...
Five grass species (Dactylis glomerata L., Phleum pratense L., Lolium perenne L., Festuca arundinacea L. and the hybrid Felina (Lolium multiflorum L. × Festuca arundinacea L.)), commonly used in roughages for ruminants, were harvested at different maturities of primary growth (n = 60) and evaluated for contents of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, crude fat, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), indigestible neutral detergent fibre (INDF) and digestible neutral detergent fibre (DNDF). INDF and DNDF contents were determined by in sacco rumen degradation of grasses for 12 days in non-lactating cows. ADL content was found to be highly correlated (P < 0.05) with DNDF (r = -0.87) and presented a reliable (R2 = 0.78; residual mean square error of 17.65 g/kg DM; P < 0.0001) parameter to predict INDF contents. Over a six-week period of maturation INDF contents increased (P < 0.0001) in all studied grasses. It was confirmed by this study that the ...
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Grays New Manual of Botany (7th edition); A Handbook of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Central and Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada; American Book Company ...
Referenties: Bretagnolle F, Thompson JD & Lumaret R (1995) The influence of seed size variation on seed germination and seedling vigour in diploid and tetraploid Dactylis glomerata. Annals of Botany 76: 607-615. Callaway E (2013) Shrub genome reveals secrets of flower power. Nature News December 19, 2013. Darwin C (1859) The origin of species. J. Murray (London). Debodt S, Maere S & Vandepeer Y (2005) Geonome duplication and the origin of angiosperms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20(11): 591-597. Dubcovsky J & Dvorak J (2007) Genome plasticity, a key factor in the succes of polyploid wheat under domestication. Science 316: 1862-1866. Frame J (1976) The potential of tetraploid red clover and its role in the United Kingdom. Journal of the British Grassland Society 31: 139-152. Gasso N, Pys ek P, Vila M & Williamson M (2010) Spreading to a limit: the time required for a neophyte to reach its maximum range. Diversity and Distributions 16: 310-311. Garbutt K & Bazzaz FA (1983) Leaf demography, ...
Two species found in temperate calcareous and mesotrophic grasslands (Dactylis glomerata and Leontodon hispidus) were exposed to eight ozone treatments spanning preindustrial to post-2100 regimes, and late-season effects on stomatal functioning were investigated. The plants were grown as a mixed community in 14 L containers and were exposed to ozone in ventilated solardomes (dome-shaped greenhouses) for 20 weeks from early May to late September 2007. Ozone exposures were based on O-3 concentrations from a nearby upland area, and provided the following seasonal 24 h means: 21.4, 39.9 (simulated ambient), 50.2, 59.4, 74.9, 83.3, 101.3 and 102.5 ppb. In both species, stomatal conductance of undamaged inner canopy leaves developing since a midseason cutback increased linearly with increasing background ozone concentration. Imposition of severe water stress by leaf excision indicated that increasing background ozone concentration decreased the ability of leaves to limit water loss, implying impaired ...
Dataset description This dataset contains microscopic images and videos of pollen gathered between Feb. and Aug. 2020 in Graz, Austria. Pollen images of 16 types: ...images_16_types.zip Acer Pseudoplatanus Aesculus Carnea Alnus Anthoxanthum Betula Pendula Brassica Carpinus Corylus Dactylis Glomerata Fraxinus Pinus Nigra Platanus Populus Nigra Prunus Avium Sequoiadendron Giganteum Taxus Baccata Pollen video library ...pollen_video_library.zip Each type of pollen is in a separate folder, there may be multiple videos per type. In each pollen folder, we included images cropped from the videos by YOLO object detection algorithm trained on a subset of pollen images as described in [1]. Cropped file name structure [Video file name]_[TrackingID]_[Image index of a grain]_[Frame index in video] Example, if a grain has 5 images, the file name would be: Anthoxanthum-grass-20200530-122652_0000000_001_00001.jpg Anthoxanthum-grass-20200530-122652_0000000_002_00002.jpg ... Anthoxanthum-grass-20200530-122652_0000000_005
Four leaf preparation techniques (air drying, tetramethylsilane air drying, critical point drying, and freeze substitution) used in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were evaluated with respect to the degree of cellular distortion they produce in stomatal guard cells of leaves of Dactylis glomerata and Elymus canadensis. Surface morphological distortion and cuticle disruption in the air-dried and tetramethylsilane air-dried leaves, and cuticle disruption within the critical point-dried tissue made it difficult to obtain measurements.The freeze-substituted tissue experienced little cuticle disturbance, and the cellular morphology appeared normal. The length of the guard cells did not significantly differ between the air-dried, tetramethylsilane air-dried, critical point-dried, or freeze-substituted samples. Widths did significantly vary, with the freeze-substituted tissue having lower values than tissues treated with the other treatments. Freeze substitution methodology produced SEM images that appear
Problem statement: Recombinant-based approaches are mostly focused on genetic modification of allergens to produce molecules with reduced allergenic activity and conserved antigenicity, such as hypoallergens. Recombinant allergens represent promising tools for diagnosis and therapy of type I allergy. This approach was probably feasible with every allergen with known amino acid sequence. Approach: The primary aim of this study was to determine the consensus epitope from twenty homologous protein sequences of Ory S1 allergenic protein sequence from Oryza sativa (indica group) pollen. Molecular modeling calculations had been used to investigate the allergenic protein models for the epitope. Results: Oryza sativa (japonica), Phleum pratense, Poa pratensis, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, Triticum aestivum, Dactylis glomerata and Zea mays were found more closely related (alignment score 1145-812) among all the homologs and investigated further. The major binding pocket comprised an
Dactylis glomerata A pasture grass grown mainly in the temperate regions of the Old World. Daktulosphaira vitifoliae The new scientific name for Phylloxera vitifoliae of grapes. Damping-off A disease of very young seedlings, which rots the stem at the soil surface. Affected seedlings then fall over like miniature, felled trees.
Effects of Sago Palm Pith as Replacement for Corn Grain on Intake, Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial N Supply of Cattle Fed Paspalum plicatulum Hay - Sago Palm Pith;Corn;Rumen Fermentation;Southern Indigenous Cattle;Microbial N Supply;
TY - JOUR. T1 - Different techniques to study rumen fermentation characteristics of maturing grass and grass silage. AU - Cone, J.W.. AU - van Gelder, A.H.. AU - Soliman, I.A.. AU - de Visser, H.. AU - van Vuuren, A.M.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Grass samples were harvested during the 1993 growing season after a precut on April 27, 1993 and were stored frozen or left to ensile in 30-L buckets. Effects on chemical composition and fermentation kinetics of the maturation of the grass and of ensiling were investigated. Chemical composition and fermentation kinetics were determined using the gas production technique, in vitro techniques, and the nylon bag technique. Two silage samples were also investigated in vivo. Maturation caused a decrease in crude protein content and organic matter degradability and an increase in neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents. Degradation rates were highest for the youngest samples and decreased as grass and silage matured. This result ...
Read The water‐soluble carbohydrates of grasses. I.-Changes occurring during the normal life‐cycle, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Timothy (Phleum pretense L.) pastures of 3 Total mixed ration (TMR) centers in Hokkaido were selected, the first cutting grasses were continuously collected from the same pastures on different harvest days over 4 years (2011-2014), and changes in the water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content were analyzed to investigate the relationship with weather conditions. The harvest days in the 4-year period were June 17-22, June 24-26, June 27-30, and July 2-5, and grasses on these dates were designated as the harvest date groups. The weather data during the cutting period in each year were utilized. The WSC content tended to change yearly and it was significantly lower in the 4 groups (67.3 - 82.1 g/kg DM) in 2011 than in the groups (101.5 - 130.3 g/kg DM) in 2013 excluding the June 24-26 group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The WSC content tended to increase as the harvest date progressed in 2011-2013 and it significantly increased even though the harvest date was delayed only in 2013 (P < 0.01). It was
Long, MH, Berg, P and Falter, JL (2015). Seagrass metabolism across a productivity gradient using the eddy covariance, Eulerian control volume, and biomass addition techniques. Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans. ...
The changing patterns of carbohydrate reserves of ten forage plant species were studied in 1993 in thesteppe rangeland area of Zhenglan Banner Nimenggu, During growing season, all the samples in trial wererandomly taken and those carbohydtate reserves in stem bases and roots were determined. Our resultsshowed that the forage plants utilized their carbohydrate reserves(in the form of total sugar plus reduced sug-ar contents)at turning green,jointing and heading stages respectively and would accumulate the samereserves contents after tillering,blooming and fniit- bearing stages accordingly. The said patterns,how-ever, turned into the reversed trend in some forage species.Some rational suggestions were put forward bythe authors on the future utillzation of rangeland resources somewhat basing on the changing patternsmodeling variation existed in carbohydrate reserves.
The function of carbohydrates in any animals diet is to provide energy. Some carbohydrates are more easily digestible and provide energy to the animal, or in the case of the beef cattle, to the rumen microbes more rapidly. These carbohydrates are Non-Fiber Carbohydrates (NFC). Examples of NFC are starch and sugars, such as glucose and ...
Full course for one semester. This course examines how the underlying structure, function, diversity, and ecology of plants determine environmental patterns. Lecture topics to be covered include plant water and carbon relations, plant life-history and resource-use strategies, resilience of plants and ecosystems to disturbance, and plant responses to global change. Lab exercises will focus on building skills for measuring and modeling these patterns and processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In addition, this course will explore how these patterns and processes operate in complex socio-ecological systems, specifically, how research in this area can be used to inform environmental decision-making by natural resource managers and policy-makers. These topics will be taught through a variety of activities in lecture, lab, and field settings and through active participation in all aspects of the scientific process. Prerequisite: Biology 101 and 102. Lecture-Laboratory.. ...
Transitions in community genomic features and biogeochemical processes were examined in surface and subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) microbial communities across a trophic gradient from mesotrophic waters near San Diego, California to the oligotrophic Pacific. Transect end points contrasted in thermocline depth, rates of nitrogen and CO2 uptake, new production and SCM light intensity. Relative to surface waters, bacterial SCM communities displayed greater genetic diversity and enrichment in putative sulfur oxidizers, multiple actinomycetes, low-light-adapted Prochlorococcus and cell-associated viruses. Metagenomic coverage was not correlated with transcriptional activity for several key taxa within Bacteria. Low-light-adapted Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and low abundance gamma-proteobacteria enriched in the,3.0-[mu]m size fraction contributed disproportionally to global transcription. The abundance of these groups also correlated with community functions, such as primary production or ...
Dr. Clint Waltz, Extension Turfgrass Specialist with the University of Georgia, reports that hot temperatures and low rainfall in the fall of 2016 likely sent warm-season turfgrasses into winter dormancy with depleted carbohydrate reserves. During
Grasslands represent a land-use which is effective and has great economical importance in the European agriculture. Grasslands these are important and effective sources of energy and proteins for ruminants, and combine high yields stability by draught resistance with low tillage operations and pesticide after use leading to good environmental conditions. Furthermore, good management practice in grasslands provides high potential of carbon sequestration in soils, resulting in climate change mitigation. Based on actual data, the meadows and pastures cover 224410.83 ha of total surface of the Kosovo; moreover there, just a particular of these surfaces are distinguished clearly as meadows or pastures. The most important forage crops which are dominant in our country include plants from Poaceae; this botanical family is divided into long, medium, and low herbs. Medium and long herbs are the best suited for mowing and silage or drying for sanitary preparations, while short herbs are very suitable for
Forage crops are a great way of introducing nitrogen into the soil, providing ground cover and supplementing feed during winter months.
Forage crops are a great way of introducing nitrogen into the soil, providing ground cover and supplementing feed during winter months.
Free Online Library: Effects of reducing inclusion rate of roughages by changing roughage sources and concentrate types on intake, growth, rumen fermentation characteristics, and blood parameters of Hanwoo growing cattle (Bos Taurus coreanae). by Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences; Agricultural industry Biological sciences Body weight Analysis Growth Research Cattle Cattle feed Fatty acids Metabolites Rumen Rumen fermentation Triglycerides
limit. (See Section 6.2.3, Grant Tables.) Resource-use counting takes place when any account has a nonzero limit placed on its use of any of the resources. As the server runs, it counts the number of times each account uses resources. If an account reaches its limit on number of connections within the last hour, the server rejects further connections for the account until that hour is up. Similarly, if the account reaches its limit on the number of queries or updates, the server rejects further queries or updates until the hour is up. In all such cases, the server issues appropriate error messages. Resource counting occurs per account, not per client. For example, if your account has a query limit of 50, you cannot increase your limit to 100 by making two simultaneous client connections to the server. Queries issued on both connections are counted together. The current per-hour resource-use counts can be reset globally for all accounts, or individually for a given account: ...
Sydney, July 21 (IANS) The developing heart in an embryo can be damaged by the cellular stress triggered from oxygen deficiency - thereby leading to development of childhood heart disease, a study has revealed for the first time. Childhood heart disease is the most common form of birth defect and affects one in 100 babies globally, showed the study. The study discovered that reduced oxygen triggered a stress response in the embryonic cells. The cells try to relieve the stress by stopping protein production. As proteins arent available to make the heart at a critical time, it doesnt develop properly, lead researcher Professor Sally Dunwoodie at Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute said.. According to the work published in the journal Development, the oxygen deficiency in an embryo can be caused by multiple factors such as prescription medications, high blood pressure, high altitude, or even a tangled umbilical cord.. Apart from low oxygen, factors like a viral infection, increased ...
Most people know that horses eat grass. But it might surprise you to know that all grass is not the same.. Grass, like all plants, makes its own energy from a process called photosynthesis. This uses energy from the sun together with water and a substance called chlorophyll to make sugars. These sugars are often referred to as water soluble carbohydrates or WSC.. There are two types of sugars in grass - simple sugars and storage sugars, known as fructan. Its these that keep the grass alive and growing. And theyre also what make it a good source of nutrition for horses.. But just as with humans, too much sugar is a bad thing! So allowing horses unrestricted grazing throughout the year can lead to them putting on weight. And that in turn can lead to serious health problems. Too much grass can also lead to a debilitating condition called laminitis.. Grass is higher in sugars at different times of the year, and even at different times of the day and night.. When its dark, the grass cant ...
Orchard grass or cocksfoot is worldwide one on the most valuable animal food grasses. It grows in meadows, pastures, shrubbery, and along waysides on almost all types of soil but best on heavier types, such as clays. The name giving panicles are erect and densely glomerate, often purple or reddish in colour, stamens creamy white or pink to purple. Main flowering period is May-June, but single plants can be seen in flower even in July and August ...
FR] Il y a un manque de connaissances sur lesquel/es de nombreux types de tanins pourraient étre plus spécifiques et utiles, dans la pratique, pour interférer avec la biohydrogénation (BH) ruminale et modular le pro-fil en acides gras des produits de ruminants sans nuire a /utilisation du régime. Deux essais in vitro avec des cultures non-renouvelées de microorganismes du rumen ont été conduits pour analyser leffet dun extrait reno- logique commercial de tanins de chéne, a dosage pratique dans des conditions dexploitation (2% MS), sur la BH et la fermentation ruminale dun régime supplémenté en hui/e de tournesol (2% MS). Dans la premiere ex- périence (12 h dincubation), la composition en acides gras (AG) des digesta ruminales lyophilisées a été ana- lysée. Dans la deuxiéme expérience (24 h dincubation), la fermentation et la communauté bactérienne rumi- nale ont été examinées. Ladditiondun 2% MS de tanins de chéne sest avérée (P,0,01) efficace pour réduire ...
An oxygen deficiency in surrounding tissue is called tissue hypoxia. Commonly, hypoxemia (low oxygen in the blood) leads to hypoxia, as stated by...
Our series of MTB nutrition guides will help you use sports nutrition correctly and perform at your best. Leading nutrition advice for mountain biking.
Carbohydrate is the high grade fuel for racing. Unfortunately your body can only store a limited amount of it (around 400 gram**) and thats not enough to fuel a hard Triathlon. Blowing up or hitting the wall is when you have completely emptied your carbohydrate tank and that regularly happens during longer distances like an Ironman. Although less likely during Olympic and Sprint races, everyone will have experienced increasing levels of fatigue in the latter stages of shorter events. This is where your carbohydrate reserves, although not completely empty, are running low and your muscles are forced to rely more and more on fat as fuel.. Compare how strong you are in the early stages of a race when you have lots of carbohydrate left, to how tired you feel at the end of a hard race when your carbohydrate reserves are depleted. To fuel a fast triathlon and to even finish an Iron distance event, you need to consume extra carbohydrate during the race in the form of gels, drink and bars. Having lots ...
The female Ichneumonid has detected a moth larva inside the seedhead of Cocksfoot grass, and has swung her ovipositor round to inject an egg into the caterpillar. The egg will stay dormant inside the caterpillar until it pupates, at which time the egg will hatch and consume the contents of the cocoon. It takes a great deal of patience to get a shot like that. Each shot requires perhaps 30 minutes of watching the wasp moving from seedhead to seedhead and waiting for the moment of injection. These are my favourite photographs ...
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Fernando Díaz. There are a wide variety of forage crops used in the United States for dairy farms. One of the most common is oat as it provides the benefit of diversifying crop rotation. In fact, over 1.3 million hectares of oat were planted in the United States with over 60 percent of the output used for forage. Similar planted areas have been reported in Brazil, China, and other countries around the world. This diversification and inclusion of oat as a forage crop has a wide range of benefits for dairy farmers and agriculture as a whole.. Adding oat to a corn/soybean rotation has been found to reduce pests and weeds in the farm and decrease diseases. It additionally can aid with sustainability efforts as these reductions in pests and weeds also decrease the need for chemical pesticides and herbicides. Oat has a wide range of uses, from human consumption to incorporation into animal rations through grain, hay, or silage ...
Soygro develops and manufactures microbiological inoculants and related products serving as an aid with the suppression of plant diseases and enhancing plant growth on row and forage crops, vegetables, fruit, orchards and ornamentals.. ...
I have 2 horses, one is an 18 year old mare and the other is a 8 year old gelding. The older horse is slightly under weight (5 on the scale?) and the younger horse is slightly over weight (6.5 on the scale?). What feed would be best for each of them? For further information, the older mare is my kids horse, so I dont want her too hot. I seperate them currently for their grain (Nutrena regular (~1/2 to 1 lb morning and night) and Nutrena Senior (~3lbs morning and night), also the older mare is on a supplement. I think the Senior is making the older horse a little hotter than I would like. They are currently on about 1/2 grass and 1/2 grass hay. The 8 yr old is still on grain for two reasons, he was in training over winter and was getting about 6lbs a day, and then still on it to not be jealous of the older mare. I do not have enough pasture to full time grass them during the summer, and my next round hay bale is about 1/2 orchard grass 1/2 alfalfa. This will start in about 2-3 weeks after the ...
We have all experienced the massive damage that fall armyworms did on our forage crops and turf. Keep in mind that fall armyworm can also damage corn. We have found late-stage caterpillars feeding on corn that was planted on May 25 and on June 23 rd. T .... ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Herbage productivity of prairie grass, reed canary‐grass and phalaris. AU - FRAME, J.. AU - MORRISON, M. W.. PY - 1991/12. Y1 - 1991/12. N2 - The herbage production and quality of swards of three grass species, prairie grass (Bromus willdenowii Kunth), reed canary‐grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and phalaris (Phalaris tuberosa L.) were compared with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne L. ×L. muitiflorum Lam.) under 6-cut (experiment 1) and 4-cut (experiment 2) regimes over 3 years at Ayr; annually, 360 kg ha‐1 fertilizer N were applied. At Edinburgh prairie grass was compared with Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum Lam.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) under an annual 4-cut regime for 3 years (experiment 3); fertilizer N application totalled 350 kg ha‐1 annually. Prairie grass gave the highest annual dry matter (DM) production at Ayr, averaging 11·99 t ha‐1 in experiment 1 and 15·62 t ha‐1 in ...
AMMONIATION OF RICE STRAW AND SUPPLEMENTATION OF Paraserianthes falcataria AND Sapindus rarak ON IN VITRO RUMEN FERMENTATION AND METHANE PRODUCTION
This study was carried out to determine the effects of supplementing different levels (0, 0.5 and 1% of buffered rumen fluid) of methanolic extract of pomegranate peel, on rumen fermentation kinetics of four oil seed meals (soybean meal, cotton seed meal, rapeseed meal and sunflower seed meal), using in vitro gas production technique. The samples were incubated in syringes containing rumen liquor taken from three fistulated Iranian Ghezel rams for 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 36 h. Results showed that, addition of methanolic extract of pomegranate peel led to significant increase in gas production volume in all incubation times and all of oil seed meals as well. Amount of gas production, also increased by increasing dose of the extract. Also, amounts of a (the gas production from the immediately soluble fraction), b (the gas production from the insoluble fraction) and a + b (the potential gas production) in all of tested oil seed meals increased by increasing pomegranate peel extract doses. Adding pomegranate
Alvarez-Yepiz JC, Cueva A, Dovaciak M, Teece M, Yepez EA (2014) Ontogenetic resource-use strategies in a rare long-lived cycad along environmental gradients. Conservation Physiology 2. doi:10.1093/conphys/cou034. Mays PA, Edwards GS (2001) Comparison of heavy metal accumulation in a natural wetland and constructed wetlands receiving acid mine drainage. Ecological Engineering 16, 487-500. doi:10.1016/S0925-8574(00)00112-9. Vening GS, Guja LK, Spooner PG, Price JN (2017) Seed dormancy and germination of three grassy woodland forbs required for diverse restoration. Australian Journal of Botany. BT17036. doi:10.1071/BT17036. ...
The importance of carbohydrate reserves in leaves for rooting performance of ornamental cuttings is well-known. Especially under environmental conditions unfavourable for photosynthesis, sufficient reserves are indispensable for an undisturbed adventitious root formation and to prevent senescence of leaves during rooting. However, due to time and costs, established methods for carbohydrates analysis are not suitable for implementation in global production chains of ornamentals. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) might be a valuable alternative. To explore the suitability of this technique, NIR spectra were taken from intact cuttings as well as from upper and lower side of detached leaves of chrysanthemum and pelargonium cuttings and partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were developed for glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch in leaves, which were analysed by a stepwise enzymatic-photometric method. Presumably because of a high percentage of cuttings with very low amounts of glucose, ...
Vasquez, J.; Perez, J.; Melendez, F., 1979: Effect of nitrogen, frequency and height of cutting on carbohydrate reserves and production of dry matter from Para grass (Brachiaria mutica)
Crabgrass can invade and defeat your yard should you give it the opportunity. When these products extract a measure in yard maintenance, it is important to check out the release rate of this fertilizer. Employ a preemergence herbicide (crabgrass preventer) with compost inside to kill crabgrass while trimming your yard. Locate a fantastic compost for the early spring program. When she is not writing, you can often find her yoga mat, then whipping up a fresh vegetarian dish or in a champagne tasting with friends. Avoid overwatering, which may stress plants. Simultaneously, mulch retains moisture to your plants and supplies nutrients to your soil as it decomposes.. Start looking for natural mulch as a natural crabgrass control process. Start looking for slow-release fertilizer if youre applying preemergence herbicide from the first spring-quick release fertilizers together using crabgrass killer are generally nice to work with for summer and autumn crabgrass control. Even though Scotts Crabgrass ...
An electronic potometer for studying plant water use in real time. Stomatal condcutance (an example from CIMMYT; instruments may vary). Rapid colorimetric assay for epicuticular wax - Tested against the classical gravimetric method. Stay-green laboratory assay under non-stress conditions (sorghum). Using PEG for controlling plant water status in experiments. o XYLEM VULNERABILITY TO CAVITATION AND EMBOLISM IN WOODY PLANTS. § Conduits in wood - their measurements and the assessment of hydraulic vulnerability § More on Xylem vulnerability curves. § Visualizations of Drought-Induced Embolism. § Methods of measuring Vulnerability to cavitation. o IMPROVING WHEAT GRAIN FILLING UNDER STRESS BY STEM RESERVE UTILIZATION. § Water Soluble Carbohydrates (WSC) determination in stems (wheat example from CIMMYT).. § Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for quantifying stem carbohydrates. o The Drought (Stress) Resistance Index - Estimating drought resistance in terms of yield or biomass. o C-isotope ...
Using first-principles calculation, we propose an interface structure for single triple-layer FeSe on the SrTiO 3(001) surface, a high-T c superconductor found recently. The key component of this structure is the oxygen deficiency on the top layer of the SrTiO 3 substrate, as a result of Se etching used in preparing the high-T c samples. The O vacancies strongly bind the FeSe triple layer to the substrate giving rise to a (2×1) reconstruction, as observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. The enhanced binding correlates to the significant increase of T c observed in experiment. The O vacancies also serve as the source of electron doping, which modifies the Fermi surface of the first FeSe layer by filling the hole pocket near the center of the surface Brillouin zone, as suggested from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurement. ...
Though the interplay of grazing intensity and the availability of resources is a key driver in grassland composition, very few studies focused on trait changes after abandonment along productivity gradients. Through a comparative approach, we aimed to assess the context-dependent effects of long-term grazing cessation on functional composition and diversity in sub-Mediterranean grasslands. We hypothesized that variability of topography, soil and vegetation structure on a fine scale drives the trait-based dynamics after long-term abandonment, also influencing the patterns of functional diversity. On a calcareous mountain ridge of central Italy, we collected data on species cover and traits, site characteristics, soil depth and vegetation structure in 0.5 m × 0.5 m plots located in extensively grazed pastures and in grasslands abandoned since the early 1970s. We analysed patterns of species and traits in relation to environmental variables and management type, and trends in functional diversity ...
Sergei Põlme - Biogeography and ecology of Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungi - from regional to global scale. Juhendajad teadur Leho Tedersoo, prof. Urmas Kõljalg. Anne Aan - Light- and nitrogen-use and biomass allocation along productivity gradients in multilayer plant communities. Juhendajad prof. Olevi Kull (1955-2007) ja dotsent Arne Sellin. Heidi Tamm - Comprehending phylogenetic diversity - case studies in three groups of ascomycetes. Juhendaja teadur Kadri Põldmaa. Pille Mänd - Light use capacity and carbon and nitrogen budget of plants: remote assessment and physiological determinants. Juhendajad prof. Olevi Kull (1955-2007) ja prof. Josep Peῆuelas (CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSI-UAB, Catalonia, Spain) ja vanemteadur Anu Sõber. Mari Lepik - Morphological plasticity of plants: adaptation to performance in varying environmental conditions. Juhendaja prof. Kristjan Zobel. Ülle Saks - Molecular and functional diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in pristine and ...
Long-term heavy grazing had little effect on root and crown biomass of Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), nor did it significantly affect the total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) reserve levels or the seasonal cycle of reserves in this grass. Orodho and Trlica conclude that 50 years of protection from livestock use had not resulted in ecotypic differentiation in Indian ricegrass for these variables. Clipping reduced crown biomass more than root biomass and removal of 90% of aboveground biomass resulted in more than a 50% reduction in crown biomass and reserve carbohydrate pool. In a garden study that compared the native Chaco Canyon strains to two commercial strains of Indian ricegrass (Nezpar and Paloma), the Nezpar strain was superior to Paloma and the Chaco Canyon strains in production of crown biomass and TNC reserves at the more mesic garden site. The native strains from the more arid Chaco Canyon were superior to both cultivated strains in root production, and the native
Forage crops and grasslands play a central role in sustainable and diversified agriculture. Covers the scientific principles and practical applications of the production, management, and utilization of perennial and annual forage crops used by livestock and equine. Pre/co-requisite: BIOL 001 or BIOL 002 or BCOR 011 or BCOR 012 or PBIO 004 or PBIO 006 or Instructor permission. Cross-listed with: PSS 143. ...
Seed quality is adjudged based on the recommended standards decided by the Government of India in the form of Indian Minimum Seed Certification Standards (published by The Central Seed Certification Board, Ministry of Agriculture., GOI).
Unlike dogs or cats, rabbits are physically unable to vomit. This means rabbits need a high-fiber diet to keep their digestive system always moving. At least 75% of a bunnys diet should consist of hay. For babies, pregnant or lactating bunnies, alfalfa hay should be fed in unlimited amounts as it is rich in calories, protein and calcium. After young babies are spayed or neutered (anywhere from 4-6 months of age), they can be introduced to a more appropriate hay such as an oat blend, timothy or orchard grass. Once the young rabbits reach 8 months, they stop eating alfalfa hay. Its important not to keep adults on alfalfa hay because it is too rich in protein and calcium. Too much calcium can damage a rabbits kidneys and liver.. ​. Dont know which hay to use? Oat blends are high in fiber and tasty (due to the oats) to rabbits. Timothy hay is similar in nutrition to the oat blend, and usually more easily found in pet stores. Orchard grass is also suitable, and recommended for bunnies who have ...
A detailed experimental study of breakage kinetics in a batch rodmill indicates that while the system is inherently nonlinear, the feed disappearance kinetics for the finer sizes and the coarser sizes at high holdups is well represented by first-order behavior. A linearized grinding model that results from the first-order taylors series expansion of the breakage rate expression was found to give
Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position ...
Alfalfa, a legume used for feeding cattle, is relatively high in protein and contains its best food value just before it flowers, which is why you dont usually see the flowers. In this case, probably too many day of rain in a row, they missed its optimal harvest time and had to cut it after it flowered. In a normal season, we get three crops of alfalfa off the field before September, at which time youre supposed to avoid cutting the alfalfa. Cutting the alfalfa will cause it to try to restart, depleting carbohydrate reserves just before a killing frost. That would result in a weak or dead plant come next spring. Im pretty sure of this information, but if any of it is incorrect, please dont sue me. :-) I just wanted to address the why it is many havent seen alfalfa flowers even though theyve seen an alfalfa field. And now you know...the rest of the story. ...
On successful completion of this module students should be able to: 1. Describe the importance of grassland, forages, cereals and non-cereal arable crops in UK and world agriculture 2. Identify and describe the characteristics of common crop and herbage species 3. Identify the factors associated with the physical and financial performance of crops 4. Discuss the need for and recommend planned cropping programmes. 5. Identify the influence of management and environment on pasture composition and plan a programme of pasture management for a range of end uses 6. Describe the requirements of cereal and forage systems and the crop market and identify varietal characteristics which meet demands 7. Plan, evaluate and implement a cereal and forage crops manurial and crop protection requirements with due regard to their potential impact on the environment 8. Appraise the husbandry, harvesting and storage of cereal crops ...
Introduction. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is an out-crossing allotetraploid (2n=4x=32) that acts like a diploid, also called amphidiploid. White clover is a forage crop with a high level of genetic heterogeneity ...
Successful milk production is associated very closely with the growing of high quality for-age for the basic cow ration. Permanent pasture can be harvested for forage production, but also attractive is growing forage crops on arable land - and top production in this re-spect is available from the GREENSTAR forage mixtures from SCHAUMANN described here. ...
North Carolina State Fair Fair Dates 2007 October 12th - October 21st 2008 October 17th - October 26th 2009 October 16th - October 25th INDEX FUTURE FAIR DATES ............................. Inside Front Cover DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE & CONSUMER SERVICES ....... 3 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE .................................................. 8 FAIR HISTORY ...................................................................... 10 LIVESTOCK HALL OF FAME .............................................. 14 HORSE SHOW ......................... ............................................. 16 ADMINISTRATIVE ................................................................ 17 INFORMATION AND GENERAL RULES ............................. 19 WINE COMPETITION A .................................................... 24 sPJCI~l1G~ONOMY.EX.HiBii::c.;;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ~~ . FORAGE CROPS 0 .... ..................... ................................. 30 FLOWER AND GARDEN SHOW E ...
North Carolina State Fair Fair Dates 2005 October 14th - October 23rd 2006 October 13th - October 22nd 2007 October 12th - October 21st INDEX FUTURE FAIR DATES ............................. Inside Front Cover DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE & CONSUMER SERVICES ....... 3 BOARD OF AGRICULTURE .................................................. 8 FAIR HISTORY .................... .................................................. 10 HORSE SHOW ......................... ............................................. 14 ADMINISTRATIVE ............................................ .................... 15 INFORMATION AND GENERAL RULES ............................. 17 WINE COMPETITION A .................................................... 22 SPEECI~ ~G~ONOMY.EXH.IBiT ..• ;C;;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ~~ FORAGE CROPS 0 .......................................................... 28 FLOWER AND GARDEN SHOW E ................................... 30 Amateur Flower-1st show ...
According to my vet, the best regime for an ulcery horse is low grain/concentrate meals, plenty of free-choice hay or pasture/grazing, soaked beet pulp, and a consistent environment. However, since we have horses so we can ride them, he liked my system of feeding soaked alfalfa cubes (just a couple of handfuls will pretty much fill up a small bucket) before a ride. I also feed SmartGut, which seems to help. I let him nibble on alfalfa/orchard grass hay when were away from home, and after his monthy long course of Ulcerguard, Ill keep a few tubes handy so that I can give him a 1/4 tube when hes away from home and his stress levels go up (i.e. show, clinic, lesson, etc ...
Hi! Thank you for your answer. i did it in first place, but it is not working, because of the name. I am afraid I am not understanding so well what I am supposed to do. For example: setting, structure, create a commitee. I fill the first gap using the label: communication. I guess this is the problem: crabgras does not recognize it as a valid name, Is it possible? Would you please explain me in (easy) details what I should do to make it possible? Thank you so much for your help. M.. ...
For lawns where crabgrass hasnt been a problem and lawn is thick would it be better to skip putting down the chemical and just use a straight...
Matt planted five yellow iceplants (Lampranthus aurantiacus)around the base of the Agave scabra we planted yesterday. I tidied the Calla lilies (entering summer dormancy unless they get more water!) and watered the steps area and back slope plants thoroughly. Deadheaded the Kniphofias and roses. And sold several plants to Mark who came to us via Craigslist. He came back later for more plants and gave me a few too! One was a Dudleya cutting I think - mmm, I like Dudleyas ...
திருக்குர்ஆன் ஒரு படைப்பினத்தைப் பற்றிக் குறிப்பிடுமானால், அதிலும் அதன் மீது அல்லாஹ் சத்தியமிட்டுக் கூறியிருந்தால் அதற்குத் தனிச் சிறப்பு உண்டு. அல்லாஹ் திருக்குர்ஆனில் சத்தியமிட்டுக் கூறியவற்றின் வரிசையில் உள்ள மற்றுமொரு பிரதானமான தாவரம்தான் அத்தி. அரபு மொழியில் அத்தீன் என்றும் தமிழில் அத்தி என்றும் ஆங்கிளத்தில் Fig என்றும் இது அழைக்கப்படுகின்றது. இது FICUS GLOMERATA, FICUS AURICULATE ...
During TKA, muscle cells are subjected to prolonged oxygen deficiency that alters cell metabolism in order to reduce energy (ATP) demand and maintain cell homeostasis until blood flow is restored. We have recently reported on alterations in cell signaling pathways indicating a decrease in cap‐dependent translation initiation and elongation (Ratchford et al. 2012), an upregulation of stress‐activated protein kinases (JNK) and catabolic activation involving MuRF1 and MAFbx (Bailey et al. 2012), as well as induction of all three branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR) occurring due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Our objective with this study was to obtain biopsy tissue at a later time point (2-3 h posttourniquet let down) in order to extend chronologically the effects of TKA on muscle cell metabolism in older adults during and immediately after surgery.. Our previous studies demonstrated that anabolic signaling was downregulated, presumably to conserve ATP for cellular processes ...
Its done ALOT here too. Some of the biggest do it they mow to the dirt or as close as they can and just put on top! I dont do that but they seem to...
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