TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytoskeletal integrity in interphase cells requires protein phosphatase activity. AU - Eriksson, John. AU - Brautigan, null. AU - Vallee, null. AU - Olmsted, null. AU - Fujiki, null. AU - Goldman, null. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Phosphorylation by protein kinases has been established as a key factor in the regulation of cytoskeletal structure. However, little is known about the role of protein phosphatases in cytoskeletal regulation. To assess the possible functions of protein phosphatases in this respect, we studied the effects of the phosphatase inhibitors calyculin A, okadaic acid, and dinophysistoxin 1 (35-methylokadaic acid) on BHK-21 fibroblasts. Within minutes of incubation with these inhibitors, changes are seen in the structural organization of intermediate filaments, followed by a loss of microtubules, as assayed by immunofluorescence. These changes in cytoskeletal structure are accompanied by a rapid and selective increase in vimentin phosphorylation on ...
The general objective of this 8th cytoskeleton course is to understand the role of the cytoskeleton in tissue mechanics at different levels: molecular, cellular and in the living organism. It will provide introductions to the main cytoskeleton networks as well as to the main knowledge in force generation and tissue mechanics and will cover general mechanisms of cytoskeleton functions, in the organization and the maintenance of tissue shape and mechanics in different conditions, systems and organs : during development, on monolayers, in gut homeostasis, in cancer and in the brain ...
Many bacterial pathogens interfere with cellular functions including phagocytosis and barrier integrity. The human pathogen Neissieria gonorrhoeae generates grappling hooks for adhesion, spreading, and induction of signal cascades that lead to formation cortical plaques containing f-actin and ezrin. It is unclear whether high mechanical forces generated by type IV pili (T4P) are a direct signal that leads to cytoskeletal rearrangements and at which time scale the cytoskeletal response occurs. Here we used laser tweezers to mimic type IV pilus mediated force generation by T4P-coated beads on the order of 100pN. We found that actin-EGFP and ezrin-EGFP accumulated below pilus-coated beads when force was applied. Within 2 min, accumulation significantly exceeded controls without force or without pili, demonstrating that T4P-generated force rapidly induces accumulation of plaque proteins. This finding adds mechanical force to the many strategies by which bacteria modulate the host cell cytoskeleton.
In fact, it was only in the late 1990s that biologists discovered bacteria even had a cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton was first identified in the cells of eukaryotic organisms (those, such as plants and animals, whose cells have specialized organelles and a discrete nucleus). Bacteria are tiny, for one thing, and until the advent of advanced imaging technology, scientists could not get a good look inside. The species Goley studies, Caulobacter crescentus, is a mere 500 nanometers across, or about one one-hundredth the size of an average human cell.. Second, a cell wall encases most bacterial species, and scientists assumed this semi-rigid structure obviated the need for a cytoskeleton.. These assumptions turned out to be wrong. In 1998, structural biologist Jan Löwe, in the United Kingdom, demonstrated that a bacterial protein called FtsZ is an evolutionary counterpart of tubulin, a key protein component of the eukaryote cytoskeleton. The finding implied that the cytoskeleton was not a ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Adenovirus endocytosis requires actin cytoskeleton reorganization mediated by Rho family Gtpases,
Although several reports showed the effect of compounds disrupting microtubules on NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) activation, nothing is known about agents perturbing actin dynamics. In the present study, we have shown that actin cytoskeleton disruption induced by actin-depolymerizing agents such as cytochalasin D and latrunculin B and actin-polymerizing compounds such as jasplakinolide induced NF-κB activation in myelomonocytic cells. The transduction pathway involved the IκB (inhibitory κB) kinase complex and a degradation of IκBα. We have shown that NF-κB activation in response to the perturbation of actin dynamics required reactive oxygen species, as demonstrated by the effect of antioxidants. Actin cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin D induced O2− release from human monocytes, through the activation of the NADPH oxidase, as confirmed by the phosphorylation and by the membrane translocation of p47phox. NF-κB activation after actin cytoskeleton disruption could be physiologically ...
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The purple in the center is the cells nucleus. Surrounding it are wispy blue and white microtubules and filaments that make up the cells cytoskeleton.. The cytoskeleton is made from protein structures called microtubules-the wispy threads surrounding the purple DNA-containing nucleus-and filaments of a protein called actin, seen here as the fine blue meshwork in the cell periphery. Both actin and microtubules are critical for growth and movement.. Unlike our own bony skeleton, which keeps the same arrangement throughout our lives, the cellular cytoskeleton is dynamic, continuously morphing in response to cellular signals. In this image, cytoskeleton remodeling of the skin cell was triggered by addition of a growth factor, which produced protrusions of the cell edge and the characteristic fried egg shape of this cell. These protrusions have little feet that help the cell move forward. The Wittmann lab recently used these skin cells to model the complex choreography by which microtubules ...
BioAssay record AID 670519 submitted by ChEMBL: Drug uptake in human T24 cell cytoskeleton at 2 uM after 1 hr by Dil-C28 dye staining-based inverted microscopic analysis.
BACKGROUND: The activation of T lymphocytes by specific antigen is accompanied by the formation of a specialized signaling region termed the immunological synapse, characterized by the clustering and segregation of surface molecules and, in particular, by T cell receptor (TCR) clustering. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand TCR motion during cellular activation, we used confocal microscopy and photo-bleaching recovery techniques to investigate the lateral mobility of TCR on the surface of human T lymphocytes under various pharmacological treatments. Using drugs that cause an increase in intracellular calcium, we observed a decrease in TCR mobility that was dependent on a functional actin cytoskeleton. In parallel experiments measurement of filamentous actin by FACS analysis showed that raising intracellular calcium also causes increased polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. These in vitro results were analyzed using a mathematical model that revealed effective binding parameters
TY - THES. T1 - Aspects of plant cell growth and the actin cytoskeleton : lessons from root hairs. AU - de Ruijter, N.C.A.. N1 - WU thesis 2675 Proefschrift Wageningen. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The main topic the thesis addresses is the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the growth process of plant cells. Plant growth implies a combination of cell division and cell expansion. The cytoskeleton, which exists of microtubules and actin filaments, plays a major role in both processes. Before cell growth takes place, a new cell is formed by cell division. The orientation of the division plane most often predicts the orientation of cell expansion, and a correct positioning of the division plane is therefore important for plant morphogenesis. During most stages of cell division microtubules and actin filaments have a similar configuration.In Chapter 1 (De Ruijter et al. , 1997, Acta Bot. Neerl . 46: 279-290) the cytoskeleton of microtubules has been visualized during all stages of cell division for ...
The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells pervades the cytoplasm. It comprises three broad classes of proteins: actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments. In addition to establishing cell and tissue shape, the cytoskeleton along with associated motor proteins influences a wide range of fundamental cellular functions, including cell migration, movement of organelles and cell division.. We are witnessing a rapid advance in our understanding of the cytoskeleton, driven in particular by determination of the structures of key molecules and acquisition of proteomics inventories of cytoskeletal proteins and their binding partners. The cytoskeleton is now no longer considered to be a rigid scaffold, but instead is viewed as a complex and dynamic network of protein filaments that can be modulated by internal and external cues.. This Insight examines many different facets of the cytoskeleton, reviewing the basic principles of filament organization, the operation of motor proteins and the role of ...
The aim of this study was to investigate two putative pathophysiological aspects of the common neurodegenerative disorder frontotemporal dementia (FTD). To this end, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of tau (total tau) and the light subtype of the neurofilament proteins (NFL) were studied in patients with FTD (n=16) and in age-matched controls (n=16). In addition, serum was analysed for IgG and IgM antibodies to the most common gangliosides and sulfatide in FTD patients (n=13) and in age-matched controls (n=20). The CSF-NFL levels were increased in FTD (1606+/-1151 pg/ml, mean+/-S.D.; P|0.001) compared with controls (308+/-203 pg/ml), whereas the CSF-tau levels were normal. In serum, autoantibody IgG-GA1 was significantly increased in FTD (P|0.05) compared with controls. No correlations were found between the effect parameters and demographic variables in any group. The results of this study suggest that cytoskeleton proteins other than tau are also involved in the pathophysiology of FTD and that
The internal organizations of a eukaryotes organelles are due to the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is a cellular framework found within the cytoplasm. It is composed of microtubules and microfilaments. Microtubules are thin, hollow cylinders made of protein. Microfilaments are smaller, solid protein fiber. Both of them help keep the shape of a cell, as well as stabilizing different organelles and making a way for the organelles to move about a cell. The cytoskeleton can change its shape and structure, which causes the cells shape to change. Actin filaments are polymers that make shape-changes because of their ATP-driven assembly in the cytoplasm. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The cytoskeleton of digestive epithelia in health and disease. AU - NO, Ku. AU - Zhou, XJ. AU - Toivola, Diana. AU - Omary, MB. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The mammalian cell cytoskeleton consists of a diverse group of fibrillar elements that play a pivotal role in mediating a number of digestive and nondigestive cell functions, including secretion, absorption, motility, mechanical integrity, and mitosis. The cytoskeleton of higher-eukaryotic cells consists of three highly abundant major protein families: microfilaments (MF), microtubules (MT), and intermediate filaments (IF), as well as a growing number of associated proteins. Within digestive epithelia, the prototype members of these three protein families are actins, tubulins, and keratins, respectively. This review highlights the important structural, regulatory, functional, and unique features of the three major cytoskeletal protein groups in digestive epithelia. The emerging exciting biological aspects of these protein ...
In this overview we describe the main plant-derived bioactive compounds used in cancer therapy which has the cell cytoskeleton as therapeutic target. Three major classes of these compounds are described: antimitotics with microtubule-destabilizing and-stabilizing effects, plant-bioactive compounds that interact with intermediate filaments/actin, and plant-bioactive compounds that interact with intermediate filaments like keratins and vimentin. We also focus on the molecular aspects of interactions with their cellular targets: microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments. Some critical aspects of cardiac side effects of cancer chemotherapy are also discussed, focusing on cardiac cytoskeleton and protective effect of plant-derived compounds. The application of plant bioactives in the treatment of cancer has resulted in increased therapeutic efficacy through targeting the cytoskeleton, respectively, prevention of the injury of cytoskeletal components elicited by chemotherapeutics.
Lamella flattening is a basic morphological feature of migrating cells, with its molecular and physical mechanisms likely crucial for events underlying cell motility and mechanotransduction. Our results addressing these mechanisms reveal a complex interdependency of actin, myosin IIA, and focal adhesions in generating lamella flattening through counterbalanced contraction and adhesion.. Using the improved resolution of SIM, we dissected actin fiber organization and cytoskeletal interactions underlying lamella shape, beginning by molecularly characterizing the vertical 3D layering and dynamics of cytoskeletal elements in the thin lamella, which were previously unresolvable by conventional light microscopy (Fig. 1; Hotulainen and Lappalainen, 2006) and only partially described by EM (Small et al., 1998). The vertical layering we observed included: myosin IIA-rich actin arcs, aligned along the dorsal cell surface tangentially to the leading edge; and noncontractile DSFs, aligned perpendicular to ...
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Antibodies for proteins involved in cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
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The reproducible shape and spatial organization of organs imply the existence of physical rules directing the assembly of complex biological structures. Organ shape and function depend on cell architecture and polarity, which are both supported by cell cytoskeleton networks. The formation of controlled and reproducible geometrical structures relies on the self-organization properties of these networks. Our aim is to unravel the physical processes underlying cytoskeleton self-organization processes and to formulate the rules directing their spatial organization.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mythical origins of the actin cytoskeleton. AU - Akıl, Caner. AU - Kitaoku, Yoshihito. AU - Tran, Linh T.. AU - Liebl, David. AU - Choe, Han. AU - Muengsaen, Duangkamon. AU - Suginta, Wipa. AU - Schulte, Albert. AU - Robinson, Robert C.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by JST CREST Grant Number JPMJCR19S5 , Japan; A∗STAR , Singapore; VISTEC and the Thailand Science Research and Innovation (TSRI) public funding agency through a grant within the Global Partnership Program, Thailand. We thank Esra Balıkçı and David Popp for technical support.. PY - 2021/2. Y1 - 2021/2. N2 - The origin of the eukaryotic cell is one of the greatest mysteries in modern biology. Eukaryotic-wide specific biological processes arose in the lost ancestors of eukaryotes. These distinctive features, such as the actin cytoskeleton, define what it is to be a eukaryote. Recent sequencing, characterization, and isolation of Asgard archaea have opened an intriguing window into the ...
The cytoskeleton of a cell helps provide shape, strength, and an organised structure to the cell. The cytoskeleton can be compared to a transport network facilitating various types of movement in the cell. It helps with cell reproduction, the movement of organelles, the functions of muscles and intracellular transport between the organelles. It also enables the separation of daughter chromosomes to opposite poles during cell division.
The measurement of not only the location but also the organization of molecules in live cells is crucial to understanding diverse biological processes
In this paper, we demonstrate that Gα12/13 signaling can regulate different aspects of epiboly movements by two distinct mechanisms: inhibiting E-cadherin activity and modulating actin cytoskeleton organization.. Excess or reduced Gα12/13 signaling during gastrulation resulted in delayed epiboly of the deep cells and in the splitting of the df cell cluster (Fig. 1). Moreover, excess Gα12/13 activity led to the detachment of cells from embryonic tissues, which suggests that cell adhesion is defective under these circumstances (Fig. 2). All of these phenotypic characteristics resemble those observed in hab (cdh1) mutant embryos (Kane et al., 1996; Kane and Warga, 2004), which suggests a possible link between Gα12/13 signaling and E-cadherin. Indeed, although altered Gα12/13 expression did not change the expression level and cellular distribution of E-cadherin (Fig. 3), our in vivo genetic experiments demonstrated that Gα12/13 can inhibit the function of E-cadherin. In particular, we found ...
Cytoskeleton antibodies are indicated in work understanding the cytoskeleton , the organising infrastructure of the cell, both scaffolding for cellular components and facilitative for intracellular organelle movement and information transmission. Cytoskeleton antibodies are available in the following volumes including
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The localization of some mRNAs to distinct intracellular regions is achieved through interactions of the mRNA with cytoskeletal filaments. RNA-cytoskeletal interactions exist that influence the transport, anchoring and translation of mRNA. Recent analysis of RNA movements in living cells suggests the formation of RNA granules and their active transport along microtubules. The anchoring and translation of mRNA may be mediated by interactions with orthogonal networks of F-actin and elongation factor 1alpha.
Zhu J, Bailly A, Zwiewka M, Sovero V, Di Donato M, Ge P, Oehri J, Aryal B, Hao P, Linnert M, Burgardt N, Lücke C, Weiwad M, Michel M, Weiergräber O, Pollmann S, Azzarello E, Mancuso S, Ferro N, Fukao Y, Hoffmann C, Wedlich Söldner R, Friml J, Thomas C, Geisler M. 2016. TWISTED DWARF1 mediates the action of auxin transport inhibitors on actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Plant Cell. 28(4), 930-948 ...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Cellular mechanisms underlying the development of left-right asymmetry in tissues and embryos remain obscure. Here, the development of a chiral pattern of actomyosin was revealed by studying actin cytoskeleton self-organization in cells with isotropic circular shape. A radially symmetrical system of …
Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and transport of vesicular cargoes. Mounting evidence indicates that actin dynamics and membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolds also have essential roles in macroautophagy, the process by whic …
CAP2 (cyclase associated actin cytoskeleton regulatory protein 2), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
The role of a cytoskeleton in a living cell is to supply structure to the cell, give the cell the ability to move and ensure proper cell division during cellular reproduction. The cytoskeleton...
‎Without a cytoskeleton, a neuron or glial cell would be a shapeless jelly mass unable to function in the milieu of the brain. If we are to understand neuronal cells function in health and disease, we must determine how the cytoskeleton forms and contributes to neural physiology and pathobiology. Cyt…
I just did some immunochemistry with an antibody against a protein that is known for binding to the cytoskeleton and does not have a NLS. However, my results show big lumps in the nucleus giving a very strong signal and a much weaker signal from the cytoskeleton ...
SALT LAKE CITY-Researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah have discovered that a protein, zyxin, is necessary for the maintenance and repair of the cells cytoskeleton, or internal framework, which serves as the muscle and bone of the cell. The research has implications for cancer, as well as other diseases, since alterations in the cytoskeleton are often associated with disease. The research was published in the Sep. 14, 2010, issue of the journal Developmental Cell.. Just like people, the cells in our bodies are exposed to all kinds of stress, says Mary Beckerle, Ph.D., the studys principal investigator and HCI executive director. One type of stress, mechanical stress that is derived from application of physical force, is experienced by many organs such as the lung, which stretches with each breath, the heart, which is physically challenged with each beat, and the uterus, which undergoes intense contractions during labor and childbirth. We were interested in ...
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Culture cell. Confocal light micrograph of a 3t3 (mouse fibroblast) cell in culture. The nucleus is blue. Protein fibres making up the cells cytoskeleton are red and green. The cytoskeleton is a network of structural proteins, such as actin and tubulin, that supports the cells organelles and other internal structures. 3t3 cells are an immortal cell line widely used in biological research. Magnification: x1000 when printed 10cm wide. - Stock Image G442/0133
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FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of LIM proteins, characterized by a LIM motif and a domain of Src homology region 3, and also a member of the nebulin family of actin-binding proteins. The encoded protein is a cAMP and cGMP dependent signaling protein and binds to the actin cytoskeleton at extensions of the cell membrane. The encoded protein has been linked to metastatic breast cancer, hematopoetic tumors such as B-cell lymphomas, and colorectal cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012 ...
Eukaryotic cells move using several distinct modes of locomotion, including crawling and flagella-driven swimming. The stereotyped architecture of flagella and the conservation of their protein components make the evolutionary conservation of cell swimming clear. In contrast, crawling motility is a collection of distinct processes whose evolutionary relationships are not well understood (Rodriguez et al., 2005; Lämmermann and Sixt, 2009; Paluch and Raz, 2013). Some crawling cells require dedicated adhesion molecules to make specific, high-affinity contacts with their surroundings, whereas other cells rely on weaker, nonspecific interactions. Crawling cells also use different mechanisms to advance their leading edge, either assembling polymerized actin networks to push the plasma membrane forward or detaching the membrane from the underlying cytoskeleton to form a rapidly expanding bleb. Furthermore, some cell types have been shown to use contractile forces to generate forward movement ...
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The main function of the algorithm is to distribute nascent FAs and determine which of these (and their associated actin filaments) should be selected for maturation/reinforcement. The algorithm currently considers three mechanisms for FA maturation: (i) lamellipodia retraction occurs that would otherwise leave a nascent adhesion outside the cell body (Zaidel-Bar et al. 2003), (ii) membrane tension spanning two FAs exceeds a certain force threshold (Balaban et al. 2001; Bischofs et al. 2009), and (iii) the cell leading edge advances until it encompasses a nascent FA at the protruding tip of an existing filopodium (Schäfer et al. 2009).. FA maturation induced by lamellipodial retraction has been described as a force independent process (Zaidel-Bar et al. 2003). While experimentally well characterized, it is to date not well understood. In contrast, the separate mechanism of tension induced adhesion maturation is clearly force regulated, inherently involving actin SFs that are recruited to the ...
By changing polarity, Cdc42 regulates shape, structure and function in yeast cells. This oscillating mechanism may be a general strategy among all self-organizing biological systems, not just simple yeast.. Researchers used fluorescent markers to tag each of the many proteins involved, observing the protein oscillate, switching sides about every five minutes. The fluctuations provide an adaptable mechanism for cells to control their size and structure in the fast-changing environment within.. The findings demonstrate just part of the complex process of cell growth and differentiation, but mark how advanced the science of biophysics has become. Only recently has the clear imaging and monitoring of protein activity become possible at the minute sizes and shortened time scales of individual cell maturation.. Vavyloniss research has explored the way the cellular cytoskeleton organizes and functions for years. In collaboration with biologists and computer scientists, his team uses physics to study, ...
The principles of prestressed tensegrity are similarly applicable on the cellular level; although, as we shall see later on, geodesic structures are also found in the cell on a smaller scale. The cell possesses a molecular framework called the cytoskeleton enclosed within the surface membrane that mechanically stabilizes the cell. The cytoskeleton is comprised of three different types of molecular protein polymers, called microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. The microfilaments, which are the thinnest proteins in the cytoskeleton, comprise a network that extends throughout the cell, exerting tension by pulling the cells external membrane and everything in between towards the nucleus at its center (Ingber, The Bridge). To counterbalance the tensional forces, the microtubules -- the thickest protein chains of the three -- act as struts that bear compression. The adhesions of the extracellular matrix, or the anchoring scaffolding to which cells are naturally secured in the ...
Gene expression occurs simultaneously at multiple transcription factories in actively transcribing cells (Pombo et al, 2000). Therefore, at any given time, one can envision waves of mRNA transcripts moving from sites of transcriptions towards nuclear pores and destined to cytoplasmic translation. Some mRNAs diffuse in the cytoplasm until they encounter ribosomes (Fusco et al, 2003), while others are actively translocated on cytoskeletal filaments to ultimately localize at specific regions of the cell (Shav‐Tal and Singer, 2005). The spatial sorting of RNA cargo in the cytoplasm requires the recruitment of specific motor proteins and the investment of cellular energy. However, what is the situation in the nucleus where transcripts originate? While no mechanism of active nuclear transport system is known to date, it has been provocatively suggested that a nucleoskeletal transport mechanism including nuclear motor proteins might exist. Indeed, the basic building blocks of the cytoskeleton, that ...
The cytoskeleton is the intracellular filament system that controls the morphology of a cell, allows it to move, and provides trafficking routes for intracellular transport.