Title:Synthesis of Eicosapentaenoic Acid-enriched Phosphatidylcholine and its Effect on Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Expression. VOLUME: 25 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Jae Yeul Baek, Eun Na and Sun Young Lim*. Affiliation:Division of Marine Bioscience, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan, Ocean Science and Technology School, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan, Division of Marine Bioscience, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan. Keywords:Eicosapentaenoic acid, phosphatidylcholine, cytokines, PUFAs, EPA, LPS.. Abstract:Aim and Objective: We synthesized eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine (EPA-PC) and investigated its effect on the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced cytokines in murine splenocytes. Material and Methods: The culture supernatants of splenocytes, which was exposed to EPA-PC along with LPS, was harvested to determine the production of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4 , IL-5, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-2 and IL-12/IL-23(p40)]. Cytokines were ...
The systemic cytokine response to major surgical trauma was studied in 20 patients undergoing elective aortic surgery and five patients after inguinal hernia repair. Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma were not detected in these patients. An early and short-lived interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) response to major surgery was detected only by intensive sampling in the perioperative period. The IL-1 beta peak preceded a more marked interleukin 6 (IL-6) response that peaked 4-48 h after surgery. IL-6 levels had fallen sharply by 48-72 h in all patients who had an uneventful postoperative course. The IL-6 peaks were significantly lower after hernia surgery than after major aortic operations (P | 0.001); IL-1 beta was not detected in any samples. Three patients undergoing aortic surgery developed unexpected major postoperative complications. IL-6 levels in this group were significantly higher than those of the other patients undergoing aortic surgery within 6-8 h of skin incision, and remained
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PMN are an important source of pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with intestinal inflammation and can be downregulated by IL-10.PMN from patients with IBD are primed to secrete enhanced amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines accompanied by detection of corresponding mRNAs in comparison with normal controls. This finding is not specific for IBD but rather reflects intestinal inflammation in general. IL-10 markedly inhibited proinflammatory cytokine secretion as well as corresponding mRNA concentrations.Secretion (ELISA) as well as corresponding mRNA levels (semiquantitative RT-PCR) of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha) and of IL-1 receptor antagonist were assessed in peripheral PMN.To investigate whether PMN from patients with IBD or infectious colitis, respectively, secrete increased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and can be regulated by IL-10.Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in the intestinal mucosa of patients with active inflammatory bowel ...
BACKGROUND Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in the intestinal mucosa of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) are the most abundant cell type in intestinal lesions in IBD. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an important contra-inflammatory cytokine which induces downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. AIMS To investigate whether PMN from patients with IBD or infectious colitis, respectively, secrete increased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and can be regulated by IL-10. METHODS Secretion (ELISA) as well as corresponding mRNA levels (semiquantitative RT-PCR) of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha) and of IL-1 receptor antagonist were assessed in peripheral PMN. RESULTS PMN from patients with IBD are primed to secrete enhanced amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines accompanied by detection of corresponding mRNAs in comparison with normal controls. This finding is not specific for IBD but rather
Ashraf, R, Vasiljevic, T, Day, SL, Smith, SC and Donkor, ON 2014, Lactic acid bacteria and probiotic organisms induce different cytokine profile and regulatory T cells mechanisms, Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 6, pp. 395-409, doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2013.11.006. ...
Diabetes has been identified as an important risk factor for infection. But relatively little is known about how diabetes alters the inflammatory response to bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate how diabetes affects host-bacteria interactions by focusing on the inflammatory respo …
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Chronic Sedentary lifestyles have been linked to increased odds of stress, elevated anxiety and diminished wellbeing, inducing cytokine production and predispose to hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. In endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections can trigger pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. However, the impact of these infections on cytokine response profiles in individuals engaged in chronic sedentary activities is unknown. This study was aimed at addressing these concerns using a predominantly sedentary population of traders in the Tamale metropolis of Ghana. Four hundred respondents were categorized, based on their number of working years (| or ≥ 5 years) and number of working hours per day (| or ≥ 10 h), into sedentary (≥5 years + ≥ 10 h) and non-sedentary (≥ 5 years + | 10 h, | 5 years + ≥ 10 h and | 5 years + | 10 h) groups. The participants were tested for P. falciparum and HBV infections using polymerase chain reaction. Blood pressure
Monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells from cord blood (CB) of children with pre-eclamptic or healthy mothers were analyzed by flow cytometry for surface markers and intracellular cytokines. In addition, serum cytokine profiles were investigated using ELISA or cytometric bead array. ...
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epithelium derived interleukin (IL)-15 signalling via IL-15Ralpha is critical for the development, activation, and survival of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). We aimed to better understand the IL-15 driven effects on IEL underlying mucosal damage and lymphomagenesis in coeliac disease (CD). METHODS: Enterocytes, IEL, and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) were isolated from 46 patients with uncomplicated CD (25 untreated and 21 treated) and 22 controls. IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha expression were determined by immunoblotting. Secretion of IL-15, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and granzyme B into cell culture supernatants was assessed by ELISA. The ability of IL-15 to regulate IEL proliferation, perforin/granzyme dependent cytotoxicity, and apoptosis was tested by adding different combinations of IL-15, IL-15 blocking antibody, or chloroquine to IEL cultured alone or with Caco-2 cells as target. IL-15 mucosal levels were also ...
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Simultaneous quantification of cytokines is a powerful tool to identify associations between host immune defense and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. None of the commercially available cytokine detection methods however, have been rigorously validated in the context of HIV infection. Here we compared performance characteristics of two multiplex assays: the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) platform and the Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) in specimens obtained from HIV-infected subjects. Overall, the MSD had a wider dynamic range and lower limits of quantification which lead to the ability to detect endogenous levels of serum cytokines that were assumed to not be present by CBA. In recombinant cytokine-spiked sera, MSD had better precision and accuracy based on intra-assay variability less than 25% and percent recovery within 25% of added concentrations. Regardless of the quantitation range, we observed variability between the analytes in both platforms with respect to the capacity to ...
Cytokines are low-molecular-weight proteins representing important components of inflammatory and immune reactions (1). In response to multiple stimuli (2), cytokines are rapidly induced and secreted into the extracellular milieu. However, in some situations, cytokines are constitutively present. Cytokines exert numerous biological activities which are critical for host defense, physiologic responses to stress, and immune surveillance. Cytokines, along with complement, are considered to be part of the innate immune system. The world of cytokine biology has exploded in the past decades. It can be said without hyperbole that cytokines are critical from birth (gestation) (3) to death (apoptosis) (4).
Breast cancer is the most prevalent solid tumor worldwide, being the second most common cause of death in women. Treatments recommended for breast cancer include both loc..
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are directly implicated in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Variable clinical response to cytokine targeted therapies as TNFalpha and IL-6, strongly highlights the heterogeneity of inflammatory process in RA. Another cytokine, IL-15 has also been related to the inflammatory process in RA. Recently we described for the first time, the presence of its specific receptor, IL-15Ralpha, in synovial fluid (SF). The aim of this work was to compare the expression profile of IL-15Ralpha, its ligand IL-15, TNFalpha and IL-6 and how these cytokines are correlated in SF from RA patients taking as a reference Osteoarthritis (OA), an articular but not autoinmmune disease. Synovial fluids were obtained from the knee joints of 60 patients, 30 with confirmed diagnosis of RA and 30 with OA diagnosis. The levels of TNFalpha, IL-6, IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha were measured by ELISA. A statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad Prism v5.0 using the Mann-Whitney U test and Spearmans
Nrf2 activation has been shown to contribute to anti-inflammatory responses in rodent models of inflammation (Itoh et al. 2004, Khor et al. 2006, Thimmulappa et al. 2006, Lin et al. 2008, Kobayashi et al. 2016), including autoimmune inflammatory models (Wruck et al. 2011, Jiang et al. 2014). In this study, we demonstrated that genetic activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway prevented the development and progression of type 1 autoimmune diabetes. We also showed that suppression of insulitis was the primary mechanism underlying this protective action of Nrf2 in NOD mice. Since Nrf2 upregulates a battery of anti-oxidative genes in a canonical manner, suppressing reactive oxygen species levels was considered initially to be the key molecular mechanism underlying the Nrf2-mediated anti-inflammatory effects. However, recent studies have shown that Nrf2 suppresses inflammatory cytokine gene expression directly and prevents cytokine storms. In fact, we found that the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway also contributed ...
Median cervico-vaginal levels of IL-6, Eotaxin, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNFα were higher than corresponding serum cytokines, significantly so for IL-6 and IP-10. Cervico-vaginal and serum cytokines were not correlated, but cytokines from the same fluid were correlated. ICCs for most serum cytokines were ≤0.40, while ICCs were higher in cervico-vaginal cytokines (range 0.52-0.83). IP-10 and Eotaxin had the highest ICCs for both cytokine sources. In adjusted models, PM10 was positively associated with serum cytokines IL-6, IP-10, MIP-1β and Eotaxin but inversely associated with cervico-vaginal cytokine TNFα, IP-10, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and Eotaxin, controlling for false discovery rate. CO was inversely associated with cervico-vaginal TNFα, IL-6, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and Eotaxin.. ...
Cellular activation and inflammation leading to endothelial dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated whether a single cell label-free multi parameter optical interrogation system can detect endothelial cell and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) activation in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) before endothelial activation was validated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of inflammatory marker expression (PECAM-1, E-selectin and ICAM-1). A centrifugal microfluidic system and V-cup array was used to capture individual cells before optical measurement of light scattering, immunocytofluorescence, auto-fluorescence (AF) and cell morphology was determined. In vitro, TNF-alpha promoted specific changes to the refractive index and cell morphology of individual cells concomitant with enhanced photon ...
Cytokines expression levels from tissue, plasma or serum as promising clinical biomarkers in adenocarcinoma of the prostate: A systematic review of recent findings
NovoPro offers a wide selection of tools for research on cytokines and their receptors. These include high-purity recombinant proteins, high-specific antibodies and ORF cDNA clones.. Cytokines are a large group of proteins, peptides or glycoproteins that are secreted by specific cells of immune system. Cytokines are a category of signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation and hematopoiesis. Cytokines are produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin. Cytokine is a general name; other names are defined based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, or target of action. For example, cytokines made by lymphocytes can also be referred to as lymphokines, while interleukins are made by one leukocyte and act on other leukocytes. And chemokines are cytokines with chemotactic activities.. Cytokines may act on the cells that secrete them (autocrine action), on nearby cells (paracrine action), or in some instances on distant cells (endocrine ...
Materials and Methods:. Twenty-four participants recruited between May 2016 and June 2017 met GDD diagnostic criteria. The 64 control subjects provided serum samples before prophylactic flu vaccination. Serum cytokine levels were obtained with Luminex serum cytokine assay using eBiosciences/Affymetrix human 62-plex kits. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were performed to assess the difference between the median fluorescence intensity values for the participants and the control group. Generalized linear models were built to evaluate the association between each cytokine of interest and selected participant symptoms. ...
Health Canada has approved golimumab IV for the treatment of adult patients with RA. Golimumab IV works by blocking the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) that causes the bodys immune system to attack healthy tissues. Golimumab IV, when taken in combination with methotrexate, help improve your ability to do simple daily activities and prevent further damage to your bones and joints, but can also reduce your immune systems ability to fight off infections ...
Raised intracellular cytokine ratios (CKR) are proposed as a significant risk factor for adverse reproductive outcome. An elevated cytokine ratio, such as between TNFa and/or IFNg to IL-10 is associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM). The use of pharmacological immunomodulators such as TNFα inhibitors in these patients is controversial and not generally recommended due to a lack of conclusive data supporting their use. We evaluated whether the use of anti-oxidants/dietary supplements as an alternative could positively influence CKRs in ART patients. A prospective non-placebo control trial of antioxidant treatment for abnormal peripheral inflammatory cytokine ratios was performed. CKRs were assessed using flow cytometry in stimulated versus unstimulated whole blood samples in 337 IVF patients presenting with a previous history of poor outcome (RM or implantation failure). CKRs were found to be elevated in 150/337. 70/150 patients in this elevated group agreed to a 10 week regime of Omega 3, vitamin
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are believed to play an important role in suppressing autoimmunity and maintaining peripheral tolerance. How their survival is regulated in the periphery is less clear. Here we show that Treg cells express receptors for gamma chain cytokines and are dependent on an exogenous supply of these cytokines to overcome cytokine withdrawal apoptosis in vitro. This result was validated in vivo by the accumulation of Treg cells in Bim-/- and Bcl-2 tg mice which have arrested cytokine deprivation apoptosis. We also found that CD25 and Foxp3 expression were down-regulated in the absence of these cytokines. CD25+ cells from Scurfy mice do not depend on cytokines for survival demonstrating that Foxp3 increases their dependence on cytokines by suppressing cytokine production in Treg cells. Our study reveals that the survival of Treg cells is strictly dependent on cytokines and cytokine producing cells because they do not produce cytokines. Our study thus, demonstrates that
Aging is a contributing factor in cancer occurrence. We recently demonstrated that systemic immunotherapy (IT) administration in aged, but not young, mice resulted in induction of rapid and lethal cytokine storm. We found that aging was accompanied by increases in visceral fat similar to that seen in young obese (ob/ob or diet-induced obese [DIO]) mice. Yet, the effects of aging and obesity on inflammatory responses to immunotherapeutics are not well defined. We determine the effects of adiposity on systemic IT tolerance in aged compared with young obese mice. Both young ob/ob- and DIO-generated proinflammatory cytokine levels and organ pathologies are comparable to those in aged ad libitum mice after IT, culminating in lethality. Young obese mice exhibited greater ratios of M1/M2 macrophages within the peritoneal and visceral adipose tissues and higher percentages of TNF+ macrophages in response to. CD40/IL-2 as compared with young lean mice. Macrophage depletion or TNF blockade in conjunction ...
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A cytokine signature found in certain kinds of breast cancer cells can not only serve as a diagnostic tool for HER2-negative cancers but also offer an effective treatment target.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in serum cytokines after repeated bouts of downhill running.. AU - Smith, LL. AU - McKune, AJ. AU - Semple, SJ. AU - Sibanda, E. AU - Steel, H. AU - Anderson, R. PY - 2007/4/1. Y1 - 2007/4/1. N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine changes in serum cytokines after repeated bouts of aerobically biased eccentric exercise. Six untrained males ran down a -13.5% treadmill grade for 60 min on two occasions (RUN1 and RUN2) at a speed equal to 75% of their VO2 peak on a level grade; runs were spaced 14 d apart. Serum was collected before, after, and every hour for 12 h, and every 24 h for 6 d. Cytokines were assessed using 17 multiplex bead technology (Bio-Rad). Creatine kinase (CK) and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed before and 24-120 h after. Results were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (p ,or= 0.05). All comparisons were between RUN1 and RUN2. CK and DOMS were significantly elevated after RUN1 compared with RUN2, indicative of a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mycotrienin II, a translation inhibitor that prevents ICAM-1 expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. AU - Yamada, Yuriko. AU - Tashiro, Etsu. AU - Taketani, Shigeru. AU - Imoto, Masaya. AU - Kataoka, Takao. N1 - Funding Information: We are very grateful to Drs. Kazuo Nagai, Yoshinori Tsukumo and Rei Koyanagi for their initial contributions to start this work. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and a Grant-in-Aid from the Naito Foundation.. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-1α (IL-1α), trigger the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-B, a molecule that induces the expression of a variety of genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Here, we report that mycotrienin II, a member of the triene-ansamycin group, inhibited the cell-surface ICAM-1 expression induced ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhenyu Yao, Michael Keeney, Tzu-Hua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Katherine Barcay, Heather Waters, Kensuke Egashira, Fan Yang, Stuart Goodman].
Cytokines are protein mediators involved in inflammation, the immune response, cell growth, repair and fibrosis. All of these processes are ongoing in active autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and so it would be expected that many cytokines would be actively produced in RA joints or Graves disease (GD) thyroid glands. The cDNA cloning of cytokines has permitted the generation of pure recombinant molecules, and of newer more sensitive assays, and spurred the rapid development of knowledge in this field. Here we review the molecular strategies devised to study the possible role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA and GD, and describe some of the initial results. After cataloguing the relative abundance of various cytokines, we sought to discover which cytokines are of major importance in pathogenesis. For that purpose we used neutralizing anti-cytokine antibodies and found that TNF alpha is one of the major signals regulating the production of IL-1 in the RA but not in the
ProSci Incorporated offers customized antibody production for chemokines and cytokines research needs. Order personalized antibodies online from ProSci today.
ProSci Incorporated offers customized antibody production for chemokines and cytokines research needs. Order personalized antibodies online from ProSci today.
Supplementary MaterialsData_Sheet_1. routes, or a TLR3 agonist (artificial double-stranded RNA PolyI:C), to evaluate modulation of innate responses during H1N1 IAV contamination. Since IAV utilizes cellular endocytic machinery for viral access, we also assessed ssONs capacity to impact IAV contamination. We first show that IAV infected human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) were unable to up-regulate the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 required Zarnestra novel inhibtior for T cell activation. Exogenous TLR3 stimulation did not overcome the IAV-mediated inhibition of co-stimulatory molecule expression in MoDC. However, TLR3 stimulation using PolyI:C led to an augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine response. We reveal that ssON inhibited PolyI:C-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine creation in MoDC successfully, notably, ssON treatment preserved an interferon response induced by IAV an infection. Appropriately, RNAseq analyses uncovered sturdy up-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes ...
The role of JAK-3 in TLR-mediated innate immune responses is poorly understood, although the suppressive function of JAK3 inhibition in adaptive immune response has been well studied. In this study, we found that JAK3 inhibition enhanced TLR-mediated immune responses by differentially regulating pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokine production in innate immune cells. Specifically, JAK3 inhibition by pharmacological inhibitors or specific small interfering RNA or JAK3 gene knockout resulted in an increase in TLR-mediated production of proinflammatory cytokines while concurrently decreasing the production of IL-10. Inhibition of JAK3 suppressed phosphorylation of PI3K downstream effectors including Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and CREB. Constitutive activation of Akt or inhibition of GSK3β abrogated the capability of JAK3 inhibition to enhance proinflammatory cytokines and suppress IL-10 production. In contrast, inhibition of PI3K enhanced ...
Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection. Precise treatment strategies are focused on restoring the immune balance, not eliminating the natural process necessary for getting rid of infection. This requires clinicians to be able to rapidly measure therapeutic targets, such as serum cytokines (small inflammatory proteins), to guide therapy and determine its effectiveness. However, no FDA-approved devices exist to do this, so the measurements are currently not performed.. The University of Michigan has developed the MicroKine Assay Device, a platform that utilizes a microfluidic chip and Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) technology to rapidly and simultaneously measure serum cytokine concentrations in a small sample of blood and provide simultaneous analysis of multiple cytokines.. The next step is to design and develop an automated reader for the MicroKine Assay Device. The goal is to produce a reader that can rapidly detect serum cytokines in less than 30 ...
Buy Multiplex Human Cytokine ELISA Kit (Inflammatory) and other ELISA Kits for multiplex human cytokines. Anogen supplies ELISA Kits and Antibodies around the globe.
Cytokine-driven inflammation and tissue destruction is a common theme of chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and atherosclerosis. Research over the last two decades demonstrated the importance of cytokines that are not only expressed chronically but also are capable of signaling at sites of chronic inflammation. Cytokines thus regulate major pathological processes that include inflammation, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and fibrosis. This research led to the identification of key cytokines involved in these processes, two of which, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1, have also been successfully targeted in the clinic. However, what triggers and maintains cytokine gene expression in chronic inflammation remains a mystery. In this article, we review current progress in the understanding of cytokine-driven inflammation and discuss current evidence implicating Toll-like receptors
BackgroundHIV specific T cells are putatively anergic in vivo. IL-2, a member of a class of cytokines that binds to receptors containing the common gamma chain (γc) has been shown to reverse anergy. We examined the role of γc cytokines in reversing HIV specific T cell anergy.MethodsPBMC from untreated HIV-infected individuals were briefly exposed to a panel of γc cytokines, and frequencies of gag specific T cells were enumerated by intracellular IFN-γ flow cytometry.ResultsOf the γc cytokines, brief exposure to IL-2, IL-15, or combined IL-15/IL-7 significantly enhanced (range 2-7 fold) the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell IFN-γ responses to HIV gag, with IL-15 giving the greatest enhancement. The effects of cytokines were not due to enhanced proliferation of pre-existing antigen specific cells, but were due to a combination of enhanced cytokine production from antigen specific T cells plus activation of non-epitope specific T cells.ConclusionsThese observations support the notion that a significant number of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comprehensive serum cytokine analysis identifies IL-1RA and soluble IL-2Rα as predictors of event-free survival in T-cell lymphoma. AU - Gupta, Mamta. AU - Stenson, M.. AU - OByrne, M.. AU - Maurer, M. J.. AU - Habermann, T.. AU - Cerhan, J. R.. AU - Weiner, G. W.. AU - Witzig, T. E.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Background: T-cell malignancies are heterogeneous in their clinical presentation and pathology, and have a poor prognosis. New biomarkers are needed to predict prognosis and to provide insights into signal pathways used by these cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate pretreatment serum cytokines in patients with newly diagnosed T-cell neoplasms and correlate with clinical outcome. Patients and methods: We evaluated 30 cytokines in pretreatment serum from 68 untreated patients and 14 normal controls. Significantly elevated cytokines were correlated with patterns of abnormalities, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Our data ...
Recombinant human cytokines HEK293 and recombinant human growth factors expressed from proprietary engineered human cells. Worldwide distributors available.
DCs are very efficient professional APCs [3]. They play a unique role in initiating immunity through the activation of naïve T cells and support local immune responses by the attraction, accumulation and activation of both CD4+ helper T cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. During maturation, DCs undergo changes in phenotype, expressing long dendrites with an upregulation of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules. At the same time, DCs switch from an antigen-capturing cell into an APC that can activate antigen-specific T cells. Cytokines such as IL-1, TNF-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, combined with IL-4, are known to contribute to DC maturation [7]. Indeed, these cytokines are used in sequential combination to obtain ex vivo mature functional DCs from blood monocytes. Out of this list of cytokines, only IL-4 is considered not to be produced by RA synovitis [8].. Two main types of DCs that mediate distinct biological outcomes are distinguished by their lineage ...
TSLP Expression and High Serum TSLP Level Indicate a Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer PatientsTSLP Expression and High Serum TSLP Level Indicate a Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer PatientsAA00892882 ...
Flow cytometry in combination with microspheres (beads) in a suspension have gained increasing interest by the research community
T cells play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Costimulation of T cells is necessary to fully activate them. An inducible costimulator (ICOS) of T cells is predominantly expressed on Th2 cells. Therefore, interference of signaling pathways precipitated by ICOS may present new therapeutic options for Th2 dominated diseases such as asthma. However, these signaling pathways are poorly characterized in vitro and in vivo. Human primary CD4+ T cells from blood were activated by beads with defined combinations of surface receptor stimulating antibodies and costimulatory receptor ligands. Real-time RT-PCR was used for measuring the production of cytokines from activated T cells. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways leading to cytokine synthesis were investigated by western blot analysis and by specific inhibitors. The effect of inhibitors in vivo was tested in a murine asthma model of late phase eosinophilia. Lung inflammation was assessed by differential cell
Inflammation has been linked to hair loss and to diet. A diet that produces systemic inflammation is more likely to exist with hair loss than do anti-inflammatory diets.. Several inflammatory cytokines are induced by oxidant stress. The fact that cytokines themselves trigger the release of other cytokines and also lead to increased oxidant stress makes them important in chronic inflammation. Toxic cytokines can be influenced by diet modifications.. Over production of pro-inflammatory hormone-like messengers (ex. prostaglandin E2 PGE2) and a lack of production of anti-inflammatory messengers (ex. prostaglandin E1 and E3) is a common cause of inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids seem to suppress the production of PGE2 and promote the production of the beneficial prostaglandin PGE3. Thus the recommendation is to reduce foods that are high in omega-6 fatty acids and increase the intake of foods high in omega-3. This will lead to more of the beneficial prostaglandins (E1 and E3) and less of the PGE2 ...
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Inhibitor Drugs Industry Outlook 2021 The outbreak of covid-19 in the global market has made companies uncertain about their future scenario as the prolonged lock-down finds a serious economic slump. The latest survey on COVID-19 Outbreak-Global Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Inhibitor Drugs Market is conducted to provide hidden gems performance analysis. Essential growth factors and study of Basis points [BPS] have been discussed in the following report. Research Report explains a detailed overview of market dynamics, segmentation, product portfolio, business plans, and the latest development in the industry.. Staying on top of market trends & drivers is crucial for decision-makers to hold this emerging opportunity. The study provides information on market trends and development, drivers, capacities, technologies, and the changing investment structure of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Inhibitor Drugs market. The development scope, feasibility study, Tumor Necrosis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Mycobacterium avium complex-infection treatment on cytokine expression in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. T2 - Results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 853. AU - MacArthur, Rodger D.. AU - Lederman, Michael M.. AU - Benson, Constance A.. AU - Chernoff, Miriam C.. AU - MacGregor, Rob Roy. AU - Spritzler, John. AU - Mahon, Laura F.. AU - Yen-Lieberman, Belinda. AU - Purvis, Scott. PY - 2000/5/22. Y1 - 2000/5/22. N2 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected persons with newly diagnosed Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia were enrolled in an 8- week study to determine whether treatment of MAC infection is associated with decreases in plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. Blood specimens were obtained for quantitative MAC cultures and to determine plasma levels of HIV RNA, TNF-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines. MAC levels decreased by 1.75 log at week 4 (P = .008) and by 2.48 log at week 8 (P = .001). Plasma TNF-α ...
ProblemMaternal immunopathology in pre-eclampsia is well studied; however, less is known regarding the immunological effects on the newborns. Increased inflammation and activation of immune cells at the fetal-maternal interface in pre-eclampsia could influence the neonatal immune compartment. Method of StudyMonocytes and natural killer (NK) cells from cord blood (CB) of children with pre-eclamptic or healthy mothers were analyzed by flow cytometry for surface markers and intracellular cytokines. In addition, serum cytokine profiles were investigated using ELISA or cytometric bead array. ResultsNeonates born to pre-eclamptic mothers had an inflammatory serum cytokine profile. While CB monocyte characteristics seemed unaffected, CB NK cells from pre-eclamptic pregnancies had higher NKp30, but borderline lower NKG2D expression. ConclusionIn utero inflammatory priming of neonatal innate immunity taking place in pre-eclamptic pregnancies might influence specific NK cell functions in newborns.. ...
Hamlet, S., Alfarsi, M., George, R. & Ivanovski, S., 2012, The effect of hydrophilic titanium surface modification on macrophage inflammatory cytokine gene expression, Clinical Oral Implants Research, 23(5), pp. 584-90. K Bokhari, MS Hameed, M Ajmal, RA Togoo Benign osteoblastoma involving maxilla: a case report and review of the literature Case reports in dentistry 2012 Haralur SB, Gana NS, Al-Dowah, et al. Quantitative evaluation on the ability of dental plaque adherence to commonly used provisional crowns. JIOH Sep-Dec2012,4(3).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early increase in mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their interactions in the mouse hippocampus after transient global ischemia. AU - Zhu, Yuyan. AU - Saito, Kuniaki. AU - Murakami, Yuki. AU - Asano, Masahide. AU - Iwakura, Yoichiro. AU - Seishima, Mitsuru. PY - 2006/1/30. Y1 - 2006/1/30. N2 - There is convincing evidence that cytokines are involved in the inflammatory response following cerebral ischemia, but the interactions among the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the early stage of ischemic reperfusion are not yet completely understood. In this study, we examined the early mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the ischemic hippocampus after 30 min of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and TNF-α, IL-1α/β or IL-6 gene knockout (KO) mice utilizing real-time polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA expressions of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. TNF-alpha is mainly secreted by macrophages. TNF-alpha is involved in the regulat...
Thalidomide selectively inhibits the production of human monocyte tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) when these cells are triggered with lipopolysaccharide and other agonists in culture. 40% inhibition occurs at the clinically achievable dose of the drug of 1 micrograms/ml. In contrast, the amount of total protein and individual proteins labeled with [35S]methionine and expressed on SDS-PAGE are not influenced. The amounts of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor produced by monocytes remain unaltered. The selectivity of this drug may be useful in determining the role of TNF-alpha in vivo and modulating its toxic effects in a clinical setting. ...
In order to define whether CD4+ T cells from autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroid tissue could be classified according to their mediator production, lymphokine production was studied in 63 thyroid-derived CD4+ T-cell clones from four patients with Graves disease, one with Hashimotos thyroiditis, and one with non-toxic goitre (9-12 clones per patient). The production of interleukin 2 (IL-2), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), lymphotoxin (LT), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) was assessed at the mRNA level by slot-blot analysis in unstimulated clones as well as after activation with monoclonal anti-CD3 (OKT3) and IL-2. No lymphokine production was found in unstimulated clones, whereas 56% of the clones produced all six lymphokines simultaneously after stimulation. In the remaining 44% usually not more than one lymphokine was missing from the complete panel. Lymphokine mRNA concentrations varied between different clones and
A B Millar, R F Miller, N M Foley, G A W Rook, S J G Semple; Tumour Necrosis Factor (Tnf Alpha) Production by Peripheral Blood Monocytes and Alveolar Macrophages from Patients with Hiv-Related Lung Disease. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1990; 78 (s22): 17P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs078017P. Download citation file:. ...
Background and purpose: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to inhibit cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. However, the EP receptor that mediates this beneficial anti-inflammatory effect of PGE2 has not been elucidated definitively. The aim of this study was to identify the EP receptor by which PGE2 inhibits cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. This was determined by using recently-developed EP receptor ligands. Experimental approach: The effects of PGE2 and EP-selective agonists on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) generation from macrophages were evaluated. The effects of EP2-selective (PF-04852946, PF-04418948) and EP4-selective (L-161,982, CJ-042794) antagonists on PGE2 responses were studied. The expression of EP receptor subtypes by human lung macrophages was determined by RT-PCR. Key results: PGE2 inhibited LPS-induced and Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiplexed femtomolar quantitation of human cytokines in a fluoropolymer microcapillary film. AU - Castanheira, Ana P.. AU - Barbosa, Ana I.. AU - Edwards, Alexander D.. AU - Reis, Nuno M.. PY - 2015/8/21. Y1 - 2015/8/21. N2 - Sensitive quantitation of multiple cytokines can provide important diagnostic information during infection, inflammation and immunopathology. In this study sensitive immunoassay detection of human cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70 and TNFα is shown for singleplex and multiplex formats using a novel miniaturized ELISA platform. The platform uses a disposable plastic multi-syringe aspirator (MSA) integrating 8 disposable fluoropolymer microfluidic test strips, each containing an array of ten 200 μm mean i.d. microcapillaries coated with a set of monoclonal antibodies. Each MSA device thus performs 10 tests on 8 samples, delivering 80 measurements. Unprecedented levels of sensitivity were obtained with the novel fluoropolymer microfluidic material and simple ...
Transendothelial migration of myeloma cells is increased by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha via TNF receptor 2 and autocrine up-regulation of MCP-1 ...
We describe here a monoclonal antibody (H398) that immunoprecipitates a human 60-kD tumor necrosis factor (TNF) membrane receptor (p60) and competes with TNF binding to p60 but not to p85 TNF receptors. Despite partial inhibition of TNF binding capacity of cells coexpressing both TNF receptor molecules, H398 uniformly and completely inhibits very distinct TNF responses on a variety of cell lines. These data suggest a limited structural heterogeneity in those components actually contributing to TNF responsiveness and identify p60 as a common receptor molecule essential for TNF signal transduction. As H398 is a highly effective TNF antagonist in vitro, it might be useful as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of TNF-mediated acute toxicity. ...
Detect 36 human cytokines, chemokines, and acute phase proteins simultaneously with our Proteome Profiler Human Cytokine Array Kit.
Intravenous injection of Candida albicans into mice produced elevated serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. We hypothesized that immunostimulants released in vivo from C. albicans during fungal sepsis might contribute to the elevated levels of TNF-alpha in serum. We tested this hypothesis in mice with C. albicans mannan (CAM). Increased serum TNF-alpha levels were observed following intravenous and intraperitoneal injections of CAM. Injection of CAM into mice resulted in increased serum TNF-alpha concentrations that reached 1,200 pg/ml of blood, compared with 2,400 microg/ml of blood following injection of 10 microg of endotoxin. The response to CAM was concentration dependent, requiring a minimum dose of 20 microg of CAM per g of body weight. Sera from mice were tested 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after intravenous injections with CAM. TNF-alpha concentrations were minimal 30 and 120 min after intravenous injection and maximal 60 and 90 min after CAM injection. The relative ...
THOUSAND OAKS, Calif. & COLLEGEVILLE, Pa., Jun 04, 2008 (BUSINESS WIRE) -- Amgen (NASDAQ: AMGN) and Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a division of Wyeth (NYSE: WYE), issued a statement in response to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Early Communication regarding an ongoing safety review of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) blockers (marketed as Remicade, Enbrel, Humira and Cimzia) and the possible association between the use of these medicines and the development of lymphoma and other cancers in children and young adults. These individuals were treated with TNF blockers for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA), Crohns disease or other diseases. AMGEN AND WYETH STATEMENT: Amgen and Wyeth are committed to the safety of patients and have consistently updated the product labeling for Enbrel(R) (etanercept) over the past decade. The companies maintain ongoing safety surveillance programs worldwide to analyze and evaluate safety reports, including reports of malignancies, from controlled and open-label clinical ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. OX40 - Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. OX40 - Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
BioTek Anwendungshinweise, 13-Jul-10, Multiplexing Magnetic Bead-based Human Cytokine Assays - Automated Magnetic Bead Washing Using the ELx405
Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been detected in tumor specimens and primary cell cultures from patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. IL-1α has been reported to play an important role in inducing the expression of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF during inflammation. We examined whether these cytokines are expressed together in five primary and seven established UM-SCC cell lines, and we also examined the effects of IL-1α, IL-1 receptor antagonist or neutralizing antibody (Ab) upon expression of this repertoire of proinflammatory cytokines in established UM-SCC lines. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF was detected by ELISA in both the primary and established UM-SCC lines. Constitutive expression of specific mRNAs for these cytokines was confirmed in the UM-SCC lines by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Northern blot analysis. Addition of recombinant IL ...
The principal mechanism by which bronchodilator β-adrenoceptor agonists act is to relax airways smooth muscle although they may also be anti-inflammatory. However, the extent of anti-inflammatory activity and the cell types affected by these agonists are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether β-adrenoceptor agonists prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine generation from activated human lung macrophages. Macrophages were isolated and purified from human lung. The cells were pre-treated with both short-acting (isoprenaline, salbutamol, terbutaline) and long-acting (formoterol, salmeterol, indacaterol) β-agonists before activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce cytokine (TNFα, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) generation. The experiments showed that short-acting β-agonists were poor inhibitors of cytokine generation. Of the long-acting β-agonists studied, formoterol was also a weak inhibitor of cytokine generation whereas only indacaterol and salmeterol showed moderate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. AU - Slifka, Mark K.. AU - Whitton, J. Lindsay. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Cytokines are soluble proteins that are produced and secreted as part of the immune response to a variety of tissue insults including infection, cancer, and autoimmunity. Most cytokines are secreted by cells of the immune system, but some (for example, type I interferons) are released from nonimmunological cells such as fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Cytokines have pleiotropic effects, acting on many somatic cell types to modulate the hosts immune response. For the most part, cytokines exert their antimicrobial actions locally - they are secreted by cells in the area of infection, and their effects are restricted to neighboring cells. While many of their local effects benefit the host, cytokines are soluble molecules that may act systemically and are often responsible for ...
EPO EIA Human Cytokines 021-SDX021 Erythropoietin Anemia,EPO EIA Human Cytokines 021-SDX021 Erythropoietin Anemia,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Purpose: The biochemical mechanisms for retinal capillary cell death in diabetes are not clear. In the diabetic retina of humans and rodents, pro-inflammatory cytokines are upregulated. In this study, we have investigated the effect if pro-inflammatory cytokines on a small heat shock protein, Hsp27 in primary human retinal endothelial cells (HREC).. Methods: HREC were cultured in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon -γ (IFN-γ, 50 and 100 units/ml), interleukin-1β (IL-1β, 10 and 20 ng/ml) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 10 and 20 ng/ml) for 48 hrs and in the presence or absence of high glucose (25 mM, HG). The roles of the kynurenine pathway and NOS were determined by adding 20 μM 1-methyl tryptophan (MT) and 500 μM L-Nω-nitroarginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), respectively to the culture medium. The mRNA and protein levels of Hsp27 and heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) were determined by PCR and Western blotting. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst ...
T lymphocytes execute and control immunological reactions with a repertoire of cytokines, cytotoxic substances, and other mediators. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells specifically recognizing and reacting towards a defined antigen provide important information to understand their function in various immunological situations. Antigen-specific T cells can be identified and characterized by analyzing their effector function, e.g., production of cytokines. The Rapid Cytokine Inspector (CD4/CD8 T Cell) Kit, human, has been developed for the fast and easy evaluation of cytokine expression in activated T cells by intracellular staining. The kit contains an antibody cocktail for the identification of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the exclusion of monocytes and B cells as well as brefeldin A and reagents for the fixation and permeabilization of cells after T cell stimulation. The kit is optimized for use in combination with Rapid Cytokine Inspector Anti-Cytokine antibodies of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signal integration via PKR. AU - Williams, B. R.. PY - 2001/7/3. Y1 - 2001/7/3. N2 - The vital role of interferons (IFNs) as mediators of innate immunity is well established. It has recently become apparent that one of the pivotal proteins in mediating the antiviral activity of IFNs, the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR), also functions as a signal transducer in the proinflammatory response to different agents. PKR is a member of a small family of kinases that are activated by extracellular stresses and that phosphorylate the alpha subunit of protein synthesis initiation factor eIF-2, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. The activation of PKR during infection by viral dsRNA intermediates results in the inhibition of viral replication. PKR also mediates the activation of signal transduction pathways by proinflammatory stimuli, including bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin 1 (IL-1). PKR is a ...
We explored the function of endogenous type I IFNs (IFN-1) in the colon using the T cell adoptive transfer model of colitis. Colon mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) constitutively produced IFN-1 in a Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β-dependent manner. Transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cells from wild-type (WT) or IFN-α/β receptor subunit 1 knockout (IFNAR1(-/-)) mice into RAG(-/-) hosts resulted in similar onset and severity of colitis. In contrast, RAG(-/-) × IFNAR1(-/-) double knockout (DKO) mice developed accelerated severe colitis compared with RAG(-/-) hosts when transferred with WT CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cells. IFNAR signaling on host hematopoietic cells was required to delay colitis development. MPs isolated from the colon lamina propria of IFNAR1(-/-) mice produced less IL-10, IL-1R antagonist, and IL-27 compared with WT MPs. Accelerated colitis development in DKO mice was characterized by early T cell proliferation and accumulation of CD11b(+)CD103(-) dendritic cells in the mesenteric
Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may cause inflammatory responses, which can deteriorate the outcomes. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6,-8 and -10, can act as both the effector and the predictor for post-operative inflammatory responses. Plasma mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was found as a pro-inflammatory agent recently, which was released when cells were insulted. In the present study, we included 38 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) to analyze their perioperative plasma mtDNA and levels of inflammatory cytokines. Blood samples were collected before aortic cross-clamping (T1), at the end of CPB (T2), 6 h post-CPB (T3), 12 h post-CPB (T4), and 24 h post-CPB (T5). Rt-PCR and specific ELISA kits were used to quantify the plasma mtDNA and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Bivariate correlations analysis was used to check the correlations between plasma mtDNA and inflammatory cytokines respectively. Results shown that
RIVERSIDE, Calif. - Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine that includes Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis. It is commonly treated with one of several available biological drugs that block an inflammatory molecule called Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha), but not everybody is helped by this treatment.. New research by a team of biomedical scientists at the University of California, Riverside, led by David Lo, M.D., Ph.D., now offers a valuable tip that could help make these drugs more effective.. TNF-alpha is a protein produced by the bodys cells. It signals other cells that then produce additional inflammatory factors. But Los lab discovered earlier this year that TNF-alpha also induces specialized immune surveillance cells, called M cells, which both promote inflammation and suppress it. In other words, TNF-alpha plays a role in the destruction and the healing of tissues - a double-edged sword.. M cells normally help the immune system ...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were one of the first few cytokines to be discovered. The normative data for levels of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in particular and all other cytokines in general have not yet been established well. The normal levels for each of the cytokines vary from one race to another. Therefore, all studies need to be done in cases and controls belonging to the same race or same populations. The kits for cytokine assays are expensive and running the assays is laborious and time consuming. It is recommended that the serum/plasma samples are run in duplicates and triplicates to avoid error. Immunology and the field of cytokines is an area which has many domains unexplored. As yet, it is not clearly understood by what mechanisms and pathways each of the cytokines alter the levels of other cytokines. Exercise or physical activity is an intervention which can be administered easily and levels of cytokines measured before and after intervention in same ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: Proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) play an important role in the blood-brain barrier breakdown present in several neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis and AIDS. However, the specific effects of these cytokines on central nervous system-derived endothelial cells (CNS-EC) is not fully understood. In this study the effects of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were tested on different permeability mechanisms of CNS-EC. METHODS: Central nervous system endothelial cells were isolated from human brain and retina and cultured in vitro in a transwell system. Fluid-phase endocytosis and transcytosis, absorptive-mediated endocytosis, and ammonia diffusion were measured with specific methods. Endothelial cells were studied with electron microscopy for the ultrastructural effects of cytokine stimulation. RESULTS: Fluid-phase endocytosis and transcytosis were significantly increased by TNF-alpha and IL-6. This effect was dose ...
Objective: Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Materials and methods: Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal biomarkers associated with PTB published from January 2005 to March 2014. Results: Retrieved citations (3631) were screened, and relevant studies (33) were selected for full-text reading. Ten studies were included in the review. Forty-two PTB-related proteins were reported, and RANTES and IL-10 (three studies) followed by MIP-1 beta, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two ...
Objective: Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Materials and methods: Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal biomarkers associated with PTB published from January 2005 to March 2014. Results: Retrieved citations (3631) were screened, and relevant studies (33) were selected for full-text reading. Ten studies were included in the review. Forty-two PTB-related proteins were reported, and RANTES and IL-10 (three studies) followed by MIP-1 beta, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two ...
T lymphocytes execute and control immunological reactions with a repertoire of cytokines, cytotoxic substances, and other mediators. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of CD4+ T cells specifically recognizing and reacting towards a defined antigen provide important information to understand their function in various immunological situations. Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells can be identified and characterized by analyzing their effector function, e.g., production of cytokines and expression of CD154. The Rapid Cytokine Inspector (CD4 T Cell) Kit, human, has been developed for the fast and easy evaluation of cytokine expression in activated CD154+CD4+ T cells by intracellular staining. The kit contains an antibody cocktail for the identification of CD154+CD4+ T cells and the exclusion of monocytes and B cells as well as brefeldin A and reagents for the fixation and permeabilization of cells after T cell stimulation. The kit is optimized for use in combination with Rapid Cytokine Inspector Anti
To the Editor:. As testified to by the report of Dybdahl and colleagues,1 and the subsequent editorial by Pockley, 2 heat shock proteins (HSPs) are increasingly seen as important mediators in a number of cardiovascular disease states. The former work describes the release of HSP70 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) into the circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) as well as the liberation of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α from murine and human mononuclear cells by HSP70 signaling through CD14 and toll-like receptor-4. It is tempting to conclude that the first observation is as a direct consequence of the latter, as the authors speculate, but there are alternative possibilities.. Endotoxaemia is a salient feature of CPB (thought consequent on the translocation of endotoxin across gut mucosa) and has long been associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine liberation in this context.3 Therefore endotoxaemia alone could explain the increase in IL-6 found in patients undergoing CPB. Furthermore, ...
Can linseed oil be a natural alternative? This question can neither with still no answer will be, but must be regarded as differentiated by medication and type of rheumatism. So it is undoubtedly so that modern developments in the field of anti-inflammatory drugs have made the rheumatism therapy while maintaining the effectiveness of friendly. However, new risks can arise. So its only understandable, if people are looking for alternatives, which are on the one hand effective, should be on the other but also largely free of side effects. Patients with inflammatory or degenerative rheumatic diseases are often very high values of the so-called inflammatory markers. One of them is the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). The control and reduction of TNF-alpha is a target of treating rheumatism. This common anti-inflammatory pain relievers (NSAID) and in severe cases called DMARDs (Biologicals) be used. The latter can effectively inhibit TNF-alpha, and are a valuable support for those affected. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiplex analysis of enzyme kinetics and inhibition by droplet microfluidics using picoinjectors. AU - Sjostrom, Staffan L.. AU - Jönsson, Håkan. AU - Svahn, Helene Andersson. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Enzyme kinetics and inhibition is important for a wide range of disciplines including pharmacology, medicine and industrial bioprocess technology. We present a novel microdroplet-based device for extensive characterization of the reaction kinetics of enzyme substrate inhibitor systems in a single experiment utilizing an integrated droplet picoinjector for bioanalysis. This device enables the scanning of multiple fluorescently-barcoded inhibitor concentrations and substrate conditions in a single, highly time-resolved experiment yielding the Michaelis constant (Km), the turnover number (kcat) and the enzyme inhibitor dissociation constants (ki, ki′). Using this device we determine Km and kcat for β-galactosidase and the fluorogenic substrate Resorufin β-d-galactopyranoside ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Salivary cytokines in healthy adolescent girls. T2 - Intercorrelations, stability, and associations with serum cytokines, age, and pubertal stage. AU - Riis, Jenna L.. AU - Out, Dorothee. AU - Dorn, Lorah D.. AU - Beal, Sarah J.. AU - Denson, Lee A.. AU - Pabst, Stephanie. AU - Jaedicke, Katrin. AU - Granger, Douglas A.. PY - 2014/5/1. Y1 - 2014/5/1. N2 - Theoretically, the measurement of cytokines in saliva may have utility for studies of brain, behavior, and immunity in youth. Cytokines in saliva and serum were analyzed across three annual assessments in healthy adolescent girls (N = 114, 11-17 years at enrollment). Samples were assayed for GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNFα, adiponectin, and cotinine. Results revealed: (1) cytokine levels, except IFNγ and IL-10, were detectable in saliva, and salivary levels, except IL-8 and IL-1β, were lower than serum levels; (2) salivary cytokine levels were lower in older girls and positively associated with ...
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppresor drug that has been used in the treatment of several types of inflammatory diseases. In some of them the inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation does not suitably account for the observed beneficial effect, suggesting that CsA could act on other types of cells. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of CsA on inflammatory cytokine secretion by U937 monocyte cells. Undifferentiated and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) differentiated U937 cells were incubated with different concentrations of CsA (200, 20 and 2 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of phorbol-myristateacetate (PMA). Interleukin-1g (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured in supernatants using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. At the highest concentration used (200 ng/mL) CsA decreased the basal and stimulated secretion of all the inflammatory cytokines studied in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells, with the only exception
Pro-inflammatory Cytokines IL-1 beta and TNT alpha, but Not IL-8, Cause Aberrant Lung Epithelial Wound Repair Via TGF-beta 1 Driven Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT ...
Cytokines also activate these immune cells, and stimulate them to produce more cytokines. This positive feedback loop will attract more T-cells and macrophages to join the fight. Usually, the body is able to keep the feedback loop in check so that a cytokine storm (which is energy-consuming and harms the body) doesnt occur.. Sometimes the body is unable to control the loop, for reasons we dont fully understand and we end up with a CS. Its speculated that a CS might be triggered when the immune system is attacked by a new and highly pathogenic invader. The cytokine storm results in systemic symptoms, such as liver dysfunction, acute renal failure, and shock. In the nervous system, it leads to brain injury through alteration of vessel wall permeability without vessel wall disruption. According to this hypothesis, ANE is an encephalopathy concomitant with systemic immune imbalance.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced caspase activation mediates endotoxin-related cardiac dysfunction. AU - Carlson, Deborah L.. AU - Willis, Monte. AU - White, D. Jean. AU - Norton, Jureta W.. AU - Giroir, Brett P.. PY - 2005/5/1. Y1 - 2005/5/1. N2 - Objective: Sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction is a serious clinical syndrome characterized by hypotension, decreased systemic vascular resistance, and elevated cardiac index. Although cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α have been shown to play a significant role early in this response, the downstream effects of TNF-α signaling on cardiac function, specifically its relationship to apoptosis, have not been fully elucidated. Design: Previous studies from our laboratory have identified endotoxin-induced apoptosis in cardiac cells in vitro. To further determine the role of lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in vivo, mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (4 mg/kg), and cardiac apoptosis was detected and ...
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, the immunologic model of which has been profoundly revised following recent advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology. In the current model, a crosstalk between keratinocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, T cells, and dendritic cells is thought to create inflammatory and pro-proliferative circuits mediated by chemokines and cytokines. Various triggers, including recently identified autoantigens, Toll-like receptor agonists, chemerin, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin may activate the pathogenic cascade resulting in enhanced production of pro-inflammatory and proliferation-inducing mediators such as interleukin (IL)-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-23, IL-22, interferon (IFN)-α, and IFN-γ by immune cells. Among these key cytokines lie therapeutic targets for currently approved antipsoriatic therapies. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the immune-mediated mechanisms characterizing the current pathogenic model of
Danger signals activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby initiating inflammatory responses. Canonical TLR signalling, via Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain (TIR)-containing adaptors and proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB, occurs in many cell types; however, additional mechanisms are required for specificity of inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Here we show that SCIMP, an immune-restricted, transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), promotes selective proinflammatory cytokine responses by direct modulation of TLR4. SCIMP is a non-TIR-containing adaptor, binding directly to the TLR4-TIR domain in response to lipopolysaccharide. In macrophages, SCIMP is constitutively associated with the Lyn tyrosine kinase, is required for tyrosine phosphorylation of TLR4, and facilitates TLR-inducible production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40. Point mutations in SCIMP abrogating TLR4 binding also prevent SCIMP-mediated cytokine production. SCIMP is, therefore, an immune