We will contribute to the LiSyM Research Network an open source, freely available and reproducible multiscale model of the human liver from single cell metabolism to whole liver function. The model will be available in existing standards of systems biology, provide standardized interfaces for data integration and be fully annotated to available biological, medical and computational ontologies. All data, models and source code will be shared within the LiSyM Research Network and made available to ...
This study investigated the interaction between eupatorin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, and molecular modeling at pH 7.4. Results of UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies illustrated that BSA fluorescence was quenched by eupatorin via a static quenching mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions played major roles in the interaction. Moreover, the efficiency of energy transfer, and the distance between BSA and acceptor eupatorin, were calculated. The effects of eupatorin on the BSA conformation were analyzed using UV-vis, CD, and synchronous fluorescence. Finally, the binding of eupatorin to BSA was modeled using the molecular docking method.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. phenacetin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
1,7-Dimethyluric acid, also known as 1,7-dimethyluric acid, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety. 1,7-Dimethyluric acid is possibly soluble (in water) and an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). 1,7-Dimethyluric acid exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. 1,7-Dimethyluric acid can be biosynthesized from paraxanthine through its interaction with the enzymes cytochrome P450 1A2 and cytochrome P450 2A6. In cattle, 1,7-dimethyluric acid is involved in the metabolic pathway called the caffeine metabolism pathway ...
1,3-dimethyluric acid 944-73-0 NMR spectrum, 1,3-dimethyluric acid H-NMR spectral analysis, 1,3-dimethyluric acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Brown, CR, Jacob P 3rd, Wilson M, Benowitz NL. Changes in rate and pattern of caffeine metabolism after cigarette abstinence. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988;43(5):488-491.. CFSAN Adverse Event Reporting System Voluntary and Mandatory Reports on 5-Hour Energy, Monster Energy, and Rockstar Energy Drink January 1, 2004 through October 23, 2012. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AboutFDA/CentersOffices/OfficeofFoods/CFSAN/CFSANFOIAElectronicReadingRoom/UCM328270.pdf. Accessed February 3, 2017.. Caffeine content. Caffeine informer website. Available at: http://www.caffeineinformer.com. Accessed February 3, 2017.. Caffeine content of food and drugs. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Available at: https://cspinet.org/eating-healthy/ingredients-of-concern/caffeine-chart. Accessed February 3, 2017.. Dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available ...
Overall Cardiovascular Score: -1.39. Behind the Score: The score is more complex than it appears at first glance. Case-control studies show increased risk for heart attack and ischemic stroke, particularly in the hour after consumption, among infrequent drinkers of coffee 1, and among those with risk factors for heart disease 2 3 or who are carriers of the "slow *1F allele" of the CYP1A2 gene, which produces slow caffeine metabolism. 4 Other negative effects on the score stem from studies showing a modest increase in blood pressure among coffee drinkers 5 and an increased risk of developing high blood pressure for those with the slow *1F allele. 6. On the other hand, large prospective cohort studies that spanned many years identified health benefits as well, mainly related to reduced relative risk for stroke 7, especially cerebral infarction 8 but also possibly subarachnoid hemorrhage 9. These benefits accrued over the long term among regular drinkers of more than 1 cup per day. Benefits seemed ...
Aminoflavone is a unique DNA damaging agent currently undergoing phase I clinical testing. In anticipation of future combination studies, interactions between aminoflavone and several anticancer drugs were investigated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells for the purpose of determining if any synergistic cancer cell killing effects could be observed. Colony formation assays were performed to assess the effect of combining aminoflavone with a variety of anticancer drugs. In an effort to ascertain if aminoflavone\#8217;s mechanism of action was affected by the presence of other drugs, we assessed intracellular concentrations of several agents when co-incubated with MCF-7 cells. Changes in initial uptake, retention or efflux were examined relative to the behavior of drugs when incubated alone. We also explored key features required for aminoflavone activity in MCF-7 cells, focusing on the obligatory induction of CYP1A1/1A2 and binding of reactive aminoflavone metabolites to cellular macromolecules and DNA. ...
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View mouse Cyp4f14 Chr17:32905071-32917342 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
View mouse Cyp2r1 Chr7:114549682-114562972 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Principal nameCYP2C11 antibodyAlternative names for CYP2C11 antibodyCytochrome P450 2C11, CYPIIC11, Cytochrome P450H, Cytochrome P450-UT-ASwissProt…
Kinetic and inhibitor studies using cDNA-expressed enzymes and human liver microsomes have characterized the specificity of a range of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A substrate and inhibitor probes towards the two isoforms comprising this subfamily. Expressed CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 both catalyzed the O-deethylation of phenacetin, although the apparent Km was about 4-fold lower for CYP1A2 (25 vs. 108 microM). Phenacetin O-deethylation exhibited biphasic kinetics in human liver microsomes, and the apparent Km for the high-affinity component (9 +/- 6 microM) was consistent with the involvement of CYP1A2 in this reaction. The prototypic CYP1A xenobiotic inhibitor and substrate probes alpha-naphthoflavone, ellipticine, 7-ethoxycoumarin and 7-ethoxyresorufin all inhibited CYP1A1- and CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-deethylation as well as the high-affinity component of human liver phenacetin O-deethylase activity. alpha-Naphthoflavone and 7-ethoxycoumarin were, however, approximately 10-fold more potent as ...
Rabbit anti-rat cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 (polyclonal antibody). Involved in metabolism of xenobiotics, drugs and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Implicated in metabolism of some polycyclic hydrocarbons to carcinogenic intermediates. CODE NUMBER: R1V.. QUANTITY: 0.1 mL.. SPECIFICITY: Reacts with rat cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in hepatic microsomal fraction. No cross-reactivity with other cytochrome P450 enzymes.. IMMUNOGEN: Synthetic peptide.. SUGGESTED APPLICATIONS: Western blot: useful for the simultaneous detection of rat CYP1A1 (57 kDa) and CYP1A2 (54 kDa), which can be separated by SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry on frozen and formaldehyde treated sections. Optimal working dilutions must be determined by end user.. SPECIES REACTIVITY: Rat.. FORMAT: Rabbit antiserum.. PRESENTATION: Liquid. No preservatives.. STORAGE/HANDLING: Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.. For research use ...
Rabbit anti-rat cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D1 (polyclonal antibody). O-demethylation of xenobiotics, CYP2D6 is involved in the metabolism and elimination of approximately 25% of clinically used drugs in humans1. Primarily expressed in the liver and areas of the CNS. CYP2D1 and CYP2D4 have a similar function in rats2.. CODE NUMBER: RK05.. QUANTITY: 0.1 mL.. SPECIFICITY: Reacts with rat cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D1 in hepatic microsomal fraction.. IMMUNOGEN: Synthetic peptide.. SUGGESTED APPLICATIONS: Western blot, immunohistochemistry on frozen and formaldehyde treated sections. Optimal working dilutions must be determined by end user.. SPECIES REACTIVITY: Rat.. FORMAT: Rabbit antiserum.. PRESENTATION: Liquid. No preservatives.. STORAGE/HANDLING: Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.. For research use only; not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for human or animal consumption.. CYP2D1 is also known as CYPIID1, Cyp2d-1, Cyp2d9 and ...
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Способность ферментов биотрансформации ксенобиотиков опухолевой клетки метаболизировать цитостатики может влиять на чувствительность опухоли к химиотерапии и, как следствие, на исход лечения. В биотрансформации препаратов, входящих в стандартные протоколы неоадъювантной химиотерапии, участвуют ферменты суперсемейства цитохромов Р450 (CYP), функциональные свойства которых могут зависеть от уровня экспрессии их генов. В работе определен уровень экспрессии генов цитохромов CYP1В1, CYP2А6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 в 62 образцах опухолевой ткани у ...
摘要(Abstract): 采用半静态水体暴露的方式研究了非离子表面活性剂对成熟雄性斑马鱼精巢组织的影响。用荧光定量PCR(qRTPCR)方法检测试验鱼精巢雌激素受体α(ERα)、雄激素受体(AR)基因以及性激素合成相关细胞色素P450酶类基因(CYP17和CYP19a)的表达,通过组织学观察研究受试鱼精巢结构的变化。结果表明,壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚(NPEO)暴露可以引起雄性斑马鱼精巢组织结构的改变,并影响成年雄性斑马鱼ERα、AR基因和性激素合成相关细胞色素P450酶类基因的表达水平,且10.0 mg·L~(-1)的NPEO暴露可以显著上调CYP19a、ERα和AR基因的表达量,可显著下调斑马鱼精巢中CYP17基因的表达量。在组织学上,0.1 mg·L~(-1)组斑马鱼生精小管内不仅生精小囊数目减少,且管腔中精子数量减少,出现非细胞区域; 1.0和10.0 ...
Product Name: 1,8-DibromonaphtaleneFormula: C10H6Br2Weight: 285.96264SMILES: BrC1C2C(C=CC=1)=CC=CC=2BrCAS NO: 1137868-96-2 Product: TAK-960 (hydrochloride)
Product Name: 1-bromo-6-phenyl-PyreneFormula: C22H13BrWeight: 357.24262SMILES: C1=CC=C(C=C1)C2=C3C4=C5C(=CC=C4C=C2)C(Br)=CC=C5C=C3CAS NO: 64917-83-5 Product:
CYP2D6-ГЕНОТИПИРОВАНИЕ В ОЦЕНКЕ ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТИ ТЕРАПИИ ТАМОКСИФЕНОМ У БОЛЬНЫХ ГОРМОНОПОЗИТИВНЫМ РАКОМ МОЛОЧНОЙ ЖЕЛЕЗЫ
豊田茂 厚生科学研究班「小児等特殊患者群に対する医薬品の用法 用量の確立に関する研究」平成14年度報告書, 2002 被引用文献1件 ...
Magnolin, epimagnolin A, dimethyllirioresinol, eudesmin, and fargesin are pharmacologically active tetrahydrofurofuranoid lignans found in Flos Magnoliae. The inhibitory potentials of dimethyllirioresinol, epimagnolin A, eudesmin, fargesin, and magnolin on eight major human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities in human liver microsomes were evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine the inhibition mechanisms and inhibition potency. Fargesin inhibited CYP2C9-catalyzed diclofenac 4-hydroxylation with a Ki value of 16.3 μM, and it exhibited mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C19-catalyzed [S]-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation (Ki, 3.7 μM; kinact, 0.102 min−1), CYP2C8-catalyzed amodiaquine N-deethylation (Ki, 10.7 μM; kinact, 0.082 min−1), and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1-hydroxylation (Ki, 23.0 μM; kinact, 0.050 min−1) in human liver microsomes. Fargesin negligibly inhibited CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation, CYP2A6-catalyzed coumarin 7-hydroxylation,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning of rat cytochrome P450RAI (CYP26) cDNA and regulation of its gene expression by all-trans-retinoic acid in vivo. AU - Wang, Y.. AU - Zolfaghari, R.. AU - Catharine, Ross A.. PY - 2002/5/15. Y1 - 2002/5/15. N2 - A novel retinoic acid (RA)-inducible cytochrome P450 (P450 RAI or CYP26), previously cloned from human, zebra fish, and mouse, functions in the metabolism of all-trans-RA to polar metabolites including 4-hydroxy-RA and 4-oxo-RA. To further study CYP26 in the rat model, we first cloned rat CYP26 cDNA. The nucleotide sequence predicts a 497-amino-acid protein whose sequence is 95% identical to mouse and 91% homologous to human CYP26. Animal studies showed that CYP26 mRNA expression is very low (0.01 ± 0.008; P , 0.05) in vitamin-A-deficient rats compared to pair-fed vitamin-A-sufficient rats (defined as 1.0). In a kinetic study, vitamin-A-deficient rats were treated with ∼ 100 μg of all-trans-RA and liver was collected after 3-72 h for analysis of CYP26 mRNA by ...
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
Cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, also known as CYP3A, is a human gene. The CYP3A locus includes all the known members of the 3A subfamily of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of genes. These genes encode monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. The CYP3A cluster consists of four genes: CYP3A4 CYP3A5, CYP3A7, and CYP3A43. The region also contains two pseudogenes: CYP3A51P and CYP3A52P, as well as several extra exons which may or may not be included in transcripts produced from this region. Previously another CYP3A member, CYP3A3, was thought to exist; however, it is now thought that this sequence represents a transcript variant of CYP3A4. "Entrez Gene: CYP3A cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A". Smith G, Stubbins MJ, Harries LW, Wolf CR (1999). "Molecular genetics of the human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase superfamily". Xenobiotica. 28 (12): 1129-65. doi:10.1080/004982598238868. PMID 9890157. Lamba ...
Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 is a recently cloned dioxin-inducible form of the cytochrome P450 family of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. An antibody raised against a peptide specific for CYP1B1 was found to recognize CYP1B1 expressed in human lymphoblastoid cells but not to recognize other forms of cytochrome P450, particularly CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Using this antibody, the cellular distribution and localization of CYP1B1 were investigated by immunohistochemistry in a range of malignant tumors and corresponding normal tissues. CYP1B1 was found to be expressed at a high frequency in a wide range of human cancers of different histogenetic types, including cancers of the breast, colon, lung, esophagus, skin, lymph node, brain, and testis. There was no detectable immunostaining for CYP1B1 in normal tissues. These results provide the basis for the development of novel methods of cancer diagnosis based on the identification of CYP1B1 in tumor cells and the development of anticancer drugs that are selectively ...
In the obersvation of " Evidence for the involvement of human liver microsomes CYP1A2 in the mono-hydroxylation of daidzein" by Peng WX, Wang LS, Li HD, Abd El-Aty AM, Chen GL, Zhou HH., posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters were best fitted to a one-component enzyme kinetic model. The mean K(m) (micromol/l) and V(max) (micromol/g min) values (+/-S.D.) were 26.86 (10.45) and 4.76 (2.07), 53.83 (22.25) and 2.29 (1.04), 51.48 (29.32) and 2.21(0.82), for the formation rates of 7,8,4-THI, 7,3,4-THI and 6,7,4-THI, respectively. Furafylline, the CYP1A2-specific inhibitor, estrogen and monoclonal antibody raised against human CYP1A2 (MAB-1A2) substantially inhibited the formation rates of mono-hydroxylated metabolites. The IC(50) of Fur for the formation of 7,3,4-THI, 6,7,4-THI and 7,8,4-THI was 1.0, 0.9 and 0.8 micromol/l, respectively. The IC(50) of estrogen for the formation of 7,3,4-THI, ...
The aim of the current study is to identify the human cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms involved in the two oxidative steps in the bioactivation of clopidogrel to its pharmacologically active metabolite. In the in vitro experiments using cDNA-expressed human P450 isoforms, clopidogrel was metabolized to 2-oxo-clopidogrel, the immediate precursor of its pharmacologically active metabolite. CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19 catalyzed this reaction. In the same system using 2-oxo-clopidogrel as the substrate, detection of the active metabolite of clopidogrel required the addition of glutathione to the system. CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 contributed to the production of the active metabolite. Secondly, the contribution of each P450 involved in both oxidative steps was estimated by using enzyme kinetic parameters. The contribution of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19 to the formation of 2-oxo-clopidogrel was 35.8, 19.4, and 44.9%, respectively. The contribution of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 to the ...
Stable expression of human cytochrome P4502E1 in HepG2 cells: characterization of catalytic activities and production of reactive oxygen intermediates.: Experim
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Phenacetins Content: 99% CAS:62-44-02 Molecular formula: C10H13NO2 Molecular weight: 179.2158 Category: raw material medicine, antipyretic and analgesic drugs raw materials. Characteristics: This product is white, there is a flash of scale like...
CYP39A1 - CYP39A1 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human cytochrome P450, family 39, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP39A1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
in this discovery process is to identify drug-drug supernatant were dissolved with four (4) volume of interactions. The most widespread procedure for this acetonitrile and 2µL were transferred to a 96-well is to perform cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition assays LazWell plate. The solvent was evaporated to dryness using human liver microsomes (HLM). The most at room temperature. This dilution step was necessary commonly used method for analyzing CYP inhibition to reduce the unvolatile content into the final dry assay samples is LC-MS/MS. However, this method is samples. The resulting dry samples were analyzed in time-consuming and represents the bottleneck in this LDTD-MS/MS. Labelled internal standard were used type of assay. To increase the throughput, we propose for OH-midazolam and OH-diclofenac only. Table 1 Incubation conditions of the CYP assay ...
Various methods for predicting DDI with enzyme inactivators have been developed, including both static and semiphysiologic models (Galetin et al., 2006; Einolf, 2007; Obach et al., 2007; Grimm et al., 2009; Fenneteau et al., 2010; Quinney et al., 2010), each relying on kdeg for the enzyme as a key input parameter. As physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling is more routinely applied to predict complex drug interactions, many researchers have noted improved prediction accuracy when using a CYP3A kdeg of 0.03 hour−1(Wang, 2010; Friedman et al., 2011; Yamashita et al., 2013), determined from the time course of CYP3A recovery following multiple-dose clarithromycin administration. The current approach, which resulted in an overall CYP3A kdeg of 0.0240 hour−1, relied on human hepatocytes, specifically the human HepatoPac model, as a viable in vitro surrogate of P450 regulation. Studies from our laboratories and others have characterized the activity, longevity, and functionality of the ...
human CYP2D6/Cytochrome P450 2D6 gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
phenacetin | C10H13NO2 | CID 4754 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Stock Photo 4128R-19407: Download Phenacetin, molecular model. Analgesic whose use has declined because of adverse effects. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour_coded: carbon grey, hydrogen white, nitrogen blue and oxygen red. Stock Photos. Search over 12 million royalty free images and rights managed stock photography
Phenacetin CAS: 62-44-2 EINECS Number: 200-533-0 Formula: C10H13NO2 MW: 179.2157 Molecular Structure: Density: 1.099g / cm3 Melting point: 133-138 ℃ Boiling point: 355.1 ° C at 760 mmHg Flash Point: 168.5 ° C Water-soluble: 0.076 g / 100 mL Vapor...
CYP2B2, 10 Blots. The Cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes is one of three enzyme systems which metabolize the fatty acid arachadonic acid (AA) to regulators of vascular tone.
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes represent a large superfamily that displays extraordinarily diverse substrate specificities. After a concise review about CYPs of the CYP1A subfamily, which plays a crucial role in procarcinogen activation, this paper presents segment-directed mutagenesis. This approach generates a library of random combinatorial mutants limited to a precise region of human CYP1A1, namely amino acids 204-214 in which nine positions differ between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. The resulting mutants present all combinations possible among these nine positions shifting mutated residues to their CYP1A2 counterpart. The mutants were cloned and expressed in an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that has a microsomal oxido-reduction environment optimized for CYPs. This procedure resulted in yeast transformants that express a library of mutant CYP1A1. A subset of transformants were chosen at random, assayed for a typical CYP1A1 activity and the plasmidic DNA of functional clones was rescued and
Some, but by no means most, of the individual variability in the rate at which nicotine is metabolized can be explained by CYP2A6 SNPs. Generally, smokers whose bodies rapidly metabolize nicotine will smoke more cigarettes, take in more cigarette smoke, and be more resistant to kicking the habit than slower metabolizers. The most common CYP2A6 allele, CYP2A6*1, is considered to give rise to a fast metabolizing phenotype. Four relatively common CYP2A6 alleles are associated with slower metabolizers; they are CYP2A6*2, CYP2A6*4, CYP2A6*9, and CYP2A6*12. [PMID 17112802] CYP2A6*5 is a rare non-functioning variant. [PMID 15993850] The CYP2A6*20 variant results in a truncated protein and no enzyme activity. To be more precise, the estimated percentage of CYP2A6 activity by genotype is as follows: ...
CYP3A5 is a member of the CYP3A family of genes located on chromosome 7. The CYP3A subfamily of enzymes responsible for the metabolism of more than 50% of medications that undergo hepatic metabolism and first-pass metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells. The CYP3A5 expression level and enzymatic activity can be modulated by genetic variation. CYP3A5 allelic frequency depends upon ethnicity. For example, in individuals of European descent the most common allele is the CYP3A5*3 allele (c.219-237A,G), which results in a splicing defect and absence of enzyme activity. In individuals of African descent, the *1 allele (functional enzyme) is most common. The distribution of CYP3A5*3 allele frequencies ranges from 0.14 among sub-Saharan Africans to 0.95 in European populations.. In general, most drugs metabolized by CYP3A5 are also metabolized by CYP3A4 and usually to a greater degree than CYP3A5. For this reason, substrates of these 2 enzymes are sometimes listed together in publications and ...
  • The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family of enzymes is important in drug metabolism and biotransformation.
  • The CYP450 kits utilize MS, specifically MRM methodology, to monitor for the presence of up to 7 specific CYP450 isoforms, and for quantification based on precise peptide standards for those isoforms.
  • These MS-based kits offer alternatives to protocols based on measurement of mRNA levels, enzyme activity, or Western blotting.
  • Related Documents:
Protocol for the CYP450 Protein Assay - Human Induction Kit
Quick Reference Card for the CYP450 Protein Assay - Human Induction Kit
Technical Note on the use of the CYP450 Protein Assay - Human Induction Kit
Authors: Goldstone, J.V., A.G. McArthur, A. Kubota, J. Zanette, T. Parente, M. Jönsson, D.R. Nelson, & J.J. Stegeman. BMC Genomics 2010, 11: 643.. Increasing use of zebrafish in drug discovery and mechanistic toxicology demands knowledge of cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene regulation and function. CYP enzymes catalyze oxidative transformation leading to activation or inactivation of many endogenous and exogenous chemicals, with consequences for normal physiology and disease processes. Many CYPs potentially have roles in developmental specification, and many chemicals that cause developmental abnormalities are substrates for CYPs. Here we identify and annotate the full suite of CYP genes in zebrafish, compare these to the human CYP gene complement, and determine the expression of CYP genes during normal development. Zebrafish have a total of 94 CYP genes, distributed among 18 gene families found also in mammals. There are 32 genes in CYP families 5 to 51, most of which are direct orthologs of human ...
rat Cyp4a14 protein: cytochrome P-450 enzyme that oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics, RefSeq NM_175760