We investigated the possibility of eliciting a measurable photoinduced electrical current from the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6 ( SynechococcusPCC 7002). This proved virtually...
Gloeobacter violaceus sp. PCC 7421 is an unusual cyanobacterium with only one cellular membrane, which lacks the thylakoid membranes found in other oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. The cell membrane lipids in G. violaceus sp. PCC 7421 are monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, digalactosyl diacylglycerol, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidic acid in the molar proportion of 51, 24, 18 and 4% respectively. This lipid composition resembles that of the cell membrane from other cyanobacteria, but completely lacks sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. This lack of sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol is exceptional for a photosynthetic membrane. The membrane lipids are esterified to 14:0, 16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and alpha 18:3 fatty acids.. ...
Cloning, solubilization, and purification of SQS.Eukaryotic SQSs are associated with microsomes and can be solubilized with detergents. However, when expressed in E. coli, SQS is found in inclusion bodies and cannot be reconstituted to give soluble active enzyme. Zhang et al. discovered that soluble recombinant yeast SQS could be obtained by deletion of a putative C-terminal membrane-spanning α-helix (57). This approach has been used to obtain soluble recombinant enzyme from other eukaryotes (1, 18, 45, 47, 52). However, bacterial SQSs do not have a C-terminal sequence predicted to give a membrane-spanning helix, and the basis for membrane affiliation by the bacterial enzymes is not apparent.. Three bacteria, T. elongatus BP-1, B. japonicum, and Z. mobilis, were selected as sources for the SQS gene. Previously, SQ synthesis was detected in E. coli transformants harboring the hopane gene cluster from B. japonicum and Z. mobilis (34). In addition, a SQ-hopane cyclase from B. japonicum and Z. ...
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1MY6: The 1.6 A resolution structure of Fe-superoxide dismutase from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus.
Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 is known to be tolerant to most of the environmental factors in natural habitats of Cyanobacteria. Gene expression can be easily studied in this cyanobacterium, as its complete genome sequence is available. These properties make Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 an appropriate model organism for biotechnological applications. To study the gene expression in Cyanobacteria, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used, but as this is a highly sensitive method, data standardization is indicated between samples. The most commonly used strategy is normalization against internal reference genes. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 has not yet been evaluated for the best reference genes. In this work, six candidate genes were analyzed for this purpose. Cyanobacterial cultures were exposed to several stress conditions, and three different algorithms were used for ranking the reference genes: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Moreover, gene expression stability value M and single-control ...
1I7Y: Structure of c-phycocyanin from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus at 2.5 A: structural implications for thermal stability in phycobilisome assembly.
Cyanobacteria are an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are significant in biogeochemical cycles. The most primitive among living cyanobacteria, Gloeobacter violaceus, shows a unique ancestral cell organization with a complete absence of inner membranes (thylakoids) and an uncommon structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Numerous phylogenetic papers proved its basal position among all of the organisms and organelles capable of plant-like photosynthesis (i.e., cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of algae and plants). Hence, G. violaceus has become one of the key species in evolutionary study of photosynthetic life. It also numbers among the most widely used organisms in experimental photosynthesis research. Except for a few related culture isolates, there has been little data on the actual biology of Gloeobacter, being relegated to an evolutionary curiosity with an enigmatic identity. Here we show that members of the genus Gloeobacter probably are common rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. On the
The study of the primary metabolism of cyanobacteria in response to light conditions is important for environmental biology because cyanobacteria are widely distributed among various ecological niches. Cyanobacteria uniquely possess circadian rhythms, with central oscillators consisting from three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. The two-component histidine kinase SasA/Hik8 and response regulator RpaA transduce the circadian signal from KaiABC to control gene expression. Here, we generated a strain overexpressing rpaA in a unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The rpaA-overexpressing strain showed pleiotropic phenotypes, including slower growth, aberrant degradation of an RNA polymerase sigma factor SigE after the light-to-dark transition, and higher accumulation of sugar catabolic enzyme transcripts under dark conditions. Metabolome analysis revealed delayed glycogen degradation, decreased sugar phosphates and organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and increased amino acids
Marine cyanobacteria have been considered a rich source of secondary metabolites with potential biotechnological applications, namely in the pharmacological field. Chemically diverse compounds were found to induce cytoxicity, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. The potential of marine cyanobacteria as anticancer agents has however been the most explored and, besides cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines, several compounds have emerged as templates for the development of new anticancer drugs. The mechanisms implicated in the cytotoxicity of marine cyanobacteria compounds in tumor cell lines are still largely overlooked but several studies point to an implication in apoptosis. This association has been related to several apoptotic indicators such as cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative damage, alterations in caspase cascade, alterations in specific proteins levels and alterations in the membrane sodium dynamics. In the present paper a compilation of the described marine
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria or cyanophyta, is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. They are a significant component of the marine nitrogen cycle and an important primary producer in many areas of the ocean, but are also found in habitats other than the marine environment; in particular, cyanobacteria are known to occur in both freshwater and hypersaline inland lakes. They are found in almost every conceivable environment, from oceans to fresh water to bare rock to soil. Cyanobacteria are the only group of organisms that are able to reduce nitrogen and carbon in aerobic conditions, a fact that may be responsible for their evolutionary and ecological success. Certain cyanobacteria also produce cyanotoxins. This new book presents a broad variety of international research on this important organism ...
Cyanobacteria are a taxon of bacteria which conduct photosynthesis. They are not algae, though they were once called blue-green algae. It is a phylum of bacteria, with about 1500 species. In endosymbiont theory, chloroplasts (plastids) are descended from cyanobacteria. Their DNA profile is evidence for this.[3][4][5]. Cyanobacteria have an extremely long fossil record, starting at least 3,500 million years ago. They were the main organisms in the stromatolites of the Archaean and Proterozoic eons.[6]. The ability of cyanobacteria to perform oxygenic photosynthesis is highly significant. The early atmosphere on Earth was largely reducing, that is, without oxygen. The cyanobacteria in stromatolites were the first known organisms to photosynthesise and produce free oxygen. After about a billion years, the effect of this photosynthesis began a huge change in the atmosphere. The process, called the Great Oxygenation Event, took a long time. Eventually, it killed off most of the organisms which could ...
Plectonema boryanum bacteriophage LPP-2 ATCC ® 18200-B2™ Designation: LPP-2, strain SPI TypeStrain=False Application: Characterization
Mass populations of toxic cyanobacteria in recreational waters can present a serious risk to human health. Intelligence on the abundance and distribution of cyanobacteria is therefore needed to aid risk assessment and management activities. In this paper, we use data from the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager-2 (CASI-2) to monitor seasonal change in the concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and the cyanobacterial biomarker pigment C-phycocyanin (C-PC) in a series of shallow lakes in the UK. The World Health Organization guidance levels for cyanobacteria in recreational waters were subsequently used to build a decision tree classification model for cyanobacterial risk assessment which was driven using Chl a and C-PC products derived from the CASI-2 data. The results demonstrate that remote sensing can be used to acquire intelligence on the distribution and abundance of cyanobacteria in inland waterbodies. It is argued the use of remote sensing reconnaissance, in conjunction with in situ ...
Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance due to its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other ,150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20-25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and non-pathogenic, free-living bacteria. We use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% of the non-coding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and two fold higher than that found in the gene dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera ...
In photosynthetic organisms, carbon fixation must be coordinated with the light harvesting reactions to prevent unnecessary energy expenditure in the absence of light. The enzyme phosphoribulokinase (PRK) produces the substrate for the carbon fixation step and switches off reversibly by disulfide bond formation. How this works in β-cyanobacteria is reported in a recent article in Acta Cryst. F by Wilson et al. (2019) and the Proteopedia molecular tour accompanying the article.. The paper describes the dimeric structure of PRK from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC6301. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a second phosphate group onto ribulose 5-phosphate, thus creating the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) substrate for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). The need for RuBP is found in virtually all autotrophic organisms, and there are corresponding PRKs in all kingdoms. Phylogenetic analyses of PRKs show two broad classes of enzymes, prokaryotic homo-octameric systems ...
Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes with the ability to conduct oxygenic photosynthesis, therefore having major influence on the evolution of life on earth. Their diverse morphology was traditionally the basis for taxonomy and classification. For example, the genus Chroococcidiopsis has been classified within the order Pleurocapsales, based on a unique reproduction modus by baeocytes. Recent phylogenetic results suggested a closer relationship of this genus to the order Nostocales. However, these studies were based mostly on the highly conserved 16S rRNA and a small selection of Chroococcidiopsis strains. One aim of this present thesis was to investigate the evolutionary relationships of the genus Chroococcidiopsis, the Pleurocapsales and remaining cyanobacteria using 16S rRNA, rpoC1 and gyrB gene. Including the single gene, as the multigene analyses of 97 strains clearly showed a separation of the genus Chroococcidiopsis from the Pleurocapsales. Furthermore, a sister relationship between the ...
Risks for Blue-green algae toxicity, Blue-green algae toxicity treatments, recommended products for Blue-green algae toxicity, ways to prevent Blue-green algae toxicity, causes of Blue-green algae toxicity
Randy looked up the word and found: Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms that contain chlorophyll. Formerly considered blue-green algae, but actually closely related to bacteria, cyanobacteria are of special importance in the balance of nature. Cyanobacteria were the earliest oxygen-producing organisms on Earth (remnants of cyanobacteria have been found in fossils dating back 2.5 billion years) and were responsible for converting Earths non-oxygen atmosphere to oxygen. Cyanobacteria are found in water and soil and can tolerate great ranges in salinity and temperature. Some species of cyanobacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to compounds of nitrogen used by plants. Other species of cyanobacteria (such as the one shown here) are grown commercially as a protein-rich human food supplement ...
Randy looked up the word and found: Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms that contain chlorophyll. Formerly considered blue-green algae, but actually closely related to bacteria, cyanobacteria are of special importance in the balance of nature. Cyanobacteria were the earliest oxygen-producing organisms on Earth (remnants of cyanobacteria have been found in fossils dating back 2.5 billion years) and were responsible for converting Earths non-oxygen atmosphere to oxygen. Cyanobacteria are found in water and soil and can tolerate great ranges in salinity and temperature. Some species of cyanobacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to compounds of nitrogen used by plants. Other species of cyanobacteria (such as the one shown here) are grown commercially as a protein-rich human food supplement ...
General Information: Trichodesmium erythraeum strain IMS101 was isolated from the North Carolina coast in 1992 and grows in straight filaments. Filamentous marine cyanobacterium. This filamentous marine cyanobacterium is a nitrogen-fixing organism that contribues a significant amount of the global fixed nitrogen each year. These bacteria are unusual in that nitrogen fixation takes place in a differentiated cell called the diazocyte which is different from the nitrogen-fixing differentiated cell (heterocyst) found in other cyanobacteria. The diazocyte is developed in order to protect the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenases and includes a number of changes including production of more membranes and down-regulation of photosynthetic activity during times of peak nitrogen fixation (noontime). This organism gives the Red Sea its name when large blooms appear and is one of the organisms most often associated with large blooms in marine waters. ...
ID Q31KY7_SYNE7 Unreviewed; 1017 AA. AC Q31KY7; DT 06-DEC-2005, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 06-DEC-2005, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 86. DE RecName: Full=Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00946768}; DE Short=PEPC {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595}; DE Short=PEPCase {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595}; DE EC=4.1.1.31 {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595, ECO:0000256,SAAS:SAAS00946768}; GN Name=ppc {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00595}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Synpcc7942_2252 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABB58282.1}; OS Synechococcus elongatus (strain PCC 7942) (Anacystis nidulans R2). OC Bacteria; Cyanobacteria; Synechococcales; Synechococcaceae; OC Synechococcus. OX NCBI_TaxID=1140 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABB58282.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002717}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002717} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=PCC 7942 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002717}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Copeland ...
Article The impact of cyanobacteria on growth and death of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. Climate change may cause increased microbial growth in water sources and more knowledge is required on how this may affect the hygienic water quality, i.e.,...
Algae Detail UTEX Number: SP37Class: CyanophyceaeStrain: Phormidium janthiphorumMedia: Soil Extract MediumOrigin: Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma, USADescription of
Hamilton, ON - July 12, 2017 - Public Health Services has confirmed the presence of toxin-producing blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) at the Bayfront Park Boat Launch, Bayfront Park Beach, and at Pier 4 Park Beach. Observations by Public Health Services staff indicate that blue-green algae are also present along most of the western shoreline. The algae is present from the inner
Part of the Sec protein translocase complex. Interacts with the SecYEG preprotein conducting channel. SecDF uses the proton motive force (PMF) to complete protein translocation after the ATP-dependent function of SecA.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Cyanotoxin Cyanotoxins are toxins produced by bacteria called cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae). Cyanobacteria are found almost everywhere, but particularly in lakes and in the ocean where, under certain conditions, they reproduce exponentially to form blooms. Blooming cyanobacteria can produce cyanotoxins in such concentrations that they poison and even kill animals and humans. Cyanotoxins can also accumulate in other animals such as fish and shellfish, and cause poisonings such as shell
In this study, we investigated forty cyanobacterial isolates from biofilms, gastropods, brackish water and symbiotic lichen habitats. Their aqueous and organic extracts were used to screen for apoptosis-inducing activity against acute myeloid leukemia cells. A total of 28 extracts showed cytotoxicity against rat acute myeloid leukemia (IPC-81) cells. The design of the screen made it possible to eliminate known toxins, such as microcystins and nodularin, or known metabolites with anti-leukemic activity, such as adenosine and its analogs. A cytotoxicity test on human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) fibroblasts indicated that 21 of the 28 extracts containing anti-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) activity showed selectivity in favor of leukemia cells. Extracts L26-O and L30-O were able to partly overcome the chemotherapy resistance induced by the oncogenic protein Bcl-2, whereas extract L1-O overcame protection from the deletion of the tumor suppressor protein p53. In conclusion, cyanobacteria are a prolific
Filamentous cyanobacteria, bathed in seawater and often growing in nutrient-rich environments, are surrounded by diverse communities of heterotrophic bacteria. The heterotrophic bacteria closely associated with cyanobacteria likely consume released nutrients, but may also produce vitamins and other factors useful to cyanobacterial growth, as well as assisting in cycling of CO2 and phosphate, or lowering O2 levels for oxygen-sensitive processes such as nitrogen fixation [1, 2]. Various studies have classified some of the taxa of heterotrophic bacteria that live in close proximity to cyanobacterial blooms, including common aquatic phyla such as Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes [3, 4]. Some potentially new species or genera were also located within these samples, which could suggest that some bacteria may have specific relationships with cyanobacteria [3]. However, many of these latter bacteria are also found living independently of cyanobacteria [4], and the makeup ...
Cyanobacteria have an interesting trick to harvest sunlight during light fluctuations. In darkness, the cells prepare for a subsequent increase in light intensity by adopting a larger light-harvesting antenna. Researchers ...
As the world struggles to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse gas emissions, industrial biotechnology is also going green. Escherichia coli has long been used as a model Gram-negative bacterium, not only for fundamental research, but also for industrial applications. Recently, however, cyanobacteria have emerged as candidate chassis for the production of commodity fuels and chemicals, utilizing CO2 and sunlight as the main nutrient requirements. In addition to their potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and lowering production costs, cyanobacteria have naturally efficient pathways for the production metabolites such as carotenoids, which are of importance in the nutraceutical industry. The unique metabolic and regulatory pathways present in cyanobacteria present new challenges for metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists. Moreover, their requirement for light and the dynamic regulatory mechanisms of the diurnal cycle further complicate the development and
A new Michigan State University study has identified a family of genes in cyanobacteria that help control carbon dioxide fixation.
POSTDOCTORAL POSITION One postdoctoral research associate position is immediately available in my laboratory to study the biogenesis and function of photosystem II, a membrane-bound pigment-protein complex in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. Required expertise in one or more of the following areas: protein chemistry, molecular biology and spectroscopy. Strong preferences will be given to individuals with proven records of quality publications and to those with potentials to obtain independent funding. Please send CV and three letters of recommendation to : Prof. Himadri Pakrasi Department of Biology Campus Box 1137, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. Phone : 314-935 6853 Fax: 314-935-6803 ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Scytonema sp. , Gram negative, oxygenic, photosynthetic, filamentous cyanobacterium (prokaryote). Cells are dividing at the tips of the filaments. Magnification: x240 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2561
center>,big>,big>,big>Cyanobacteria - "Blue-Green Algae",/big>,/big>,/big>,/center> ,br> [[Image:Anabaena sperica.jpg,thumb,200px,center,Anabaena sperica, a filamentous cyanobacterium ([[Phycobacteria]], [[Nostocales]], [[Nostocaceae]])]] ,br> ,table border="1" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="1" width="100%" > ,tr>,th bgcolor="#CCCCCC" colspan="2">Cyanobacteria,/th>,/tr> ,tr> ,td align="center" width="200" valign="top" >Linnaean Hierarchy,/td> ,td align="center" width="400" valign="top" >Local Cladogram,/td> ,/tr> ,tr> ,td align="justify" valign="top" > [[Domain]]: [[Eubacteria]],br> [[Division]]: Cyanobacteria,br> [[Order]]s: * [[Chroococcales]] * [[Prochlorales]] * [[Pleurocapsales]] * [[Oscillatoriales]] * [[Nostocales]] * [[Stigonematales]] ,/td> ,td align="justify" valign="top"> [[LUCA]] ,--[[Eubacteria]] (note) , ,--[[Clostridea]] , `--[[Cyanobacteria]] , see [[#Phylogeny,phylogeny section]] (below) for subgroups `--[[Neomura]] ,--[[Archaea]] ...
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, differ most prominently from other bacteria in that cyanobacteria possess chlorophyll A, while most bacteria do not contain chlorophyll. This gives them...
National Geographic. Merismopedia (from the Greek merismos (division) and the Greek pedion (plain) ) is a genus of cyanobacteria found on fresh and marine waters. It is ovoid or spherical in shape and are arranged in rows and flats, forming rectangular colonies held together by a mucilaginous matrix. Species in this genus divide in only two directions, creating a characteristic grid-like pattern. The cyanobacteria Merismopedia sp. are fairly common in several varieties of water habitats. Along with other cyanobacteria, they contribute to primary production through photosynthesis. They also can produce lipopolysaccharides which are known to create skin irritation and gastrointestinal distress (NOAA). Currently no genome sequencing projects of Merimopedia strains are ongoing. However, several similar blue-green algae cyanobacteria have been sequenced or are currently in progress. Although there is still a lot of data that needs to be collected from an individual genome sequencing of a Merismopedia ...
1. The strict photoautotrophic blue-green alga, Anacystis nidulans, has a high requirement for manganese; its absence from the culture medium causes significant changes in the morphology and the...
A Oceanografiaonline foi um dos sites pioneiros em divulgação da Oceanografia no Brasil. Em 2009 a Oceanografiaonline.com comemora seus 10 anos online ...
On June 12, 2017, JRWA hosted Hilary Snook of EPA to provide a workshop to area watershed and pond associations and town agents in order to launch public volunteer monitoring of our water bodies for cyanobacteria. Art Edgerton of Pembroke, and PACTV generously recorded the workshop and activities. More information is also available from EPA at https://cyanos.org/ where you can also download an app to participate in the nationwide effort to track and control dangerous blooms of cyanobacteria.. ...
During studies 44 years ago, researchers concluded that cyanobacteria were missing an essential enzyme of the metabolic pathway that is found in most other life forms," Bryant explained. "They concluded that cyanobacteria lacked the ability to make one enzyme, called 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and that this missing enzyme rendered the bacteria unable to produce a compound -- called succinyl-coenzyme A -- for the next step in the TCA cycle. The absence of this reaction was assumed to render the organisms unable to oxidize metabolites for energy production, although they could still use the remaining TCA-cycle reactions to produce substrates for biosynthetic reactions. As it turns out, the researchers just werent looking hard enough, so there was more work to be done." ...
Ive started to develop a small outbreak of cyanobacteria in my 90 gallon tank. Right now there are maybe 8-10 quarter sized green patches on the gravel. Nothing serious yet, it doesnt have much of a foothold. As Im sure someone is going to tell me, the cyanobacteria will only come back if I dont treat the cause of it. I believe Ive found the cause and Ive fixed it. I hadnt rinsed my filter media in about 2 months, which it just started developing about a month ago. It was extremely
ID ACAM1_1_PE4314 STANDARD; PRT; 54 AA. AC ACAM1_1_PE4314; B0CF05; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE RecName: Full=Sec-independent protein translocase protein tatA/E homolog DE 1; (ACAM1_1.PE4314). GN Name=tatA1; OrderedLocusNames=AM1_4425; OS ACARYOCHLORIS MARINA MBIC11017. OC Bacteria; Cyanobacteria; Acaryochloris. OX NCBI_TaxID=329726; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS ACAM1_1.PE4314. CC Acaryochloris marina MBIC11017, complete genome. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:B0CF05_ACAM1 CC -!- FUNCTION: Required for correct localization of precursor proteins CC bearing signal peptides with the twin arginine conserved motif CC S/T-R-R-X-F-L-K. This sec-independent pathway is termed TAT for CC twin-arginine translocation system. This system mainly transports CC proteins with bound cofactors that require folding prior to export CC (By similarity). CC -!- ...
ID ACAM1_1_PE5596 STANDARD; PRT; 824 AA. AC ACAM1_1_PE5596; B0BZD7; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=DNA gyrase, A subunit; (ACAM1_1.PE5596). GN Name=gyrA; OrderedLocusNames=AM1_5737; OS ACARYOCHLORIS MARINA MBIC11017. OC Bacteria; Cyanobacteria; Acaryochloris. OX NCBI_TaxID=329726; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS ACAM1_1.PE5596. CC Acaryochloris marina MBIC11017, complete genome. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:B0BZD7_ACAM1 CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000076278 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; B0BZD7; -. DR EMBL; CP000828; ABW30682.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; YP_001520001.1; NC_009925.1. DR ProteinModelPortal; B0BZD7; -. DR STRING; B0BZD7; -. DR GeneID; 5684524; -. DR GenomeReviews; CP000828_GR; AM1_5737. DR KEGG; amr:AM1_5737; -. DR OMA; ILAMPMR; -. DR ProtClustDB; CLSK2475890; -. DR GO; GO:0005694; C:chromosome; ...
Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharide/s (LPS) are frequently cited in the cyanobacteria literature as toxins responsible for a variety of heath effects in humans, from skin rashes to gastrointestinal, respiratory and allergic reactions. The attribution of toxic properties to cyanobacterial LPS dates from the 1970s, when it was thought that lipid A, the toxic moiety of LPS, was structurally and functionally conserved across all Gram-negative bacteria. However, more recent research has shown that this is not the case, and lipid A structures are now known to be very different, expressing properties ranging from LPS agonists, through weak endotoxicity to LPS antagonists. Although cyanobacterial LPS is widely cited as a putative toxin, most of the small number of formal research reports describe cyanobacterial LPS as weakly toxic compared to LPS from the Enterobacteriaceae. We systematically reviewed the literature on cyanobacterial LPS, and also examined the much lager body of literature relating to
Principal Investigator:NAKAMOTO Hitoshi, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:植物生理
Reference:http://huey.colorado.edu/cyanobacteria/about/cyanobacteria.php. Internet research seems to indicate that cyanobacteria are even larger, typically on the scale of 150 micrometers in size. While we have not tested the specific microbes associated with Algae Blooms, we have tested other pathogenic bacteria and two viruses, which are a small fraction of the size of these microbes.. To understand the difference between the size of pathogenic bacteria and viruses, we suggest the following web link as it will give you a great visual of the The University of Utah Cell Size and Scale Chart: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cells/scale/. Slide the scale at the bottom to see the size of virus vs bacteria vs other potential contaminates and magnify to greater levels. Black Berkey™ purification elements have been tested to remove both pathogenic bacteria and viruses to greater than the EPA purification standards. This suggests that larger bacteria, such as cyanobacteria, should also be ...
This document outlines a protocol for evaluating potential health concerns related to the presence of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in Massachusetts recreational freshwater bodies.
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria that share some properties with algae and are found naturally in lakes, streams, ponds, and other surface... read full [Essay Sample] for free
Does anybody have experience with using UltraLife blue-green algae remover (http://www.ultralifedirect.com/HTML/blue-green_remover.htm)? If it really is a more gentle approach, I would prefer using it, before I reach for antibiotics (erythromycin). Id like to hear about how effective it is, and if O2 levels and pH get affected drastically. Thanks!
Author Summary Cyanobacteria have been promoted as platforms for biofuel production due to their useful physiological properties such as photosynthesis, relatively rapid growth rates, ability to accumulate high amounts of intracellular compounds and tolerance to extreme environments. However, development of a computational model is an important step to synthesize biochemical, physiological and regulatory understanding of photoautotrophic metabolism (either qualitatively or quantitatively) at a systems level, to make metabolic engineering of these organisms tractable. When integrated with other genome-scale data (e.g., expression data), numerical simulations can provide experimentally testable predictions of carbon fluxes and reductant partitioning to different biosynthetic pathways and macromolecular synthesis. This work is the first to computationally explore the interactions between components of photosynthetic and respiratory systems in detail. In silico predictions obtained from model analysis
कधी कधी या तक्त्यात शेजारी असलेले वर्ग पुर्णत्वाने सारखे नसतात.तरीही,या त्रुटीखेरीज,हा तक्ता बरीच माहिती पुरवतो. [मराठी शब्द सुचवा] For example, Haeckel placed the red algae (Haeckels Florideae; modern Florideophyceae) and blue-green algae (Haeckels Archephyta; modern Cyanobacteria) in his Plantae, but in modern classifications they are considered protists and bacteria respectively. [मराठी शब्द सुचवा] संदर्भ ↑ Carl R. Woese, Otto Kandler, Mark L. Wheelis: "Towards a Natural System of Organisms: Proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya", doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576 ...
View Notes - Diversity Quiz 1 Answers from BIOEE 2780 at Cornell. 1. Cyanobacteria had a notable influence on their environment because: a) they were able to use H2S from thermal vents to produce
I have devised a engine/program which can predict that a cyanobacteria will produce higher amount of fatty acid or not by judging some of the features of genes like GC content, length, number of amino acids etc ...
Download Free Full-Text of an article COMPARISON OF THE ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF CYANOBACTERIA COLLECTED FROM IRANIAN SOUTH OIL
The plant tank has always had an algae problem. Initially it was overrun by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), and then it had an infestation of a brownish-looking alga. Adding some corys helped, since they disturbed the bottom and broke up the near-continuous mat. When I finally added filtration things improved a lot. Recently, however, algal populations started to climb again, and I had a small bloom of cyanobacteria. While I was gone over the weekend, I decided to switch off the light and just give the tank a little natural light that comes through the window. The effect was remarkable - after just 2.5 days of low light, the algal had thinned significantly. The plants look fine, the algae does not ...
yanucamide A: a depsipeptide from an assemblage of the marine cyanobacteria Lyngbya majuscula and Schizothrix species; structure in first source
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Cyanobacteria/Melainabacteria group; Cyanobacteria; Gloeoemargaritales; Gloeomargaritaceae; Gloeomargarita; Gloeomargarita ...
Remove the white tape from the gel. Notice the horizontal line under the white tape? Later you will run the gel until the blue stain frontier reaches this line. Flush the wells with water. Mark the bottom of each well with a sharpie. This is a useful guide for your pipette when you insert your samples. ...
For ligation, we use the Roche 5min quick ligase kit. Vials 2 and 1 are proprietary, but Vial 3 is generic T4 DNA ligase. It is still unknown if a 1:3 volume ratio or a 1:3 molar ratio is ideal for ligations. I personally use the latter and would recommend that over the former. 1:1 may be good for small inserts, big vectors; we havent tested it though so were not sure. For J3011+J36010: ...
Blue-green algae, or ‘aquatic cyanobacteria’, can produce harmful toxins and present a serious health hazard when they bloom in large numbers. ...
W.M. W.M. Gram £5.69 Gram £5.49 Saf. & F.G. £5.49 Phylum: Chlorophyta (Green Algae) Anabaena filaments W.M. H & F.G. £11.95 ...
Gliding Cyanobacterial filaments A thin slime sheath, external to the oscillin layer, encloses the cell or filament. Cyanobacteria may be immotile, or they move
http://www.schweizerbart.de/papers/nova_hedwigia/detail/92/76040 Johansen, J.R., L. Kováčik, D.A. Casamatta, K. Fučíková & J. Kaštovský. 2011. Utility of 16S-23S ITS sequence and secondary structure for recognition of intrageneric and intergeneric limits within cyanobacterial taxa: Leptolyngbya corticola sp. nov. (Pseudanabaenaceae, Cyanobacteria). Nova Hedwigia 92(3-4): 283-302 ...
... color to certain blue-green algae. It also facilitates a reaction necessary to the survival of this species; we can follow the kinetics of this reaction by measuring the conversion of Substance X to Substance Y at various times during purification ...
tolybyssidin B: isolated from the culture medium of mass cultured cyanobacterium Tolypothrix byssoidea; structure in first source
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Marine cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis) is a Gram-negative, oxygenic, photosynthetic, filamentous cyanobacterium (prokaryote). Spirulina platensis (also known as Spirulina pacifica or Arthrospira platensis) is a marine cyanobacterium in the family Phormidiaceae. A. platensis is known throughout the world for its potential nutritional value. It is one of the rare edible bacteria due to its low purine concentration, which allows it to pose very minimal risk of uric acid build up in the body. The supplement called Spirulina is made in Hawaii, USA. Magnification: x160 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2762
Ingestion of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus by the mixotrophic red tide ciliate Mesodinium rubrum - grazing impact;ingestion;Mesodinium;mixotrophy;Synechococcus;
A study conducted by Steiger et al., 2005, revealed that Gloeobacter violaceus is a cyanobacterium isolated from other groups by lack of thylakoids and unique structural features of its photosynthetic protein complexes. They investigated carotenoid biosynthesis with respect to the carotenoids formed and the genes and enzymes involved. Their carotenoid analysis identified ss-carotene as major carotenoid and echinenone as a minor component. This composition is quite unique and the cellular amounts are up to 10-fold lower than in other unicellular cyanobacteria. Also, carotenoid biosynthesis was also found to be up-regulated in a light-dependent manner. This enhanced biosynthesis partially compensates for photooxidation especially of ss-carotene. They also sequenced the genome of Gloeobacter violaceus and analyzed several gene candidates homologous to carotenogenic genes from other organisms obtained. Functional expression of all candidates and complementation in Escherichia coli led to the ...
Other names: Aphanocapsa sp. (strain N-1), Aphanocapsa sp. N-1, S. sp. PCC 6803, Synechocystis, Synechocystis PCC6803, Synechocystis sp. (ATCC 27184), Synechocystis sp. (PCC 6803), Synechocystis sp. (strain PCC 6803), Synechocystis sp. ATCC 27184, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 A, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 B, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 ...
Other names: Aphanocapsa sp. (strain N-1), Aphanocapsa sp. N-1, S. sp. PCC 6803, Synechocystis, Synechocystis PCC6803, Synechocystis sp. (ATCC 27184), Synechocystis sp. (PCC 6803), Synechocystis sp. (strain PCC 6803), Synechocystis sp. ATCC 27184, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 A, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 B, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 ...
Pseudanabaena species are poorly known filamentous bloom-forming cyanobacteria closely related to Limnothrix. We isolated 28 Pseudanabaena strains from the Baltic Sea (BS) and the Albufera de Valencia (AV; Spain). By combining phenotypic and genotypic approaches, the phylogeny, diversity and evolutionary diversification of these isolates were explored. Analysis of the in vivo absorption spectra of the Pseudanabaena strains revealed two coexisting pigmentation phenotypes: (i) phycocyanin-rich (PC-rich) strains and (ii) strains containing both PC and phycoerythrin (PE). Strains of the latter phenotype were all capable of complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA). About 65 kb of the Pseudanabaena genomes were sequenced through a multilocus sequencing approach including the sequencing of the16 and 23S rRNA genes, the ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), the cpcBA operon encoding PC and the IGS between cpcA and cpcB. In addition, the presence of nifH, one of the ...
Growth of the prevalent marine organism Trichodesmium can be limited by iron in natural and laboratory settings. This study investigated the iron uptake mechanisms that the model organism T. erythraeum IMS101 uses to acquire iron from inorganic iron and iron associated with the weak ligand complex, ferric citrate. IMS101 was observed to employ two different iron uptake mechanisms: superoxide-mediated reduction of inorganic iron in the surrounding milieu and a superoxide-independent uptake system for ferric citrate complexes. While the detailed pathway of ferric citrate utilization remains to be elucidated, transport of iron from this complex appears to involve reduction and/or exchange of the iron out of the complex prior to uptake, either at the outer membrane of the cell or within the periplasmic space. Various iron uptake strategies may allow Trichodesmium to effectively scavenge iron in oligotrophic ocean environments.. ...
Cyanobacteria are present in most aquatic systems, and pelagic bloom-forming species often flourish in lakes. Since blooms of cyanobacteria are undesirable for several reasons, e.g. they can result in foul odours and tastes as well as toxicity, these organisms have been subject to an extensive amount of research around the globe. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain the strong competitive ability of cyanobacteria in phytoplankton communities. In this thesis results are presented from field and laboratory experiments on the influence of inorganic nitrogen and iron nutrition on cyanobacterial population dynamics. The results are discussed in the light of previously published theories.. It was hypothesised that cyanobacteria are favoured over eukaryotic phytoplankton when inorganic nitrogen is present in the form of ammonium rather than nitrate, and vice versa. This hypothesis was supported by three field-enclosure experiments performed in the moderately eutrophic Lake Erken in ...
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes characterized by an unusually high metabolic versatility, therefore representing a promising source for biofuels and high value bioproducts with a wide range of commercial applications. However, the enormous potential of cyanobacteria for carbon sequestration technologies and end-product development remains far more unexplored than that of green microalgae. Here we present the first results of the research project "Bioremediation of methane from mine ventilation air" jointly funded by the Advanced Manufacturing Cooperative Research Centres (AMCRC) and MBD Energy Ltd, Australia, which aims to remediate CH4 and CO2 emissions from a coal mine using a dual bioreactor system of methanotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria. Strain selection was based on a culture collection of native cyanobacteria from tropical freshwaters and soils in Queensland, NE Australia, comprising at least 5 different genera whose phylogeny and biochemical profiles (lipid and ...
Previous microarray analyses have shown a key role for the two-component system PhoBR (SYNW0947, SYNW0948) in the regulation of P transport and metabolism in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH8102. However, there is some evidence that another regulator, SYNW1019 (PtrA), probably under the control of PhoBR, is involved in the response to P depletion. PtrA is a member of the cAMP receptor protein transcriptional regulator family that shows homology to NtcA, the global nitrogen regulator in cyanobacteria. To define the role of this regulator, we constructed a mutant by insertional inactivation and compared the physiology of wild-type Synechcococcus sp. WH8102 with the ptrA mutant under P-replete and P-stress conditions. In response to P stress the ptrA mutant failed to upregulate phosphatase activity. Microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR indicate that a subset of the Pho regulon is controlled by PtrA, including two phosphatases, a predicted phytase and a gene of unknown function psip1 ...
Amoebae are unicellular eukaryotes that consume microbial prey through phagocytosis, playing a role in shaping microbial food webs. Many amoebal species can be cultivated axenically in rich media or monoxenically with a single bacterial prey species. Here, we characterize heterolobosean amoeba LPG3, a recent natural isolate, which is unable to grow on unicellular cyanobacteria, its primary food source, in the absence of a heterotrophic bacterium, a Pseudomonas species coisolate. To investigate the molecular basis of this requirement for heterotrophic bacteria, we performed a screen using the defined nonredundant transposon library of Vibrio cholerae, which implicated genes in corrinoid uptake and biosynthesis. Furthermore, cobalamin synthase deletion mutations in V. cholerae and the Pseudomonas species coisolate do not support the growth of amoeba LPG3 on cyanobacteria. While cyanobacteria are robust producers of a corrinoid variant called pseudocobalamin, this variant does not support the ...
Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic organisms that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. The fresh water cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a model organism for the study of photosynthesis and gene regulation, and for biotechnological applications. Besides several freshwater cyanobacteria, S. elongatus 7942 also contains multiple chromosomal copies per cell at all stages of its cell cycle. Here, we describe a method for the direct visualization of multicopy chromosomes in S. elongatus 7942 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
The tRNALeu (UAA) intron has been recorded in the plastid genome of many algae and land plants and was the first intron to be discovered in cyanobacteria. In all known cases it interrupts the tRNALeu anticodon loop at a conserved position (U-intron-AA). Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, some involved in symbiotic associations with a wide range of organisms. The most studied associations are those with plants, where strains of Nostoc are the common cyanobacterial partner. In this thesis two aspects of the biology of the cyanobacterial tRNALeu (UAA) intron are focused: first, the use of the intron as a genetic marker for studying the diversity and specificity of two cyanobacterial symbiosis (bryophytes and cycads) and second, the evolutionary patterns of the intron by using the unique data set generated from the diversity analysis.. From the studies, many different Nostoc strains are involved in the two symbiotic associations, although no variation was observed ...
Zinc is essential for many cellular processes, including DNA synthesis, transcription, and translation, but excess can be toxic. A zinc-induced gene, smtA, is required for normal zinc-tolerance in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942. Here we report that the protein SmtA contains a cleft lined with Cys-sulfur and His-imidazole ligands that binds four zinc ions in a Zn4Cys9His2 cluster. The thiolate sulfurs of five Cys ligands provide bridges between the two ZnCys4 and two ZnCys3His sites, giving two fused six-membered rings with distorted boat conformations. The inorganic core strongly resembles the Zn4Cys11 cluster of mammalian metallothionein, despite different amino acid sequences, a different linear order of the ligands, and presence of histidine ligands. Also, SmtA contains elements of secondary structure not found in metallothioneins. One of the two Cys4-coordinated zinc ions in SmtA readily exchanges with exogenous metal (111Cd), whereas the other is inert. The thiolate sulfur ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the role of a mechanosensitive channel in osmotic down shock adaptation in Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. AU - Nanatani, Kei. AU - Shijuku, Toshiaki. AU - Akai, Masaro. AU - Yukutake, Yoshinori. AU - Yasui, Masato. AU - Hamamoto, Shin. AU - Onai, Kiyoshi. AU - Morishita, Megumi. AU - Ishiura, Masahiro. AU - Uozumi, Nobuyuki. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Synechocystis sp strain PCC 6803 contains one gene encoding a putative large conductance mechanosensitive channel homolog [named SyMscL (slr0875)]. However, it is unclear whether SyMscL contributes to the adaptation to hypoosmotic stress in Synechocystis. Here we report the in vivo characteristics of SyMscL. SyMscL was mainly expressed in the plasma membrane of Synechocystis. Cell volume monitoring using stopped-flow spectrophotometry showed that ΔsymscL cells swelled more rapidly than wild-type cells under hypoosmotic stress conditions. Expression of symscL was under circadian control, and its peak ...
Spirulina is ranked by AARP as the #1 superfood for extending your lifespan, and the UN has identified it as a primary ingredient in the fight against malnutrition worldwide. But what exactly is spirulina? You may be surprised!. Spirulina: One of Natures Near-Perfect Foods. Spirulina is similar to sea vegetables such as dulse, kelp, nori, kombu, arame, wakame, etc. Along with its cousin chlorella (another of my favorites) spirulina is a member of the "blue-green" family-but this family is actually not algae.. Although you will often hear the term "blue-green algae," spirulina and its kin are actually cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are classified as bacteria because their genetic material is not organized in a membrane-bound nucleus. Unlike other bacteria, they have chlorophyll and use the sun as an energy source, in the way plants and algae do.. Spirulina is primarily produced by two species: Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima.. One of the special traits of spirulina is its rich protein ...
Cyanobacteria, a type of bacteria that performs photosynthesis, utilize a photosensor to maximize their light-harvesting capacity under different light environments. A joint research team led by Toyohashi University of Technology found a new photosensor that regulates yellow-green light-harvesting antenna in cyanobacteria. Further analysis of the cyanobacterial genomes revealed that this photosensor emerged about 2.1 billion years ago or more and evolved through genetic exchange between cyanobacteria.
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, occurs in both salt and freshwater, but the blooms are of most concern in freshwater ponds and rivers. These blooms look like mats or thick paint on the surfaces of water. Blooms frequently appear blue or green but sometimes appear brown or red. These blooms can be harmful to people and animals. Contact with cyanobacteria can cause skin and eye irritation. Swallowing a small amount of water contaminated with cyanobactera can cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Drinking large amounts may cause liver or neurological damage. Small children and pets are more susceptible to the effects of cyanobacteria than adults. Dogs, in particular, can get very ill and even die from ingesting cyanobacteria, either by directly ingesting it or licking it off their fur ...
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
NaturalNews) Todays scientists are only beginning to grasp the incredible nutritional value of blue-green algae and spirulina, but these superfoods have a reputation that reaches far back into history. A form of blue-green algae was consumed regularly hundreds of years ago by Aztecs, while spirulina was a favorite among native peoples in the Sahara desert region of Africa. Today blue-green algae and spirulina are some of the top superfoods, providing extraordinary nutrition in a time when most food sources are of poor nutritional quality ...
Spirulina is ranked by AARP as the #1 superfood for extending your lifespan, and the UN has identified it as a primary ingredient in the fight against malnutrition worldwide. But what exactly is spirulina? You may be surprised!. Spirulina: One of Natures Near-Perfect Foods. Spirulina is similar to sea vegetables such as dulse, kelp, nori, kombu, arame, wakame, etc. Along with its cousin chlorella (another of my favorites) spirulina is a member of the "blue-green" family-but this family is actually not algae.. Although you will often hear the term "blue-green algae," spirulina and its kin are actually cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are classified as bacteria because their genetic material is not organized in a membrane-bound nucleus. Unlike other bacteria, they have chlorophyll and use the sun as an energy source, in the way plants and algae do.. Spirulina is primarily produced by two species: Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima.. One of the special traits of spirulina is its rich protein ...
Oxygenic photosynthesis is widely accepted as the most important bioenergetic process happening in Earths surface environment(1). It is thought to have evolved within the cyanobacterial lineage, but it has been difficult to determine when it began. Evidence based on the occurrence and appearance of stromatolites(2) and microfossils indicates that phototrophy occurred as long ago as 3,465 Myr although no definite physiological inferences can be he made from these objects. Carbon isotopes and other geological phenomena(4,5) provide clues but are also equivocal, Biomarkers are potentially useful because the three domains of extant life-Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya-have signature membrane lipids with recalcitrant carbon skeletons. These lipids turn into hydrocarbons in sediments and can be found wherever the record is sufficiently well preserved. Here we show that 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyols occur in a high proportion of cultured cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial mats, Their 2-methylhopane ...
Synechococcus elongatus ATCC ® 33912D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 TypeStrain=False Application:
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Cyanobacteria are diverse in their habitats, structure, and metabolism that can grow as unicellular or long filaments and secreting high molecular mass polymers (extracellular polymer substances, EPS), which can either be released into the surrounding environment or remain attached to the cell surface. Four different cyanobacterial environmental samples (soil crust, microbial mats, pond water and marine bloom) were studied to compare between the cyanobacteria species that grow and form cyanomatrix and cyanofilms in those environmental habitats using light and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Diatoms were also detected with cyanobacteria at microbial mats and pond water samples. All samples had variable concentrations and compositions of extracellular matrix and biofilm. Microscopic observation and analyses also revealed complex network of filamentous cyanobacteria and extracellular polymer secretions, which binds and traps particles of soil and minerals ...
Nutrient regulation of alkaline phosphatase (phosphomonoesterase - PMEase) was studied in some diazotrophic cyanobacterial strains like Anabaena variabilis, Anabaena torulosa, Calothrix brevissima, Scytonema javanicum and Hapalosiphon intricatus, in
Cyanobacteria, previously known as Blue Green Algae (BGA) are oxygenic photosynthetic gram negative prokaryotes (Whitton and Potts 2000; Olson 2006). They are widespread, extremely adaptable and successful group, colonizing in diverse ecosystems (Whitton 2012). Further, they exhibit the most diverse and complex morphology among all prokaryotic groups. Their external gross appearance depends on their external environment and is often unicellular, colonial and multicellular filamentous forms, with colours ranging from dark green, blue-green, yellow, brown to black, and rarely red (Kulasooriya 2011). Traditionally, cyanobacterial classification has been based on morphological characters, which can vary in different environmental or growth conditions and even can lose during cultivation (Castenholz and Waterbury 1989; Zapomělová et al. 2008; Hasler et al. 2011). Further, certain species cannot grow in the laboratory conditions (uncultured cyanobacteria) (Ward et al. 1995) and therefore it is ...
ABSTRACT: Stromatolites are complex lithified structures with a well-defined layered structure thought to have been formed by trapping and binding of sediment particles by micro-organisms, especially cyanobacteria. Modern marine stromatolites in the Bahamas live in a high-energy environment (surf zone) and are regularly buried by moving sands. We investigated stromatolite cyanobacterial photophysiology ex situ, during and after sand burial using variable fluorescence studies. Buried samples inactivated their photosynthetic electron transport, but only when oxygen concentrations decreased to low levels. Post-burial, the stromatolite cyanobacterial community reactivated its photosynthetic activity within 1 to 2 h, but this activation was light dependent. It is therefore speculated that the redox state of the plastoquinone pool determines the inactivation/reactivation processes. The ability of cyanobacteria to survive and recover from burial by sediment could be a fundamental attribute that has ...
Common Name Standardized: spirulina Botanical Name Arthrospira platensis (Nordst.) GomontPlant Family: Oscillatoriaceae Synonyms Sp
Blue-green algae can be one of the trickiest aquarium problems to fix. Here are a few tips, and why blue-green algae is different from other types of algae in your fish tank.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of barium and nickel on the growth of Anacystis nidulans. AU - Lee, Lee. AU - Lustigman, B.. PY - 1996/6/1. Y1 - 1996/6/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029659917&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/s001289900142. DO - 10.1007/s001289900142. M3 - Article. C2 - 8661890. AN - SCOPUS:0029659917. VL - 56. SP - 985. EP - 992. JO - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. JF - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. SN - 0007-4861. IS - 6. ER - ...