Wood is an important raw material with rapidly increasing worldwide demand and, as a result, plant biologists have been paying more attention to understanding the genetic regulation of wood formation. Transcriptome sequencing is an important tool that is increasingly being used to discover the genes that control economic traits. Although traditional EST sequencing methods, such as Sanger sequencing, have made significant contributions to functional genomics research, the method is costly, time-consuming, and sensitive to cloning biases. Because of the potential for high throughput, accuracy and low cost, next-generation sequencing (NGS) is now being widely applied to analyze transcriptomes qualitatively and quantitatively. In this study, the de novo transcriptome sequencing analysis of Chinese fir was conducted using the Illumina platform. As a result, approximately 40.22 million paired-end reads were obtained, generating 3.62 Gbp of sequence data. The large number of reads and associated ...
Abstract: Schima superba is a good species for fire resistance. Through a comparison among S. superba forest belt and the neighboring flammable Pinus massoniana and Cunninghamia lanceolata stands, the authors examined the differences of vertical and horizontal community structures and of spatial distribution of their combustible mass to identify the fire resistance mechanism. P. massoniana and C. lanceolata forest stands had continuous vertical and horizontal structures from arbor, bush to grass, but the S. superba forest stand had weak continuous vertical and horizontal structure and a relatively simple structure with less bush and grass. Flammability analysis of the combustible mass indicated that average percentage of hardflammable mass in P. massoniana and C. lanceolata forest stands was obviously less than that in S. superba. of over 8years age P. massoniana and C. lanceolata forest stands had higher percentages of ...
This Stonegate Designs Double Adirondack Chair with Table is a great way to enjoy the outdoors with a friend or loved one and a couple of cold beverages. Durable fir wood (Cunninghamia lanceolata) construction looks great painted, stained or left unfinished.
The following papers were published in journals, books or conference proceedings or presented at conferences by OEH staff during 2011-12. For papers published and presented before this, visit the staff papers archive.. Alexander B, Ling J, Heagney E & Saintilan N 2011, The uptake and use of science-based tools and knowledge in water and wetland management, 14th International River Symposium, September, Brisbane. Auld TD, Bower S & Hutton I 2011, Assessing the conservation status of the grass Elymus multiflorus subsp. Kingianus on Lord Howe Island, NSW, Cunninghamia 12, pp 137-42. Barnes P, Wilson BR, Reid N, Koen TB, Lockwood P & Lamb DW 2011, Litterfall and associated nutrient pools extend beyond the canopy of scattered eucalypt trees in temperate pastures, Plant and Soil 345(1-2), pp 339-52. Blackmore CJ, Jarman M, Craven P & Carlile N 2011, Seabird islands no. 3/1: Belowla Island, New South Wales, Corella 35, pp 82-84. Borchand PB & Eldridge DJ 2011, The geomorphic signature of ...
Axon Diameter Distributions (ADDs) change during brain development and are altered in several brain pathologies. Mapping ADDs non-invasively using dMRI could provide a useful biomarker, but existing methods are either parametric, orientation dependent, surmmarize the whole ADD as a single measure or use non-standard protocols. We propose to estimate the ADD from an orientation-invariant PGSE protocol optimized for axon diameter sensitivity, using a discrete linear model with smoothness and sparsity regularization. To our knowledge, we are the first to report orientationally invarant ADD estimates from dMRI data.. Keywords: non-parametric ADD mapping ; microstructure ; diffusion MRI. ...
New types of distribution functions are needed to model the dynamics of stands where important age classes are represented by few trees. In this study the gamma shape mixture model and two simulation
Romascano, David Paul Roger; Barakovic, Muhamed; Auría Rasclosa, Anna; Dyrby, Tim B.; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Daducci, Alessandro
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div class=figure_box, ,figure class=box , ,a class=fb rel=polymer2 href=http://openwetware.org/images/7/71/Di_block_polymer.png title=Di-block polymer: Chemical structure of the pH-responsive di-block polymer. The porosity of the walls changes according to pH (source: Yassin et al., 2012). , ,img src=http://openwetware.org/images/a/a5/Di_block_polymer_thumb.png alt= /, ,/a, ,figcaption,Di-block polymer ,/figcaption, ,/figure, ,figure class=box , ,a class=fb rel=polymer2 href=http://openwetware.org/images/2/2c/Poly2_011.png title=Di-block polymersomes: Cryo-TEM image of Di-block polymersomes showing uniformly distributed polymersomes., ,img src=http://openwetware.org/images/e/ec/Poly2_thumb_thumb.png alt= /, ,/a, ,figcaption,Cryo-TEM ,/figcaption, ,/figure, ,figure class=box , ,a class=fb rel=polymer2 href=http://openwetware.org/images/f/f9/DLS_poly_2.png title=DLS measurement: diameter distribution of the particles shows a peak at 140 nm., ,img ...
The reniform nematode can also cause stand loss (Figure 4). There are no obvious symptoms on plants early in the season, but symptoms may become more apparent later in the season, such as stunting and nutrient deficiency symptoms in the foliage.. The reniform nematode can be diagnosed from soil samples. See https://bit.ly/2KxHjTp for details on sampling and submission of samples to the Texas Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic. If the nematode is present in a field, great care should be taken to prevent its movement to other fields via soil attached to implements.. The nematode is very difficult to manage once it is present in a field and its presence could limit long-term productivity. In contrast, seedling diseases caused by fungi do not pose a long-term threat to productivity. The reniform nematode can be diagnosed from soil samples.. See https://bit.ly/2KxHjTp for details on sampling and submission of samples to the Texas Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic. If the nematode is present in a field, ...
This study considered stand level aspen populations in a boreal nature reserve. The analysis was based on diameter distribution, spatial pattern of aspen trees and reliability figures of forest attribute estimates of stand level inventory. Our unique data included mapped aspen trees in three spruce dominated forest stands where local aspen populations have survived during the past 100 years (Vehmas et al. 2009b). These stands also represent favourable growing environments of aspen. The proportion of aspen in these stands is considerably higher than the average value of 1.5% in Finland (Tomppo et al. 2001) being 16.3%, 5.5% and 16.2% of basal area in stands 1, 2 and 3, respectively. These statistics are for the forest area in general, but in conservation areas the proportion of aspen is usually considerably larger. It also should be noted that our study stands were rather large in size compared to the average stand size, which is ca. 2 ha in southern Finland. However, with respect to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct synthesis of methanol by partial oxidation of methane with oxygen over cobalt modified mesoporous H-ZSM-5 catalyst. AU - Krisnandi, Yuni Krisyuningsih. AU - Samodro, Bayu Adi. AU - Sihombing, Riwandi. AU - Howe, Russell Francis. N1 - This work was funded by International Collaboration Research Grant UI No.1832/H2.R12/HKP.05.00 Perjanjian/2014.. PY - 2015/11. Y1 - 2015/11. N2 - Partial oxidation of methane over mesoporous catalyst cobalt modified H-ZSM-5 has been carried out. Mesoporous Na-ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 35.4) was successfully synthesized using double template method which has high surface area (450 m2/g) and average pore diameter distribution of 1.9 nm. The as-synthesized Na-ZSM-5 was converted to H-ZSM-5 through multi-exchange treatment with ammonium ion solution, causing decreased crystallinity and surface area, but increased porous diameter, due to dealumination during treatment process. Moreover, H-ZSM-5 was loaded with cobalt (Co = 2.5% w) by the incipient ...
We examined the effect of growth hormone (GH) on connective tissue of tendon and skeletal muscle during immobilisation and re-training in humans. Young men (20-30 years; n=20) were randomly assigned to daily recombinant GH (rhGH)(33-50μg/kg/d) or placebo (Plc), and had one leg immobilised for two weeks followed by six weeks of strength training. Cross sectional area (CSA), maximal muscle strength (MVC) and biomechanical properties of m.quadriceps and patellar tendon were determined. Muscle and tendon biopsies were analysed for mRNA of collagen (COL-1A1/3A1), insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1Ea/Ec), lysyloxidase (LOX), matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2 and -9), decorin and tenascin-C. Fibril morphology was analysed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) to detect changes in fibril diameter distribution. In muscle the CSA and MVC declined with immobilisation, and recovered with rehabilitation similar in both groups. Likewise, both groups increased in IGF-1Ea/Ec and COL-1A1/3A1 expression in ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
We are recruiting one Ph.D. student (UW-Madison) and three postdoctoral researchers (UW-Madison, UC-Berkeley, and the JGI) to work on a DOE-funded multi-institutional project investigating the role of microbes in post-fire soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics. Post-fire soil systems have fundamental direct and indirect effects on global C storage. For example, fires result in the transformation of a large pool of C, which persists as dead and partially pyrolyzed material with long residence times and constitutes a significant C pool in fire-prone ecosystems. In addition, fire-induced hydrophobic soil layers, caused by condensation of pyrolyzed waxes and lipids, may increase post-fire erosion and lead to long-term productivity losses. Soil microbes are likely responsible for the cycling of all of these compounds, yet little is currently known about the organisms or metabolic processes involved.. Successful candidates will join a dynamic team of researchers to use a systems biology approach, ...
Coreopsis lanceolata, commonly called lanceleaf coreopsis, is a Missouri native wildflower which typically grows to 2 tall and occurs in prairies, glades, fields and roadsides primarily in the Ozark region of the State. Features solitary, yellow, daisy-like flowers (1-2" diameter) with eight yellow rays (toothed at the tips) and flat yellow center disks. Flowers bloom atop slender, erect stems from spring to early summer. Narrow, hairy, lance-shaped leaves (2-6" long) appear primarily near the base of the plant in basal tufts. Lower basal leaves are mostly entire, while smaller stem leaves may be pinnately lobed. Plants in the genus Coreopsis are sometimes commonly called lanceleaf tickseed in reference to the resemblance of the seeds to ticks. Many excellent cultivars of this species are available in commerce ...
The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus ...
Flower unisexual, ± radial; sepals generally 3 5, free or fused; petals generally 0; stamens 1 many, free or filaments fused; ovary superior, chambers 1 4, styles free or fused, simple or ...
Restoration of old-growth forest structure is an emerging silvicultural goal, especially in those regions where old-growth abundance falls below the historic range of variability. However, longitudinal studies of old-growth dynamics that can inform silvicultural and policy options are few. We analyzed the change in structure, including stand density, diameter distribution, and the abundance of large live, standing dead, and downed dead trees on 58 late-successional and old-growth plots in Maine, USA, and compared these to regional data from the U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Structural dynamics on the late-successional plots reflected orderly change associated with density-dependent growth and mortality, but dynamics on the old-growth plots were more variable. Some plots experienced heavy mortality associated with beech bark disease. Diameter distributions conformed poorly to a classic exponential distribution, and did not converge toward such a distribution at the plot scale. Although
This work studied the hydraulic characteristics and physiological behavior of two trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raft) varieties-Flying Dragon (FD) and Rubidoux (RT)-with contrasting size-controlling potential when used as rootstocks for citrus trees. Thus, Valencia orange scions growing on RT root system develop about 40 % more biomass than scions on FD. The anatomical study of xylem root tissue of both rootstocks showed that the number of vessels per cross-sectional area in RT almost doubled that found in FD, whereas diameter distribution did not vary significantly. Hydraulic resistance determined in rootstocks, and bud union segments were, respectively, 2- and 3.4-fold higher in trees on FD than in trees on RT. Root systems accounted for 46.5 and 55.2 % of whole-plant hydraulic resistance, whereas bud union segments represented 7.5 and 14.6 % of this parameter, the dwarfing rootstock (FD) having the highest values. Reduced hydraulic conductance in plants on FD rootstock diminished ...
Cardiac disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and current treatments are either ineffective at significantly prolonging lifespan or are unavailable to the majority of patients in need due to a lack of supply. Application of engineered heart tissue is a promising method to repair damaged hearts, but there are many challenges to generate functional cardiac tissue which can integrate with damaged myocardium. We have developed a highly scalable method for producing cardiac tissue from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) using poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEGDA) based hydrogels with a conjugated fibrinogen protein functional motif. Hydrogels consisted of dispersed microsphere cell-carriers to be utilized as in vitro differentiation systems or as a possible injectable delivery vehicle. Cells were encapsulated within the hydrogel polymer precursor and microspheres were generated via water-in-oil emulsification. The generation of microspheres with reproducible diameter distributions ...
Species: Salvia lanceolata. Name. Salvia lanceolata Brouss.. References. Elenchus Plantarum Horti Botanici Monspeliensis. app. 15. 1806. ...
Citation. Kirkness, E. F., Venter, J. C., Sealfon, S.C.. Receptor Cloning: High Throughput Sequencing of CDNA Tags for Identification of Novel Genes.. Receptor Molecular Biology. 1995 Mar 01; 25: 126-141.. ...
The leaves are trifoliolate, leathery, alternately arranged on the stem, and hairless. The leaflets are narrowly elliptic in shape, with the margins entire and markedly wavy; the apex tapers to a more or less rounded point. As the plant belongs to the Rutaceae family, the leaves are densely covered with gland-dots and have a lemony scent when crushed.. The flowers are small, inconspicuous, star-shaped and arranged in terminal heads or panicles and are greenish yellow in colour. The male and female flowers are borne on different trees. The white ironwood flowers from December to March.. ...
Zur Revision der Gattung Achnanthes sensu lato (Bacillariophyceae): Achnantheiopsis, eine neue Gattung mit dem Typus generis A. lanceolata. Revision of the genus Achnanthes sensu lato (Bacillariophyceae): Achnantheiopsis, a new genus with the type species A. lanceolata ...
An inkjet ink including water; a particulate pigment; a dispersant; and an emulsion, wherein the particulate pigment has an average particle diameter (D50) not greater than 100 nm, and the standard deviation of particle diameter distribution of the particulate pigment is less than one half of the average particle diameter (D50). An inkjet cartridge containing the inkjet ink. An inkjet recording apparatus including the inkjet cartridge and a carriage configured to carry the ink cartridge. An inkjet recording method including discharging the inkjet ink from a nozzle of a recording head to form an ink image on a recording paper. An image formed on a recording material in accordance with the inkjet recording method.
Radial Breathing Mode (RBM) is specific to SWNT and usually observed in the region from 150 cm-1 to 300 cm-1. Raman peak position, which is inversely proportional to the tube diameter, of this mode is used to classify the diameter distribution in carbon nanotubes. The G band, a tangential shear mode, corresponds to the stretching mode of the carbon-carbon bond in the graphite plane. The fine structure seen in the G-band depends on tube diameter and chirality. The line shape of the band can be used to help identify metallic and semi conducting nanotubes. The D band is often referred as the disorder or defect band. The D band/ G band ratio is usually used for evaluating the quality of carbon nanotubes ...
The range of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is expected to shift northward in accord with changing climate. However, a pattern of increased sugar maple abundance has been reported from sites throughout the eastern US. The goal of our study was to examine the stability of the sugar maple southern range boundary by analyzing its demography through the southern extent of its distribution. We analyzed changes in sugar maple basal area, relative frequency, relative density, relative importance values, diameter distributions, and the ratio of sapling biomass to total sugar maple biomass at three spatial positions near the southern boundary of the species range using forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program over a 20 year observation period (1990-2010). We contend that the southern range boundary of sugar maple neither contracted nor expanded during this period. We speculated that biophysical changes caused by succession may provide a short-lived ...
The range of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is expected to shift northward in accord with changing climate. However, a pattern of increased sugar maple abundance has been reported from sites throughout the eastern US. The goal of our study was to examine the stability of the sugar maple southern range boundary by analyzing its demography through the southern extent of its distribution. We analyzed changes in sugar maple basal area, relative frequency, relative density, relative importance values, diameter distributions, and the ratio of sapling biomass to total sugar maple biomass at three spatial positions near the southern boundary of the species range using forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program over a 20 year observation period (1990-2010). We contend that the southern range boundary of sugar maple neither contracted nor expanded during this period. We speculated that biophysical changes caused by succession may provide a short-lived ...
Forest health is a complex concept including many ecosystem functions, interactions and values. We develop a quantitative system applicable to many forest types to assess tree mortality with respect to stable forest structure and composition. We quantify impacts of observed tree mortality on structure by comparison to baseline mortality, and then develop a system that distinguishes between structurally stable and unstable forests. An empirical multivariate index of structural sustainability and a threshold value (70.6) derived from 22 nontropical tree species datasets differentiated structurally sustainable from unsustainable diameter distributions. Twelve of 22 species populations were sustainable with a mean score of 33.2 (median = 27.6). Ten species populations were unsustainable with a mean score of 142.6 (median = 130.1). Among them, Fagus grandifolia, Pinus lambertiana, P. ponderosa, and Nothofagus solandri were attributable to known disturbances; whereas the unsustainability of Abies balsamea,
Chemical investigation of Maesa lanceolata leaves aqueous MeOH extract has led to the isolation of eight new triterpene glycosides identified as 16-oxo-28-hydroxyolean-12-ene 3- O - β -glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)- β -glucopyranoside 1 , 16 α , 28-dihydroxyolean-12-ene 3 - O - β -[(6- O -galloylglucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)][ β -glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]- β -glucopyranoside 2, 16 α , 22 α , 28-trihydroxyolean-12-ene 3- O -[ β -glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)] [ α -rhamnopyranosyl- (1 → 6]- β -glucopyranoside 3 , 22 α -acetyl-16 α -hydroxyolean-12-en-28-al 3- O -[ α -rhamnopyranosyl- (1  6)- β -glucopyranosyl-(1  3)] [ β -glucopyranosyl-(1  2)]- β -arabinopyranoside 4 , 22 α -acetyl-16 α ,21 β -dihydroxyoleanane-13 β :28-olide 3- O -[ β -glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)] [6- O -coumaroylglucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]- β -glucopyranoside 5 , 16 α ,22 α -diacetyl-21 β - angeloyloleanane-13 β :28-olide 3 β - O -[ β -glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)][ ...
Read Bioinformatics for High Throughput Sequencing by with Rakuten Kobo. Next generation sequencing is revolutionizing molecular biology. Owing to this new technology it is now possible to carr...
Research Scientist, Columbia Genome Center, Head, High Throughput Sequencing UnitTel: (212) 851-5165 Fax: (212) 851-5215 Group Members Irina Morozova Minchen
Richard Kanaly. Richard M. Kanaly Real Estate | (405) 820-8822. MLS #: 730324. Gorgeous heavily wooded tract (310 X 440). Great access to I-35 within minutes. Will require a private well and septic system. ONG gas and AT&T U-Verse available at front of tract. Plat restrictions will apply. See plat map enlargements attached in supplements. Tract is part of Grand Timber Addition (New Addition).
Almost all of these objectives could be furthered, either directly or indirectly, through the promotion of polycultural agroforestry systems. On the national level, in terms of encouraging import substitution, improving the balance of payments, and maximizing national selfsufficiency, agroforestry could have a significant effect in reversing dependency on imports and on ever-increasing foreign exchange problems. An expansion of agroforestry would also increase returns on underutilized natural and cultural resources and increase long-term productivity in both urban and rural areas. Because almost all households can benefit from agroforestry, its systematic promotion on a national level could bring about more equitable and balanced development. It could also lead to improved use of scarce capital and aid and could minimize public expenditure through the maximization of self-help on the part of the communities involved. For individual families, the economic importance seems to be great indeed, ...
additional source Zenetos, A.; Gofas, S.; Verlaque, M.; Cinar, M.; Garcia Raso, J.; Bianchi, C.; Morri, C.; Azzurro, E.; Bilecenoglu, M.; Froglia, C.; Siokou, I.; Violanti, D.; Sfriso, A.; San Martin, G.; Giangrande, A.; Katagan, T.; Ballesteros, E.; Ramos-Espla, A.; Mastrototaro, F.; Ocana, O.; Zingone, A.; Gambi, M.; Streftaris, N. (2010). Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Unions Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution. Mediterranean Marine Science. 11(2): 381-493., available online at https://doi.org/10.12681/mms.87 [details] Available for editors ...
Diagenode has developed advanced sonicators - the Picoruptor® for ChIP-PCR,ChIP-seq and NGS, Megaruptor® for tightest distribution of long DNA fragmentation and the One® which provides small volume DNA shearing for Next-Generation-Sequencing(NGS).
Fosili jedne velike skupine deuterostomija, bodljokošci (čiji moderni članovi uključuju oblike kao što su morska zvijezda, morski ježevi i morski krinovi), prilično su česti od početka kambrija, prije 542 miliona godina.[11] Srednjekambrijski fosil "Rhabdotus johansson" tumačen je kao pterobranhni hemichordat.[12] Mišljenja se razlikuju o tome da je li fosil Yunnanozoon iz ranog kambrija hemikordata ili hordat.[13][14] Još jedan fosil, Haikouella lanceolata , takođe iz faune Chengjianga, tumači se kao hordat i, možda, kranijat, jer pokazuje znake srca, arterija, škržnih niti, repa, nervne cijevi sa mozgom na prednjem kraju, i verovatno oči - iako je imao i kratke nabore oko usta. Rodovi Haikouichthys i Myllokunmingia , također iz faune Chengjianga, smatraju se ribama.[15][16] Fosil Pikaia, koji je otkriven mnogo ranije (1911.) ali iz rednjekambrijskih slojeva (505 miliona godina), također se smatra primitivnim hordatom.[17] S druge strane, fosili rani hordati su vrlo rijetki, ...
A classic design that will complement any style. The quality of our Vintage Fir collection is superior and is designed and built to last for generation…
Feulgen bands can be obtained at the sites of constitutive heterochromatin in the chromosomes of Anemone blanda, Fritillaria lanceolata and Scilla siberica, simply by means of a short or extended acid hydrolysis. Extended hydrolysis gives positive bands in A. blanda and F. lanceolata and negative bands in S. siberica. Short hydrolysis gives no bands in A. blanda and S. siberica but gives negative bands in F. lanceolata. The kind of Feulgen banding obtained is not correlated with the type of base richness of the heterochromatin DNA; rather, it is probably due to differences in the associated nucleoproteins. ...
Germination*: Sow seed in a media with a pH range of 6.5-7.2. Maintain uniform soil moisture levels and humidity levels above 95 %. Stage I temperatures of 75-80 °F (23-26 °C) optimize germination. Water with warm water with a pH range of 6.5-7.2 to avoid shocking seedlings during Stage I. Do not cover seed as light increases germination rate and improves seedling uniformity. Begin light feeding with 25-50 ppm nitrogen. Continue Stage I conditions for ...
Protective Effect of Pharmacological Preconditioning of Total Flavones of Abelmoschl Manihot on Cerebral Ischemic Reperfusion Injury in Rats. The present study was to investigate the effect of pharmacological preconditioning of total flavones of Abelmoschl Manihot (TFA) on cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury in rats. Rat cerebral isch.... ...
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In the genetically modified plants the acyl-[ACP] thioesterase gene from Cuphea lanceolata is expressed under the control of its own seed-specific promoter. This enzyme catalyses the the formation of a thioester bond between the acyl carrier protein and the synthesized acyl chain in fatty acid biosynthesis ...
The evidence was clear. The C-13 and C-14 was showing me that paper birch and Douglas fir were in a lively two-way conversation. It turns out at that time of the year, in the summer, that birch was sending more carbon to fir than fir was sending back to birch, especially when the fir was shaded. And then in later experiments, we found the opposite, that fir was sending more carbon to birch than birch was sending to fir, and this was because the fir was still growing while the birch was leafless. So it turns out the two species were interdependent, like yin and yang. ...
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Wood of most firs is considered unsuitable for general timber use and is often used as pulp or for the manufacture of plywood and rough timber. Because this genus has no insect or decay resistance qualities after logging, it is generally recommended in construction purposes for indoor use only (e.g. indoor drywall on framing). Fir wood left outside cannot be expected to last more than 12 to 18 months, depending on the type of climate it is exposed to. Nordmann fir, noble fir, Fraser fir and balsam fir are popular Christmas trees, generally considered to be the best for this purpose, with aromatic foliage that does not shed many needles on drying out. Many are also decorative garden trees, notably Korean fir and Fraser fir, which produce brightly coloured cones even when very young, still only 1-2 m (3.3-6.6 ft) tall. Other firs can grow anywhere between 30 and 236 feet (9.1 and 71.9 m) tall. Fir Tree Appreciation Day is June 18. Abies religiosa-sacred fir, is the overwinter host for the monarch ...
Wood of most firs is considered unsuitable for general timber use and is often used as pulp or for the manufacture of plywood and rough timber. Because this genus has no insect or decay resistance qualities after logging, it is generally recommended in construction purposes for indoor use only (e.g. indoor drywall on framing). Fir wood left outside cannot be expected to last more than 12 to 18 months, depending on the type of climate it is exposed to. Nordmann fir, noble fir, Fraser fir and balsam fir are popular Christmas trees, generally considered to be the best for this purpose, with aromatic foliage that does not shed many needles on drying out. Many are also decorative garden trees, notably Korean fir and Fraser fir, which produce brightly coloured cones even when very young, still only 1-2 m (3.3-6.6 ft) tall. Other firs can grow anywhere between 30 and 236 feet (9.1 and 71.9 m) tall. Fir Tree Appreciation Day is June 18. Abies religiosa-sacred fir, is the overwinter host for the monarch ...