The cold war period was marked by rivalry between two superpowers, both of which considered themselves to be the most highly evolved cultures on the planet. The USSR painted itself as a socialist society which emerged out of class struggle, while sociologists in the United States (such as Talcott Parsons) argued that the freedom and prosperity of the United States represented a high level of cultural evolution. At the same time, decolonization created newly independent countries who sought to become more developed -- a model of progress and industrialization which was itself a form of cultural evolution. There is, however, a tradition in European social theory from Rousseau to Max Weber that argues that this progression coincides with a loss of human freedom and dignity. At the height of the Cold War, this tradition merged with an interest in ecology to influence an activist culture in the 1960s. This movement produced a variety of political and philosophical programs which emphasized the ...
Today, Indo-European languages are spoken by almost 3 billion native speakers across all inhabited continents,[61] the largest number by far for any recognised language family. Of the 20 languages with the largest numbers of native speakers according to Ethnologue, 10 are Indo-European: Spanish, English, Hindustani, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, Punjabi, German, French and Marathi, accounting for over 1.7 billion native speakers.[62] Additionally, hundreds of millions of persons worldwide study Indo-European languages as secondary or tertiary languages, including in cultures which have completely different language families and historical backgrounds-there are between 600 million[63] and one billion[64] L2 learners of English alone. The success of the language family, including the large number of speakers and the vast portions of the Earth that they inhabit, is due to several factors. The ancient Indo-European migrations and widespread dissemination of Indo-European culture throughout Eurasia, ...
Today, Indo-European languages are spoken by almost 3 billion native speakers across all inhabited continents,[58] the largest number by far for any recognised language family. Of the 20 languages with the largest numbers of native speakers according to Ethnologue, 11 are Indo-European: Spanish, English, Hindustani, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, Punjabi, German, French, Marathi, accounting for over 1.7 billion native speakers.[59] Additionally, hundreds of millions of persons worldwide study Indo-European languages as secondary or tertiary languages, including in cultures which have completely different language families and historical backgrounds-there between 600,000,000[60] and one billion[61] L2 learners of English alone.. The success of the language family, including the large number of speakers and the vast portions of the Earth that they inhabit, is due to several factors. The ancient Indo-European migrations and widespread dissemination of Indo-European culture throughout Eurasia, ...
Cultural evolution represents an entire field of study. It has the potential, like biological evolution, to be a mechanism underlying and connecting many fields of study. This short introduction will pull together a few themes and compelling stories from this large field and present some of its concepts, mechanisms, and evidence-hopefully enough to increase the…
A two-year post-doctoral position in Cultural Evolution and Social Cognition is currently open at the Département dEtudes Cognitives (DEC) of the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. This project will be conducted in collaboration with Nicolas Baumard at the Institut Jean Nicod (IJN) and Julie Grèzes at the Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives (LNC). Project summary:. The project aims to document the so-called process of civilization, the set of long-term psychological changes that occurred in Europe from 1300 to 1900. Using large database and online experiments, the project will study the evolution of emotional displays in European paintings from the late Middle Ages to modern times and will test whether economic development can account for the evolution of social features such as trustworthiness, agreeableness or dominance. More generally, the goal of the project is to test whether life history parameters (mortality, affluence, external threat) can account for psychological changes in ...
This week I visited Stanford University, California. Jamie Holland Jones invited me to present my research on human evolution, cultural evolution, and social networks at the Stanford Anthropology Colloquium Series. I presented three related projects:. The Cultural Brain Hypothesis (in prep; co-authored with Maciek Chudek and Joe Henrich), describes the evolution of large brains and parsimoniously explains several empirical relationships between brain size, group size, social learning, mating structures, culture, and the juvenile period. The model also describes the selection pressures that may have led humans into the realm of cumulative cultural evolution, further driving up the human brain size.. Sociality Influences Cultural Complexity (2014; co-authored with Ben Shulman, Vlad Vasilescu, and Joe Henrich) on the relationship between sociality and cultural complexity.. Cultural Dispositions, Social Networks, and the Dynamics of Social Influence: Implications for Public Opinion and Cultural ...
Fogarty, L. (2018). Cultural complexity and evolution in fluctuating environments. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372, 373(1743) Fogarty, L. & Creanza, N. (2017) The niche construction of cultural complexity: interactions between innovations, population size, and the environment, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372: 20160428 Fogarty, L., Wakano, J.Y., Feldman, M.W. & Aoki, K. (2016a) The driving forces of cultural complexity: Neanderthals, modern humans, and the question of population size. Human Nature, doi:10.1007/s12110-016-9275-6 Creanza, N., Fogarty, L. & Feldman, M.W. (2016b) Cultural niche construction of repertoire size and learning strategies in songbirds. Evolutionary Ecology, vol. 30, pp. 285-305.. Fogarty, L., Wakano, J.Y., Feldman, M.W. & Aoki, K. (2015a) Factors limiting the number of independent cultural traits that can be maintained in a population. Learning Strategies and Cultural Evolution during the Palaeolithic. pp 9-21.. Fogarty, L., Creanza, N. & Feldman, M.W. (2015b) Cultural evolutionary ...
This week I visited the University of St Andrews, Scotland. Kevin Laland invited me to present my paper (in prep) on the Cultural Brain Hypothesis and the Cumulative Cultural Brain Hypothesis. The paper, co-authored with Maciek Chudek and Joe Henrich, describes an evolutionary model of the evolution of brains and parsimoniously explains several empirical relationships between brain size, group size, social learning, mating structures, culture, and the juvenile period. The model also describes the selection pressures that may have led humans into the realm of cumulative cultural evolution, further driving up the human brain size. I presented the research to Kevins lab and to Andy Whitens lab. I will also be presenting the paper early next month at the 26th Annual Meeting of Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES) in Natal, Brazil.. While at St Andrews, I met with Andy Whiten, Luke Rendell, Kate Cross, Ana Navarrete, Daniel Cownden, Daniel van der Post, Cara Evans, James Ounsley, Andrew ...
It was a great pleasure having a book club dedicated to Cultural evolution in the digital age. Writing a book feels like a long and solitary experience and it is comforting that, when done, it may result in such productive exchanges. Thus, first of all, I want to thank the organisers, Tiffany Morisseau and Dan Sperber, and all the participants for their commentaries: kind, sometimes even flattering, but always perceptive and stimulating. I organised my reply around three macro-themes that emerged in the book club: the role of producers of cultural traits, the features of specifically digital cultural transmission, and a discussion on some more foundational issues in cultural evolution, namely the importance of faithful transmission for cumulative culture and our reliance on social information.. .... Read More ...
CW2: Writing in the Sciences - Evolutionary Themes. Lesson Objective: To effectively structure a section of a science textbook as a logical and progressive order of topics.. Total Estimated Time: 75 minutes. Additional Outcomes: Applying structuring techniques to writing in other academic fields.. Assignment Underway: Writing Assignment #3: Scientists Writing for Students - A Textbook Passage on Cultural Evolution. Students are writing a chapter section for a college evolution textbook, on the advent of cultural evolution.. Work completed before class: Students have read the chapter on Cultural Evolution in the textbook, Biology, Evolution and Human Nature (Wiley, 2001), and have brought reprints of the chapter to class.. Sequence of classroom activities:. ...
Im constantly amazed by how many people in the US either reject the idea of biological evolution or have serious reservations. By contrast, in Europe and other countries with developed economies, only a relatively small fraction do. And the mainstream Christian denominations that most Americans belong to all explicitly accept the reality of biological evolution. That includes the Catholic, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, and Anglican churches. The simple fact is that there is overwhelming evidence for biological evolution. As the 20th century biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky said (when the evidence for biological evolution was not even as strong as it is today), Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. If we were compelled to reject the idea of biological evolution, there would be literally thousands of unexplained biological phenomena that currently make perfect sense as consequences of the evolutionary history of life on Earth.. No credible biologist ...
PhD Project - Human Demography and Gene-culture Coevolution: human population dynamics on a (pre)-historical time-scale, and in tandem with microbial evolution at Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, listed on FindAPhD.com
We analysed the emotional content of song lyrics in over 160,000 songs spanning the years 1965-2015. We found that the frequency of negative words increased over time, whilst the frequency of positive words decreased over time, and asked whether these patterns could be attributed to cultural transmission biases such as success bias, prestige bias, content bias or unbiased transmission. In the billboard dataset, containing top-100 songs from 1965 to 2015, we found an effect of unbiased transmission on positive lyrics, and an effect of content bias on negative lyrics. For the larger mxm databases we only found weak effects of unbiased transmission for both negative and positive lyrics.. The effects we found in all models are extremely small. This is partly because we analysed the data on the scale of each word, negating any need for averaging over lyrics and songs. Thus, the relative increase or decrease in the log odds is understandably small. Furthermore, our implementation of transmission ...
When looking at culture-driven population dynamics, a common assumption is that theres a positive feedback between cultural evolution and demographic growth. The general prediction, then, is for unlimited growth in population and culture. Yet models based on these assumptions tend to ignore important aspects of cultural evolution, namely: (1) cultural transmission is not perfect; (2) culture does not always promote population growth. Ghirlanda et al (2010) incorporate these two features into a model, and arrive at some interesting conclusions. In particular, they argue those populations maintaining large amounts of culture may run the risk of extinction rather than stability or growth.. Continue reading Culture-driven population dynamics: sustainable or unsustainable?. ...
De Las Heras, A., Sperber, D., Call, J. Do chimpanzees and orangutans communicate in a cooperative task?. 10:50 - 11:20 Coffee & tea. 11:20 - 12:20 Speed session 6: Social cognition, communication and cultural transmission (Jean Jaurès). Molleman, L., Glowacki, L. Subsistence styles shape human social learning strategies. Mercier, H., Miton, H. Evolutionarily valid cues to informational dependency. Scanlon, L., Kendal, J., Tehrani, J., Lobb, A.The cultural evolution of knot tying: an analysis of the cultural transmission of granny and reef knots. Winters, J., Morin, O. Emergence of optimal codes is contingent on the mode and function of communication. Müller, T., Morisseau, T., Winters, J., Morin, O. The Influence of Common Perceptual Context on the Evolution of Graphic Codes. Lindova, J., Sedlova Malkova, G. What do studies on grey parrots teach us about human verbal communication?. 12:20 - 13:20 Lunch. 13:20 - 14:20 Parallel sessions 7A, 7B, 7C. Session 7A: Mating 2 (Jean Jaurès) Lyons, M., ...
The Department of Human Behavior, Ecology and Culture investigates the role of culture in human evolution and adaptation. The evolution of fancy social learning in humans accounts for both the nature of human adaptation and the extraordinary scale and variety of human societies. The integration of ethnographic fieldwork with mathematical models and advanced quantitative methods is the departments methodological focus.
Greek speakers say ουρα, Germans schwanz and the French queue to describe what English speakers call a tail, but all of these languages use a related form of two to describe the number after one. Among more than 100 Indo-European languages and dialects, the words for some meanings (such as tail) evolve rapidly, being expressed across languages by dozens of unrelated words, while others evolve much more slowly-such as the number two, for which all Indo-European language speakers use the same related word-form1. No general linguistic mechanism has been advanced to explain this striking variation in rates of lexical replacement among meanings. Here we use four large and divergent language corpora (English2, Spanish3, Russian4 and Greek5) and a comparative database of 200 fundamental vocabulary meanings in 87 Indo-European languages6 to show that the frequency with which these words are used in modern language predicts their rate of replacement over thousands of years of ...
Greek speakers say ουρα, Germans schwanz and the French queue to describe what English speakers call a tail, but all of these languages use a related form of two to describe the number after one. Among more than 100 Indo-European languages and dialects, the words for some meanings (such as tail) evolve rapidly, being expressed across languages by dozens of unrelated words, while others evolve much more slowly-such as the number two, for which all Indo-European language speakers use the same related word-form1. No general linguistic mechanism has been advanced to explain this striking variation in rates of lexical replacement among meanings. Here we use four large and divergent language corpora (English2, Spanish3, Russian4 and Greek5) and a comparative database of 200 fundamental vocabulary meanings in 87 Indo-European languages6 to show that the frequency with which these words are used in modern language predicts their rate of replacement over thousands of years of ...
Peters research explores a number of concerns, including studying the human occupation of Australia prior to European settlement, characterising patterns of technological evolution and exploring the implications of those patterns for the cultural evolution of hominids, and reading the representations of archaeologists in movies. Reconstructing Australian pre-history through studies of the archaeological record is a pursuit that has led Peter to question simple depictions of directionality in cultural evolution, the use of ethnographic information in interpreting the past, the operation of cultural process at different scales, and the articulation of social systems with ecological contexts. His extended treatment of these themes was published as Archaeology of Ancient Australia (Routledge), a book which won the Mulvaney Book Award in 2008. He continues to pursue these concerns in his fieldwork on the History of Desert Landuse Project in South Australia, his collaborative Lake George project ...
People come together as groups to manage shared environmental resources with varying degrees of success. Elinor Ostrom first identified a set of characteristics, or design principles, common to effective environmental governance. These design principles are products of cultural evolution - they are embodied by behaviors that individuals transmit to each other via social learning. Relatively little research has explicitly examined the cultural evolution of the design principles. This project uses a set of agent-based models to examine:. ...
Catherine Markham, a behavioral ecologist and primatologist and Asst. Prof. of Anthropology at Stony Brook University, gave two presentations, one to our Department and one to our lab in particular. The first was entitled Primate societies: competition within and between social groups. The second was based on her research trajectory, entitled One open door to the next: launching a career with a lot of luck and a little stubbornness. The lab took her to Jade Eatery and Lounge ...
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Parallel problems are probably rife in human subsistence systems. The shift to plant-rich diets is complicated because plant foods are typically deficient in essential amino acids, and vitamins, have toxic compounds to protect them from herbivore attack, and are labor intensive to prepare. The diet of Pleistocene hunters and gathers probably focused on high rates of meat intake supplemented by high quality plant foods such as ripe fruit and nuts. High quality plant resources are scarce and the inefficiency of natural herbivore populations means that meat offtake rates are usually quite limited. Intensification requires a focus on seeds low in essential amino acids (maize), tubers with poisonous protection (bitter manioc), and the like. Even the best plant resources like wheat require protein supplementation with animal products or legumes. Skeletal material suggests that early agricultural peoples were often less well nourished than their hunter-gather ancestors (Cohen and Armelagos 1984). ...
Professor Dye was the Gresham Professor of Physic between 2005 and 2009. He is based at the World Health Organization, where he evaluates epidemiological and economic trends for tuberculosis, malaria and other infectious diseases, measures the impact of control programmes, and presents the findings to governments, scientists and the media. Professor Dye holds a BA from the University of York, gained his DPhil at the University of Oxford, and has taught at Cambridge University, Imperial College and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He was elected a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences in 2008. His work in epidemiology is described in more than 200 scientific papers, and he is currently a member of the editorial board of Science.. All of Professor Dye's lectures may be accessed here.. ...
October 4, 1903 - March 5, 1998. Ruth Young was one of the most accomplished and gracious women of our times. Few people beyond those whose lives she actually touched knew the many facets of her talent, nor the depth of purpose that imbued her activities. Ruth Young avoided celebrity with the same determination others seek it. Modest, playful, soft-spoken, and beautiful even at ninety-four, Ruth possessed a knack for making the right things happen, an ability she purposefully honed in her words by studying what needed to be done and then acting to do it. She never flaunted her background as the eldest great granddaughter of both the transcendentalist philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson and John Muir Forbes, the activist en age in the Boston/China shipping trade. Indeed, it was only in her later years that she began to share stories of her unusual family and the pearls of wisdom she cultivated from experience.. As a woman with no professional history in international affairs, but simply a hunch ...
Bibliographies. NNDB has added thousands of bibliographies for people, organizations, schools, and general topics, listing more than 50,000 books and 120,000 other kinds of references. They may be accessed by the Bibliography tab at the top of most pages, or via the Related Topics box in the sidebar. Please feel free to suggest books that might be critical omissions ...
Originally published by Post Carbon Institute, Richard Heinberg writes about humanitys relationship with power and how this presents both great danger and great opportunity.
by Olaf Immanuel Seel (Ionian University of Corfu, Greece) Description Culture has a significant influence on the emerging trends in translation and i...
The results support the conclusions of our earlier analysis, confirming that, even with independent renewal and depletion of the key resource, the effects of niche construction can override external sources of selection to create new evolutionary trajectories and equilibria, generate and eliminate polymorphisms, and produce time lags in the response to selection as well as other unusual dynamics.. The consequences of niche construction are particularly interesting when the selection it generates opposes the action of an external source of selection acting at the A locus. This kind of niche construction is likely to be common. Lewontin (7) points out that many of the activities of organisms, such as migration, hoarding of food resources, habitat selection, or thermoregulatory behavior, are adaptive precisely because they dampen statistical variation in the availability of environmental resources. Our results confirm that the frequency-dependent selection generated from the resource and modified ...
A paper entitled A Recipe for Culture Change? Findings from the THRIVE Survey of culture change Adopters provided information from a survey that assessed which components of culture change - and in what combinations - have been adopted by nursing homes. The survey was completed by 164 nursing homes that had already adopted culture change. Results showed that adopted components of culture change varied across the type of nursing home model (i.e., small house, household, traditional unit). As one example, respondents from small houses reported a significantly higher rate of direct care workers preparing meals (79%), but these were some of the least adopted practices for other adopters (22% of households and 13% of traditional units). Results also showed that some traditional environments have been able to implement certain culture change components without large capital investments. For instance, respondents reported similar rates of practices related to educational support and quality ...
We examined culture change practices within the same U.S. nursing homes (NHs) in 2009/10 and 2016. The proportion of NHs engaged in at least some culture change practices remained steady (87.2% vs. 87.7%). We calculated changes in scores across three domains using items measured at both time points (homelike physical environment, staff empowerment, and resident-centered/directed care). Cronbach alphas ranged from 0.40 to 0.65.
At Hebrew Rehabilitation Center, were already on the culture change journey and are committed to moving forward. Leadership and staff know its the right thing to do and its being embraced at all levels of the organization. Here, culture change is not a foreign concept.. From resident assistants (RA) to operations leaders to our culinary teams, I hear the positive impact it is having on our residents. Its truly making a difference in their day-to-day lives ...
In the interests of keeping the show on the road and the doors open, we need you as a supportive reader to help Culture Change cover basic costs in February. Heres why: At Culture Change we arent giving our readers and supporters a part-time, share-our-feelings service. No, we are full-time
43). Jeromes awareness of his cultural context, when combined with his desire to offer credible Christian witness, motivated his work.. Translation of Scripture brings cultural change. It can disrupt existing hierarchies and challenge established authorities. This is evident in the translation of the Scripture into Latin. This change happens because Jerome is skilled not only technically, in translation. He also shows skill in innovation. He brings about cultural change as he listens, explains, frames and nurtures his resilience. Christian art represents the Spirit, whispering to Jerome as he works. It suggests the inspiration of God. This inspiration originates in mission, the gospels inherent translatability across cultures. Inspiration occurs for Jerome not only in the hard graft and technical skill of translation. It also occurs in the skills of bringing cultural change, of listening, framing and being resilient in and through conflict. ...
It is arguably true that language is a prerequisite for the phenomenon of human culture in the sense of social ontogeny, but not individual ontogeny and not as the chicken as in chicken before the egg (or the reverse if you prefer) to human culture as egg. In other words, language does not precede human culture in evolutionary time, but rather, language is part of human culture. The neural differences between a hypothetical pre-cultural human (and that is very hypothetical) and a post-dawn of culture human would be those brain differences that we see as distinguishing between the non-cultural (arbitrarily defined as such for the present purposes but obviously a falsehood) chimpanzee-like ape ancestor and, say, you or me.So when we speak of human intelligence, we may be speaking about the FOX2P gene. Is this the gene that Klein refers to in his somewhat insightful but mostly misguided one gene theory ? (Yes, he would likely say, … or at least Yea, this really could be the gene.)OK, ...
Hugh Pickens writes Scientists at Stanford University have shown for the first time that the process of natural selection can act on human cultures as well as on genes. The team studied reports of canoe designs from 11 Oceanic island cultures, evaluating 96 functional features that could contribute...
Early Human Culture. Homo habilis Homo rudolphensis Homo erectus Homo ergaster. Evolution of Humans. Homo habilis (ca. 2.5-1.6 mya). Homo habilis was first discovered in 1959 in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania. Slideshow 6713844 by norman-benton
Come learn how simple it is to make your own kraut, kimchi, wild greens, and other fermented delicacies. Learn about the healing qualities and nutritional importance of live-culture ferments, as well as their illustrious history and integral role in human cultural evolution.. Empower yourself with simple principles and techniques for fermenting these healthful foods in your home. See a fermentation demonstration and get hands-on. Leave with a jar of your very own kraut to ferment at home.. Be part of the fermentation revival and learn to live in peaceful coexistence with microbes!. Fermented foods are a powerful aid to digestion and a protection against disease. The science and art of fermentation is, in fact, the basis of human culture: Without culturing, there is no culture. Nations that still consume cultured foods, such as France with its wine and cheese, and Japan with its pickles and miso, are recognized as nations that have culture. Culture begins at the farm, not in the opera house, and ...