The cold war period was marked by rivalry between two superpowers, both of which considered themselves to be the most highly evolved cultures on the planet. The USSR painted itself as a socialist society which emerged out of class struggle, while sociologists in the United States (such as Talcott Parsons) argued that the freedom and prosperity of the United States represented a high level of cultural evolution. At the same time, decolonization created newly independent countries who sought to become more developed -- a model of progress and industrialization which was itself a form of cultural evolution. There is, however, a tradition in European social theory from Rousseau to Max Weber that argues that this progression coincides with a loss of human freedom and dignity. At the height of the Cold War, this tradition merged with an interest in ecology to influence an activist culture in the 1960s. This movement produced a variety of political and philosophical programs which emphasized the ...
Today, Indo-European languages are spoken by almost 3 billion native speakers across all inhabited continents,[61] the largest number by far for any recognised language family. Of the 20 languages with the largest numbers of native speakers according to Ethnologue, 10 are Indo-European: Spanish, English, Hindustani, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, Punjabi, German, French and Marathi, accounting for over 1.7 billion native speakers.[62] Additionally, hundreds of millions of persons worldwide study Indo-European languages as secondary or tertiary languages, including in cultures which have completely different language families and historical backgrounds-there are between 600 million[63] and one billion[64] L2 learners of English alone. The success of the language family, including the large number of speakers and the vast portions of the Earth that they inhabit, is due to several factors. The ancient Indo-European migrations and widespread dissemination of Indo-European culture throughout Eurasia, ...
Today, Indo-European languages are spoken by almost 3 billion native speakers across all inhabited continents,[58] the largest number by far for any recognised language family. Of the 20 languages with the largest numbers of native speakers according to Ethnologue, 11 are Indo-European: Spanish, English, Hindustani, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, Punjabi, German, French, Marathi, accounting for over 1.7 billion native speakers.[59] Additionally, hundreds of millions of persons worldwide study Indo-European languages as secondary or tertiary languages, including in cultures which have completely different language families and historical backgrounds-there between 600,000,000[60] and one billion[61] L2 learners of English alone.. The success of the language family, including the large number of speakers and the vast portions of the Earth that they inhabit, is due to several factors. The ancient Indo-European migrations and widespread dissemination of Indo-European culture throughout Eurasia, ...
Cultural evolution represents an entire field of study. It has the potential, like biological evolution, to be a mechanism underlying and connecting many fields of study. This short introduction will pull together a few themes and compelling stories from this large field and present some of its concepts, mechanisms, and evidence-hopefully enough to increase the…
A two-year post-doctoral position in Cultural Evolution and Social Cognition is currently open at the Département dEtudes Cognitives (DEC) of the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. This project will be conducted in collaboration with Nicolas Baumard at the Institut Jean Nicod (IJN) and Julie Grèzes at the Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives (LNC). Project summary:. The project aims to document the so-called process of civilization, the set of long-term psychological changes that occurred in Europe from 1300 to 1900. Using large database and online experiments, the project will study the evolution of emotional displays in European paintings from the late Middle Ages to modern times and will test whether economic development can account for the evolution of social features such as trustworthiness, agreeableness or dominance. More generally, the goal of the project is to test whether life history parameters (mortality, affluence, external threat) can account for psychological changes in ...
This week I visited Stanford University, California. Jamie Holland Jones invited me to present my research on human evolution, cultural evolution, and social networks at the Stanford Anthropology Colloquium Series. I presented three related projects:. The Cultural Brain Hypothesis (in prep; co-authored with Maciek Chudek and Joe Henrich), describes the evolution of large brains and parsimoniously explains several empirical relationships between brain size, group size, social learning, mating structures, culture, and the juvenile period. The model also describes the selection pressures that may have led humans into the realm of cumulative cultural evolution, further driving up the human brain size.. Sociality Influences Cultural Complexity (2014; co-authored with Ben Shulman, Vlad Vasilescu, and Joe Henrich) on the relationship between sociality and cultural complexity.. Cultural Dispositions, Social Networks, and the Dynamics of Social Influence: Implications for Public Opinion and Cultural ...
This week I visited the University of St Andrews, Scotland. Kevin Laland invited me to present my paper (in prep) on the Cultural Brain Hypothesis and the Cumulative Cultural Brain Hypothesis. The paper, co-authored with Maciek Chudek and Joe Henrich, describes an evolutionary model of the evolution of brains and parsimoniously explains several empirical relationships between brain size, group size, social learning, mating structures, culture, and the juvenile period. The model also describes the selection pressures that may have led humans into the realm of cumulative cultural evolution, further driving up the human brain size. I presented the research to Kevins lab and to Andy Whitens lab. I will also be presenting the paper early next month at the 26th Annual Meeting of Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES) in Natal, Brazil.. While at St Andrews, I met with Andy Whiten, Luke Rendell, Kate Cross, Ana Navarrete, Daniel Cownden, Daniel van der Post, Cara Evans, James Ounsley, Andrew ...
It was a great pleasure having a book club dedicated to Cultural evolution in the digital age. Writing a book feels like a long and solitary experience and it is comforting that, when done, it may result in such productive exchanges. Thus, first of all, I want to thank the organisers, Tiffany Morisseau and Dan Sperber, and all the participants for their commentaries: kind, sometimes even flattering, but always perceptive and stimulating. I organised my reply around three macro-themes that emerged in the book club: the role of producers of cultural traits, the features of specifically digital cultural transmission, and a discussion on some more foundational issues in cultural evolution, namely the importance of faithful transmission for cumulative culture and our reliance on social information.. .... Read More ...
CW2: Writing in the Sciences - Evolutionary Themes. Lesson Objective: To effectively structure a section of a science textbook as a logical and progressive order of topics.. Total Estimated Time: 75 minutes. Additional Outcomes: Applying "structuring techniques" to writing in other academic fields.. Assignment Underway: Writing Assignment #3: Scientists Writing for Students - A Textbook Passage on Cultural Evolution. Students are writing a chapter section for a college evolution textbook, on the advent of cultural evolution.. Work completed before class: Students have read the chapter on "Cultural Evolution" in the textbook, Biology, Evolution and Human Nature (Wiley, 2001), and have brought reprints of the chapter to class.. Sequence of classroom activities:. ...
Im constantly amazed by how many people in the US either reject the idea of biological evolution or have serious reservations. By contrast, in Europe and other countries with developed economies, only a relatively small fraction do. And the mainstream Christian denominations that most Americans belong to all explicitly accept the reality of biological evolution. That includes the Catholic, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, and Anglican churches. The simple fact is that there is overwhelming evidence for biological evolution. As the 20th century biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky said (when the evidence for biological evolution was not even as strong as it is today), "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." If we were compelled to reject the idea of biological evolution, there would be literally thousands of unexplained biological phenomena that currently make perfect sense as consequences of the evolutionary history of life on Earth.. No credible biologist ...
PhD Project - Human Demography and Gene-culture Coevolution: human population dynamics on a (pre)-historical time-scale, and in tandem with microbial evolution at Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, listed on FindAPhD.com
We analysed the emotional content of song lyrics in over 160,000 songs spanning the years 1965-2015. We found that the frequency of negative words increased over time, whilst the frequency of positive words decreased over time, and asked whether these patterns could be attributed to cultural transmission biases such as success bias, prestige bias, content bias or unbiased transmission. In the billboard dataset, containing top-100 songs from 1965 to 2015, we found an effect of unbiased transmission on positive lyrics, and an effect of content bias on negative lyrics. For the larger mxm databases we only found weak effects of unbiased transmission for both negative and positive lyrics.. The effects we found in all models are extremely small. This is partly because we analysed the data on the scale of each word, negating any need for averaging over lyrics and songs. Thus, the relative increase or decrease in the log odds is understandably small. Furthermore, our implementation of transmission ...
When looking at culture-driven population dynamics, a common assumption is that theres a positive feedback between cultural evolution and demographic growth. The general prediction, then, is for unlimited growth in population and culture. Yet models based on these assumptions tend to ignore important aspects of cultural evolution, namely: (1) cultural transmission is not perfect; (2) culture does not always promote population growth. Ghirlanda et al (2010) incorporate these two features into a model, and arrive at some interesting conclusions. In particular, they argue those populations maintaining large amounts of culture may run the risk of extinction rather than stability or growth.. Continue reading "Culture-driven population dynamics: sustainable or unsustainable?". ...
De Las Heras, A., Sperber, D., Call, J. Do chimpanzees and orangutans communicate in a cooperative task?. 10:50 - 11:20 Coffee & tea. 11:20 - 12:20 Speed session 6: Social cognition, communication and cultural transmission (Jean Jaurès). Molleman, L., Glowacki, L. Subsistence styles shape human social learning strategies. Mercier, H., Miton, H. Evolutionarily valid cues to informational dependency. Scanlon, L., Kendal, J., Tehrani, J., Lobb, A.The cultural evolution of knot tying: an analysis of the cultural transmission of granny and reef knots. Winters, J., Morin, O. Emergence of optimal codes is contingent on the mode and function of communication. Müller, T., Morisseau, T., Winters, J., Morin, O. The Influence of Common Perceptual Context on the Evolution of Graphic Codes. Lindova, J., Sedlova Malkova, G. What do studies on grey parrots teach us about human verbal communication?. 12:20 - 13:20 Lunch. 13:20 - 14:20 Parallel sessions 7A, 7B, 7C. Session 7A: Mating 2 (Jean Jaurès) Lyons, M., ...
The Department of Human Behavior, Ecology and Culture investigates the role of culture in human evolution and adaptation. The evolution of fancy social learning in humans accounts for both the nature of human adaptation and the extraordinary scale and variety of human societies. The integration of ethnographic fieldwork with mathematical models and advanced quantitative methods is the departments methodological focus.
The Department of Human Behavior, Ecology and Culture investigates the role of culture in human evolution and adaptation. The evolution of fancy social learning in humans accounts for both the nature of human adaptation and the extraordinary scale and variety of human societies. The integration of ethnographic fieldwork with mathematical models and advanced quantitative methods is the departments methodological focus.
Greek speakers say "ουρα", Germans "schwanz" and the French "queue" to describe what English speakers call a tail, but all of these languages use a related form of two to describe the number after one. Among more than 100 Indo-European languages and dialects, the words for some meanings (such as tail) evolve rapidly, being expressed across languages by dozens of unrelated words, while others evolve much more slowly-such as the number two, for which all Indo-European language speakers use the same related word-form1. No general linguistic mechanism has been advanced to explain this striking variation in rates of lexical replacement among meanings. Here we use four large and divergent language corpora (English2, Spanish3, Russian4 and Greek5) and a comparative database of 200 fundamental vocabulary meanings in 87 Indo-European languages6 to show that the frequency with which these words are used in modern language predicts their rate of replacement over thousands of years of ...
Greek speakers say "ουρα", Germans "schwanz" and the French "queue" to describe what English speakers call a tail, but all of these languages use a related form of two to describe the number after one. Among more than 100 Indo-European languages and dialects, the words for some meanings (such as tail) evolve rapidly, being expressed across languages by dozens of unrelated words, while others evolve much more slowly-such as the number two, for which all Indo-European language speakers use the same related word-form1. No general linguistic mechanism has been advanced to explain this striking variation in rates of lexical replacement among meanings. Here we use four large and divergent language corpora (English2, Spanish3, Russian4 and Greek5) and a comparative database of 200 fundamental vocabulary meanings in 87 Indo-European languages6 to show that the frequency with which these words are used in modern language predicts their rate of replacement over thousands of years of ...
Peters research explores a number of concerns, including studying the human occupation of Australia prior to European settlement, characterising patterns of technological evolution and exploring the implications of those patterns for the cultural evolution of hominids, and reading the representations of archaeologists in movies. Reconstructing Australian pre-history through studies of the archaeological record is a pursuit that has led Peter to question simple depictions of directionality in cultural evolution, the use of ethnographic information in interpreting the past, the operation of cultural process at different scales, and the articulation of social systems with ecological contexts. His extended treatment of these themes was published as Archaeology of Ancient Australia (Routledge), a book which won the Mulvaney Book Award in 2008. He continues to pursue these concerns in his fieldwork on the History of Desert Landuse Project in South Australia, his collaborative Lake George project ...
People come together as groups to manage shared environmental resources with varying degrees of success. Elinor Ostrom first identified a set of characteristics, or design principles, common to effective environmental governance. These design principles are products of cultural evolution - they are embodied by behaviors that individuals transmit to each other via social learning. Relatively little research has explicitly examined the cultural evolution of the design principles. This project uses a set of agent-based models to examine:. ...
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Parallel problems are probably rife in human subsistence systems. The shift to plant-rich diets is complicated because plant foods are typically deficient in essential amino acids, and vitamins, have toxic compounds to protect them from herbivore attack, and are labor intensive to prepare. The diet of Pleistocene hunters and gathers probably focused on high rates of meat intake supplemented by high quality plant foods such as ripe fruit and nuts. High quality plant resources are scarce and the inefficiency of natural herbivore populations means that meat offtake rates are usually quite limited. Intensification requires a focus on seeds low in essential amino acids (maize), tubers with poisonous protection (bitter manioc), and the like. Even the best plant resources like wheat require protein supplementation with animal products or legumes. Skeletal material suggests that early agricultural peoples were often less well nourished than their hunter-gather ancestors (Cohen and Armelagos 1984). ...
October 4, 1903 - March 5, 1998. Ruth Young was one of the most accomplished and gracious women of our times. Few people beyond those whose lives she actually touched knew the many facets of her talent, nor the depth of purpose that imbued her activities. Ruth Young avoided celebrity with the same determination others seek it. Modest, playful, soft-spoken, and beautiful even at ninety-four, Ruth possessed a knack for making the right things happen, an ability she purposefully honed in her words by studying what needed to be done and then acting to do it. She never flaunted her background as the eldest great granddaughter of both the transcendentalist philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson and John Muir Forbes, the activist en age in the Boston/China shipping trade. Indeed, it was only in her later years that she began to share stories of her unusual family and the pearls of wisdom she cultivated from experience.. As a woman with no professional history in international affairs, but simply a hunch ...
Bibliographies. NNDB has added thousands of bibliographies for people, organizations, schools, and general topics, listing more than 50,000 books and 120,000 other kinds of references. They may be accessed by the "Bibliography" tab at the top of most pages, or via the "Related Topics" box in the sidebar. Please feel free to suggest books that might be critical omissions ...
by Olaf Immanuel Seel (Ionian University of Corfu, Greece) Description Culture has a significant influence on the emerging trends in translation and i...
The results support the conclusions of our earlier analysis, confirming that, even with independent renewal and depletion of the key resource, the effects of niche construction can override external sources of selection to create new evolutionary trajectories and equilibria, generate and eliminate polymorphisms, and produce time lags in the response to selection as well as other unusual dynamics.. The consequences of niche construction are particularly interesting when the selection it generates opposes the action of an external source of selection acting at the A locus. This kind of niche construction is likely to be common. Lewontin (7) points out that many of the activities of organisms, such as migration, hoarding of food resources, habitat selection, or thermoregulatory behavior, are adaptive precisely because they dampen statistical variation in the availability of environmental resources. Our results confirm that the frequency-dependent selection generated from the resource and modified ...
A paper entitled "A "Recipe" for Culture Change? Findings from the THRIVE Survey of culture change Adopters" provided information from a survey that assessed which components of culture change - and in what combinations - have been adopted by nursing homes. The survey was completed by 164 nursing homes that had already adopted culture change. Results showed that adopted components of culture change varied across the type of nursing home model (i.e., small house, household, traditional unit). As one example, respondents from small houses reported a significantly higher rate of direct care workers preparing meals (79%), but these were some of the least adopted practices for other adopters (22% of households and 13% of traditional units). Results also showed that some traditional environments have been able to implement certain culture change components without large capital investments. For instance, respondents reported similar rates of practices related to educational support and quality ...
We examined culture change practices within the same U.S. nursing homes (NHs) in 2009/10 and 2016. The proportion of NHs engaged in at least some culture change practices remained steady (87.2% vs. 87.7%). We calculated changes in scores across three domains using items measured at both time points (homelike physical environment, staff empowerment, and resident-centered/directed care). Cronbach alphas ranged from 0.40 to 0.65.
At Hebrew Rehabilitation Center, were already on the culture change journey and are committed to moving forward. Leadership and staff know its the right thing to do and its being embraced at all levels of the organization. Here, culture change is not a foreign concept.. From resident assistants (RA) to operations leaders to our culinary teams, I hear the positive impact it is having on our residents. Its truly making a difference in their day-to-day lives ...
In the interests of keeping the show on the road and the doors open, we need you as a supportive reader to help Culture Change cover basic costs in February. Heres why: At Culture Change we arent giving our readers and supporters a part-time, share-our-feelings service. No, we are full-time
43). Jeromes awareness of his cultural context, when combined with his desire to offer credible Christian witness, motivated his work.. Translation of Scripture brings cultural change. It can disrupt existing hierarchies and challenge established authorities. This is evident in the translation of the Scripture into Latin. This change happens because Jerome is skilled not only technically, in translation. He also shows skill in innovation. He brings about cultural change as he listens, explains, frames and nurtures his resilience. Christian art represents the Spirit, whispering to Jerome as he works. It suggests the inspiration of God. This inspiration originates in mission, the gospels inherent translatability across cultures. Inspiration occurs for Jerome not only in the hard graft and technical skill of translation. It also occurs in the skills of bringing cultural change, of listening, framing and being resilient in and through conflict. ...
It is arguably true that language is a prerequisite for the phenomenon of "human culture" in the sense of social ontogeny, but not individual ontogeny and not as the chicken as in "chicken before the egg" (or the reverse if you prefer) to human culture as egg. In other words, language does not precede human culture in evolutionary time, but rather, language is part of human culture. The neural differences between a hypothetical pre-cultural human (and that is very hypothetical) and a post-"dawn of culture" human would be those brain differences that we see as distinguishing between the non-cultural (arbitrarily defined as such for the present purposes but obviously a falsehood) chimpanzee-like ape ancestor and, say, you or me.So when we speak of human intelligence, we may be speaking about the FOX2P gene. Is this the gene that Klein refers to in his somewhat insightful but mostly misguided "one gene theory" ? (Yes, he would likely say, … or at least "Yea, this really could be the gene.")OK, ...
Hugh Pickens writes Scientists at Stanford University have shown for the first time that the process of natural selection can act on human cultures as well as on genes. The team studied reports of canoe designs from 11 Oceanic island cultures, evaluating 96 functional features that could contribute...
Early Human Culture. Homo habilis Homo rudolphensis Homo erectus Homo ergaster. Evolution of Humans. Homo habilis (ca. 2.5-1.6 mya). Homo habilis was first discovered in 1959 in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania. Slideshow 6713844 by norman-benton
Technology is a double edged sword that has helped generate by far the highest standard of living and longest life expectancy in human existence. But the spiraling rate of technological growth over the past 200 years has created progressively greater stresses on the "rubber bands" holding human society together. This is because, compared to technological growth, all the other aspects of society (social structure, religion, morals, etc.) are much more dependent for their rates of change on cultural evolution which, as mentioned above, is very traditional and slow. This growing gap between the rate technological change and that of other parts of society has created ever mounting stresses and strains, and continues to do so as technological growth continues to accelerate. These problems break down into three main categories. First of all, most aspects of society, being more bounded by traditional rates of cultural change, cannot keep up with and adapt to the rate of technological growth. All too ...
Compiled and edited by Andrew Morozov. Mathematical modelling is widely recognised as a powerful and convenient theoretical tool for investigating various aspects of biological evolution and explaining the existing genetic complexity of the real world. The importance of such models stems from their usefulness in providing wide-ranging exploration without a need for expensive and potentially dangerous experiments with biological systems. This theme issue aims to provide a useful guide to important recent findings in some key-areas in modelling biological evolution, to refine the existing challenges and to outline possible future directions. Many of the contributions stress the importance of linking theory and empirical work, emphasised by concrete case study-based examples.. All articles from this issue are now available online.. If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact [email protected] Also of interest. See all Royal Society ...
Biological evolution is "a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations." [1]Microevolution occurs in terms of biological evolution, but macroevolution does not. ...
... s homepage. Topics: Cultural evolution - Simulation of biological evolution - Random number generator - Software optimization
... s homepage. Topics: Cultural evolution - Simulation of biological evolution - Random number generator - Software optimization
Another advantage of the mirror neuron hypothesis is that it helps understand the instinctive imitation capacities of children, which can not only be seen as a motor of language acquisition and thus further language evolution, but also as a crucial factor in cultural evolution via iterative learning by members of successive generations, each time with slightly differing input. Indeed as recent experiments show, imitation may be one of the key cognitive specializations that sparked the success of the human evolutionary story. Particularly intriguing are experiments done by Victoria Horner and Andrew Whiten from the Unviersity of St. Andrews in Scotland, and Derek Lyons and his colleagues from Yale University: Children aged 3-4 and young wild-born chimpanzees were shown how to get a little toy turtle/ a reward either 1) out of a transparent puzzle box or 2) out of an opaque puzzle box. Heres the catch: the right solution is much simpler as the one shown by the demonstrator, who includes a lot of ...
Aitchison, Jean. 2013 [1981]. Language Change: Progress or Decay? 4th edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. Biber, Douglas. 1995. Dimensions of Register Variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. Buchstaller, Isabelle. 2006. "Diagnostics of age-graded linguistic behaviour: The case of the quotative system". Journal of Sociolinguistics10: 3-30. Blythe, R.A. & William Croft. 2012. "S-curves and the mechanisms of propagation in language change". Language 88(2): 269-304.. Chambers, J.K. 1995. Sociolinguistic Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.. Chambers, J.K. 2004. "Dynamic typology and vernacular universals". Dialectology Meets Typology: Dialect Grammar from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective, ed. by Bernd Kortmann, 128-145. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Cooper, Robert L. 1982. "A framework for the study of language spread". Language Spread: Studies in Diffusion and Social Change, ed. by Robert L. Cooper, 5-36. Bloomington: Indiana University Press & Washington D.C. Center for Applied ...
Once all components of a living system is studied, it is imperative to show how the whole works. Realistic representations of molecules becomes essential in this endeavor. For instance -The Central Dogma- by RIKEN Institute distills knowledge gathered by scientists for over more than half a century into 15 minutes. Similarly, another animation details light reactions of early anoxic photosynthesis taking place in the purple bacteria. The BBC documentary The Hidden Life of the Cell illustrates a real scenario of adenovirus infection. Visualization of molecular structures helps us understand or predict the functions of genes. Scientists have compiled large databases based on experimentally determined structures. One of the turning points in Human cultural evolution is the practice of Agriculture. Archeologist for a very long time found overwhelming evidence that it started by selection of non-shattering seeds. Our ancestors initially were not concerned about the size of the grain. At the beginning ...
The family dinner, the client luncheon, the holiday spread--the idea of people coming together for a meal seems the most natural thing in the world. But that is certainly not the case for most other members of the animal kingdom. In Feast, archeologist Martin Jones presents both historic and modern scientific evidence to illuminate how prehistoric humans first came to share food and to trace the ways in which the human meal has shaped our cultural evolution.
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View Notes - 1 Culture Change from ECON DEAM at Oxford University. How can culture affect an organizations performance (2007)? (weak answers lacked depth and empirical support - stronger answers
Ideal for introduction to archaeology and world prehistory courses, The Past in Perspective: An Introduction to Human Prehistory, Seventh Edition, is an engaging and up-to-date chronological overview of human prehistory. Kenneth L. Feder introduces students to the big picture--the grand sweep of human evolutionary history--presenting the human past within the context of fundamental themes of cultural evolution.
Our research program aims to construct a vertically integrated approach to culture and cultural evolution that synthesizes theory and methods from across the sciences, particularly from psychology, economics, biology, and anthropology
(See attached file for full problem description, including diagrams.) Interpret scientific evidence for human evolution. Identify trends in human biological or cultural evolution. Question 1. The diagram below shows a hominid.
Last week we had a lecture from Anvita Abbi on rare linguistic structures in Great Andamanese - a language spoken in the Andaman Islands. The indigenous populations of the Andaman Islands lived in isolation for tens of thousands of years until the 19th Century, but still exhibit some common features of south-east Asian languages such as retroflex consonants. This could be evidence for the migration route of humans from India to Australia. Indeed, recent genetic research has shown that the Andamanese are descendants of the first human migration from Africa in the Palaeolithic, though Abbi suggested that the linguistic evidence is also a strong marker of human migration and an "important repository of our shared human history and civilization".. Although the similarities are fascinating for studies of cultural evolution, the rarity of some structures in Great Andamanese are even more intriguing.. ...
It is important to note the relationship between behavior and the brain, in the context of evolution. All changes in brain structure translate to changes in behavior. Thus, the brain has evolved in accordance with preferable behaviors. The brain feature that sets humans apart from all other animals is another form of evolution. The pre-frontal cortex of humans is large in comparison to the rest of the brain. As a result, humans have greater cognitive and reasoning abilities. This allows them to learn more information over time, including socially enforced behaviors. Humans are able to adapt so much that we undergo constant "cultural evolution," with very little change to the human genome. Over the past few thousands of years, humans have not changed genetically but have completely transformed culturally ...
Bentley et al studied the turnover rate in popularity toplists in a random copying model of cultural evolution. Based on simulations of a model with population size N, list length ℓ and invention rate μ, they conjectured a remarkably simple formula for the turnover rate: ℓ√μ. Here we study an overlapping generations version of the random copying model, which can be interpreted as a random walk on the integer partitions of the population size. In this model we show that the conjectured formula, after a slight correction, holds asymptotically.. ...
Human communication systems evolve culturally, but the evolutionary mechanisms that drive this evolution are not well understood. Against a baseline that communication variants spread in a population following neutral evolutionary dynamics (also known as drift models), we tested the role of two cultural selection models: coordination- and content-biased. We constructed a parametrized mixed probabilistic model of the spread of communicative variants in four 8-person laboratory micro-societies engaged in a simple communication game. We found that selectionist models, working in combination, explain the majority of the empirical data. The best-fitting parameter setting includes an egocentric bias and a content bias, suggesting that participants retained their own previously used communicative variants unless they encountered a superior (content-biased) variant, in which case it was adopted. This novel pattern of results suggests that (i) a theory of the cultural evolution of human communication ...
The logic is the evolutionary lens that produced axons and synapses that alone are not self-aware, but together are, will continue expanding and evolving consciousness, possibly jumping to occupy other substrates. Culture is a key evolutionary differential component initially developed by humans. Culture is continually evolving. If memes not genes are the basis for competitive transmission and survival then the speed of cultural evolution is superseding human evolution and more complex collective organizations of groups of people and potentially other entities may indeed "wake-up" and become self-aware and conscious. As life is an emergent property of chemicals, and consciousness is an emergent property of life, there may be no end to the meta levels up; it is hard to argue to the contrary ...
Our species success in spreading through all biomes of the planet and transforming environments is a direct result of our ability to accumulate cultural traits, i.e., socially learned skills, technologies, beliefs, and ideas that build on existing traits. Transmission and accumulation of culture is an inherently social process. The amount and nature of culture that populations accumulate are expected to depend on the structure of social groups in which it evolves. The most studied aspect of population structure is its size. Theoretical and empirical studies suggest that the size of a population may affect how much culture it can accumulate, but the exact nature of the relationship remains strongly debated. Some models suggest that cumulative culture will increase with population size (1, 2), while others find that the relationship might be mediated through population density (3) or be contingent on environmental conditions (4). Previous laboratory experiments report that larger groups ...
I am knee deep into the research work for opencare. I think I am learning new things on how to use collective intelligence in practice. This has far-reaching implications for my own work in Edgeryders, and beyond. Far beyond, in fact. If we crack collective intelligence, we gain access to a new source of cognition. Forget my own work; this has profound implications for the future of our species. If you think thats radical, go read the work of cultural evolution scholars, like Boyd, Richerson or Henrich. They think homo sapiens has started a major transition: evolutionary forces are pulling us towards a larger, more integrated "collective brain". We are en route to becoming to primates what ants are to flies.. Collective intelligence is an elusive concept. It appeals to intuition, but it is hard to define and harder to measure and model. And yet, model it we must if we are to go forward. The good news is: I think I see a possible way. What follows is just a back-of-the-envelope note, plotting a ...
The term meme .... coined in 1976 by Richard Dawkins, refers to a unit of cultural information transferable from one mind to another. Dawkins said, Examples of memes are tunes, catch-phrases, clothes fashions, ways of making pots or of building arches. A meme propagates itself as a unit of cultural evolution and diffusion - analogous in many ways to the behavior of the gene (the unit of genetic information). Often memes propagate as more-or-less integrated cooperative sets or groups, referred to as memeplexes or meme-complexes ...
I wonder if there isnt a confirmation bias here. Consider all the ideas about evolutionary process first promulgated verbally that turned out to be crap. Orthogenesis. Recapitulation. Naive group selectionism. Saltationism. Polygenism.. I wont count use inheritance, because it actually is described well mathematically and may work for cultural evolution. Evolutionary biology has a lot of recycling of common-sensical insights, and a lot of "new rediscoveries" of what Darwin said 150 years ago. This is all because of the propensity for verbal argumentation. A more subtle problem is that words change their meanings. "Fitness," mentioned in the previous comment is a good example. I think Dobzhansky did better at verbal argumentation than almost anyone, but it is fairly easy to put words into even his mouth. Dawkins did a masterful job of putting Williams and Hamilton into English, but hardened them in the process. When you consider Goulds big volume, or Mayrs History of Biological Thought, they ...
the causality between genes and culture is reciprocal […] culture, though clearly possessing some emergent and irreducible properties (notably in its mode of transmission), is itself subject to a wide set of developmental parameters because it comes out of a brain with a definite bio-chemical structure […] the human mind, despite its undoubted plasticity, is not a tabula rasa. It is predisposed to learn certain things with ease, and others with difficulty or not at all. According to this viewpoint, the programmed learning biases of the human brain result in a non-random distribution of cultural products […] Moreover, since culture has consequences for the survival and reproduction of flesh and blood organisms, natural selection must exert some influence on cultural evolution (van den Berghe & Frost, 1986 ...
the causality between genes and culture is reciprocal […] culture, though clearly possessing some emergent and irreducible properties (notably in its mode of transmission), is itself subject to a wide set of developmental parameters because it comes out of a brain with a definite bio-chemical structure […] the human mind, despite its undoubted plasticity, is not a tabula rasa. It is predisposed to learn certain things with ease, and others with difficulty or not at all. According to this viewpoint, the programmed learning biases of the human brain result in a non-random distribution of cultural products […] Moreover, since culture has consequences for the survival and reproduction of flesh and blood organisms, natural selection must exert some influence on cultural evolution (van den Berghe & Frost, 1986 ...
the causality between genes and culture is reciprocal […] culture, though clearly possessing some emergent and irreducible properties (notably in its mode of transmission), is itself subject to a wide set of developmental parameters because it comes out of a brain with a definite bio-chemical structure […] the human mind, despite its undoubted plasticity, is not a tabula rasa. It is predisposed to learn certain things with ease, and others with difficulty or not at all. According to this viewpoint, the programmed learning biases of the human brain result in a non-random distribution of cultural products […] Moreover, since culture has consequences for the survival and reproduction of flesh and blood organisms, natural selection must exert some influence on cultural evolution (van den Berghe & Frost, 1986 ...
What connections can we currently identify between software development and cultural evolution? What significance can be attached to co-evolutionary processes in perception, abstraction, forms of virtualization, digital technologies and communication capabilities? What kinds of virtual spaces are developing? How are digital communication spaces influencing urbanization processes and the architecture of buildings? What significance does game software have in creating new social and cultural contexts? What kinds of cooperative and collaborative processes are developing? What are the defining properties of an explicit model of social constructs in a technology-based media environment? How are means of digital communication influencing children��s and adults� living spaces and interior architecture? How can a transition from the idiocy of the masses and the knowledge of the crowd into a knowledge-generating virtual community be explained? Can we see signs of an emerging ...
Dark matter hierarchy leads to an amazingly concrete picture about evolutionary hierarchy allowing to identify the counterparts for concepts like mineral, plant, and animal kingdom that we learned during schooldays and ceased to take seriously as students of theoretical physics as we learned that other sciences are just taxonomy. Even more, a view about what distinguishes between prokaryotes, eukaryotes, animal cells, neurons, EEG, and even about what makes cultural evolution, becomes possible.. There are two hierarchies involved with the dark matter hierarchy. The dark levels associated with weak bosons for which kW=1 corresponds to the p-adic length scale about LW(1)≈ 1 Angstrom with exotic weak bosons corresponding to k=113 (rather than k=89 as for ordinary weak bosons). There is also electromagnetic dark hierarchy and in a given length scale one has kW= kem+2. In a given scale weak sector would be ahead in evolution by two units so that weak dark bosons can be associated with more abstract ...
Dark matter hierarchy leads to an amazingly concrete picture about evolutionary hierarchy allowing to identify the counterparts for concepts like mineral, plant, and animal kingdom that we learned during schooldays and ceased to take seriously as students of theoretical physics as we learned that other sciences are just taxonomy. Even more, a view about what distinguishes between prokaryotes, eukaryotes, animal cells, neurons, EEG, and even about what makes cultural evolution, becomes possible.. There are two hierarchies involved with the dark matter hierarchy. The dark levels associated with weak bosons for which kW=1 corresponds to the p-adic length scale about LW(1)≈ 1 Angstrom with exotic weak bosons corresponding to k=113 (rather than k=89 as for ordinary weak bosons). There is also electromagnetic dark hierarchy and in a given length scale one has kW= kem+2. In a given scale weak sector would be ahead in evolution by two units so that weak dark bosons can be associated with more abstract ...
The Zine Archive & Publishing Project exists to validate independent publications (extant and defunct, past and present), to promote the perpetuation of the art form, and to champion freedom of speech and creative cultural evolution. ZAPP collects zines, comics, chapbooks, pamphlets, journals, gazettes, city papers, mail art, monographs, short anthologies, personal transmissions, and other not-so-easily classified independent publications for preservation and display. ZAPP is a program of Richard Hugo House, located at 1634 11th Ave in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle. ...
Has Japan been Americanized? That remains a point of view. I do not believe that the Japanese culture has been substituted for American culture, merely influenced. Japan has been more Westernized than Americanized. Japan has adopted many things from politics and economics to religion and technology. Everyone seems to want to say that cultural evolution is automatically a culturalization by another culture. Your opinions are your own and I respect them, but remember that one country learning from another is not necessarily bad. Sometimes its how we grow and advance ...
At the Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers recently concluded Cable-Tec Expo, Comcast CEO Steve Burke said the company is now "laser-focused" on service reliability. The companys problem is not answering the phone - "We do that pretty well" - but reliability. Comcast has too many error rates and too many issues, he told those gathered in the MSOs hometown of Philadelphia.. At the heart of the effort is technology, including a new software program for customer-service representatives that pings the homes of callers to electronically troubleshoot phone and Internet problems, as well as handheld meters put in the hands of techs in all divisions.. From a former suburban supermarket in New Castle, Del., Comcasts Eastern Division call center serves 1.1 million subscribers. It houses some of the 2,500 new customer-care workers the company has hired across the U.S. over the last 12 months. Its one of the locations where Comcast is going through a "cultural evolution" on customer service, ...
Description: This book discusses the liberation of humans, animals and nature from both a biological and philosophical approach. The authors include information about biological and cultural evolution, as well as the implications of the organic or organismic ecological model. The index begins on page 345. ...
Rodríguez, J., F. Burjachs, G. Cuenca-Bescós, N. García, J. Van der Made, A. Pérez González, H.A. Blain, I. Expósito, J.M. López-García, M. García Antón, E. Allué, I. Cáceres, R. Huguet, M. Mosquera, A. Ollé, J. Rosell, J.M. Parés, X.P. Rodríguez, C. Díez, J. Rofes, R. Sala, P. Saladié, J. Vallverdú, M.L. Bennasar, R. Blasco, J.M. Bermúdez de Castro & E. Carbonell. 2011. One million years of cultural evolution in a stable environment at Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). Quaternary Science Reviews 30 (11-12): 1396-1412.. Go to the journal ...
During this time of intense transition, axial shifts, cultural evolution, darkness, and rebirth...may we all be born again into the light, into the healing, into the spirit, and into interconnected aw
There are devices a high-level culture could produce that simply dont belong in the hands of incompetents of lower cultural evolution. The finest, and most civilized of tools can be made a menace ...
NOTE: Entries are number of clusters of cultural variants expected and rate of possible cultural change. Multiple rates reflect influence of individual innovators (e.g., change will be slow unless a prestigious individual introduces the variant). (a) A direct function of the number of family members present in the population. (b) A direct function of the social clustering within the population. Homogeneity of a culture is expected only under particular combinations of social norms and social models; it is not the rule. The more rigid the social constraints, the more homogeneous the cultural system of a population. We might expect social pressure to be greater in small and highly structured societies than in very large and loosely organized ones. Egalitarian societies will generally be less rigid, as in chimpanzees and some human hunter-gatherers, and probably less homogeneous. At the same time, in a huge modern Western society many cultural variants can survive side by side in most domains. ...
This 727 word essay is about Human evolution, Biological evolution, Apes, Recent African origin of modern humans, Anthropology, Evolution. Read the full essay now!
Oriya is an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. There are about 31 million Oriya speakers, mainly in the Indian state of Orissa. The language is also one of the many official languages in India.
The cultural boundaries separating white Americans from other racial or ethnic categories are contested and always changing. Professor David R. Roediger of the University of Illinois, suggests that the construction of the white race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves.[245] By the 18th century, white had become well established as a racial term. According to John Tehranian, among those not considered white at some points in American history have been: the Germans, Greeks, white Hispanics, Arabs, Iranians, Afghans, Irish, Italians, Jews, Slavs and Spaniards.[246] Finns were also on several occasions "racially" discriminated against[247] and not seen as white, but "Asian". The reasons for this were the arguments and theories about the Finns originally being of Mongolian instead of "native" European origin due to the Finnish language belonging to the Uralic and not the Indo-European language family.[248]. During American history, the process of ...
Biological evolution is "a process that results in [[heritable]] changes in a [[population]] spread over many [[generations]]." [http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/evolution-definition.html][[Microevolution]] occurs in terms of biological evolution, but [[macroevolution]] does not. == See also == *[[Question evolution! campaign]] [[Category:Evolution ...
Download The modern theory of biological evolution an expanded synthesis (2004 03 17) PDF Torrent for free, Full Movie And Tv Shows Streaming Link Also Available to Watch Online
All about The Fallacy of Biological Evolution vs. the Divine Miracles of Life and Creation by Lewis J. Marcon. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for booklovers
Biological evolution is any genetic change in a population inherited over several generations. These changes may be obvious or not very noticeable at all.
The May 4 issue of Science reports on a study of "more than 2000 European skeletons" from over the last 30,000 years tracing how cultural changes like switching from hunting and gathering to farming and herding, from "life as nomads to settling in urban centers; from eating meat, nuts, and tubers to consuming grains, sugars, and dairy products" has altered the human physique. Over this time, the study documents a significant drop in strength in leg bones, the loss of asymmetrically larger right arms as compared to left arms, and fluctuations in weight and height. (The loss of resistance to fracture, according to the article, declined by 25% from 27,000 years ago to 1900 C.E.) 30,000 years ago, apparently, the average European male was as tall as the average European male today. With the onset of agriculture, height and weight both dropped. (Agriculture, apparently, provided poorer nutrition than hunting and gathering did.) Im not clear, from the article, who exactly conducted the study. The ...
This lesson will seek to explain the concept of cultural change. In doing so, it will highlight the change mechanisms of invention and innovation....
I found the section of the chapter (118-120) that discusses how cultural niches can be both adaptive resources and selective pressures to be interesting and a little surprising. In early anthropology classes, we learned the idea that culture can help us adapt to environments. Because evolution and adaptation are slow processes, cultural adaptation can help us in the meantime. However, Downey and Lende provide a more detailed view that culture can also create selective pressures that act on the population. At the end of the chapter, the authors say, "we need to get away from seeing "culture" as merely information that is transmitted over evolutionary time and recognize that enculturation is, equally, the ways that our interaction with each other shapes our biological endowment, and has been doing so for a very long time. We do not just adapt through culture, but must also adapt to culture" (126). This statement was important for me, and I think it is important to remember when considering niche ...
Above I have again placed a selection of Fst statistics from the preprint Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. One must be careful about not over-interpreting these statistics. But, they give a good sense of genetic divergence between two populations, on average (I have uploaded all Fst values in an Excel file). In particular above Ive focused on the ancient populations in the data set. EN is Early Neolithic, while MN is Middle, and LN is Late. HG is Hunter-Gatherer. Ive bolded Fst values , 0.05, because to me thats a pretty high threshold for serious genetic divergence. The LBK brought agriculture to vast swaths of Central Europe. These were the people who encountered the hunter-gatherers who had occupied the continent since the end of the last Ice Age. The genetic distance between these two groups is incredibly high. Between the generic "Western Hunter-Gatherer" population and the LBK the Fst value is 0.091. What does that mean? The Mala are a ...
The mathematical study of genealogies has yielded important insights in population biology, such as the ability to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of a sample of genetic sequences or of a group of individuals. Here we introduce a model of cultural genealogies that is a step toward answering similar questions for cultural traits. In our model individuals can inherit from a variable, potentially large number of ancestors, rather than from a fixed, small number of ancestors (one or two) as is typical of genetic evolution. We first show that, given a sample of individuals, a cultural common ancestor does not necessarily exist. We then introduce a related concept: the most recent unique ancestor (MRUA), i.e., the most recent single individual who is the earliest cultural ancestor of the sample. We show that, under neutral evolution, the time to the MRUA can be staggeringly larger than the time to MRCA in a single ancestor model, except when the average number of learning ...
AXELROD, R. 1997. The dissemination of culture: a model with local convergence and global polarization. Journal of Conflict Resolution 41: 203-226.. AXTELL, R., AXELROD, R., EPSTEIN, J.M. and COHEN, M.D. 1996. Aligning simulation models: a case study and results. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory 1: 123-141. BARBUJANI, G. and SOKAL, R.R. 1990. Zones of sharp genetic change in Europe are also linguistic boundaries. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 1816-1819.. CAVALLI-SFORZA, L.L. and FELDMAN, M.W. 1973. Models for cultural inheritance. I. Group mean and within group variation.. Theor Popul Biol. 4: 42-55.. CAVALLI-SFORZA, L.L. and FELDMAN, M.W. 1981. Cultural Transmission and Evolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton.. CAVALLI-SFORZA, L.L. 1979. Cultural change and its relevance for human genetics. Ciba Found. Symp. 66: 5-23.. CAVALLI-SFORZA, L.L., FELDMAN, M.W., CHEN, K.H. and DORNBUSCH, S.M. 1982. Theory and observation in cultural transmission. Science ...
When reading Schmidts book from 1872 and also inspecting his data, certain fallacies in his argumentation become obvious. Firstly, he claims that the low amount of shared homologs between Sanskrit and Latin would be a problem for a family tree theory - however, this is of course no problem, as long as we do not assume that the loss of words follows an evolutionary clock. Furthermore, Schmidt underestimated the epistemological aspect of our knowledge. When comparing the three languages in alternative counts of more recent etymological databases (see Geisler and List 2013 for details), the scores change rapidly, with Latin and Greek sharing 40%, Greek and Sanskrit sharing 39% and Latin and Sanskrit sharing (already) 21%. Although no complete account of Schmidts data is available in digital form, I think we can assume that the data that forced Schmidt to assume that there is no tree behind the Indo-European languages would not scare off an evolutionary dendrophilist. Whether the tree that the ...
Latin-Faliscan languages: Latin-Faliscan languages,, language group proposed by some scholars to be included in the Italic branch of Indo-European languages. The group includes Latin, which emanated
While it is obvious that reconstructions represent hypotheses and not indisputable truths, it is less clear how they relate to the actual historical facts. First of all, we know for sure that our hypotheses are not stable over time. As our knowledge of the evidence increases, as we include more languages in our comparison, or get deeper insights into the major processes underlying language history, our hypotheses will also constantly be changed and refined. This is nicely reflected in August Schleichers Fable (a short parable called "The Sheep and the Horses"), a text that he wrote in his reconstructed version of Proto-Indo-European, in order to illustrate what was by then known about the origin of the Indo-European language. When looking at the many later versions, written by scholars in order to illustrate how our knowledge of Indo-European had changed since then, the differences in the pronunciations are really striking (see this summary in Wikipedia), but so are the similarities ...
What we need to do is ask the question, "What is it that causes the rate of change in human culture to increase?" I believe the major reason is the increase in the flow of information between people. At its most basic level, change in human culture is caused by people exchanging information. Now, in 2500 B.C., how easy was it to move information from one location to another? If you lived in the same village, you could talk to someone, but, aside from that, there was no easy way to move information. Hence, there was very little change. The 20th century has been characterized by ever-increasing rates of change, because the 20th century has enjoyed ever-increasing facilities to preserve information and move it from one place to another. If you say to me, I think that life changed faster in 1970 than 1920, I would say thats because information moved faster in 1970 than it did in 1920. As long as we can move information from one place to another, were going to have change. The faster we can move ...
The contents, including all opinions and views expressed, in my profile and on this blog are entirely personal and do not necessarily represent the opinions or views of anyone else, including other employees in my department or at the University of California. My department and the University of California have not approved and are not responsible for the material contained in this blog. In addition Im not a doctor (well not a real doctor) so any medical comments are simply my own opinion as an academic scientist and are not intended to replace professional medical advice. ...
Old women provided an absolutely crucial resource by taking care of their grandchildren-and may have led to the creation of human learning and culture
In this lesson, students will use information about past oil spills to predict potential effects of the Prestige spill on the environment, on marine life, and on the human culture and economy of northwestern coastal Spain. Students will take on the roles of experts giving advice to the emergency management team that is handling the oil spill off the coast of Spain, preparing presentations to outline the potential risks to the environment, marine life, and the human culture and economy in Galicia.(November 20, 2002). Breathing Easier (Grades 6-8 , 9-12 ) ...
Typological research on negation has focused most prominently on standard negation, i.e. the basic negation strategies in declarative clauses, and some work has also been done on other aspects of clausal negation as well as on indefinite pronouns in the scope of negation. Negation at the level of words, i.e., derivational affixes expressing negation as well as case markers with negative semantics, has so far not figured in systematic typological studies, but it has received some attention in theoretical literature on semantics and morphology. Zimmer (1964) discusses "affixal" negation primarily in English and a couple of other Indo-European languages, but also comments on a few non--Indo‐European languages and even suggests some cross‐linguistic generalizations. Subsequent work (e.g., Horn 1989) is similarly restricted in its cross‐linguistic scope. From the semantic point of view, the issue of word-‐level negation is closely connected to antonymy. Antonymy and types of opposition have ...
Japanese "pronouns" are considered by some linguists to be more "referential nouns" than strict pronouns. Pronouns allow no modification -- for instance, you cannot grammatically say "the tall he", and must instead use a relative clause, such as "he that is tall". In contrast, Japanese "pronouns" can be directly modified, much like regular nouns -- it is grammatical to say 「背の高い彼」. Furthermore, many Japanese "pronouns" have historically evolved from common nouns, and as such have fundamentally different etymologies from the pronouns utilized in the Indo-European languages for which the Swadesh list was initially developed. Swadesh was attempting to show glottochronological correlations between words from different languages, but the wildly different etymologies of these Japanese "pronouns" defy such correlation. Certain pronoun entries below are therefore left blank ...
This suffix, used in many biological names to mean "-like" or "resembling", comes from the Greek eidos ("shape, form"), the source of English "idol" and "kaleidoscope". This is one of a whole host of words in many Indo-European languages descended from the root weid- ("to see"). Examples are "wit" and "wise" (through Germanic) and "vision" and "view" (through Latin, from videre, "to see"). ...
This blog is for anyone who is interested in talking about parasites in a relatively philosophical, or even symbolic, sort of way. "Parasites" includes parasitic ideas, too! Parasitism is the most common way of life on earth, yet the vast majority of people, including biologists, believe it is something to be ignored. That attitude is simply wrong. ...
This blog is for anyone who is interested in talking about parasites in a relatively philosophical, or even symbolic, sort of way. "Parasites" includes parasitic ideas, too! Parasitism is the most common way of life on earth, yet the vast majority of people, including biologists, believe it is something to be ignored. That attitude is simply wrong. ...
As part of some diversity work, a group of male managers at an investment bank were sharing with me the reasons they believed women were not reaching senior levels in their organisation. The group of 12 men was a diverse bunch. They were very different in their style and personality; some confident extroverts, others serious and thoughtful, one unorthodox and opinionated, and others highly conservative. In fact, the only thing they had in common was that they were all bankers working for the same firm.. The group discussion turned to some of the organisations female employees. These were women just one or two rungs down the career ladder from our male bankers. One woman was criticised for not being demanding enough of people who didnt deliver - she was inclined to talk to people, listen to their perspective and encourage and coach, rather than say "just f*****g do it!". Another woman was described as being "hard-assed" and difficult. Her boss had arranged for her to receive coaching to address ...
The mission of The Commonwealth Fund is to promote a high-performing health care system that achieves better access, improved quality, and greater efficiency, particularly for societys most vulnerable, including low-income people, the uninsured, minority Americans, young children, and elderly adults. ...
The biggest drug company in the world has a new man at the helm, and analysts are hoping Jeffrey Kindler wont make the same mistakes as his outgoing predecessor, Henry McKinnell.
LPL Financial CEO Dan Arnold kicked off Focus 2018 with an update on the firms efforts to change its culture by putting advisors needs front and center.