Prospective memory (PM) represents the ability to successfully realize intentions when the appropriate moment or cue occurs. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the impact of cue predictability on the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting PM. Participants performed an ongoing task and, simultaneously, had to remember to execute a pre-specified action when they encountered the PM cues. The occurrence of the PM cues was predictable (being signalled by a warning cue) for some participants and was completely unpredictable for others. In the predictable cue condition, the behavioural and ERP correlates of strategic monitoring were observed mainly in the ongoing trials wherein the PM cue was expected. In the unpredictable cue condition they were instead shown throughout the whole PM block. This pattern of results suggests that, in the predictable cue condition, participants engaged monitoring only when subjected to a context wherein the PM cue was expected, and disengaged
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): This paper proposes a novel algorithm to solve the problem of segmenting foreground-moving objects from the background scene. The major cue used for object segmentation is the motion information, which is initially extracted from MPEG motion vectors. Since the MPEG motion vectors are generated for simple video compression without any consideration of visual objects, they may not correspond to the true motion of the macroblocks. We propose a Kernel-based Multiple Cue (KMC) algorithm to deal with the above inconsistency of MPEG motion vectors and use multiple cues to segment moving objects. KMC detects and calibrates camera movements; and then finds the kernels of moving objects. The segmentation starts from these kernels, which are textured regions with credible motion vectors. Beside motion information, it also makes use of color and texture to help achieving a better segmentation. Moreover, KMC can keep track of the segmented
Additional Research Interests: Learning, Memory, Motivation, Neuroscience. Cues (conditional stimuli, CSs) that are associated with rewards can act as powerful temptations, leading to maladaptive behavior, such as overeating, or, in the case of drug cues, relapse. However, such cues come to exert powerful control over motivated behavior only if they are attributed with incentive motivational properties (incentive salience). In a series of studies we have found that there is considerable individual variation in the extent to which reward cues acquire incentive motivational properties. Some rats, called sign-trackers (STs) are especially prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, relative to others (goal-trackers, GTs). Importantly, the propensity to attribute incentive salience to a food cue also predicts the the propensity to attribute motivational properties to drug cues. That is, STs also have particular difficulty resisting drug cues, in the sense that some classes of drug cues ...
immune Uncategorized buy 85650-52-8, DNMT1 Reactivity to smoking-related cues may be a key point that precipitates relapse in smokers who have want to quit. not really considered a mind region vital that you addiction typically. Second, we discovered no significant impact in the nucleus accumbens, an particular region that takes on a crucial part in craving, but this effect may have been because of technical difficulties connected with measuring fMRI data for the reason that region. The results of the meta-analysis claim that the prolonged visual program should receive even more attention in long term research of smoking cigarettes cue reactivity. = 11) using identical cue demonstration methodologies and 2) generate a big test (= 216) via the mix of these research. We used info out of this pooled test to create a map of mind areas that are most reliably triggered by cigarette cues; areas which might be especially important contributors to cue-induced craving and relapse therefore. Lately, two ...
This paper presents a novel algorithm for mobile-object segmentation from static background scenes, which is both robust and accurate under most of the common problems found in motion segmentation. In our first contribution, a case analysis of motion segmentation errors is presented taking into account the inaccuracies associated with different cues, namely colour, edge and intensity. Our second contribution is an hybrid architecture which copes with the main issues observed in the case analysis by fusing the knowledge from the aforementioned three cues and a temporal difference algorithm. On one hand, we enhance the colour and edge models to solve not only global and local illumination changes (i.e. shadows and highlights) but also the camouflage in intensity. In addition, local information is also exploited to solve the camouflage in chroma. On the other hand, the intensity cue is applied when colour and edge cues are not available because their values are beyond the dynamic range. ...
There is considerable evidence that Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) can be understood as a form of dysregulated learning and are influenced by classical conditioning. This is based on numerous studies indicating that conditioned contextual cues influence craving for alcohol consumption. As a result, there has been considerable interest in extinction-based treatments for AUDs (i.e., treatments that focus on extinguishing the associations between alcohol cues and motivation to drink), referred to as cue exposure treatment To date, extinction-based treatment for AUDs has resulted in disappointing outcomes in clinical trials and there is considerable interest in improving this form of treatment. One novel strategy is the use of pharmacological adjuncts to enhance extinction. Medications that maximize extinction may minimize subsequent reactions to alcohol cues and, in turn, subsequent clinical outcomes. This study is examining whether the medication d-cycloserine (DCS) can enhance extinction to alcohol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of an auditory cue on chewing cycle kinematics. AU - Wintergerst, Ana M.. AU - Buschang, Peter H.. AU - Hutchins, Bob. AU - Throckmorton, Gaylord S.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - Objectives: This study analysed the systematic and random effects of a rhythmic auditory cue on chewing cycle kinematics. Methods: The chin movements of 25 subjects (19-35 years of age) with normal class I occlusion were recorded at 100 Hz (Optotrak® Northern Digital) during two natural gum chewing (2.5 g) sequences to determine the chewing rate of each subject. Another sequence was recorded with the subjects chewing at their natural rate following an audible cue. Multilevel modeling procedures were used to evaluate differences between natural chewing with and without an audible cue. Results: Differences were found between experimental conditions for excursions, velocities and cycle shape. When chewing with the audible cue velocities were slower and there was less excursion of the chin ...
CLEVELAND (AP) Carlos Carrascos smile remains bright, his mood and outlook as positive as ever.. Outwardly, the Indians right-hander doesnt seem different. Hes determined not to let cancer change him.. I never put anything bad on my mind, Carrasco said. Everythings good. So I dont feel different. I just push myself to work more and get stronger.. Diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia last month, the 32-year-old Carrasco spoke to media members Thursday for the first time since his life took a dramatic, unexpected turn. As he dealt with so many unknowns, Carrasco said hes never once asked why me after learning of his condition.. Im not that kind of person, he said. If its happened, its for a reason.. Carrasco said he first knew something was wrong after he took his annual physical at the start of spring training in Arizona. But after more blood work was done, doctors at The Cleveland Clinic told him he had a treatable form of leukemia but that he could continue pitching as ...
Bobby Parnell seems likely to earn one of the final spots in the Mets bullpen, leaving the last spot up for grabs between Miguel Batista and D.J. Carrasco. Batista looks to have an advantage in the race, making Carrasco a candidate to be traded, two Mets officials tell Andy Martino of the New York Daily News.. One official said the team has discussed whether Miami could be a fit for Carrasco, because the pitcher enjoyed success while playing for then-White Sox manager Ozzie Guillen in 2008 and 09. A third team source mentioned that the Angels could have interest as GM Jerry DiPoto traded for Carrasco while serving as the interim GM of Arizona in 2010.. Carrascos performance last season could make him a tough sell but the Mets are hoping GMs are willing to look past it. The 34-year-old, who is set to make $1.2MM on the back end of a two-year deal, turned in a 6.02 ERA with 4.9 K/9 and 2.9 BB/9 in 2011.. ...
Indians pitcher Carlos Carrasco has revealed that he has leukemia. Carrasco has been on the injured list (nonbaseball, medical) since June 5 when the Indians released a statement saying Carrasco had been diagnosed with a blood condition. At the time, the team said it would wait for Carrasco to decide when and how he felt comfortable sharing any additional details. With Carrascos permission, the team announced that he was evaluated at Cleveland Clinic on June 2 and diagnosed with chronic
Immunotherapy company Cue Biopharma has entered into a strategic research collaboration and license agreement with Merck.. Under the terms of the deal, the CUE Biologics platform will be leveraged to develop biologics engineered to selectively modulate disease-relevant T cell subsets for the treatment of autoimmune disease.. The multi-year collaboration will encompass multiple disease targets across certain primary disease indication areas.. While specific financial arrangements are not being disclosed, Cue Biopharma will receive an up-front payment. Cue Biopharma is also eligible to earn up to $374 million in research, development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments in addition to tiered royalties on sales, if all pre-specified milestones associated with multiple products across the primary disease indication areas are achieved.. Immune Responses, On Cue. Cue Biopharma is developing biologics that mimic antigen presenting cells (APCs) to selectively and effectively deliver signals to ...
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We found that both phasic increases and decreases in the discharge rate of STN neurons accompany the production of speech. In this study, subjects read aloud syllables presented on a computer screen, a behavioral paradigm that requires a series of neural events beginning from processing the visual cue to activating motor commands for the vocal organ. Neural events that occur early in this series, such as processing of the visual cue and forming a phonological plan, might be expected to be time-locked to cue presentation. Events that occur later in the series, such as forming and executing the motor speech plan, might be expected to be time-locked to speech output. We showed that decrease-type responses are predominantly locked to cue presentation and increase-type STN responses are predominantly locked to the onset of speech. These findings suggest that STN inhibition may be associated with early, cognitive aspects of speech production, while STN excitation may be associated with later, motor ...
Our environment is full of cues signaling the availability of tasty, but often unhealthy, foods. In this paper, Poppy and colleagues report a recent study that examined the effect of food-associated stimuli on choice behavior in participants with healthy weight versus severe obesity. During a computerized test, participants were exposed to Pavlovian cues predictive of food pictures, and we examined their biasing effect on instrumental choice. For example, would a cue associated with crisps lead to a higher response rate for crisps (as opposed to, for example, lettuce)? Obese participants were indeed found to be more sensitive to high-calorie food cues relative to low-calorie cues. In contrast, healthy-weight individuals did not show a difference between the two food types. Therefore, this study supports the clinical relevance of this associative mechanism, and suggests that severely obese individuals are particularly sensitive to high-calorie food cues whereas low-calorie food cues have little ...
Rotationally symmetric operations in the image domain may give rise to shape distortions. This article describes a way of reducing this effect for a general class of methods for deriving 3-D shape cues from 2-D image data, which are based on the estimation of locally linearized distortion of brightness patterns. By extending the linear scale-space concept into an affine scale-spacerepresentation and performing affine shape adaption of the smoothing kernels, the accuracy of surface orientation estimates derived from texture and disparity cues can be improved by typically one order of magnitude. The reason for this is that the image descriptors, on which the methods are based, will be relative invariant under affine transformations, and the error will thus be confined to the higher-order terms in the locally linearized perspective mapping.. ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary information 41467_2019_10868_MOESM1_ESM. cues got little effect on ferrets efficiency, or on neural spatial tuning. A subpopulation of neurons encoded spatial placement?regularly across localisation cue type. Furthermore, neural firing pattern decoders outperformed two-channel model decoders using populace activity. Together, these observations suggest that A1 encodes the location of sound sources, as opposed to spatial cue values. test, test, test, test, test, test, test, Bonferroni-corrected test, p 0.05). To elucidate whether models were representing the buy Geldanamycin spatial location of sounds independently of their underlying spatial cues, we contrasted the number of models that were useful about sound location across conditions in which unique binaural cues were offered (i.e., LPN, made up of ITDs, and either HPN or BPN, which did not contain fine-structure ITDs). We found that subpopulations of recorded cells were able to provide cue-independent ...
Smoking cue-exposure research has provided a powerful tool for examining cravings in the laboratory. A key attraction of this method is that tightly controlled experimental procedures can model craving experiences that are presumed to relate to addiction. Despite its appeal, key assumptions underlying the clinical relevance of smoking cue-reactivity studies have been questioned recently. For both conceptual and methodological reasons it may be difficult to tease apart cue-based and abstinence-based cravings. Moreover, conventional cue-reactivity procedures typically generate levels of craving with only minimal clinical relevance. We argue here that sometimes it is unfeasible-and in some instances conceptually misguided-to disentangle abstinence-based and cued components of cigarette cravings. In light of the challenges associated with cue-reactivity research, we offer an alternative approach to smoking cue-exposure experimental research focusing on peak provoked craving (PPC) states. The PPC ...
A series of three experiments was designed to investigate whether the presentation of moving tactile warning signals that are presented in a particular spatiotemporal configuration may be particularly effective in terms of facilitating a drivers response to a target event. In the experiments reported here, participants visual attention was manipulated such that they were either attending to the frontal object that might occasionally approach them on a collision course, or else they were distracted by a color discrimination task presented from behind. We measured how rapidly participants were able to initiate a braking response to a looming visual target following the onset of vibrotactile warning signals presented from around their waist. The vibrotactile warning signals consisted of single, double, and triple upward moving cues (Experiment 1), triple upward and downward moving cues (Experiment 2), and triple random cues (Experiment 3). The results demonstrated a significant performance advantage
An MVPA was used to investigate the association between VTA-based FC and positive expectancy/negative expectancy effects at the between-subject level (Anzellotti et al., 2017; Anzellotti and Coutanche, 2018). First, multivariate FC between the VTA and each voxel in rACC (resulting in a vector pattern of VTA-rACC FC; the number of features equals to the number of voxels in rACC) and between the VTA and each voxel in left NAc (resulting in a vector pattern of VTA-NAc FC; the number of features equals to the number of voxels in NAc) were extracted for each single trial in each subject and averaged across trials for each type of cue. The differences in VTA-based multivariate FC (neutral cue vs low cue or high cue vs neutral cue) were calculated and used to predict the magnitude of conditioned pain responses. Second, the relationship between VTA-based multivariate FC (independent variables, i.e., VTA-rACC multivariate FC and VTA-NAc multivariate FC) and the magnitude of conditioned pain responses ...
Consumers generally prefer products that are easy to interact with. In three studies, we show that this preference arises from the fit between product orientation and monitored situational constraints. Flexible right-handers, who monitor situational constraints, recall product orientations better and prefer products for which the handle is oriented in the direction of the hand used for grasping. When their ability to monitor situational constraints is impaired, the preference for easy-to-grasp products is attenuated. The findings highlight that motor fluency is a relevant cue for decision making when consumers assess how to interact with a product. The implications of these results for embodiment and fluency research are discussed ...
We know that adults contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution are better along the horizontal than vertical meridian -a.k.a. horizontal vertical anisotropy (HVA)- and better in the lower than upper vertical meridian -a.k.a. vertical meridian asymmetry (VMA; Carrasco et al., Spatial Vision 2000, JOV 2002). We also know that for adults the speed of information accrual follows the same pattern, i.e. it is faster along the horizontal meridian and slowest at the North locations (Carrasco et al., VSS 2002). In this study, we investigated the developmental course of these asymmetries with children ages 5-12, by using stimuli of different levels of familiarity, such as shapes, letters and numbers. We used a 4AFC character identification task to determine the presence and extent of the HVA and VMA. Each trial consisted of a central fixation point followed by a 1 stimulus, presented for 50 ms. The stimulus appeared at one of 10 possible eccentricities, ranging from 4 to 13 , along each of the 8 ...
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Background/Aims: Previous research found that individual talkers have consistent differences in the production of segments impacting the perception of their speech by others. Speakers also produce mul
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This way if he gets stuck in anxiety mode, I can cue him from a distance and walk through what he can do to diffuse the situation. I would not have put this on cue if George had not offered this up himself. If you put a behaviour on cue that theyre not comfortable offering up naturally, sometimes it BACKFIRES! They will perform the cue, only because youve asked them to but theyre not emotionally ready to deal with the response from the other dog. When they dont offer it up naturally, within context of a situation where theyd naturally use that to cue another dog ...
Each question is worth one half a point unless otherwise indicated.. A researcher performed an experiment on prospective memory (the ability to remember to perform future tasks.) The experiment investigated various types of reminders (cues) to see if each aided prospective memory. The researcher used a factorial, between-subjects design with two independent variables (IVs). The first IV was whether the cue reminded the person when to perform the task or not (Cue When Absent vs Cue When Present - String vs Cue When Present - Post-It Note.) The second IV was whether the cue reminded the person what task to perform or not (Cue What Absent vs Cue What Present.) Twelve people participated in each condition. The number of tasks that each person remembered to perform at the appropriate time are shown below ...
Yet, the mechanisms linking changes in anticipatory activity with the effects of expectation on sensory processing are not fully understood. Here, we study the effects of cue-induced expectation on response dynamics evoked by gustatory selleck kinase inhibitor stimuli. Single-neuron and population responses to unexpected tastants were compared with those evoked by the same, but expected, stimuli. We show that expectation results in rapid coding of stimulus identity and that this phenomenon is mediated by cue-induced anticipatory. priming of GC. Simultaneous multi-area recordings and pharmacological manipulations in behaving rats further indicate that the priming effects of anticipatory cues on cortical activity depend on top-down inputs from the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a component of the anticipatory network (Belova et al., 2007, Fontanini et al., 2009 and Small et al., 2008) involved in taste coding (Fontanini et al., 2009 and Grossman et al., 2008) and with strong connections to GC (Allen ...
The human visual system seems to be equipped with mechanisms to establish whether or not a two-dimensional image represents a view of a structurally possible three-dimensional object. An example is provided by the so-called impossible objects, first described by Penrose & Penrose [1]. These consist of two-dimensional figures at first perceived as representing a projection of a three-dimensional object, but then immediately and effortlessly recognized as an object that cannot actually exist in the form interpreted by the visual system.. Several local cues need to be integrated to detect global inconsistencies in structural information, allowing discrimination between possible and impossible objects; a long-standing debate exists as to the role played by experience with real three-dimensional objects in the development of these abilities [2,3].. Recently, Shuwairi et al. [4] reported that four-month-old infants can discriminate between structurally possible and impossible objects. However, four ...
In case the cue ball is aimed off center (a cut shot), the cue ball will deflect off the tangent line path that a stop/stun shot would take. This is the result of the forward spin adding a component of movement along the original direction of the cue ball.. An interesting thing to note is that, in roughly half ball shots the cue ball is deflected off its original path by approximately 30 degrees. This is a special case that we will study in greater depth when we look at the uses of the half ball shot in positional play.. In the diagram, the light gray line shows the path the cue ball will take once it strikes the object ball. Note how the deflection is lesser than if you had used a stun shot.. Now, that we know what this shot is, how do we go about adding the follow to the cue ball?. As we discussed in the previous article on the stop shot, any cue ball given reasonable time to slide on the table cloth will slowly start rolling forward as the friction from the cloth acting on it. If you hit a ...
We reasoned that placing a reference disc within an array of objects that are obviously not circular may make observers less inclined to assume that the reference disc is circular, in which case they should reduce the weight given to the monocular (image shape) cue for slant. Our results do not support this prediction. Thus people do not appear to consider the shapes of surrounding objects when determining the likelihood of the reference being circular in order to assign a weight to the monocular slant cue. This may be because observers were instructed to consider the array of shapes as a whole, although the probe itself was made up of the circles or ellipses, making it hard to ignore them. It may also be because the observers consider the shapes they saw on previous trials to be just as important as those on the specific trial in question, in accordance with the slow learning shown by Knill (2007). They may also not relate the target to the other items because they consider it to be a different ...
Scientists discovered the worlds first known social cue of safety while observing how different numbers of fruit flies respond to an imminent threat.
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Does the explicit task-cuing procedure require an endogenous act of control? In 5 experiments, cues indicating which task to perform preceded targets by several stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Two models were developed to account for changes in reaction time (RT) with SOA. Model 1 assumed an endogenous act of task switching for cue alternations but not for cue repetitions. Model 2 assumed no such act. In Experiments 1 and 2, the cue was masked or not masked. Masking interacted underadditively with repetition and alternation, consistent with Model 2 but not Model 1. In Experiments 3 and 4, 2 cues were used for each task. RT was slower for task repetition than for cue repetition and about the same as RT for task alternation, consistent with Model 2 but not Model 1. The results suggest that the explicit task-cuing procedure does not require an endogenous act of control. Clever Hans was a remarkable horse who could add,
The next time a friend tells you that you look sick, hear the person out. We are better than chance at detecting illness in others simply by looking at their faces, according to new research led by a Swedish psychologist. We can detect subtle cues related to the skin, eyes and mouth, said John Axelsson of the Karolinska Institute, who co-wrote the study published Tuesday in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. And we judge people as sick by those cues. Other species
Raje N, Hideshima T, Mukherjee S, Raab M, Vallet S, Chhetri S, Cirstea D, Pozzi S, Mitsiades C, Rooney M, Kiziltepe T, Podar K, Okawa Y, Ikeda H, Carrasco R, Richardson PG, Chauhan D, Munshi NC, Sharma S, Parikh H, Chabner B, Scadden D, Anderson KC. Preclinical activity of P276-00, a novel small-molecule cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in the therapy of multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 2009 May; 23(5):961-70 ...
With a song -- and several symphonies -- in her heart, Maria Tunicka will kick off the theater-going season Saturday when she conducts a gala performance of the Florida Space Coast Philharmonic, the
11:30AM - 12:30 PM. This support group offers new mothers the opportunity to meet and share experiences with other breast feeding women, and also provides guidance from an expert LCM Lactation Consultant. The Group meets every Wednesday. Groups meet at Little Company of Mary. All mothers and babies are welcome. No registration is necessary. Our goal is to give every mom and baby the best start possible. For lactation information, please call 708.229.5418.. ...
Participants rated 26 words for pleasantness on a 5-point scale. Text on the second page informed participants that each of the cues on the subsequent page would be the beginning of an English word. Their task would be to write a few letters to make each cue into any English word, but they were instructed to write down the first one that came to mind. The next page, which presented the implicit word-stem completion task, contained word stems from 13 words that were previously rated for pleasantness as well as stems from 13 unrated (baseline) words, randomly intermixed. Following completion of the implicit memory task, participants were given instructions for the explicit memory cued recall task. They were told that each of the cues on the subsequent page was the beginning of a word for which they had provided a pleasantness rating earlier. They were instructed to try to complete each cue with the word from the pleasantness-rating list-that is, to explicitly remember the previously rated words. ...
A blog reader asked a great question recently, in response to my comment that I couldnt help myself and repeated Stay, Stay, Stay to Willie when in a dangerous situation at the side of a busy highway. We all know that repeated cues, like the ever popular Sit, Sit, Sit are not exactly best practice in dog training. And yet, they are commonly used, especially by beginners; just go to any Beginning Family Dog Training class and youll hear repeated cues thrown around like confetti at a homecoming parade. It was that very occurrence that helped inspire me to write The Other End of the Leash, about how the evolutionary backgrounds of people and dogs both help us (were both crazy social and insanely playful) and hurt us (direct facial contact is polite to people, rude to dogs). Sit, Sit, Sit sounds a lot like Wooo Woo Woo coming from a chimpanzee, and that is not a random association. But why? Why do we repeat ourselves like agitated apes, and why is it so hard to stop? We all know why it ...
so Ive gone and installed Sound Forge 8.0 and decided to make cue files for a mix. so I know that when making the .cue file you need to do it in minutes...
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Hello all, I have recently inherited a CME/CUE system. Specifically, We are running CME 3.3, AIM-CUE 2.1.1 on a 2821 running 12.3(14)T2. I would like to upgrade to 2.1.3 to resolve a bug that causes CUE to report it is full when it is not.
Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis have shown that a simple visual technique called subtle gaze direction, in which gentle visual cues are
Animal studies have shown that the hippocampus contains special cells called place cells. These place cells are interesting because their activity seems to indicate not what the animal sees, but rather where the animal is in space as it runs around in a box or in a maze. (See the four cells in the image to the right.). washingtonredskinsgear.com Further, when the animal goes to sleep, those cells tend to reactivate in the same order they did during wakefulness. This apparent retracing of the paths during sleep has been termed hippocampal replay.. More recently, studies in humans - who have deep microelectrodes implanted to help detect the origin of epileptic seizures - have shown place-responsive cells. Place cells in these studies were found not only in the human hippocampus but also in nearby brain regions.. The computation which converts sequences of visual and other cues into a sense of place is a very interesting one that has not yet been fully explained. However, there do exist ...
United States Cellular (NYS: USM) reported earnings on May 4. Here are the numbers you need to know. The 10-second takeawayFor the quarter ended March 31 (Q1), United States Cellular met expectations on revenues and crushed expectations on
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Motion-induced blindness (MIB) and Perceptual Filling-in (PFI) are two instances of temporary blindness in which, after prolonged viewing, perceptually salient targets repeatedly disappear and reappear, amidst a field of distracters. Hsu and Yeh (VSS2004) provided an integrated model in which the establishment of surfaces is assumed to cause both these phenomena. In this model, a target is assumed to fade when its surface is perceived to lose its boundary due to either adaptation, or due to the presence of other surfaces that are defined by distractors. A surface representation can be established with the help of various segregation cues, and here we test whether, as the model predicts, any kind of cue can give rise to the same effect. Four different cues were used that were based on (1) motion, (2) binocular disparity, (3) perceptual grouping, or (4) occlusion. The results support our hypotheses that all kinds of surfaces produced the temporary blindness phenomenon.. ...
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Axons elongate under the control of a wide variety of soluble or cell‐bound ligands and matrix‐coated surfaces acting as extracellular guidance cues. Axons are capable of extending over huge distances (a meter or more) and probably encounter different cues along the way. Some of the better‐studied cues include Netrins, Slits, Semaphorins and Ephrins, but there are many others (ODonnell et al, 2009).. Guidance cues interact with receptors located in the growth cone, a specialized structure at the tip of the elongating axon. The growth cone is actin‐rich and can be morphologically divided into distinct regions: (i) a peripheral domain along the outer edge consisting of bundled (filopodia) and branched (lamellipodia) actin filaments, (ii) a central domain of bundled microtubules exiting the axon shaft, and (iii) a transitional zone, occupied by actin filament arcs (Figure 2B; Schaefer et al, 2008). Dynamic, pioneer microtubules transiently enter the peripheral region. Growth cone turning ...
African American smokers show greater brain activations in response to smoking cues, such as images of individuals smoking, than Caucasian smokers, according to researchers at the University of Minnesota. The study, published in the June issue of the journal Addiction Biology, measured increased brain activity in regions associated with emotion and reward, which may explain why African American smokers are less successful than Caucasians at quitting. Led by Kolawole Okuyemi, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Program on Health Disparities Research in the Medical School and associate professor in the Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, the study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure participants brain activation while viewing images of African American and Caucasian models who were either smoking (smoking cues) or engaging in everyday activities (neutral cues). We found that African American smokers showed greater brain activations in response to smoking cues, ...
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Analyzing a scene requires shifting attention from object to object. Although several studies have attempted to determine the speed of these attentional shifts, there are large discrepancies in their estimates. Here, we adapt a method pioneered by Carlson et al (2006) that directly measures pure attentional shift times. We also test if attentional shifts can be handled in parallel by the independent resources available in the two cortical hemispheres. We present 10 clocks, with single revolving hands, in a ring around fixation. Observers are asked to report the hand position on one of the clocks at the onset of a transient cue. The delay between the reported time and the veridical time at cue onset can be used to infer processing and attentional shift times. With this setup, we use a novel subtraction method that utilizes different combinations of exogenous and endogenous cues to determine shift times for both types of attention. In one experiment, subjects shift attention to an exogenously ...
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Orienting attention to locations in mnemonic representations engages processes that functionally and anatomically overlap the neural circuitry guiding prospective shifts of spatial attention. The attention-based rehearsal account predicts that the requirement to withdraw attention from a memorized location impairs memory accuracy. In a dual-task study, we simultaneously presented retro-cues and pre-cues to guide spatial attention in short-term memory (STM) and perception, respectively. The spatial direction of each cue was independent of the other. The locations indicated by the combined cues could be compatible (same hand) or incompatible (opposite hands). Incompatible directional cues decreased lateralized activity in brain potentials evoked by visual cues, indicating interference in the generation of prospective attention shifts. The detection of external stimuli at the prospectively cued location was impaired when the memorized location was part of the perceptually ignored hand. The ...
GNU ccd2cue is a CCD sheet to CUE sheet converter. It supports the full extent of CUE sheet format expressiveness, including mixed-mode discs and CD-Text meta-data. It plays an important role for those who need to use optical disc data which is only available in the proprietary sheet format CCD, but dont want to surrender their freedom. It fills an important gap in the free software world because before its conception it was impossible to use complex forms of optical disc data laid out by CCD sheets in a whole/holy free operating system. The GNU ccd2cue documentation is also intended to be a reference documentation for both sheet format specifications. That way we can reverse engineer the secret CCD sheet proprietary format only once and then make the information available for developers in order to benefit all free software users that want their software to be interoperable. The CUE sheet format is not a secret, but with this package we take the opportunity to ensure that its specification is ...
CONCLUSION: The study results suggest that the performance of a cognitive-motor dual-task using auditory cues may influence balance improvements in chronic stroke patients. PMID: 25394396 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]...
Patients with chronic dyspnoea may learn to fear situations that cue dyspnoea onset. Such dyspnoea-specific cues may then cause anxiety, and worsen or trigger dyspnoea even before commencement of physical activity. We therefore developed an experimental tool to probe emotional processing of dyspnoea for use with neuroimaging in COPD. The tool consists of a computerised task comprising multiple presentations of dyspnoea-related word cues with subsequent rating of dyspnoea and dyspnoea-anxiety with a visual analogue scale. Following 3 development stages, sensitivity to clinical change was tested in 34 COPD patients undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation. We measured internal consistency, sensitivity to clinical change and convergence with established dyspnoea measures (including Dyspnoea-12). Cronbachs alpha was 0.90 for dyspnoea and 0.94 for anxiety ratings. Ratings correlated with Dyspnoea-12 (dyspnoea: r=0.51, P=0.002; anxiety: r=0.54, P=0.001). Reductions in anxiety ratings following pulmonary
Our perception of the level of carbonation in a beverage often relies on the integration of a variety of multisensory cues from vision, oral-somatosensation, nociception, audition, and possibly even manual touch. In the present study, we specifically investigated the role of auditory cues in the perception of carbonation in beverages. In Experiment 1, participants rated a series of sparkling water samples in terms of their perceived carbonation using a visual analogue scale. The water sounds were modified by changing the loudness and/or frequency composition of the auditory feedback emitted by the water samples. The carbonated water samples were judged to be more carbonated when the overall sound level was increased and/or when the high frequency components (2-20 kHz) of the water sound were amplified. In Experiment 2, we investigated whether the perception of carbonation of physically different water samples (still, semi-sparkling, and sparkling) varied as a function of the distance at which ...
For sale is a very rare Dave Barrenbrugge Custom Cue, these cues are very hard to get and hold value very well and are extremely sought after... This cue is lightly used and is in 90+% condition other than a little chalk in the shafts and the joint protectors having a few marks Brazilian Rosewood forearm Brazilian Rosewood butt sleeve Extremely intricate rings at each location that consists of 9 rings each indexed perfectly Spanish Bull wrap perfectly installed Black phenolic butt cap Black phenolic joint collars Stainless steel Modified 3/8x10 joint pin Butt is 29 & 15.82oz Shaft 1 is 29 & 3.68oz Ferrule 1 is Micarta & 12.75mm Shaft 2 is 29 & 3.64oz Ferrule 2 is Micarta & 12.65mm ...
Its one of those things where absence makes the heart grow fonder, said Jeffrey Grimm, first author of the study, released today, and experimental psychologist with NIDA, which is based in Bethesda, Md. The importance of this is that a lot of people have the idea that cravings get lower over time.. We were kind of expecting to see cravings diminish over time and were surprised to see them progressively increase.. Cues Are Key. In the experiment, researchers focused on cues, or reminders of the drug. For the rats, the cue was a red light that turned on when researchers made the drug available. For humans, cues can range from seeing a bag of cocaine to something as simple as holding a rolled-up dollar bill.. When addicts receive the cue, their cravings for cocaine intensify.. Dr. Herbert Kleber, director of the division of substance abuse at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, said the new study reinforces findings drug craving from a study he authored in ...
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing and remitting disorder, where relapse to drinking is often triggered by an intense desire for alcohol (craving) and the consequent motivation to obtain alcohol (seeking). Environmental stimuli (cues) associated with past alcohol use are believed to strongly contribute to relapse, as exposure to these cues can trigger intense feelings of craving and drive alcohol seeking. Over the past several decades, much progress has been made in identifying the neurobiological correlates of alcohol seeking and relapse. Much of this progress is owed to the development of animal models and advanced techniques to manipulate neural activity. In this chapter, we describe some of the most commonly used rodent models of alcohol intake and seeking as well as the methods used to identify the neural structures and circuits involved in alcohol-mediated behavior. Several of the most routinely identified brain structures in alcohol seeking are also described.
Desert ants are fascinating organisms for studying navigation because they inhabit an environment with few local cues but impressive distant visual cues such as tall mountains. Navigating back to the nest after foraging can be challenging with few local cues. Can insects use their panoramic view of the skyline to navigate? The answer is yes.…
Background Adolescent risk-taking, including behaviors resulting in injury or death, has been attributed in part to maturational differences in mesolimbic incentive-motivational neurocircuitry, including ostensible oversensitivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) to rewards. Methodology/Principal Findings To test whether adolescents showed increased NAcc activation by cues for rewards, or by delivery of rewards, we scanned 24 adolescents (age 12-17) and 24 adults age (22-42) with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. The MID task was configured to temporally disentangle potential reward or potential loss anticipation-related brain signal from reward or loss notification-related signal. Subjects saw cues signaling opportunities to win or avoid losing $0, $.50, or $5 for responding quickly to a subsequent target. Subjects then viewed feedback of their trial success after a variable interval from cue presentation of between 6 to17 s. Adolescents
Another study found that cross-modal integration of touch and vision for distinguishing size and orientation is available from at least 8 years of age.[83] For pre-integration age groups, one sense dominates depending on the characteristic discerned (see visual dominance).[83] A study investigating sensory integration within a single modality (vision) found that it cannot be established until age 12 and above.[82] This particular study assessed the integration of disparity and texture cues to resolve surface slant. Though younger age groups showed a somewhat better performance when combining disparity and texture cues compared to using only disparity or texture cues, this difference was not statistically significant.[82] In adults, the sensory integration can be mandatory, meaning that they no longer have access to the individual sensory sources.[86] Acknowledging these variations, many hypotheses have been established to reflect why these observations are task-dependent. Given that different ...
Cues present during cocaine self-administration become associated with the drug and if encountered during abstinence, increase the probability of relapse. However, despite much research on human relapse, including the use of animal behavioral models, the way in which relapse-inducing cues are interpreted by the user has remained elusive. Recent theories propose that, after long experience with self administration, drug taking shifts from goal-directed to a habit-like behavior, and therefore cues induce relapse automatically, thus bypassing information processing related to the consequences of relapse. But an alternative hypothesis is that relapse-inducing cues produce an expectation of the drugs consequences, triggering a goal-directed relapse. In animal behavioral experiments, a common procedure used to discriminate between habit and goal-directed responding is reward devaluation: if responding occurs despite devaluation, then the response is considered a habit, or automatic behavior; whereas, ...
Cognitive control can be triggered in reaction to previous conflict, as suggested by the finding of sequential effects in conflict tasks. Can control also be triggered proactively by presenting cues predicting conflict (proactive control)? We exploited the high temporal resolution of ERPs and controlled for sequential effects to ask whether proactive control based on anticipating conflict modulates neural activity related to cognitive control, as may be predicted from the conflict-monitoring model. ERPs associated with conflict detection (N2) were measured during a cued flanker task. Symbolic cues were either informative or neutral with respect to whether the target involved conflicting or congruent responses. Sequential effects were controlled by analyzing the congruency of the previous trial. The results showed that cueing conflict facilitated conflict resolution and reduced the N2 latency. Other potentials (frontal N1 and P3) were also modulated by cueing conflict. Cueing effects were most evident
The easiest way to jump into controllerism is to experiment with cue-point juggling. Cue juggling differs from the turntablists standard, beat juggling, because you are jumping between different points within a song. That can be done with two different songs or two copies of the same song, depending on the routine.. The key is to consistently place your cue points so that they make sense to your brain and are easy to work with on the fly. I often place five cue points on every song in a consistent manner so each cue is placed on a different hit or sound that I would like to sample in a logical progression through the track. The first cue point always goes on the first down beat - usually a kick. And if the software supports it, I always make this cue a load marker, so the song always starts at the right spot. Then the next cue is always placed on the second hit - usually a snare or similar sound - so my kick and snare are always right next to each other for freestyle drumming. The third cue ...
Directed cell migration is usually thought to depend on the presence of long-range gradients of either chemoattractants or physical properties such as stiffness or adhesion. However, in vivo, chemical or mechanical gradients have not systematically been observed. Here we review recent in vitro exper …
BACKGROUND: Knowledge graphs can represent the contents of biomedical literature and databases as subject-predicate-object triples, thereby enabling comprehensive analyses that identify e.g. relationships between diseases. Some diseases are often diagnosed in patients in specific temporal sequences, which are referred to as disease trajectories. Here, we determine whether a sequence of two diseases forms a trajectory by leveraging the predicate information from paths between (disease) proteins in a knowledge graph. Furthermore, we determine the added value of directional information of predicates for this task. To do so, we create four feature sets, based on two methods for representing indirect paths, and both with and without directional information of predicates (i.e., which protein is considered subject and which object). The added value of the directional information of predicates is quantified by comparing the classification performance of the feature sets that include or exclude it. ...
Find everything You need to know about Monocular Cues Guide in this detail. Interposition, relative size, depth from motion, and much more explained!
BackgroundPrevious studies of learning to adapt reaching movements in the presence of novel forces show that learning multiple force fields is prone to interference. Recently it has been suggested that force field learning may reflect learning to manipulate a novel object. Within this theoretical framework, interference in force field learning may be the result of static tactile or haptic cues associated with grasp, which fail to indicate changing dynamic conditions. The idea that different haptic cues (e.g. those associated with different grasped objects) signal motor requirements and promote the learning and retention of multiple motor skills has previously been unexplored in the context of force field learning.Methodology/Principle FindingsThe present study tested the possibility that interference can be reduced when two different force fields are associated with differently shaped objects grasped in the hand. Human subjects were instructed to guide a cursor to targets while grasping a robotic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gating by inhibition during top-down control of willed attention. AU - Bengson, Jesse J.. AU - Liu, Yuelu. AU - Khodayari, Natalia. AU - Mangun, George R. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - In natural settings, the control of attention may be influenced both by external information as well as internal decision-making processes driven by intent (e.g. free will). In past studies of spatial attention, we and others have developed experimental paradigms that permit individuals to choose where to direct their attention on a trial-by-trial basis in the absence of instructive external cues - we term this willed attention. Here we investigate the electrophysiological correlates of willed attention by recording EEG activity when subjects decided to focus covert attention on one of two lateralized target locations versus when they decided to maintain attention at fixation. Independent of the direction of attention, decisions to attend, relative to decisions not to attend, resulted in ...
Studies of visual attention in monkeys typically measure neuronal activity when the stimulus event to be detected occurs at a cued location versus when it occurs at an uncued location. But this approach does not address how neuronal activity changes relative to conditions where attention is unconstrained by cueing. Human psychophysical studies have used neutral cueing conditions and found that neutrally cued behavioral performance is generally intermediate to that of cued and uncued conditions (Posner et al., 1978; Mangun and Hillyard, 1990; Montagna et al., 2009). To determine whether the neuronal correlates of visual attention during neutral cueing are similarly intermediate, we trained macaque monkeys to detect changes in stimulus orientation that were more likely to occur at one location (cued) than another (uncued), or were equally likely to occur at either stimulus location (neutral). Consistent with human studies, performance was best when the location was cued, intermediate when both ...
Cleveland Indians pitcher Carlos Carrasco has been cleared to resume strength and conditioning workouts following his leukemia diagnosis.
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Victor Carrasco, the leading rider at the Laurel Park summer meeting, will be sidelined this weekend as he continues to recover from a foot injury he sustained Sunday.
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She let me know when she was ready for each progression through her relaxed and happy body language, and I just made sure interactions were quick at first then added duration until she was able to make the right decisions on her own. I just rewarded her for the polite response and calm, friendly body language, each step of the way, always, always noticing if she slightly tensed up...we backed away and created distance, teaching her...if shes uncomfortable...retreat and leave. I call it, retreat with honour...I think its from an article I read from Dr. Ian Dunbar. Thats it ...
Astrocyte-based mechanism of working memory (WM). A Simulated firing activity of a cortical neuron before, during and after the presentation of a stimulatory cue (purple bar). B The same cue induces persistent firing activity in presence of astrocyte-mediated synaptic facilitation for more than 10 seconds (red shade). C Astrocyte-mediated facilitation results in bistability of synaptic release. D Synaptic release enhanced by the astrocyte may outlast the stimulatory cue as long as the astrocyte is kept active by the very synaptic stimuli impinging on the astrocyte. E The resulting neuronal firing statistics is more irregular in presence of the astrocyte, as marked by (F) a coefficient of variation (CV) larger than 1 after presentation of the cue (purple shade). ...
Research conducted by the Vision Group is aimed at a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying a variety of visual phenomena and of the links between visual perception and action. Our interests include the properties of visual attention and of spatial maps, visual perception during eye and head movements, the information and use of multiple cues for the perception of depth and motion, the perception of duration of visual events, and visual decision processes. We also do research on hearing and touch, especially in their interactions with and analogies to vision. Our methodological approaches are mostly experimental (visual psychophysics) with links to modeling and brain imaging ...
Pool Cues, Pool Sticks and Cue Sticks Ask any great player and theyll tell you that the most import piece of equipment that a pool player can own would is a...
Cognitive mechanisms mediating mental illness. More recently I have been using lab-based paradigms to measure selective attention an working memory and their interactions in individuals who may be vulnerable to develop depression or bipolar disorder. This work is in collaboration with my clinical colleagues Drs Thomas Meyer and Dr Mark Papworth.. Perception and fine art. Together with Dr Quoc Vuong, we are interested in the perceptual cues that observers may use to judge the aesthetics of an image and how these cues impact on their memory and cognition? Our projects are lab-based and investigate the relationship between our appreciation of art and our perceptual and higher-order cognitive mechanisms. ...
One of the most fundamental questions in crossmodal attention research concerns the extent to which people can selectively direct their attention toward a particular sensory modality such as, for example, audition, at the expense of the processing of stimuli presented in the other modalities. Spence and his colleagues have conducted a number of studies showing that voluntarily (i.e., endogenously) attending to one sensory modality can result in the facilitation of peoples (speeded) spatial discrimination responses to stimuli presented in that modality when compared to situations in which their attention has been directed to another modality instead (Spence et al., 2000a, 2001a, 2002; see also Ashkenazi & Marks, 2004). The presentation of a non-predictive cue stimulus in a particular modality has also been shown to result in the short-lasting exogenous orienting of attention toward the modality in which the cue was presented (see Spence et al., 2001 a; Turatto et al., 2002, 2004). Interestingly, ...
We develop and test a model that suggests that expectations influence subjective usability and emotional experiences and, thereby, behavioral intentions to continue use and to recommend the service to others. A longitudinal study of 165 real-life users examined the proposed model in a proximity mobile payment domain at three time points: before use, after three weeks of use, and after six weeks of use. The results confirm the short-term influence of expectations on users evaluations of both usability and enjoyment of the service after three weeks of real-life use. Users evaluations of their experiences mediated the influence of expectations on behavioral intentions. However, after six weeks, users cumulative experiences of the mobile payment service had the strongest impact on their evaluations and the effect of pre-use expectations decreased. The research clarifies the role of expectations and highlights the importance of viewing expectations through a temporal perspective when evaluating ...
I remember when I was in the first days, weeks and months of early recovery I used to give myself such a hard time when my attention was drawn to some alcohol-related cue, like someone drinking ,or finding it difficult not dealing with some reminder of people places and things from my alcohol abusing past; finding…
I dont think Savage or many other practitioners of open marriages will go on to celebrate their Golden Annniversary.....Fidelity is not an ancillary feature of marriage, like giving up sweets for Lent is for religion. It is the whole point and purpose of marriage, like believing in Christ is for Christians.....Nothing burns down a relationship quicker than infidelity. Well, fire and ice. Money will tear couples asunder, but it takes longer.....Monogamy is harder for men, but, in the long run, they come out ahead. The wives of many here would prefer to be one of Brad Pitts wives or, perhaps, even his concubine. However, in our society, that option is not open to them. They have to settle for you.....Also, after a while, theres a kind of monotony and superficiality to promiscuity that wears you down. There is actually more complexity and change in a married relationship than in a quickie. In my married life, I was never an adulterer, but I have been promiscuous. I would presume that adultery is ...
Guest Editors: Christina Curtis and Florian Markowetz. Genomic research has helped us realize that cancer cells are dynamic populations that respond to different cues. Cancer cells can be viewed as diverse individuals, similar to humans within a population, with both intra-tumor heterogeneity and inter-tumor heterogeneity. One population can change to another over time, they evolve and migrate along with the changes of their microenvironment, with or without therapies. These changes happen gradually and understanding this dynamic process is helping us to manage cancer as a chronic disease. Genome Biology has launched the special issue on Cancer Evolution and Metastasis to showcase the recent efforts in understanding the mechanisms driving cancer evolution, heterogeneity, and metastasis.. ...
Percentage of cues pecked and latency to peck data for screen-peck task 1 (no affect manipulation). Data are means where birds see 17 P cues, 2 NP cues, 2 M cues, 1 NN cues and ...
Raising Islands.. I borrow the name of this blog, gratefully and with permission, from my friend Nainoa Thompson. He uses the term raising islands out of the sea to create in the mind the experience of a voyaging canoe coming up on a distant shore, and of watching distant peaks rise out of the sea as the canoe approaches. The first time I did it with him, our vehicle was the voyaging canoe Hokulea and the island was Nihoa. I recall the crews thrill at dawn, seeing the twin peaks of the island appear, and then the saddle between them, and finally the whole island. Thompson was the non-instrument navigator who had brought us there using only stars, clouds, wind, seas, birds and other cues.. The name of this blog also invokes the idea of responsibility-raising as lifting up, as caring for and conserving.. The key to responsibility is understanding. If we are to care for these islands, we need the kind of understanding of the environment that a traditional navigator needs. ...