Cryptococcus laurentii ATCC ® 18803™ Designation: CBS 139 [CCRC 20527, CCY 17-3-2, DBVPG 6265, IFO 0609, IFO 0906, MUCL 30398, NRRL Y-2536, VKM Y-1665, VKPM Y-219] Application: Produces xylan endo-1,3-beta-xylosidase xylan hydrolase, xylanase Quality control strain Quality control strain for API products Control strain for identification
Cryptococcus albidus ATCC ® 66030™ Designation: AmMS 228 Application: Quality control strain Biomedical Research and Development Material
Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungi that belong to the genus Cryptococcus.The two species are Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii.
Looking for Cryptococcus? Find out information about Cryptococcus. A genus of encapsulated pathogenic yeasts in the order Moniliales Explanation of Cryptococcus
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Cryptococcus is a polyphyletic genus that is present in all five major lineages of the Tremellomycetes (Agaricomycotina). Cryptococcus wieringae (syn=Filobasidium wieringae) was described by Fonseca et al. (2000) to re-classify strains of Cryptoccocus albidus related to Cryptoccocus magnus. Like many other members of Filobasidiales, Cryptococcus wieringae is also found in association with plants. The original identification by Wieringa (1956) was on samples isolated from flax straw when a role in pectin hydrolysis during the dew-retting process of flax was suggested. It has also been isolated from soil samples (Arenz et al. 2006) and glaciers (Branda et al. 2010).. This genome was sequenced as part of the 1000 fungal genomes project ...
Abstract Niger (Guizotia abyssinica) is an oilseed crop cultivated in Ethiopia and India. Niger seed oil is packed with beneficial fatty acids and linoleic acid, and has a similar composition to sunflower oil. The aim ...
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Etymology: Aseraggodes: Greek, aggos, -eos, -ous = vessel, uterus, carapace of a crab + Greek, aseros, -a, -on = to remove the appetite (Ref. 45335); albidus: Name from Latin word meaning white, refers to the unusual white overall colour of the ocular side of this sole in life.. More on author: Randall. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
In the previous post in this series, I promised to talk about some different types of the cryptococcal organism, including their clinical significance. But before I point out the types, lets recapitulate quickly the conventions of scientific naming of biological organisms, a.k.a. binomial nomenclature, a system in which living organisms (bacteria, plants, animals, and so forth) are identified with a set of two names, a generic name (indicating its Genus) and a specific name (indicating the species). Simply put, Genus (always written with an initial capital) refers to a particular group with a family of organisms, and species (always written in lowercase) refers to specific members within that group, who share genetic similarity to the point of being capable of interbreeding amongst themselves and producing fertile offsprings. This definition of species is, however, slightly foggy because under different circumstances, both natural and artificial, members of different species within the same ...
Ramtil yağı - Nijerya, Hindistan ve Etiyopyada Guizotia abyssinicaun birkaç türünden birinin tohumlarının ezilmesinden elde edilir. (Niger pea) in Hindistan ve Etiyopya. Pişirmede ve aydınlatmada kullanılır ...
D) Genetic characterization of regulatory elements that control the biosynthesis and the uptake of amino acids and their role in virulence of Cryptococcus ...
Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the infections in Eur
Clonal VGII subtypes (outbreak strains) of Cryptococcus gattii have caused an outbreak in the US Pacific Northwest since 2004. Outbreak-associated infections occur equally in male and female patients (median age 56 years) and usually cause pulmonary disease in persons with underlying medical conditions. Since 2009, a total of 25 C. gattii infections, 23 (92%) caused by non-outbreak strain C. gattii, have been reported from 8 non-Pacific Northwest states. Sixteen (64%) patients were previously healthy, and 21 (84%) were male; median age was 43 years (range 15-83 years). Ten patients who provided information reported no past-year travel to areas where C. gattii is known to be endemic. Nineteen (76%) patients had central nervous system infections; 6 (24%) died. C. gattii infection in persons without exposure to known disease-endemic areas suggests possible endemicity in the United States outside the outbreak-affected region; these infections appear to differ in clinical and demographic characteristics from
Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A is responsible for the majority of cryptococcal infections in AIDS patients. In France, approximately 17% of the patients
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans suggested a considerable genetic divergence between the varieties C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. grubii on the one hand versus C. neoformans var. gattii on the other. This divergence is supported by additional phenotypic, biochemical, clinical and molecular differences. Therefore, the authors propose the existence of two species, C. neoformans (Sanfelice) Vuillemin and C. bacillisporus Kwon-Chung, which differ in geographical distribution, serotypes and ecological origin. Within each species three AFLP genotypes occur, which differ in geographical distribution and serotypes. Differences in ecological origin (AIDS patients, non-AIDS patients, animals or the environment) were found to be statistically not significant. In C. neoformans as well as in C. bacillisporus one of the genotypes represented a hybrid. The occurrence of hybridization has consequences for the
Objectives: Cryptococcus species are associated with invasive fungal infections in immunosuppressed individuals. The clinical significance of low titer cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) by lateral flow assay is frequently uncertain. We investigated the correlation of low CrAg titers with disease in an immunocompromised patient population.. Methods: Patients with first-time positive CrAg results with low serum titers (≤1:10) at two medical centers (Los Angeles, CA) from April 2014-July 2018 were included. Age-matched controls with high (≥1:20) and negative titers were selected. We extracted medical records for pertinent clinical, radiologic, and laboratory data for cryptococcal disease.. Results: From 2,196 serum samples submitted for CrAg testing, 96 cases were included (32 each in low titer, high titer, and negative titer groups). One or more immunocompromising condition was identified in 95% of patients, including HIV infection (45%), solid organ transplant (26%), and cirrhosis (22%). Pulmonary ...
Background Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes cryptococcosis, a life threatening disease. The prevalence of cryptococcosis in Asia has been rising after the onset of the AIDS epidemic and estimates indicate more than 120 cases per 1,000 HIV-infected individuals per year. Almost all cryptococcal disease cases in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients in Asia are caused by C. neoformans var. grubii. Epidemiological studies on C. neoformans in pan-Asia have not been reported. The present work studies the genetic diversity of the fungus by microsatellite typing and susceptibility analysis of approximately 500 isolates from seven Asian countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetic diversity of Asian isolates of C. neoformans was determined using microsatellite analysis with nine microsatellite markers. The analysis revealed eight microsatellite complexes (MCs) which showed different distributions among geographically defined populations. A correlation between MCs and
Looking for online definition of Cryptococcus in the Medical Dictionary? Cryptococcus explanation free. What is Cryptococcus? Meaning of Cryptococcus medical term. What does Cryptococcus mean?
Cryptococcus gattiihas emerged as an important fungal pathogen. Infection manifests most often as potentially fatal meningoencephalitis and/or pulmonary disease. The emergence of clusters of cryptococcosis due toC. gattiiin British Columbia, Canada,
The population structure of a sample of clinical isolates of C. neoformans serotype A from AIDS patients in Botswana was determined, and the results support hypotheses for both clonal expansion and recombination in this population. Clonal reproduction was previously recognized in C. neoformans, as strains with identical genotypes were isolated from the environment and infected humans (5, 7, 16). The overrepresentation in the population of certain genotypes is a common feature of clonal structure (44). In the sample analyzed here, five genotypes comprised 45% of the total number of isolates (Fig. 4). Another indication of clonality is the calculation of considerable linkage disequilibrium (or nonrandom association) among the loci in the population. The IA and the rd are calculated estimates of linkage disequilibrium (or nonrandom association) among the loci; if there is no association between the loci, these values approach zero, whereas these values are much higher in clonal populations. When ...
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast-like species of imperfect fungi of the family Cryptococcaceae, by detecting specific nucleic-acid information (e.g., DNA, RNA) of the target microorganism. These fungi may cause cryptococcosis, a mycotic infection of the brain and meninges, which may also involve other organs such as the skin and lungs. The disease may progress by invading the central nervous system, lungs, liver, and spleen of immunocompromised patients.. Entry Terms : "Cryptococcus Species Detection/Identification Reagents" , "Cryptococcus neoformans Reagents, Identification" , "Cryptococcus neoformans Detection/Identification Reagents" , "Reagents, Cryptococcus neoformans" , "Reagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Fungi/Yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans". UMDC code : 19595 ...
Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Tremellomycetes; Tremellales; Cryptococcaceae; Cryptococcus; Cryptococcus neoformans species ...
Abstract: Cryptococcus neoformans is a spherical, encapsulated, basidiomycetous yeast and the causative agent of cryptococcosis, a form of meningitis that affects the central nervous system of immunocompromised individuals (immunocompromised means patients with compromised immune systems). Since the 1980s and the emergence of the AIDS epidemic, much study has been concentrated on this fungus because cryptococcosis is 100% fatal in untreated patients. Even with treatment, the condition does not always decrease in severity, and no major advancements in antifungal drugs have been made in a decade. Recently, Cryptococcus has been shown to possess the necessary machinery for RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a method of post-transcriptional gene silencing that may increase cryptococcal survival within mammalian hosts by controlling gene expression at various stages of the life cycle through heterochromatin and euchromatin rearrangement. RNAi was first described in Caenorhabditis elegans in 1998 by ...
Over the past decade, increased sampling worldwide and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) methods have uncovered greater genetic diversity of important pathogens, including the C. neoformans and C. gattii species complexes. For example, sampling from Botswana revealed the existence of the C. neoformans VNB lineage (30), which itself has recently been shown to be deeply split into two genetically isolated lineages, VNBI and VNBII (31). Thus far, VGVI is the only lineage that exists as a single genotype since the three isolates previously designated C. decagattii appear to have been isolated from the same patient (21). The previously identified lineages of Cryptococcus have recently been designated separate taxonomic species based on phylogenetic species recognition criteria (17). While we agree that Cryptococcus contains a number of genetically diverse and monophylectic clades that can be viewed as species under an evolutionary species concept (32), we have previously argued that it is premature to ...
Cryptococcus neoformans CAP59 protein: involved in capsule formation which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank L26508
Since its first clinical appearance in an 1890s case report, Cryptococcus has dramatically advanced as a human fungal pathogen: it now infects approximately 1 million individuals per year, resulting in more than 600,000 annual mortalities, including one-third of all AIDS-associated deaths.. Featuring more than 100 expert authors from around the world, this book offers the full range of scientific and clinical perspectives needed to create this unique, comprehensive overview of Cryptococcus. It covers both the Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species, examining in detail the life cycle, pathophysiology, molecular biology, genetics, genomics, epidemiology, immunology, and clinical management of this encapsulated yeast. Among the 44 chapters, readers will find several in-depth discussions of the C. gattii outbreak that began on Vancouver Island in 1999 and then spread into the mainland of Canada and the United States, causing infections in both humans and animals.. This books ...
Cryptococcal meningitis is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the need for data for a rapid, point-of-care cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFA), we assessed diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, CRAG latex agglutination, India ink microscopy, and CRAG LFA for 832 HIV-infected persons with suspected meningitis during 2006-2009 (n = 299) in Uganda and during 2010-2012 (n = 533) in Uganda and South Africa. CRAG LFA had the best performance (sensitivity 99.3%, specificity 99.1%). Culture sensitivity was dependent on CSF volume (82.4% for 10 μL, 94.2% for 100 μL). CRAG latex agglutination test sensitivity (97.0%-97.8%) and specificity (85.9%-100%) varied between manufacturers. India ink microscopy was 86% sensitive. Laser thermal contrast had 92% accuracy (R = 0.91, ...
BACKGROUND. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) causes an estimated 180,000 deaths annually, predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa, where most patients receive fluconazole (FLC) monotherapy. While relapse after FLC monotherapy with resistant strains is frequently observed, the mechanisms and impact of emergence of FLC resistance in human CM are poorly understood. Heteroresistance (HetR) - a resistant subpopulation within a susceptible strain - is a recently described phenomenon in Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) and Cryptococcus gattii (Cg), the significance of which has not previously been studied in humans. METHODS. A cohort of 20 patients with HIV-associated CM in Tanzania was prospectively observed during therapy with either FLC monotherapy or in combination with flucytosine (5FC). Total and resistant subpopulations of Cryptococcus spp. were quantified directly from patient cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Stored isolates underwent whole genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization. RESULTS. ...
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM), a fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus spp., is the most common form of meningitis and a leading cause of death among persons with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Detection of cryptococcal antigen, which is present several weeks before overt signs of meningitis develop …
Despite a presumed critical role of macrophages in the host response to cryptococcal infections, previous studies have failed to show growth inhibition of encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans by human peripheral blood cultured monocyte-derived macrophages (MO-M phi). Here, we examined whether MO-M phi could be induced to inhibit growth of an encapsulated strain and an isogenic acapsular mutant strain of C. neoformans. MO-M phi were cultured in microwells, and inhibition was measured by comparing CFU at 0 and 24 h after fungal challenge. MO-M phi cultured on plastic surfaces failed to inhibit growth of the encapsulated strain, even in the presence of pooled human serum and/or anticapsular antibody. Moreover, the presence of anticapsular antibody significantly enhanced fungal growth. However, if MO-M phi were cultured on surfaces coated with fibronectin or poly-L-lysine (but not laminin or collagen) and yeast cells were opsonized with pooled human serum, then complete growth inhibition occurred. ...
Fortunately, research has demonstrated that nearly all patients at risk of developing CM during ART could be identified on entry into ART programmes by screening for sub-clinical infection using cheap (ZAR38.95), simple and highly sensitive cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) blood tests.22 In 707 patients initiating ART in Cape Town, stored serum samples from 13% of patients with CD4+ T-cell counts ,100 cells/µl tested positive for CRAG in a retrospective analysis. Prospective screening for CRAG in this cohort would have been 100% predictive of subsequent development of CM within the first year of treatment.22 If identified prospectively, such patients could be given pre-emptive treatment to prevent progression from cryptococcal antigenaemia to life-threatening meningitis. Such a targeted prevention strategy would avoid many potential problems of widespread fluconazole use with a blanket primary prophylaxis approach.. Cape Town data also show that 73% of ART-naïve patients presenting with CM have ...
Fortunately, research has demonstrated that nearly all patients at risk of developing CM during ART could be identified on entry into ART programmes by screening for sub-clinical infection using cheap (ZAR38.95), simple and highly sensitive cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) blood tests.22 In 707 patients initiating ART in Cape Town, stored serum samples from 13% of patients with CD4+ T-cell counts ,100 cells/µl tested positive for CRAG in a retrospective analysis. Prospective screening for CRAG in this cohort would have been 100% predictive of subsequent development of CM within the first year of treatment.22 If identified prospectively, such patients could be given pre-emptive treatment to prevent progression from cryptococcal antigenaemia to life-threatening meningitis. Such a targeted prevention strategy would avoid many potential problems of widespread fluconazole use with a blanket primary prophylaxis approach.. Cape Town data also show that 73% of ART-naïve patients presenting with CM have ...
martines bistro is a restaurant located on Vancouver island in the scenic township of comox that offers superb dining sunset and mountain views great food and local seafood with a patio to sit back relax and enjoy a glass of wine or martini - ...
The renal unit is the main dialysis centre for all hemodialysis patients on Vancouver Island. Those that are well enough may attend one of the self-care community dialysis facilities in Victoria (Hillside), Duncan, Nanaimo, or Port Alberni, Cumberland. However, all these patients start in this main dialysis unit and must return here when they become too ill to be treated elsewhere ...
For over 40 years the Vancouver Island Kidney Patients Association has provided services and equipment used by renal patients to help cope with the challenges of kidney disease and which would not be provided by hospitals and treatment centres. We are comprised entirely of volunteers from within the renal community on Vancouver Island. Members include kidney patients, spouses, family, friends, caregivers and others interested in helping people facing the challenges of kidney disease. Each day an average of 15 Canadians learn that their kidneys have failed, often due to diabetes or hypertension. Right now there are 206 people in Victoria who need a life-saving kidney transplant. We are fundraising to purchase two dialysis chairs each chair cost approx $7,000.00 + Please accept our heartfelt thanks and appreciation. With your generous help it will allow our association to continue providing for over 2400 kidney patients within the renal community on Vancouver Island. On behalf of all renal ...
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) enables the generation of large amounts of genome sequence data at a reasonable cost. Organisms in mixed microbial communities can now be sequenced and identified in a culture-independent way, usually using amplicon sequencing of a DNA barcode. Bulk RNA-seq (metatranscriptomics) has several advantages over DNA-based amplicon sequencing: it is less susceptible to amplification biases, it captures only living organisms, and it enables a larger set of genes to be used for taxonomic identification. Using a model mock community comprising 17 fungal isolates, we evaluated whether metatranscriptomics can accurately identify fungal species and subspecies in mixed communities. Overall, 72.9% of the RNA transcripts were classified, from which the vast majority (99.5%) were correctly identified at the species level. Of the 15 species sequenced, 13 were retrieved and identified correctly. We also detected strain-level variation within the Cryptococcus species complexes: 99.3% of
pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR) and C-type lectin recptors including Dectin-1. Previously, we indicated that neither TLR2 nor TLR4 was involved in the host defence to infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen in AIDS patients (FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 47: 148-154, 2006). In the current study, we examined the role of Dectin-1, a receptor for β-glucan, in this response. Dectin-1-deficient mice were resistant to intratracheal and intravenous infection with C. neoformans at a comparable level to wild-type mice. IFN-γ production in lung an serum was not largely different between these mice. There was not significant difference in the synthesis of IL-12p40 and TNF-α by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells upon stimulation with this fungal pathogen. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Dectin-1 did not play a major role in the host protective responses to C. neoformans infection.. This work was ...
Torula histolytica Definition: Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly known as Torula histolytica) is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus found in (...)
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental encapsulated yeast that behaves as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. The capsule is the main virulence factor of this pathogen. This structure is highly dynamic, and it can change its size and structure according to the environmental conditions. During infection, C. neoformans significantly enlarges the size of the capsule by the addition of new polysaccharide. It is believed that capsule growth is an energy-cost process, but this aspect has never been addressed. In this work, we have evaluated the role of mitochondrial activity on capsule growth using specific inhibitors of the electron respiratory chain. We observed that capsule growth was impaired in the presence of inhibitors of the respiratory chain as salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) or antimycin A. Furthermore, capsule growth correlated with an increase of the mitochondrial membrane potential and higher production of reactive oxygen species. Our results confirm that capsule growth
Kocho and Bula are fermented product of Enset (Ensete ventricosum). It is the staple food for 20 million people in Ethiopia. The aim of study was to isolate, identify and characterize yeast species from fermented kocho and bulla by using Biolog Micro station. 300 Kocho samples were collected from Angacha District. 0.1ml of serially diluted samples were Streaked on yeast pepton dextrose agar and incubated at 280C. Pure yeast colony inoculum were prepared at 9ml distilled water at 49% +2 turbidometer and transferred in to YT micro plate. Incubated for 24-72 hours at 28oC and micro plate reading were carried out using MicroLog 3 Software version. 4.20.05. Seven yeast species were identified from study samples. Biolog Micro station 100% probability and |0.5 Similarity read identify Cryptococcus albidus Var aerus, Guilliermondella selenospora, Rhodotorula acheniorum and Trichosporon beigelii. 99% Cryptococcus terreus A, 98% Candida zylandase, 86% Kluyveramyces delphensis respectively. Characterization of
National coverage of reflex cryptococcal antigen screening: A milestone achievement in the care of persons with advanced HIV disease
Lineage: cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Tremellomycetes; Tremellales; Cryptococcaceae; Cryptococcus; Cryptococcus gattii species complex; Cryptococcus gattii ...
The recent efforts to characterize the hybrid strains of Cryptococcus neoformans has led to the identification of a cryptic population, here described as H strains, which includes hybrid strains with a double content of DNA but presenting a single mating type: Aa, Da, Aalpha, or Dalpha. A set of hypotheses can be formulated about the origin of these H strains: i) they might have lost or modified one mating type allele by a mutation event; ii) they might be homozygous originated from an incomplete mitotic event; iii) they might be homozygous originated from an incomplete meiotic event; iv) they might be homozygous originated from a post-meiotic event. To test these hypotheses we further investigated some H strains previously isolated and then we studied the F1 progeny originated from the mating between H99 (serotype A) and JEC20 (serotype D) reference strains. Fourteen clinical isolates were investigated. The double content of DNA was confirmed by flow cytometry and the presence of only one ...
Deletion of the sex-determining gene SXI1α enhances the spread of mitochondrial introns in Cryptococcus neoformans Academic Article ...
RESUMO Padronizou-se método de fluorescência (solução de diacetato de fluoresceína DF e brometo de etídio BE) para análise de viabilidade de células fúngicas, em 40 amostras de liquor, provenientes de casos comprovados de neurocriptococose. A utilização de solução aquosa de saponina a 0,3% eliminou fluorescências interferentes emitidas por hemácias e leucócitos. Após o processamento dos materiais biológicos, foram retiradas alíquotas de 0,1 ml das supensões obtidas e misturadas a volumes iguais da solução DF-BE preparada pouco antes do uso. O tempo de coloração ideal foi de 30 minutos, resultando perfeita diferenciação entre microrganismos viáveis (fluorescência verde) e não viáveis (fluorescência vermelha). Unitermos: Cryptococcus neoformans; Viabilidade; Fluorescência. ...
Members of the Dhak-Duhre group are still active in the drug trade despite the murders of the gang’s namesakes, Sgt. Lindsey Houghton said Thursday.
Members of the Dhak-Duhre group are still active in the drug trade despite the murders of the gang’s namesakes, Sgt. Lindsey Houghton said Thursday.
The fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, causes devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. Infections with this fungus tend to be predominantly in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV. Infections initiate with inhalation of cryptococcal cells and entry of the pathogen into the lungs. The bronchial epithelial cells of the upper airway and the alveolar epithelial cells of the lower airway are likely to be the first host cells that Cryptococcus engage with. Thus the interaction of cryptococci and the respiratory epithelia will be the focus of this review. C. neoformans has been shown to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells, although if the role of the capsule is in aiding or hindering this adhesion is debatable. The epithelia are also able to react to cryptococci with the release of cytokines and chemokines to start the immune response to this invading pathogen. The activity of surfactant components that line this mucosal barrier towards Cryptococcus and the metabolic and