The Collaborative Cross (CC) represents a large collection of new inbred mouse strains created by the mouse genetics community aimed at revolutionizing the study of complex genetic traits and diseases. Derived from classical inbred strains and wild-derived strains, the CC captures nearly 90% of known genetic variation in laboratory mice, far surpassing more commonly used inbred strains. The CC is a tool to integrate studies of gene function and gene networks, allowing the prediction and testing of biological models based on the whole organism, critical to the development of personalized therapies for humans. Genome Research has published three articles online in-advance utilizing strains from the emerging Collaborative Cross mouse strains.. 1. Collaborative Cross strains facilitate mapping of causative loci. In this work, Aylor and colleagues performed an experiment called the the pre-CC study, the first genetic data and analysis from the emerging strains of the CC. Their investigation ...
The first step for foreground selection is to associate a molecular marker with the target trait by some genetic mapping method. In the best case, the marker itself would be the functional polymorphism - that is, the DNA change that causes the phenotypic difference between alleles. These markers can be called functional markers (Andersen and Lübberstedt, 2003). Creating functional markers requires the gene of interest to be cloned (unless you are very, very lucky!). In the absence of a cloned gene, markers that are very tightly linked to the target gene are necessary to avoid recombination between the marker and the gene during backcrossing. A recombination, of course, would result in a situation where the breeder is selecting for a marker allele that is now linked to the undesirable trait allele. Assuming markers are available for the trait, then they can be applied at each backcross generation to select those plants carrying the desired allele (or gene, in the case of a novel transgene). ...
Six congenic lines containing B complex recombinants R1 = B-F/B-L24, B-G23; R2 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R3 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R4 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R5 = B-F/B-L21, B-G19; and R6R6 = B-F/B-L21, B-G23 were tested individually for antibody response against SRBC. R2, R3 and R4 arose from independent recombination events but are serologically identical. Each B complex recombinant was crossed to inbred Line UCD 003 (B17B17). After ten backcross generations to the inbred line, B complex heterozyogtes were mated to produce recombinant homozygous lines having 99.9% background gene uniformity. Birds of each line were injected intravenously with 1 mL of 2.5% SRBC at four and 11 weeks of age to induce primary and secondary antibody responses, respectively. Blood samples were collected 7 days post-injection. Microtiter methods were used to assay total anti-SRBC and mercaptoethanol-resistant (MER) serum antibody. All antibody titers were evaluated by least squares ANOVA with hatch and B recombinant genotype as main
For instance they could do some screens for temperature-sensitive mutants (huge, massive saunas in action). Imagine the figures in the papers to go along with this sort of experiments. Some allele crossing experiments in search of synthetic lethality - that would be great as well. With photos of F0 and F1. Auxotrophic humans with plasmids complementing their deficiency as useful tools - complementation experiments will be particularly cruel - no complementation - well, tough luck ...
The BXD#/Rww set was generated using a strategy of advanced intercrosses (AI). The AI technique produces recombinant RI strains which incorporate approximately twice as many recombinations as the standard RI strains. The addition of the AI BXD RI lines to the existing BXD set creates the largest of the mouse RI mapping panels. This set is useful in QTL mapping and analysis of gene function. The BXD strains are derived from the C57BL/6J (Stock No. 000664) and DBA/2J (Stock No. 000671) progenitor strains.
There is no general technique, but there are some simple principles. One is to study the tail behavior of $f$ by comparing it to tractable functions.. By definition, the expectation is the double limit (as $y$ and $z$ vary independently). $$E_{y,z}[f] = \lim_{y\to-\infty,z\to\infty}\int_y^z x f(x) dx = \lim_{y\to-\infty}\int_y^0 x f(x) dx+ \lim_{z\to\infty}\int_0^z x f(x) dx.$$. The treatment of the two integrals at the right is the same, so lets focus on the positive one. One behavior of $f$ that assures a limiting value is to compare it to the power $x^{-p}$. Suppose $p$ is a number for which $$\liminf_{x\to\infty} x^p f(x)\gt 0.$$ This means there exists an $\epsilon\gt 0$ and an $N\gt 1$ for which $x^p f(x) \ge \epsilon$ whenever $x\in[N,\infty)$. We may exploit this inequality by breaking the integration into the regions where $x\lt N$ and $x \ge N$ and applying it in the second region:. $$\eqalign{ \int_0^z x f(x) dx &=\int_0^{N} x f(x) dx + \int_{N}^z x f(x) dx \\ &=\int_0^{N} x f(x) dx ...
Animals. Mice from the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) and 129P3/J (129) inbred strains were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME) and were intercrossed to produce F1 and F2 hybrids. Pups were weaned at 21-30 d of age and reared in groups of the same gender (in most cases, four to six mice per cage, but never more than six in one cage). The mice were housed in a temperature-controlled vivarium at 23°C on a 12 hr light/dark cycle and had ad libitum access to water and Teklad Rodent Diet 8604. During the two-bottle tests, the mice were housed individually.. Two groups of F2 mice were bred and phenotyped in separate experiments. Group 1 consisted of 171 male mice obtained from two types of reciprocal crosses: (129♀ × B6♂)F1♀ × (129♀ × B6♂)F1♂ (80 males) and (B6♀ × 129♂) F1♀ × (B6♀ × 129♂) F1♂ (91 males). Group 2 consisted of 456 (228 females and 228 males) F2 mice obtained from three types of reciprocal crosses: (129♀ × B6♂) F1♀ × (129♀ × B6♂) F1♂ (92 ...
J:79580 Le Bras S, Cohen-Tannoudji M, Guyot V, Vandormael-Pournin S, Coumailleau F, Babinet C, Baldacci P, Transcript map of the Ovum mutant (Om) locus: isolation by exon trapping of new candidate genes for the DDK syndrome. Gene. 2002 Aug 21;296(1-2):75 ...
Im trying to teach my self Power of Marcus Miller. Im wondering what to do when there are crosses instead of notes. It sounds like he is muting...
This is a question from a practice exam for our exam tomorrow morning. Please help I have been staring at this for an hour and cant figure it out ...
Obviously Im fucked off. But accepting. Theres nothing else to be. Theres no point stressing too much, as even when I get out, its all got to be repeated, so its not like there was a brilliant light at the end of the tunnel ...
n) the reappearance of a characteristic in an organism after several generations of absence; return of a trait after a period of absence ...
Ive both done TCA cross on myself (I would not recommend this. I was desperate!) and had it done with a doctor. I noticed that in certain areas there was more visible improvement than others. And it took AT LEAST two crosses before I started seeing improvement. So you would really need to commit to at least 3 before you noticed a difference. Of course, TCA cross supposedly only helps icepick scarring. You can always try it on boxcar if it makes a difference. If it were me and I wer ...
Breeding chickens for heat tolerance is desirable. The F18 and F19 generations of a broiler by Fayoumi advanced intercross line (AIL) was used to facilitate fine mapping of QTL. Three major phenotype collection phases were: pre-heat, acute heat, and chronic heat, with birds being exposed to daily heat cycles from 22 to 28 days of age. Body temperature was measured at all three phases; body weight at pre-heat and chronic heat phases. Breast muscle yield (as percentage of body weight) was measured after necropsy at d 28. Feed digestibility was assayed from ileal content collected at d 28. Birds were genotyped using a 600K Affymetrix chicken SNP array. Using GenSel significant QTL were found for each of the measured traits, indicating the feasibility of improving performance under hot conditions by genomic selection. This is the first GWAS using this novel AIL of chickens under heat stress.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A model selection approach for the identification of quantitative trait loci in experimental crosses, allowing epistasis. AU - Manichaikul, Ani. AU - Moon, Jee Young. AU - Sen, Śaunak. AU - Yandell, Brian S.. AU - Broman, Karl W.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their interactions is a crucial step toward the discovery of genes responsible for variation in experimental crosses. The problem is best viewed as one of model selection, and the most important aspect of the problem is the comparison of models of different sizes. We present a penalized likelihood approach, with penalties on QTL and pairwise interactions chosen to control false positive rates. This extends the work ofBroman and Speed to allow for pairwise interactions among QTL. A conservative version of our penalized LOD score provides strict control over the rate of extraneous QTL and interactions; a more liberal criterion is more lenient on interactions but seeks ...
Simple Sequence Length Polymorphisms (SSLPs) are used as genetic markers with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An SSLP is a type of polymorphism: a difference in DNA sequence amongst individuals. SSLPs are repeated sequences over varying base lengths in intergenic regions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Variance in the length of SSLPs can be used to understand genetic variation between two individuals in a certain species. An example of the usage of SSLPs (microsatellites) is seen in a study by Rosenberg et al., where SSLPs were used to cluster different continental races. The study was critical to Nicholas Wades New York Times Bestseller, Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of Our Ancestors. Rosenberg studied 377 SSLPs in 1000 people in 52 different regions of the world. By using PCR and cluster analysis, Rosenberg was able to group individuals that had the same SSLPs . These SSLPs were extremely useful to the experiment because they do not affect the phenotypes of the individuals, ...
We used F34 and F39-43 generations of a LG/J x SM/J AIL to perform GWAS, SNP heritability estimates, genetic correlations, replication and mega-analysis. We had previously performed several GWAS using a sparse marker set in the F34 cohort. In this study we used a denser set of SNPs, obtained using GBS, to reanalyze the F34 cohort. We found 109 significant loci, 36 of which had not been identified in our prior studies using the sparse marker set. We used a new, previously unpublished F39-43 cohort for GWAS and showed that genetic correlations were high for the subset of traits that were measured in both cohorts. Despite this, we found that many loci were not replicated between cohorts, even when we used a relatively liberal definition of replication (p , 0.05). The failure to replicate some of our findings was not predicted by our power simulations. Therefore, we performed an analysis to determine whether Winners Curse and study-specific heterogeneity could account for the lower than expected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methods of increasing short term response to full-sib family recurrent selection in small populations. AU - Mackay, I. J.. AU - Caligari, P. D.S.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Accelerated recurrent selection (ARS), in which selection is carried out on the predicted value of the progeny rather than on the observed performance of the parents, has been proposed as a method of increasing response to selection and of reducing cycle time. ARS schemes based on test cross evaluation of full-sib families have been compared by stochastic computer simulation. The difference in genetic and economic time scales is emphasised, with the economic long term (21 years) being only 21 or fewer cycles of selection. ARS schemes are shown frequently to offer improvements over standard recurrent selection methods under these circumstances, since they allow more cycles of selection in a given time frame. Schemes with very low effective population sizes often give the greatest response to selection over the ...
Wilson, B D.; Sternick, J L.; Yoshizawa, Y; Katzenstein, A; and Moore, V L., Experimental murine hypersensitivity pneumonitis: multigenic control and influence by genes within the i-b subregion of the h-2 complex. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3795 ...
Read Transmission Ratio Distortion, Sterility, and Control of the t-Complex Function in Sperm, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Epistasis-nonlinear genetic interactions between polymorphic loci-is the genetic basis of canalization and speciation, and epistatic interactions can be used to infer genetic networks affecting quantitative traits. However, the role that epistasis plays in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial. Here, we compared the genetic architecture of three Drosophila life history traits in the sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and a large outbred, advanced intercross population derived from 40 DGRP lines (Flyland). We assessed allele frequency changes between pools of individuals at the extremes of the distribution for each trait in the Flyland population by deep DNA sequencing. The genetic architecture of all traits was highly polygenic in both analyses. Surprisingly, none of the SNPs associated with the traits in Flyland replicated in the DGRP and vice versa. However, the majority of these SNPs participated in at least one ...
WKY and LEW strains have been widely studied for their differential susceptibility to experimental glomerulonephritis. In particular these strains show strong variations in the macrophage activation. This dataset measures expression of macrophages in backcross population of WKY DC and LEW rats and includes a few control origninating from the WKY DC strain.
Fly culture and transgenic lines. Drosophila melanogaster Canton S-5 (CS-5), the parental wild-type strain from which acj6 mutants were derived (McKenna et al., 1989), were reared at 18 or 25°C on cornmeal, sucrose, yeast media.. The olfactory neuron-specific P [Gal4] driver line GH86 (Heimbeck et al., 1999) and the UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) and UAS-Acj6 (1,4) (Certel et al., 2000) responder lines were obtained from Dr. W. A. Johnson (University of Iowa). UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) (chromosome II) and UAS-Acj6 (1,4) (chromosome III) transgenic lines (Certel et al., 2000) were recombined with Cha-Gal4 lines (chromosome III or II) by standard genetic crosses using second or third chromosome balancers,CyO or TM3. The GH86 olfactory driver was recombined with either UAS-Acj6 (1,3,4) or UAS-Acj6 (1,4) transgenic lines, and male progeny were used for ChAT assay (see below).. A fluorescent cholinergic reporter line marking essentially all known cholinergic neurons consisted of a 7.4 kb Cha-Gal4 driver line (19B) ...
Each mouse in the pre-CC experiment was genotyped using a highdensity SNP array. Most of the genotyping was completed using test arrays. These arrays were developed as an intermediate step in the process of developing the Mouse Diversity array (Yang et al. 2009). There are two versions of the test array: A-array and B-array. The A-array includes 294,878 SNP assays, and the B-array contains 287,687 additional SNP assays. We determined that 181,752 (A-array) and 180,976 (B-array) SNP assays performed well and targeted loci that are polymorphic among the eight founder strains. There is no overlap between the two arrays, but the genome coverage is complete and uniformly distributed in both. In some cases, animals from the same phenotyping arm were genotyped with different arrays. Integration was achieved by merging the two sets and using an HMM to impute haplotypes at loci with missing genotypes. Due to the high marker density, this procedure was very effective. The exercise behavior and ...
A case of hybrid sterility in Drosophila paulistorum is due to an incompatibility of the Y chromosome of certain strains with the cytoplasm of other strains. The constitution of the cytoplasm responsible for the sterility is not, however, independent of the chromosomal genes. After seven backcrosses of the hybrid females to males of the same strain, fertile male progenies are finally obtained. ...
Hybrid Stain Crosses: Most cannabis seeds and medicine available today are from hybrids - crosses of Sativa and Indica varieties. This allows cultivators to enjoy and select for various desired characteristics of growth, appearance and effect. The genetics and hence the effects of one lineage will usually be dominant. For example: Indica-dominant crosses are for pain relief, with the sativa component helping with energy and activity levels. Sativa-dominant crosses are good for stimulating appetite, with the indica component helping to reduce body pain and increase relaxation. Cannabis has been proven helpful in relieving the symptoms of thousands of conditions, including: Pain from various ailments and ...
Abstract: This thesis studies a new method to estimate the probability that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary. We show that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary if and only if its least concave majorant crosses said concave boundary. As such, we can equivalently simulate the least concave majorant of a Brownian bridge in order to estimate the probability that a Brownian bridge crosses a concave boundary. We apply these theoretical results to the problem of estimating joint confidence intervals for a true CDF at every point. We compare this method to a traditional method for estimating joint confidence intervals for the true CDF at every point which is based upon the limiting distribution of what is often called the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance, the sup-norm distance between the empirical and true CDFs. We indicate the disadvantages of the traditional approach and demonstrate how our approach addresses these weaknesses. ...
The beans from the mixed plot show a nice bell-shaped distribution (figure). Similarly, the beans harvested from pure lines grown in separate garden plots also show nice bell-shaped distributions, though the means differ for each pure line. The key difference is in the results of selective breeding for heavier (or lighter) beans, i.e., planting a new crop using only the heaviest (or lightest) beans: selection shifts the distribution of seed weights in the mixed plot, but has no significant effect on the distribution of seed weights produced by a pure line.. Within just a few decades, neo-Darwinians such as Ford (1938) dismissed Johannsens results as a logical necessity, as though the experiments proved nothing. Johannsens studies had changed our understanding so profoundly that Ford was unable to imagine how scientists (mis)understood the world before.. I wont ask you to do what Ford could not, which is to forget genetics.. Instead, I would like to ask you to join me in imagining a different ...
Each QTL identified in the crosses of inbred mice generally spans a large genomic distance, sometimes almost an entire chromosome. In complex phenotypes such as atherosclerosis, where a large number of genes are involved, transferring a target region onto an inbred background and creating congenic line is a powerful step toward identifying causative genes. Here we have analyzed the effect of the atherosclerosis QTL Aath4 by establishing a congenic line (Aath4aDBA/DBA), where the 5′ region of DBA Aath4 was backcrossed onto a 129S6-Apoe−/− background. As expected, the resulting Aath4aDBA/DBA males had significantly larger plaques, and macrophages isolated from these mice exhibited reduced efferocytosis as a consequence of allele-specific decrease in MERTK expression. Together, our results provide strong evidence that the increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis determined by the DBA allele of Aath4 is, at least in part, due to decreased MERTK expression.. MERTK is known to play a ...
SM/J mice carry a number of rare polymorphic alleles and are often matched to other strains for quantitative trait locus analysis. These mice are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and diet-induced atherosclerosis. SM/J mice exhibit a hyperresponsiveness to B cell mitogens. Small in size at birth and through weaning, SM/J mice attain a normal body weight as they age.
You and your partner should first scan all your plates to determine whether or not your crosses are scorable. If you have males or only phenotypicaly WT and Unc progeny, you should not try to analyze that plate for linkage. Why not? If you have no males and some dumpy progeny, you may score that plate in this linkage analysis. Look carefully at all the scorable plates and try to find double mutants. If you see no (or only very rare) double mutant (du/du) progeny on one of the plates, it indicates that your unknown dpy mutation is on the same chromosome or linkage group as that known unc mutation. Why? What might it mean if none of the plates of progeny lack double mutants? (Hint: there are 5 autosomes and we only tested 4 of them for linkage.) Since we know on which autosome each of the reference unc mutations are located, you should be able to figure out on which chromosome your unknown dpy mutation is found ...
Watson, J; Riblet, R; and Taylor, B A., The response of recombinant inbred strains of mice to bacterial lipopolysaccharides. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 3712 ...
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Handling Arabidopsis plants: growth, preservation of seeds, transformation, and genetic crosses. Rivero, L., Scholl, R., Holomuzki, N., Crist, D., Grotewold, E., and Brkljacic, J. (2014) Methods Mol Biol 1062: 3-25.
The collaborative cross (CC) is a large panel of mouse-inbred lines derived from eight founder strains (NOD/ShiLtJ, NZO/HILtJ, A/J, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ,
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What makes a dominant gene be labeled as such is when it is the characteristic of that gene is the one that presents itself in offspring. It is dominant because it outweighs the recessive trait. ...
Assessment of the degree to which gene expression is additive and heritable has important implications for understanding the maintenance of variation, adaptation, phenotypic divergence, and the mapping of genotype onto phenotype. We used whole-genome transcript profiling using Agilent long-oligonucleotide microarrays representing 12,017 genes to demonstrate that gene transcription is pervasively nonadditive in Drosophila melanogaster. Comparison of adults of two isogenic lines and their reciprocal F1 hybrids revealed 5820 genes as significantly different between at least ...
f(x)-f(a), is not less than ,f(x-a),. Its not like f is linear or something. ,f(x)-f(a),=,(f(x)-f(a))/(x-a),*,x-a,. Now to get a d, you need a bound on ,(f(x)-f(a))/(x-a), near x=a. Hint: doesnt that look like a difference quotient ...
Negatively stained purified virions of parental virus strains and hybrid progenies. CPXV-NOHI (A), MVA-HANP (B), Rec 1 (C), Rec 2 (D), Rec 3 (E), Rec 3a (F), Re
data diallel; label time = Flowering time in days; do p = 1 to 8; do m = 1 to 8; if (m ne p) then do; sym = trim(left(min(m,p))) ,, , ,, trim(left(max(m,p))); do block = 1 to 2; input time @@; output; end; end; end; end; datalines; 14.4 16.2 27.2 30.8 17.2 27.0 18.3 20.2 16.2 16.8 18.6 14.4 16.4 16.0 15.4 16.5 14.8 14.6 18.6 18.6 15.2 15.3 17.0 15.2 14.4 14.8 10.8 13.2 31.8 30.4 21.0 23.0 24.6 25.4 19.2 20.0 29.8 28.4 12.8 14.2 13.0 14.4 16.2 17.8 11.4 13.0 16.8 16.3 12.4 14.2 16.8 14.8 12.6 12.2 9.6 11.2 14.6 18.8 12.2 13.6 15.2 15.4 15.2 13.8 18.0 16.0 10.4 12.2 13.4 20.0 20.2 23.4 14.2 14.0 18.6 14.8 22.2 17.0 14.3 17.3 9.0 10.2 11.8 12.8 14.0 16.6 12.2 9.2 13.6 16.2 13.8 14.4 15.6 15.6 15.6 11.0 13.0 9.8 15.2 17.2 10.0 11.6 17.0 18.2 20.8 20.8 20.0 17.4 17.0 12.6 13.0 9.8 ...
Use the West nomogram by drawing a straight line between the height and weight of a child. This line crosses the surface area column and gives an estimation of the body surface area for this child,...
The mouse is the daughter of two female parents, but experts are sceptical that the technique could help two women have a biological child
I recently found out the rule regarding the Taylor expansion of a translated function: ##f(x+h)=f(x)+f′(x)⋅h+\frac 1 2 h^ 2 \cdot f′′(x)+⋯+\frac 1 {n!}h^n \cdot f^n(x)+...## But why exactly is this the case? The normal Taylor expansion tells us that ##f(x)=f(a)+f(a)(x-a)+\frac 1 ...
Organizational success hinges on effective execution, and effective execution is a matter of ability and agility. New research from Strategy& shows that there are two key levers to pull in building an able, agile organization.
case 2: Block A tends to slide up: Block B is large (10 minutes). Conclusion: (b) Block B is large: m A gsinT F T F fr 0 m kg m m m m B B B A S A 9 .2 10sin37 0.40 10 cos37 sin cos q q T P T 2.8 kg m B 9 .2kg Now m B 10kg! 9 .2kg T B B x N A A T fr A x F m g m a F m g m g F F m a cos 0 sin T T. Get Price ...
Let T-n (R) be the upper triangular matrix ring over a unital ring R. Suppose that B : Tn (R) x Tn (R) is a biadditive map such that B(X, X) X = X B(X, X) for ...
Determine all binery cyclic codes of length 5. Note: To find all cyclic codes of length n, find all ideals in B[x]/x^2+1 Note: If 1 is an Ideal (I) then R = I. Example: n=2 R=B[x]/x^2+1, x^2=1 R={o,1,x,1+x} Ideals |0|.
Considering Ive lost a couple of readers over the last seven months this thing has been active (yes, they let me know about it, too!) Im surprised and pleased so many enjoy my meandering ramblings and scattered gaming thoughts ...
The cluster of technical support surrounding 12100 in EURAUD suggests that the level will be difficult to break. Other crosses of interest include the EURGBP, AUDNZD, and CADCHF.
According to Kundalini Yoga, there are six chakras in number. Kundalini awakening takes place when the coiled up energy crosses all chakras and reaches to Sahasrar, the last chakra. For awakening of Kundalini, one must understand the chakras and what they signifies.
SUTD offers full-time degree courses in four pillars (specialisations), which are developed to offer a modern engineering and architectural education that crosses traditional disciplines.
Crosses, Sacred Icons and Religious Images. The most classic subjects of iconography are represented in these small works using various decorative techniques.