Vol 14: How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Illness Perception and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-sectional Questionnaire Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is considered an epidemic disease in the gulf countries. Its prevalence in Saudi Arabia is becoming the highest in the world affecting around 30% of adults (1), (3). Indeed, diabetes is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, management of diabetic dyslipidemia, a well-recognized and modifiable risk factor, is an essential factor in the multifactorial approach to prevent CVD in individuals with type 2 diabetes (4). Several meta-analyses studies have clearly shown the benefits of statin therapy (3). Aims: To assess the results of the prescription of simvastatin for patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 168 diabetic patients was conducted in Hera General Hospital. Data were retrieved from medical records from January 2018 until December 2018. Data analysis was performed using Ecxelsoftwares. Results: Most of the sample population (95%) was older than 40 years old. Nearly all patients (97%) were on ...
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Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
To study the natural history of a disease, investigators at times resort to cross-sectional cohort studies, whereby participants are randomly sampled at a fixed point in time. Once their baseline information and disease history are recorded, these participants are followed until death, loss to follow-up or study termination. This design is attractive because it generally requires limited resources. The data it generates, however, suffer from various systematic biases. For example, individuals with longer lifetimes tend to be excessively sampled, and among observed cases, individuals with longer disease durations and more recent onsets are usually overrepresented. In this presentation, the analysis of data emerging from either a cross-sectional cohort study, or its related subdesign, the prevalent cohort study, is discussed. The latter arises when only diseased individuals may be recruited at sampling time. Novel methodologies for estimating important epidemiologic measures of disease risk, such ...
Introduction Does Deregulation Raise Electric Rates? A Cross Sectional Analysis by William B. Marcus Principal Economist, JBS Energy, Inc. December, 2011 The theory behind deregulation is that competition
In this population-based study of a general adolescent population, the strongest and most consistent finding is the significant association between acne and mental distress which is found among both boys and girls in the crude and the adjusted model. Another result from our study that supports a link between acne and mental distress is the increase in mental distress when the severity of acne increases. These two findings have to our knowledge never been seen before in the same study.. Previous studies have also shown an association between mental problems and acne. In a large study in New Zealand of 9567 adolescents of 12-18 years of age, a significant odds ratio of 2.04 was seen between self-reported acne and depressive symptoms measured using Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale [15]. In Australia, Kilkenny et al found an association (OR = 1.61) between self-reported severe acne and psychiatric symptoms measured using the Clinical Interview Schedule among 2491 students [17]. From the United ...
Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States (US), increasing the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and accounting for 443,000 deaths (nearly 1 in 5) each year [1]. Tobacco use and tobacco-related illnesses are common among emergency department (ED) patients. Studies performed in multiple ED settings have found that 30-40% of ED patients smoke--prevalence rates that are well above that of the general population [2, 3].. Although providing smoking counseling has not traditionally been a function of emergency-care services, the field is increasingly recognizing the necessity and practicality of assuming such functions. As the number of primary care physicians declines [4], ED volume is steadily increasing, and health-care reform is not projected to significantly reduce this high utilization over the next decade. In 2006, there were 40.5 ED visits per 100 people in the US, an 18% increase ...
Bull World Health Organ. 2011 May 1;89(5):352-9. doi: 10.2471/BLT.10.085738. Epub 2011 Mar 30. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
A relationship has not been found between apple intake and asthma in the present cross-sectional study in children. However, there is some evidence to suggest that children who have a higher consumption of apple juice from concentrate and bananas exhibit a lower prevalence of current wheeze than children with a lower intake.. In contrast to studies in adults 8, 9, the present authors have not been able to replicate a significant negative association between apple intake and asthma in children. However, the present negative findings are consistent with previous studies 13-15, which showed no clear relationship between wheezing in children and fresh fruit intake despite a beneficial effect on lung function. It is not clear why the link observed in adult asthma was not replicated in children. The variation in the choice of outcome measures between studies and in the validity and reliability of food frequency questionnaires in children might have been responsible for the differences observed. ...
Over three-quarters of 11-year-old children in this sample (78%) had at least one adverse health condition, and 43% experienced co-occurrence (two or more conditions). Co-occurrence differed by sex and was socially patterned, with boys and children living in lower income households being at higher risk of having multiple adverse health conditions. LCA identified five distinct classes of conditions, in addition to the group of children with no or one adverse health condition: atopic burdened, socioemotional burdened, unfavourable weight/injury, eczema/injury and eczema/unfavourable weight. Children identified by the index as having greater numbers of adverse health conditions were more likely to be in the atopic burdened and socioemotional burdened classes; these children were more likely to be boys, have mothers with lower educational attainment and live in lower income households. Children in unfavourable weight/injury, eczema/injury (6.0%) and eczema/unfavourable weight ...
Data will be collected in 12 countries (500 children per site) from five major regions of the world (Eurasia & Africa, Europe, Latin America, North America, and the Pacific). Cross-sectional evaluations will be undertaken in each country. The physical characteristics of the children will be directly measured in order to classify their body weight and adiposity status, and physical activity and dietary patterns will be measured with the most objective techniques currently available. A concise set of environmental measures that are feasible, valid and meaningful across the international settings included in this research will also be employed. The results of this study will provide a robust examination of the correlates of obesity and weight gain in children, focusing on both sides of the energy balance equation. The results will also provide important new information that will inform the development of lifestyle interventions to address childhood obesity that can be culturally adapted for ...
Introduction. This essay will compare and contrast the Longitudinal and Cross-sectional methods of research, by firstly describing each method and listing the main types. It will also give examples of research which have used these methods in order to gather data. Then through discussing the advantages and disadvantages for using each method a conclusion will be formed. Conducting research is important in psychology as it gives the evidence needed to support theories and hypothesis. Developmental research methods aim to examine changes or differences in behaviour by looking at different ages or stages across a lifetime. This is usually carried out using two basic methods, the longitudinal and cross-sectional. Cross-sectional research is where individuals of different ages are studied at the same time; this is in contrast with longitudinal studies which involves testing one age group repeatedly over many years. A cohort study is a form of longitudinal study as well as a panel and retrospective ...
ATN 066b consists of a cross-sectional evaluation of three groups of recently diagnosed HIV-infected adolescents including: (1) care non-initiation; (2) care initiation, no maintenance; and (3) care initiation with maintenance. Social, psychological and behavioral factors associated with HIV-related care-seeking will be assessed using an ACASI. Three recruitment strategies using a randomized permuted block list of possible sequences for HIV-infected youth not in care will be also compared.. The ACASI instrument will be adapted from previously used instruments intended to retrospectively reconstruct the care-seeking process and to assess quality of life, concerns and expectations for care, satisfaction with care, and social-problem solving.. Ideally, the ACASI will be administered during a single session and may take up to 90 minutes to complete. Participants who are unable to complete the ACASI in one session will be allowed up to 7 days after initiation to complete it. Completion of all study ...
For decades, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on glucose criteria, either the FPG or the 75-g OGTT. In 1997, the first Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus revised the diagnostic criteria, using the observed association between FPG levels and presence of retinopathy as the key factor with which to identify threshold glucose level. The Committee examined data from three cross-sectional epidemiologic studies that assessed retinopathy with fundus photography or direct ophthalmoscopy and measured glycemia as FPG, 2-h PG, and A1C. These studies demonstrated glycemic levels below which there was little prevalent retinopathy and above which the prevalence of retinopathy increased in an apparently linear fashion. The deciles of the three measures at which retinopathy began to increase were the same for each measure within each population. Moreover, the glycemic values above which retinopathy increased were similar among the populations. These analyses ...
Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is a cross-sectional evaluation of the heart, airways, lungs, mediastinum, and associated bones and soft tissues. Two key methods of image acquisition include: standard CT with 5 mm slice thickness for medi...
Objective To describe variation in antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in contrasting European settings and the impact on recovery.. Design Cross sectional observational study with clinicians from 14 primary care research networks in 13 European countries who recorded symptoms on presentation and management. Patients followed up for 28 days with patient diaries.. Setting Primary care.. Participants Adults with a new or worsening cough or clinical presentation suggestive of lower respiratory tract infection.. Main outcome measures Prescribing of antibiotics by clinicians and total symptom severity scores over time.. Results 3402 patients were recruited (clinicians completed a case report form for 99% (3368) of participants and 80% (2714) returned a symptom diary). Mean symptom severity scores at presentation ranged from 19 (scale range 0 to 100) in networks based in Spain and Italy to 38 in the network based in Sweden. Antibiotic prescribing by networks ranged from 20% to nearly 90% (53% ...
Objective. To examine black female students for the occurrence of risk factors associated with chronic diseases of lifestyle, namely obesity, hypertension, nicotine usage, dyslipidaemia and compromised mental health (depression). Design. A cross-sectional analytical study design was used. All participants were examined within a period of 3 months during 1994. Weight, height, and hip and waist measurements were taken. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC) were calculated for each subject. Two systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings were taken for each participant. Questionnaires were used to determine specific risk factors related to lifestyle. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to measure psychological well-being. Fasting blood samples were collected and analysed for serum lipids and iron status. Setting. The University of the North in the Northern Province of South Africa. Subjects. A complete data set of sociodemographic information, ...
Background: Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in India. Assessment of knowledge and practices of community about prevention of mosquito borne diseases is important for designing community-based interventions. Therefore, the study was carried out to assess such information. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 350 adults selected by systematic sampling method in a rural and urban area in Delhi. Data was collected using pretested semi-structured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square and Fishers Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P ,,/i, 0.05 was considered significant. Results: One hundred and forty-two (67.6%) subjects in rural and 89 (63.6%) in the urban area were able to name at least one mosquito borne disease. Only small number of participants (from rural 28.1% and urban 18.6% areas) was ...
Sir, The present study highlights the role of educational status on the cardiovascular health status of the study population. As identified by the authors, education as a proxy measure of socio-economic status has its own limitations and hence the title should have focused on educational level only. The study tool used for getting information on physical exercise also has some limitation. The question on physical exercise pertaining to exercise is nonspecific for the last response category inactive since "exercising several times a year" would also include those who are exercising four or more times a week. This overlap would cause confusion among the respondents while answering. The study nowhere mentions about the presence or absence of cardiovascular diseases viz. coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes etc. among the study population. The intake of medications, health interventions from the health care providers would also have relevance on the status of cardiovascular health as ...
The study showed a high prevalence of 25OHD deficiency in young, northern European men, which was significantly associated with decreased BMD. PTH and 25OHD were found to be inversely related to the markers of insulin resistance.
Objective data from the clinical laboratory are critical to the majority of medical decisions, including initial diagnosis and monitoring of treatment outcome. Laboratory errors, including inaccurate RIs, can lead to inappropriate diagnosis, unnecessary test repetition, and inappropriate follow-up investigations (7). Excessively wide RIs may mask subclinical disorders, and the use of incorrect RIs may confuse the clinical picture. Therefore, relevant RIs are essential for correct test result interpretation and reducing the risk of false negatives and false positives. Failure to provide proper RIs in the pediatric population carries obvious consequences for immunochemical analytes such as TSH (8) and ferritin (9).. The current investigation established RIs in a large, multiethnic pediatric cohort. However, the study was not without its limitations. As it was a cross-sectional investigation, the long-term health of the participating children was not verified. Additionally, the RIs provided are ...
The prevalence of depression and the association between depression and kidney function and health-related quality of life in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease: a multicenter cross-sectional study
In these three decades, following the dietary guidelines of different Govts., the increased calories in our diets have come from sugars and other carbohydrates. In the past 300 years too, sugar consumption has gone up by 50 times and diabetes has gone up from 3/lakh population in late 19th century to 8000/lakh by early 21st century.[39,40] Cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries have shown that for every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) the prevalence of diabetes increased by 1.1% (p ,0.001) and that the duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner.[41] There are many other studies that have implicated sugars and carbohydrates in the pathogenesis of modern diseases.[42-49]. The report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases , released in 2002-3, also blamed high consumption of ...
In these three decades, following the dietary guidelines of different Govts., the increased calories in our diets have come from sugars and other carbohydrates. In the past 300 years too, sugar consumption has gone up by 50 times and diabetes has gone up from 3/lakh population in late 19th century to 8000/lakh by early 21st century.[39,40] Cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries have shown that for every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) the prevalence of diabetes increased by 1.1% (p ,0.001) and that the duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner.[41] There are many other studies that have implicated sugars and carbohydrates in the pathogenesis of modern diseases.[42-49]. The report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases , released in 2002-3, also blamed high consumption of ...
Sampling Methods. Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very large populations, it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population, so the pool of available subjects becomes biased.. Systematic sampling is often used instead of random sampling. It is also called an Nth name selection technique. After the required sample size has been calculated, every Nth record is selected from a list of population members. As long as the list does not contain any hidden order, this sampling method is as good as the random sampling method. Its only advantage over the random sampling technique is simplicity. ...
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The current study found that baseline vitamin D status was an independent predictor of better β-cell function and AUCglucose after 3 years of follow-up in the PROMISE study cohort. This is the first study to examine the prospective association of serum 25(OH)D with β-cell function.. Previous studies assessing the association between 25(OH)D and β-cell function have used cross-sectional designs and have reported inconsistent findings (14,16-21,34). These inconsistencies may be attributed to the use of less-detailed, fasting-based surrogate measures of β-cell function (e.g., HOMA-β or C-peptide) in the majority of previous studies (16-18,20,34). Only two studies have used gold-standard methods, including the hyperglycemic clamp (14) and the IVGTT (21), but no significant association between 25(OH)D and β-cell function was found after adjusting for potential confounders. In contrast, the findings in the current study support our cross-sectional results in the PROMISE study cohort (19), in ...
Direction of study: Exposure and outcome at the same time. Strength of association: Strength of association in cross-sectional study is weak. Cross sectional study is popular study because:Easy to conduct: Readiness and easily it can conductedSimple: Simple in terms of design, calculation & conduct.Time: It can be done very quicklySuitable for problem identification and study cases…
Objective To assess whether randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that were registered were less likely to report positive study findings compared with RCTs that were not registered and whether the association varied by funding source.Design Cross sectional study.Study sample All primary RCTs published in December 2012 and indexed in PubMed by November 2013. Trial registration was determined based on the report of a trial registration number in published RCTs or the identification of the trial in a search of trial registries. Trials were separated into prospectively and retrospectively registered studies.Main outcome measure Association between trial registration and positive study findings.Results 1122 eligible RCTs were identified, of which 593 (52.9%) were registered and 529 (47.1%) were not registered. Overall, registration was marginally associated with positive study findings (adjusted risk ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.78 to 0.98), even with stratification as prospectively and
meant by Statistics ❖ What is meant by Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics ❖ Difference between Parameter & Statistic ❖ Types of Statistical
Health,A new study has found out that babies breastfed for six months have re... In the words of Caroline Chantry a pediatrician with UC Davis Ch... This research can be read in the February 2006 issue of Pediatrics.... An analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey ... Pneumonia wheezing and recurrent (three or more) colds or ear infe...,Another,advantage,of,breastfeeding,kids:,lower,chances,of,respiratory,illnesses,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Cross-sectional study example cancer Higher risk they have a higher incidence total smokers that gives me a prevalence, classified either a smoker or nonsmoker have a bias study we could have, surprisingly the value for the odds weeks in the early parts of this course.
Prayer or spiritual healing as adjuncts to conventional care: A cross sectional analysis of the prevalence and characteristics of use among women ...
There were striking similarities in the anatomy of annual change and acceleration of annual change with age, and we now consider the most appropriate framework for age-related changes with reference to the results of both analyses.. Overall, as illustrated by slice-by-slice profiles, age-related changes appear to be principally governed by inferior-to-superior gradients. Cross-sectional DTI studies have previously indicated that superior fiber tracts may be more susceptible to the effects of age (Sullivan et al., 2010a, 2010b), but, to our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of continuous inferior-to-superior gradients. Our conclusion, however, may well reflect the combination of methods used, rather than the anatomy itself, representing a major departure from published cross-sectional results. Indeed, our results can be considered with reference to several alternative anatomical frameworks.. For example, first, it has been proposed that the frontal lobe is particularly vulnerable to ...
The SeniorAdvisor.com Best of 2017 Awards represent the top 1 percent of senior living and home care providers nationwide, according to the online...
If we assume the null hypothesis to be true (and make some assumptions about the distribution of various variable), then the test statistic should be no different than a single random draw from a specific probability distribution. This is the Z-distribution of N(0,12) ...
Descriptive and inferential statistics, including t-tests, correlation, chi square, tests of normality, and distribution-free procedures. Other topics include independent groups, repeated measures and factorail ANOVA, mulitple comparisons, multiple regression and ANCOVA. Return to Course Schedule. ...
The purpose of inferential statistics is to predict differences between groups in the general population by measuring the difference in a small sample. Ex
More on: Trade A new report from the Pew Research Center finds an increase in those who believe government regulation of business …
TY - JOUR. T1 - The association between reduced GFR and hearing loss. T2 - a cross-sectional population-based study. AU - Vilayur, Eswari. AU - Gopinath, Bamini. AU - Harris, David C.. AU - Burlutsky, George. AU - McMahon, Catherine M.. AU - Mitchell, Paul. PY - 2010/10. Y1 - 2010/10. N2 - Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has long been associated with hearing loss in certain syndromes. Reported evidence to date has come from only small observational studies. We present the first community-based study to show an association between nonsyndromal CKD and hearing loss. Study Design: Cross-sectional population-based study to examine the relationship between CKD and age-related hearing loss. Setting & Participants: The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a survey of age-related hearing loss conducted in 1997-2004; a total of 2,564 participants had audiometric testing and complete renal data. Predictor or Factor: Moderate CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ,60 mL/min/1.73 ...
This page contains the ABSTRACT- High Prevalence of Daily and Multi-site pain -- A Cross-sectional Population-based Study Among 3000 Danish Adolescents http://www.chiro.org/pediatrics/ABSTRACTS/High_Prevalence_of_Daily_and_Multi-site.shtml
Looking for online definition of Systematic sampling in the Medical Dictionary? Systematic sampling explanation free. What is Systematic sampling? Meaning of Systematic sampling medical term. What does Systematic sampling mean?
The present study described the research activity, self-reported success level, motivations and barriers of eight AHP teams in undertaking research and explored whether any relationships exist between the self-reported measures and audited research activity within each team. The study revealed variation in research activity between teams, however the majority of teams were undertaking some form of ethically approved research and had disseminated their research. All teams, apart from one, reported average success at undertaking various aspects of research. No significant correlations were found between self-reports of research success and team barriers to undertaking research with research activity. Motivating factors were found to have a stronger association with research activity, with enhancing team credibility having a significant correlation with funding received.. The most consistent form of research activity across teams was undertaking ethically approved research projects and conference ...
A cross sectional questionnaire based study on self medication practice of analgesics among MBBS students at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka
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Active transport (e.g., walking, cycling) to school (ATS) can contribute to childrens physical activity and health. The built environment is acknowledged as an important factor in understanding childrens ATS, alongside parental factors and seasonality. Inconsistencies in methodological approaches exist, and a clear understanding of factors related to ATS remains equivocal. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of associates of childrens ATS, by considering the effects of daily weather patterns and neighbourhood walk ability and neighbourhood preferences (i.e., for living in a high or low walkable neighbourhood) on this behaviour ...
The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) provides a wealth of information on the Health Status of Americans. As one part of this cross-sectional survey study, researchers evaluated the relationship between serum levels of various antioxidant micronutrients and the prevalence of AMD. Data were presented at the 1998 annual meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research in Chicago (1). Methods: Cross-sectional relationships of serum levels of vitamins C, E and various carotenoids to the following: late AMD, presence of pigment abnormalities, and the presence of soft drusen (the latter 2 factors considered as early predictors of late AMD). Fundus photos and serum samples were obtained on 7935 participants age 40 and older. Age adjusted and multivariate logistic models were used. Factors adjusted for in the analyses included age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes and eye color. Results: Prevalence of late AMD was 0.7%, while ...
Background and aim: Cervical cancer (CC) is the 7th most common cancer worldwide. It is the 4th most common cancer in females causing 7.5% of all female cancer deaths. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of CC and other diseases worldwide. Despite several measures taken to reduce the risk of infection with HPV, the most effective method remains the HPV vaccine. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of parents in Sharjah towards HPV and whether or not they would vaccinate their daughters. Methods and Material: A quantitative, observational cross-sectional study of 400 subjects was conducted in public venues in Sharjah. Probability sampling method was used for selection of subjects (parents who have daughters). A self-administered 32- question questionnaire was distributed. SPSS 21 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) was used for entry and analysis of data. Frequency was calculated, Chi square test was used to conduct bivariate analysis and bar
This study is designed to characterize and define serum and cerebrospinal fluid valued for inflammatory cytokines and early idiopathic Parkinsons disease (IPD). Researchers are also looking for patterns in early IPD, hoping that they may lead to early diagnosis before symptoms occur.
BACKGROUND: Policymakers argue that emergency department (ED) visits for conditions preventable with high-quality outpatient care contribute to waste in the healthcare system. However, access to ambulatory care is uneven, especially for vulnerable populations like minorities, the poor, and those with limited health literacy. The impact of limited health literacy on ED visits that are preventable with timely, high-quality ambulatory care is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the association of health literacy with preventable ED visits. METHODS: We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of potentially preventable ED visits (outcome) among adults (≥18 years old) in an ED serving an urban community. We assessed health literacy (predictor) through structured interviews with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). We recorded age, sex, race, employment, payer, marital and health status, and number of comorbidities through structured interviews or ...
Objective: Left ventricular (LV) rotation and twist play an important role in LV contraction and relaxation. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) deteriorates both diastolic and systolic functions. We evaluated the LV twist in patients with LBBB and preserved ejection fraction (EF) (>50%) to determine twist as a potential marker for subtle myocardial dysfunction. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study included 34 LBBB patients with preserved EF who were free from ischemic and valvular disease (Group 1) and 36 healthy controls (Group 2). All patients underwent 2-D Doppler and 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography. LV apical, basal rotation, and twist were evaluated in both groups and compared accordingly. In addition, subjects were dichotomized considering the median twist value of the study population. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent variables associated with inframedian twist. Results: Baseline clinical characteristics were similar in LBBB ...
Lower extremity defects in healthy children raises interest of researchers as confirmed by numerous published original and review articles. The relationship between lower extremity postural defects and body mass are unclear as published data are inconclusive. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to analyse the prevalence of lower extremity defects in a large group of 8- to 12-year-old children; and further to assess the probability of defects associated with values of body mass variables. The study included prospective anthropometric measurements data of 6992 children (3476 boys and 3516 girls) from Gdansk (Northern Poland). Standard screening test used in Poland for assessment of lower limb defects were used (intermalleolar or intercondylar distance for knee alignment, linear vertical compass for valgus heel, computer podoscope or classical footprint and measuring the Sztriter-Godunow index for flatfeet). Body mass was assessed with local centile charts and IOTF cutoffs. Prevalence of
Women report more occupational ill-health and are more sick-listed than men. Exploration of womens working conditions would therefore seem to be valuable. In this study we investigated the prevalence of work-related stress and its association with self-perceived health and sick-leave in a population of employed, working Swedish women. This cross-sectional population study comprised 424 employed, working women who answered questionnaires on work-related stress, self-perceived health and sick-leave. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated in order to analyse the association between the exposure variables of work-related stress and outcome variables of ill-health symptoms, self-rated health and sick-leave. Ten percent of the group reported high perceived stress owing to indistinct organisation and conflicts, and 25% high perceived stress owing to individual demands and commitment. Twenty-two percent reported low influence at work and 33% reported work interference with leisure
Human aging is characterized by expanded and altered adaptive immune responses to human CMV (HCMV). It is unclear whether this expansion has its origins in age-related homeostatic disturbances or viral reactivation, whether anti-CMV immune surveillance may still be effective, and what are the consequences of this expanded immune response for health and longevity. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study in groups of HCMV-seropositive subjects aged ≥65 y of variable health status to compare the intensity of Ab responses against HCMV with those against EBV and with CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proinflammatory effector responses directed to HCMV-derived pp65 and immediate-early protein 1 synthetic peptides. Ab responses to HCMV, but not to EBV, and anti-HCMV CD4+, but not CD8+, T cell responses were more intense in elderly subjects aged ≥85 y in poor health and were inversely correlated with markers of functional activity and cognitive function. Therefore, humoral and CD4+ T cell anti-HCMV ...
The complex multiracial/multilingual situation of Malaysia poses challenges for local professionals, such as speech and language therapists, who work with children. The present cross-sectional study investigated ethnic Chinese childrens simultaneous phonological acquisition of English, Mandarin and Malay, which are the three major local languages for the Malaysian Chinese population. The aims were to provide preliminary normative data on phonological acquisition for this population, as well as to investigate processes underlying multilingual phonological acquisition. Sixty-four pre-school children aged between 2;06-4;05 were recruited. A single-word naming test, a word consistency production subtest and an intonation imitation sub-test were devised for each of the three languages. Particular attention was paid to the characteristics of the local adult speech varieties as the benchmark for assessing and analyzing the childrens responses on the tests. This sociolinguistic dimension has often ...
Free Online Library: Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography.(Research Article, Report) by BioMed Research International; Biotechnology industry High technology industry Cardiology Optical tomography Methods Tissue engineering Technology application
Most patients in our study do not describe dissatisfaction with the diagnostic pathway of PD. However, more than one in seven patients is explicitly dissatisfied. The chance of dissatisfaction is increased with a lower level of education, the involvement of more than one additional healthcare provider, a second opinion on the patients initiative and delay caused by the healthcare provider. In addition, if only the GP and neurologist have been involved in the diagnostic pathway, women are more likely to be dissatisfied than men.. Although dissatisfaction with the diagnostic pathway of PD appears to be playing a limited role in quantitative terms, dissatisfaction with the initial diagnostic process can have an impact on long-term care, stressing the importance of paying attention to it: cognitions formed at an early stage tend to determine care experiences during the further treatment episode [2, 5, 20].. Our study shows that it is not the duration of the diagnostic pathway of PD on its own that ...
In the present study an attempt has been made to report on the nutritional status of the Assamese Muslim women of Dadara and Agyathuri villages of the Kamrup district in Assam, India on their basis of body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin (hb) content. Cross sectional data on 1034 women belonging to the age group of 19 years and above were collected following internationally accepted standards. The fertility of mothers by BMI range was found to be highest (6.50 (mean) ± 0.14 (SE) and range being 1-11) amongst underweight mothers. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test of BMI and fertility shows significant relation between different BMI groups with p < 0.01. highest haemoglobin levels were recorded in the age group of 23 years with a mean of 11.61 ± 0.06 g/dl, the range being 9.8-13.9 g/dl. whereas lowest levels of haemoglobin were found in the age groups of 44+ years having a mean value of 10.26 ± 0.04 g/dl and a range of 9.2-11.8 g/dl. the anova analysis for haemoglobin content and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinicoepidemiological Profile of Elderly PLHIV Attending a Tertiary Care Center in South India. AU - Madi, Deepak. AU - Ramakrishnan, Neha. AU - Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran. AU - Ramapuram, John. AU - Achappa, Basavaprabhu. AU - Rathi, Priya. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - Background: Physicians are coming across a considerable number of HIV-positive patients belonging to older age-group, in practice. They pose a challenge as they might present with advanced forms and comorbid conditions. We aimed to describe the clinicoepidemiological profile of elderly people living with HIV. Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. We analyzed the record of 120 patients from 2009 to 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients. Results: Of 786 HIV-positive patients, 120 were elderly. Mean age was 55.9 ± 6.1 years. Majority 68% were male. In all, 63.33% were male. Commonest route of ...
Cross sectional data reporting the height, weight, and body mass index of UK patients with cystic fibrosis are presented. During the first decade of life height and weight in patients with cystic fibrosis are maintained at about 0.5 SD below those of the general population, which reflects an improvement over earlier published observations....
Background: Children and youth gain multiple health benefits from regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, in Thailand there is limited national data on children and youths PA behaviors and recent reports suggest that Thai children and youth have low levels of PA. Furthermore, there is almost no data on the factors associated with inactivity to support the development of a Thai National PA Plan. The purpose of this paper is to investigate Thai children and youths participation in PA and its correlates across sociodemographic characteristics and different PA domains. Methods: This study applied a cross-sectional study design with a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. A national representative sample of 13,255 children and youth aged 6-17 years were used for data analysis. A previously validated questionnaire was used to assess PA prevalence. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationships of socio-demographic factors, and participation in different PA ...
In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, reporting rates for tuberculosis (TB) are rising in an emerging HIV epidemic. To describe the HIV epidemic among TB patients and quantify its impact on rates of reported TB, we performed a repeated cross-sectional survey from 1997 through 2002 in a randomly selected sample of inner city TB patients. We assessed effect by adjusting TB case reporting rates by the fraction of TB cases attributable to HIV infection. HIV prevalence in TB patients rose exponentially from 1.5% to 9.0% during the study period. Young (&lt;35 years), single, male patients were mostly affected; injection drug use was a potent risk factor. After correction for HIV infection, the trend in TB reporting rates changed from a 1.9% increase to a 0.4% decrease per year. An emerging HIV epidemic, concentrated in young, male, injection drug users, is responsible for increased TB reporting rates in urban Vietnam.
For decades, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on glucose criteria, either the FPG or the 75-g OGTT. In 1997, the first Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus revised the diagnostic criteria, using the observed association between FPG levels and presence of retinopathy as the key factor with which to identify threshold glucose level. The Committee examined data from three cross-sectional epidemiologic studies that assessed retinopathy with fundus photography or direct ophthalmoscopy and measured glycemia as FPG, 2-h PG, and A1C. These studies demonstrated glycemic levels below which there was little prevalent retinopathy and above which the prevalence of retinopathy increased in an apparently linear fashion. The deciles of the three measures at which retinopathy began to increase were the same for each measure within each population. Moreover, the glycemic values above which retinopathy increased were similar among the populations. These analyses helped ...
Purpose: : Focal cortical disturbances associated with multiple sclerosis, trauma or tumor can interfere with higher visual processing even in the presence of preserved visual acuity (VA). Diabetes affects both retinal vasculature and neurons, but its effects on the CNS are less well described. We hypothesized that DM patients exhibit central visual processing deficits compared with non-DM controls. Methods: : Subjects aged 20-69 with ,0.5 logMAR ETDRS VA and varying stages of diabetic retinopathy (non-proliferative, severe untreated proliferative (PDR), severe PDR + pan-retinal photocoagulation, PRP), and non-DM controls underwent standard and psychophysical testing: monocular color vision (FM100Hue), binocular illusory contours (IC), motion-defined letter recognition (MDR), Titmus fly stereoacuity and Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity. After ensuring shape recognition, 5 IC and 1 control shape were presented at 2 support ratios (0.2 and 0.4, luminance-defined versus total contour length) at ...
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ...
Objective A clinical trial (REQUIRE) was started to investigate the use of an ultrasound renal denervation system in the treatment of resistant hypertension (RHT). We analyzed the prevalence of patients who were eligible for inclusion in this cross-sectional study at the time of screening. Methods Nine-hundred ninety-nine consecutive hypertension (HT) patients who were treated in our hospital as outpatients were classified into the following categories: patients treated with at least 3 types of antihypertensive drugs including diuretic agents who were eligible for enrolment in SYMPLICITY HTN-Japan (SH-J) with an office systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥160 mmHg, who were ≤80 years of age, and an eGFR of ≥45 mL/min/1 ...
Objective-To evaluate the differences among each states Interstate Certificate of Veterinary Inspection (ICVI) form and the legibility of data on paper ICVIs used to support disease tracing in cattle. Design-Descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. Sample-Examples of ICVIs from 50 states and 7,630 randomly sampled completed paper ICVIs for cattle from 48 states. Procedures-Differences among paper ICVI forms from all 50 states were determined. Sixteen data elements were selected for further evaluation of their value in tracing cattle. Completed paper ICVIs for interstate cattle exports in 2009 were collected from 48 states. Each of the 16 data elements was recorded as legible, absent, or illegible on forms completed by accredited veterinarians, and results were summarized by state. Mean values for legibility at the state level were used to estimate legibility of data at the national level. Results-ICVIs were inconsistent among states in regard to data elements requested and availability of
NVP-BSK805 al., 2011; Lataillade et al., 2010; Simen, et al., 2009) Examples with sufficient HIV viral tons (typically >10,000 copies/mL) had been further examined for low-level resistant variations to 0.4% from the circulating viral quasi-species (Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) that might have been skipped by regular genotyping strategies.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010; Li, et al., 2011; Simen, et al., 2009) Ultra-deep sequencing was still performed on examples with HIV viral tons bellow 10,000 copies/mL, nevertheless, NVP-BSK805 the degrees of mutations determined in these examples represent the percentage of sequenced PCR amplicons formulated with the mutation and could or might not represent the real percentage in the plasma test.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) Test size and data evaluation A formal test size calculation had not been conducted because of this cross-sectional evaluation. We expected a prevalence of HIV medication level ...
NVP-BSK805 al., 2011; Lataillade et al., 2010; Simen, et al., 2009) Examples with sufficient HIV viral tons (typically >10,000 copies/mL) had been further examined for low-level resistant variations to 0.4% from the circulating viral quasi-species (Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) that might have been skipped by regular genotyping strategies.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010; Li, et al., 2011; Simen, et al., 2009) Ultra-deep sequencing was still performed on examples with HIV viral tons bellow 10,000 copies/mL, nevertheless, NVP-BSK805 the degrees of mutations determined in these examples represent the percentage of sequenced PCR amplicons formulated with the mutation and could or might not represent the real percentage in the plasma test.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) Test size and data evaluation A formal test size calculation had not been conducted because of this cross-sectional evaluation. We expected a prevalence of HIV medication level ...
In the present analysis including 967 community-dwelling elderly men and women no significant association between hemoglobin levels or anemia and falls could be found. Thus, the suggestion that anemia is an independent risk factor of falls in elderly people from the general population could not be supported by these results. However, we found an additive effect of anemia and disability on the occurrence of falls.. On the contrary to our study prior studies were mostly conducted in selected groups [15-17] in women only [32] or they used self-reported data regarding anemia status or information from chart reviews [33]. Furthermore, most of the former analyses were based on smaller study samples [15, 17, 18].. The group of Duh et al. employed a retrospective open-cohort design and analyzed data of 47,350 individuals regarding anemia and risk of injurious falls in community-dwelling elderly people. Results showed that anemia increased the risk of injurious falls by 1.47 times in multivariate ...
Author: Sasikala.J, Gnanavel.P, Milind V.Bhutkar. Category: Physiology. [Download PDF]. Abstract:. Background : The present study was undertaken because there is only limited information available regarding the effect of menopause over heart rate recovery and lipid profile.. Aim: Aim of the study was to calculate heart rate recovery and to estimate lipid profile and to compare the parameters between pre and post menopausal women.. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 120 healthy non athletic female volunteers consisted of 60 premenopausal women between the age group of 40-45 years and 60 post-menopausal women between the age group of 45-50 years. All the 120 subjects underwent a modified Bruce exercise protocol testing on a treadmill after taking blood sample for lipid profile. Heart rate was recorded during the exercise at each stage and also during the recovery period (1 minute, 2 minute and 5 minutes after the exercise). Result: The heart rate recovery was ...
In the present study, we provided a snapshot of the nutritional status of CD adolescents in Brazil using instruments and methods that are available at any health facility where such patients might be followed. We found that BMI-for-age and height-for-age were significantly lower in the patients with CD than in the controls, a finding that was consistent with those of Burnham et al. [18], who studied 104 children and young adults with CD evaluated an average of 4 years after the disease had been diagnosed (as was the case in the present study).. In a similar study, Thayu et al. [19] investigated a sample of 78 children and adolescents with CD and found significant changes in growth, pubertal development, and body composition (in particular, lean body mass loss) at diagnosis in comparison with the control group, although they found no differences between the genders. The deficit of lean body mass persisted throughout the follow-up period.. In the present study, caloric intake was found to be lower ...
Breastfeeding is seen as vital for mother and child and therefore is of great public health concern. Early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of delivery is important as it reduces neonatal mortality. Increasing our understanding of barriers and reasons for not commencing early breastfeeding is important to improve strategies and conditions to overcome such barriers. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate factors influencing time of breastfeeding among women in India, focusing on health care utilisation related issues and partner behaviour. Data from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of Indias National Family Health Survey (NFHS) from 2005-2006 (NFHS-3) have been used in this study. Breastfeeding for the latest child was considered in the study. A total of 35,795 female respondents are included in this study. Chi square test and adjusted logistic regression analysis were used. Among all 35,795 women in the study, a total of 31.1% initiated breastfeeding within
Hypertension (HTN) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic abnormalities, including adverse cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) profiles, are frequent comorbid findings with HTN and contribute to cardiovascular disease. Diuretics, which are used to treat HTN and heart failure, have been associated with worsening of fasting lipid concentrations. Genome-wide meta-analyses with 39,710 European-ancestry (EA) individuals and 9925 African-ancestry (AA) individuals were performed to identify genetic variants that modify the effect of loop or thiazide diuretic use on blood lipid concentrations. Both longitudinal and cross sectional data were used to compute cohort-specific interaction results, which were then combined through meta-analysis in each ancestry. These ancestry-specific results were further combined through trans-ancestry meta-analysis. Analysis of EA data identified two genome-wide significant (p , 5 × 10−8) loci with single nucleotide variant ...
Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are a leading cause of maternal morbidities and mortalities in developing countries. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 500,000 women and girls die each year from the complications. Despite proven interventions that could prevent death or disability during pregnancy and childbirth, maternal mortality remains a major burden in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the status of antenatal care utilization and modeling Bayesian Count Regression model for the determinants of utilization of antenatal care services visits among pregnant women in Amhara regional state. It was a community based analytical cross-sectional study, conducted in Amhara region among women in the reproductive age group (age 15-49). The analysis was based on data from women who had at least one birth during the 5 years preceding the survey. The source of data was the 2014 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey which was accessed from Central
This study assessed the association between accessibility of catering service venues and adolescents alcohol use over the previous 30 days. The data were collected from cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2014, 2223 students at 27 high schools in Chaoyang and Xicheng districts, Beijing using self-administered questionnaires to collect the adolescents information on socio-demographic characteristics and recent alcohol experiences. The accessibility of, and proximity to, catering service venues were summarized by weights, which were calculated by multiplication of the type-weight and the distance-weight. All sampled schools were categorized into three subgroups (low, middle, and high geographic density) based on the tertile of nearby catering service venues, and a multi-level logistic regression analysis was performed to explore variance between the school levels. Considering the setting characteristics, the catering service venues weighted value was found to account for 8.6% of the school level
National levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in adults have fallen even more drastically since 2011 than what had been previously observed since the turn of the century, according cross-sectional survey data. Additionally, these trends were maintained regardless of the use of lipid-lowering medications.. Given that lipid levels are strong predictors of cardiovascular health, this information is "a good indicator that the US populations lipid profile is improving at a population level," study author Asher Rosinger, PhD, MPH (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD), told TCTMD. "If these predictors of cardiovascular events continue to move in this favorable direction, its likely that mortality trends will also continue in a favorable direction.". For the study, Rosinger and colleagues culled lipid data on almost 40,000 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999/2000 and 2013/2014. The results-published ...
This article sought to estimate the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy (VH) among French general practitioners (GPs) and to study its demographic, professional and personal correlates. We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey about GPs vaccination-related attitudes and practices in 2014 in a national panel of 1,712 GPs in private practice, randomly selected from an exhaustive database of health professionals in France. A cluster analysis of various dimensions of VH (self-reported vaccine recommendations, perceptions of vaccine risks and usefulness) identified three clusters: 86% of GPs (95% confidence interval (CI): 84-88) were not or only slightly vaccine-hesitant, 11% (95% CI: 9-12) moderately hesitant and 3% (95% CI: 3-4) highly hesitant or opposed to vaccination. GPs in the latter two clusters were less frequently vaccinated and reported occasional practice of alternative medicine more often than those in the first cluster; they also described less experience with vaccine-preventable diseases
Over half of the sample was either overweight (36.6%) or obese (19.6%). Obesity was more common in the most deprived areas compared to the least deprived (26.3% vs. 12.0%). Healthy eating (49.0%), controlling portion size (43.4%), and increasing exercise (43.0%) were the most commonly reported weight management strategies. Less common strategies were attending a slimming club (17.2%), meal replacements (3.4%) and weight-loss medication (3.2%). Adjusting for BMI, age, deprivation and long standing health conditions, women were significantly more likely to report ever using a slimming club (adjusted OR = 18.63, 95% CI = 16.52-21.00) and more likely to report ever using over the counter weight-loss medications (AOR = 3.73, 95% CI = 3.10-4.48), while respondents from the most deprived areas were less likely to report using slimming clubs (AOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.53-0.68), and more likely to reporting using weight loss medications (AOR =1.38, 95% CI = 1.05-1.82).. ...
As a key indicator of childhood malnutrition, few studies have focused on stunting in relation to various socio-economic factors in which disadvantaged groups face in China. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study incorporating forty-two rural counties in seven western provinces of China in 2011. In total, 5196 children aged 6-23 months were included. We used Poisson regression to examine risk factors for inadequate minimum dietary diversity (MDD) and stunting status, respectively. Overall, the proportion of children not meeting MDD was 44·5 %. Children aged 6-11 months (adjusted risk ratio (ARR)=1·39; 95 % CI 1·31, 1·49), with two siblings (ARR=1·09; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·17), delivered at home (ARR=1·30; 95 % CI 1·20, 1·41), within Yi (ARR=1·15; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·28) or Uighur groups (ARR=1·52; 95 % CI 1·36, 1·71), with an illiterate caregiver (ARR=2·12; 95 % CI 1·52, 2·96), receiving lowest income (ARR=1·32; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·50), and with breast-feeding in the last ...
OBJECTIVES: We investigate trends in the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults at all ages in two time points 9 years apart in two neighbouring rural populations and examine social and respiratory health determinants of quitting smoking. STUDY DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional study. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the same rural area of lower Silesia in Poland in 2003 and 2012. A total of 1328 (91% of adult eligible individuals) in 2003 and 1449 (92% of eligible) in 2012 adult inhabitants were surveyed, 908 people (560 villagers and 348 town inhabitants) participated in both surveys. Participants completed a questionnaire on smoking behaviour, education level and respiratory diseases. RESULTS: Current smoking was higher in the villages than the town, among men than women and those with a middle level of education. The prevalence of current smokers decreased over time, although this decline was much more pronounced in the town than in the villages (30.2% vs 23% and ...
OBJECTIVE: Due to the increased lifetime risk of endometrial cancer (EC), guidelines recommend that women with Lynch syndrome (LS) age ≥ 35 undergo annual EC surveillance or prophylactic hysterectomy (PH). The aim of this study was to examine the uptake of these risk-reducing strategies. METHODS: The study population included women meeting clinical criteria for genetic evaluation for LS. Data on cancer risk-reducing behaviors were collected from subjects enrolled in two distinct studies: (1) a multicenter cross-sectional study involving completion of a one-time questionnaire, or (2) a single-center longitudinal study in which subjects completed questionnaires before and after undergoing genetic testing ...
Context: Amidst the uncertainty in childhood blood pressure (BP) thresholds, besides the ambiguity in levels and duration of BP elevation causing organ damage, hypertension is present in substantial number of asymptomatic children and adolescents with only a few studies disclosing the setup. With projection of deaths due to noncommunicable diseases in 2030 rising to 52 million, it is necessary to know about the knowledge of present adolescents about BP and its modifiable risk factors. Aims: (1) To assess the prevalence of elevated BP among adolescents and to ascertain the associated risk factors. (2) To assess adolescents knowledge about BP and its modifiable factors. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on school going adolescents of Lucknow, from September 2014 to August 2015. Subjects and Methods: BP, height, and weight were measured following standard protocols, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention charts for finding respective cut-off values and ...
Literature Cited 1. Minino AM. Death in the United States, 2011. NCHS Data Brief. 2013;(115)(115):1-8. 2. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990-2020: Global Burden of Disease Study . Lancet. 1997;349(9064):1498-1504. 3. Mannino DM, Buist AS. Global burden of COPD: Risk factors, prevalence, and future trends. Lancet. 2007;370(9589):765-773. 4. The top 10 causes of death. World Health Organization Web site. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/. Updated 2014. Accessed 3/25, 2015. 5. Calderon-Larranaga A, Carney L, Soljak, M. et al. Association of population and primary healthcare factors with hospital admission rates for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in England: National cross-sectional study. Thorax. 2011;66(3):191-196. 6. Akinbami LJ, Liu X. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 18 and over in the United States, 1998-2009. NCHS Data Brief. 2011;(63)(63):1-8. 7. Darnell K, Dwivedi AK, Weng Z et al.. ...
To determine the association of vitamin D status with depression and health-related quality of life among women. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity status, perceived depression and health-related quality of life were assessed via a self-administered questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for ...
and other continuous variables), the interpretation is that when a students gpa moves 1 unit, the odds of moving from "unlikely" applying to "somewhat likely" or "very likley" applying (or from the lower and middle categories to the high category) are multiplied by 1.85.. One of the assumptions underlying ordinal logistic (and ordinal probit) regression is that the relationship between each pair of outcome groups is the same. In other words, ordinal logistic regression assumes that the coefficients that describe the relationship between, say, the lowest versus all higher categories of the response variable are the same as those that describe the relationship between the next lowest category and all higher categories, etc. This is called the proportional odds assumption or the parallel regression assumption. Because the relationship between all pairs of groups is the same, there is only one set of coefficients. If this was not the case, we would need different sets of coefficients in the model ...
This course is meant to expose the students to the techniques of drawing representative samples from various populations and then preparing them on the mathematical formulations of estimating the population parameters based on the sample data. The students would also be exposed to the real life applications of sampling techniques and estimation of parameters.. Determination of sample size and selection of sample, Simple random sampling, Stratified random sampling, Cluster sampling, Systematic sampling, Ratio and regression methods of estimation, Double sampling, Multi-stage sampling.. ...
Author: Sharma, A. M. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2004-03; Keywords: primary care; hypertension; prevalence; control status; epidemiology; Germany; Title: High prevalence and poor control of hypertension in primary care: cross-sectional study
You predict a class if it is given maximum probability by the estimated model. So when some classes are not predicted that is simply because the model never gave them maximum probability. That might just be correct, and not necessary a reason for concern. So I disagree with the answer by @Nitin, proposing oversampling.. You might say: but they did occur in the data. Yes, but it might have been rare occurrences! never really the most probable outcome given the predictors in the model. You didnt give us a context, what your classes represent in the "real world". You have very unbalanced classes. That might be because some classes really are uncommon in your population, or it might be some problems with data collection. You didnt tell us. But it is difficult to see that over (or under)-sampling can achieve anything that cannot be achieved using weights. Even more important, you are using (ordinal) logistic regression, which is not a classifier, see Why isnt Logistic Regression called Logistic ...
Aging changes in different body system are well described, but few studies have considered the relationship between them.The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the interrelationships between markers of aging in different parts of the body.A cross-sectional study design was used. Structural and functional markers of aging were measured in a number of different body systems.Conditional independence analysis demonstrated that the aging markers selected clustered into two groups, either related to chronological age or adult height. Visual acuity, lens opacity, hearing threshold, cognitive decline, and the number of teeth were associated with age, while systolic blood pressure and skin thickness were related to height. Grip strength was associated with both.The differential associations of the aging markers with chronological age and adult height suggest that different systems do not age together. This may have relevance for understanding what underlies aging, and these preliminary findings
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Results:. Consumption of energy (kcal/day) was higher in men (3,152 ± 1,026 versus 2,613 ± 905; p , 0.001) whereas the consumption of all antioxidants (mainly vitamins A and E and selenium) was higher in females. Low antioxidant consumption was associated to male sex (OR = 3.5; 95%CI 3.11 - 4.0) and to lower education (OR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.42 - 3.87), income (OR = 4.4; 95%CI 3.67 - 5.36) and age (OR = 5.5; 95%CI 4.27 - 7.16), as well as to thinness (OR = 2.7; 95%CI 1.36 - 5.18) and when participants did not reported the use of supplements (OR = 1.95; 95%CI 1.6 - 2.38) or change of eating habits in the last six months (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.75 - 2.29). ...
O capítulo IGDA Fortaleza (International Game Developers Association - Fortaleza Chapter) é uma entidade sem fins lucrativos que trabalha para fomentar, desenvolver e expandir o cenário e a comunidade de desenvolvimento de jogos da cidade de Fortaleza. Trabalhamos para fortalecer o cenário por meio de eventos, encontros e iniciativas em conjunto à outras entidades para acelerar e buscar prosperidade para a comunidade local de desenvolvedores de jogos.. ...
The Effect of Demographic and Lifestyle Factors on Mode of Travel in School-Aged Children in The UK: A cross-Sectional Study From Understanding Society
Increasing numbers of HIV-infected adults in Africa need hospital care. It remains unclear what impact this has on health care services or on how hospitals respond. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a rising case load of adult HIV-related disease by comparing results from a prospective cross-sectional study of acute adult medical admissions to a government hospital in Nairobi conducted in 1992 with results from a previous study done in 1988 and 1989 in the same hospital, using the same study design and protocol. Data on age, gender, number admitted, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared. In 1992, 374 consecutive patients were admitted in 15 24-hour periods (24.9 patients/period) compared with the 1988 to 1989 study, which enrolled 506 patients in 22 24-hour periods (23.0 patients/period). Patients age, gender, and length of hospital stay were similar in both studies. In 1992, 39% of patients were HIV-positive compared ...
Whats on at Plymouth University: Going where no other researchers go: Collecting information from primary and secondary care notes of people with severe mental illness in England. A multi-site cross-sectional observational study. 19 September 2017.
Palafox B, McKee M, Balabanova D, AlHabib KF, Avezum AJ, Bahonar A, Ismail N, Chifamba J, Chow CK, Corsi DJ, Dagenais GR, Diaz R, Gupta R, Iqbal R, Kaur M, Khatib R, Kruger A, Kruger IM, Lanas F, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Minfan F, Mohan V, Mony PK, Oguz A, Palileo-Villanueva LM, Perel P, Poirier P, Rangarajan S, Rensheng L, Rosengren A, Soman B, Stuckler D, Subramanian SV, Teo K, Tsolekile LP, Wielgosz A, Yaguang P, Yeates K, Yongzhen M, Yusoff K, Yusuf R, Yusufali A, Zatońska K, Yusuf S. Wealth and cardiovascular health: a cross-sectional study of wealth-related inequalities in the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Int J Equity Health. 2016; 15(1): 199 ...