TY - JOUR. T1 - High Resolution Esophageal Manometry in Patients with Chagas Disease: A Cross-Sectional Evaluation. AU - Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián. AU - Moris, María. AU - Mego, Marianela. AU - Salvador, Fernando. AU - Accarino, Anna. AU - Ramírez, Kathleen. AU - Azpiroz, Fernando. AU - Ruiz-de-Leon, Antonio. AU - Molina, Israel. PY - 2016/2/5. Y1 - 2016/2/5. N2 - © 2016 Sánchez-Montalvá et al. Introduction: Gastrointestinal involvement affects 30-40% of the patients with chronic Chagas disease. Esophageal symptoms appear once the structural damage is established. Little is known about the usefulness of high resolution manometry to early identification of esophageal involvement. Method: We performed a cross-sectional study at the Vall dHebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain) between May 2011 and April 2012. Consecutive patients diagnosed with Chagas disease in the chronic phase were offered to participate. All patients underwent a structured questionnaire about digestive symptoms, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Evaluation of appropriateness of prescription and polypharmacy in the geriatric population: A cross-sectional study at a comprehensive geriatric clinic in a tertiary care hospital. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Vol 14: How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cross-sectional relationship between Haemoglobin concentration and measures of physical and cognitive function in an older rural South African population. AU - Payne, Collin F.. AU - Davies, Justine I.. AU - Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier AU - Hands, Katherine J.. AU - Kahn, Kathleen. AU - Kobayashi, Lindsay C.. AU - Tipping, Brent. AU - Tollman, Stephen. AU - Wade, Alisha. AU - Witham, Miles. N1 - This work was supported by the National Institute of Aging at the National Institute of Health (1P01AG041710-01A1, HAALSI - Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities). The Agincourt HDSS was supported by the Wellcome Trust, UK (058893/Z/99/A, 069683/Z/02/Z, 085477/Z/08/Z and 085477/B/08/Z), the University of the Witwatersrand and South African Medical Research Council.. PY - 2018/8/9. Y1 - 2018/8/9. N2 - Background Age cohort differences in haemoglobin concentrations and associations with physical and cognitive performance among populations of lower income and ...
Objective: Sleep disturbance during pregnancy is one of the most common maternal complaints. Not only does it play a crucial role in a mothers life, but also it comes with a multitude number of complications. This study aimed at assessing the association between sleep disturbance in pregnancy and maternal and child outcomes. Materials and methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study, conducted on pregnant women across 11 provinces in Iran in 2018. Sleep disturbance as a composite variable was defined using the principal component analysis based on five questions. Abortion, anemia in the first and third trimester, gestational diabetes, gestational age, glucose tolerance test (GTT), fasting blood sugar (FBS), mode of delivery, low birth weight and stillbirth were defined as study outcomes ...
Illness Perception and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-sectional Questionnaire Study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is considered an epidemic disease in the gulf countries. Its prevalence in Saudi Arabia is becoming the highest in the world affecting around 30% of adults (1), (3). Indeed, diabetes is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, management of diabetic dyslipidemia, a well-recognized and modifiable risk factor, is an essential factor in the multifactorial approach to prevent CVD in individuals with type 2 diabetes (4). Several meta-analyses studies have clearly shown the benefits of statin therapy (3). Aims: To assess the results of the prescription of simvastatin for patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 168 diabetic patients was conducted in Hera General Hospital. Data were retrieved from medical records from January 2018 until December 2018. Data analysis was performed using Ecxelsoftwares. Results: Most of the sample population (95%) was older than 40 years old. Nearly all patients (97%) were on ...
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The present study, based on a random sample of Danish schools, showed that adolescents exposure to teachers and other pupils smoking during the school day is common. Three fifths of the students in the study reported that they had seen or knew of teachers smoking outdoors on the school premises, and most of them reported that they had seen or knew of teachers smoking inside the school building. The vast majority of students reported seeing or knowing of other students smoking outdoors on the school premises. This suggests that there is a degree of tolerance towards smoking in Danish schools, which may influence student beliefs and attitudes towards smoking. As noted earlier, according to the theory of planned behaviour8 a high tolerance towards smoking at school is likely to influence students, making them more likely to perceive smoking as something positive and acceptable, developing favourable personal beliefs and subjective norms about smoking, leading to intentions to take up the ...
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
To study the natural history of a disease, investigators at times resort to cross-sectional cohort studies, whereby participants are randomly sampled at a fixed point in time. Once their baseline information and disease history are recorded, these participants are followed until death, loss to follow-up or study termination. This design is attractive because it generally requires limited resources. The data it generates, however, suffer from various systematic biases. For example, individuals with longer lifetimes tend to be excessively sampled, and among observed cases, individuals with longer disease durations and more recent onsets are usually overrepresented. In this presentation, the analysis of data emerging from either a cross-sectional cohort study, or its related subdesign, the prevalent cohort study, is discussed. The latter arises when only diseased individuals may be recruited at sampling time. Novel methodologies for estimating important epidemiologic measures of disease risk, such ...
Introduction Does Deregulation Raise Electric Rates? A Cross Sectional Analysis by William B. Marcus Principal Economist, JBS Energy, Inc. December, 2011 The theory behind deregulation is that competition
Several studies with conflicting findings have investigated the association between acne and mental health problems. Acne usually starts in adolescents, as does an increase in the prevalence of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been more focus on the link between diet and acne and diet and mental health problems. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between acne and mental distress and to explore a possible influence of dietary factors on the relation. A population-based cross-sectional study in Oslo of 18 or 19 year old adolescents. The participation rate was 80%. Acne was self-reported. To measure mental distress, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 was used. Diet and lifestyle variables were also collected by questionnaire and socio-demographic variables were obtained from Statistics Norway. The prevalence of acne was 14.4% among the males and 12.8% among the females. The mean score of mental distress increased when the severity of acne increased. In the crude analyses
Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States (US), increasing the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and accounting for 443,000 deaths (nearly 1 in 5) each year [1]. Tobacco use and tobacco-related illnesses are common among emergency department (ED) patients. Studies performed in multiple ED settings have found that 30-40% of ED patients smoke--prevalence rates that are well above that of the general population [2, 3].. Although providing smoking counseling has not traditionally been a function of emergency-care services, the field is increasingly recognizing the necessity and practicality of assuming such functions. As the number of primary care physicians declines [4], ED volume is steadily increasing, and health-care reform is not projected to significantly reduce this high utilization over the next decade. In 2006, there were 40.5 ED visits per 100 people in the US, an 18% increase ...
Bull World Health Organ. 2011 May 1;89(5):352-9. doi: 10.2471/BLT.10.085738. Epub 2011 Mar 30. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Neonatal mortality has remained resistant to change in the wake of declining child mortality. Suboptimal newborn care practices are predisposing factors to neonatal mortality. Adherence to four ANC consultations is associated with improved newborn care practices. There is limited documentation of this evidence in sub-Saharan Africa where suboptimal newborn care practices has been widely reported. Structured interviews were held with 928 women having children under-five months old at their homes in Masindi, Uganda, from October-December 2011. Four/more ANC consultations (sufficient ANC) was considered the exposure variable. Three composite variables (complete cord care, complete thermal care and complete newborn vaccination status) were derived by combining related practices from a list of recommended newborn care practices. Logistic regression models were used to assess for associations. One in five women 220(23.7%) were assessed to practice complete cord care. Less than ten percent 57(6.1%) were
Among smokers who have attempted to stop without professional support, those who use e-cigarettes are more likely to report continued abstinence than those who used a licensed NRT product bought over-the-counter or no aid to cessation. This difference persists after adjusting for a range of smoker c …
OBJECTIVE: Clinic based studies suggest that adverse events in childhood may predispose to chronic pain in adult life. These have been conducted on highly selected groups, and it is unknown whether these relationships hold in the general population and to what extent the increased rate of adverse childhood events in persons with pain is an artefact of differential reporting. We examined the hypothesis that chronic widespread pain was associated with reports of adverse experiences in childhood and whether any observed relationships could be explained by differential recall. METHODS: A cross sectional population based screening survey was conducted. Subjects completed a questionnaire that included assessments of pain and psychological state. In total, 296 subjects who had demonstrated psychological distress were randomly selected and had a detailed interview, which included an assessment of 14 adverse childhood experiences. Medical records relating to childhood were also examined for those ...
A relationship has not been found between apple intake and asthma in the present cross-sectional study in children. However, there is some evidence to suggest that children who have a higher consumption of apple juice from concentrate and bananas exhibit a lower prevalence of current wheeze than children with a lower intake.. In contrast to studies in adults 8, 9, the present authors have not been able to replicate a significant negative association between apple intake and asthma in children. However, the present negative findings are consistent with previous studies 13-15, which showed no clear relationship between wheezing in children and fresh fruit intake despite a beneficial effect on lung function. It is not clear why the link observed in adult asthma was not replicated in children. The variation in the choice of outcome measures between studies and in the validity and reliability of food frequency questionnaires in children might have been responsible for the differences observed. ...
Over three-quarters of 11-year-old children in this sample (78%) had at least one adverse health condition, and 43% experienced co-occurrence (two or more conditions). Co-occurrence differed by sex and was socially patterned, with boys and children living in lower income households being at higher risk of having multiple adverse health conditions. LCA identified five distinct classes of conditions, in addition to the group of children with no or one adverse health condition: atopic burdened, socioemotional burdened, unfavourable weight/injury, eczema/injury and eczema/unfavourable weight. Children identified by the index as having greater numbers of adverse health conditions were more likely to be in the atopic burdened and socioemotional burdened classes; these children were more likely to be boys, have mothers with lower educational attainment and live in lower income households. Children in unfavourable weight/injury, eczema/injury (6.0%) and eczema/unfavourable weight ...
Data will be collected in 12 countries (500 children per site) from five major regions of the world (Eurasia & Africa, Europe, Latin America, North America, and the Pacific). Cross-sectional evaluations will be undertaken in each country. The physical characteristics of the children will be directly measured in order to classify their body weight and adiposity status, and physical activity and dietary patterns will be measured with the most objective techniques currently available. A concise set of environmental measures that are feasible, valid and meaningful across the international settings included in this research will also be employed. The results of this study will provide a robust examination of the correlates of obesity and weight gain in children, focusing on both sides of the energy balance equation. The results will also provide important new information that will inform the development of lifestyle interventions to address childhood obesity that can be culturally adapted for ...
The present cross-sectional study examined the actor-partner interdependence effect of fear of COVID-19 among Iranian pregnant women and their husbands and its association with their mental health and preventive behaviours during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. A total of 290 pregnant women and their husbands (N = 580) were randomly selected from a list of pregnant women in the Iranian Integrated Health System and were invited to respond to psychometric scales assessing fear of COVID-19, depression, anxiety, suicidal intention, mental quality of life, and COVID-19 preventive behaviours. The findings demonstrated significant dyadic relationships between husbands and their pregnant wives fear of COVID-19, mental health, and preventive behaviours. Pregnant wives actor effect of fear of COVID-19 was significantly associated with depression, suicidal intention, mental quality of life, and COVID-19 preventive behaviours but not anxiety. Moreover, a husband actor effect of fear of ...
Introduction. This essay will compare and contrast the Longitudinal and Cross-sectional methods of research, by firstly describing each method and listing the main types. It will also give examples of research which have used these methods in order to gather data. Then through discussing the advantages and disadvantages for using each method a conclusion will be formed. Conducting research is important in psychology as it gives the evidence needed to support theories and hypothesis. Developmental research methods aim to examine changes or differences in behaviour by looking at different ages or stages across a lifetime. This is usually carried out using two basic methods, the longitudinal and cross-sectional. Cross-sectional research is where individuals of different ages are studied at the same time; this is in contrast with longitudinal studies which involves testing one age group repeatedly over many years. A cohort study is a form of longitudinal study as well as a panel and retrospective ...
ATN 066b consists of a cross-sectional evaluation of three groups of recently diagnosed HIV-infected adolescents including: (1) care non-initiation; (2) care initiation, no maintenance; and (3) care initiation with maintenance. Social, psychological and behavioral factors associated with HIV-related care-seeking will be assessed using an ACASI. Three recruitment strategies using a randomized permuted block list of possible sequences for HIV-infected youth not in care will be also compared.. The ACASI instrument will be adapted from previously used instruments intended to retrospectively reconstruct the care-seeking process and to assess quality of life, concerns and expectations for care, satisfaction with care, and social-problem solving.. Ideally, the ACASI will be administered during a single session and may take up to 90 minutes to complete. Participants who are unable to complete the ACASI in one session will be allowed up to 7 days after initiation to complete it. Completion of all study ...
For decades, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on glucose criteria, either the FPG or the 75-g OGTT. In 1997, the first Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus revised the diagnostic criteria, using the observed association between FPG levels and presence of retinopathy as the key factor with which to identify threshold glucose level. The Committee examined data from three cross-sectional epidemiologic studies that assessed retinopathy with fundus photography or direct ophthalmoscopy and measured glycemia as FPG, 2-h PG, and A1C. These studies demonstrated glycemic levels below which there was little prevalent retinopathy and above which the prevalence of retinopathy increased in an apparently linear fashion. The deciles of the three measures at which retinopathy began to increase were the same for each measure within each population. Moreover, the glycemic values above which retinopathy increased were similar among the populations. These analyses ...
Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is a cross-sectional evaluation of the heart, airways, lungs, mediastinum, and associated bones and soft tissues. Two key methods of image acquisition include: standard CT with 5 mm slice thickness for medi...
Objective To describe variation in antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in contrasting European settings and the impact on recovery.. Design Cross sectional observational study with clinicians from 14 primary care research networks in 13 European countries who recorded symptoms on presentation and management. Patients followed up for 28 days with patient diaries.. Setting Primary care.. Participants Adults with a new or worsening cough or clinical presentation suggestive of lower respiratory tract infection.. Main outcome measures Prescribing of antibiotics by clinicians and total symptom severity scores over time.. Results 3402 patients were recruited (clinicians completed a case report form for 99% (3368) of participants and 80% (2714) returned a symptom diary). Mean symptom severity scores at presentation ranged from 19 (scale range 0 to 100) in networks based in Spain and Italy to 38 in the network based in Sweden. Antibiotic prescribing by networks ranged from 20% to nearly 90% (53% ...
Objective. To examine black female students for the occurrence of risk factors associated with chronic diseases of lifestyle, namely obesity, hypertension, nicotine usage, dyslipidaemia and compromised mental health (depression). Design. A cross-sectional analytical study design was used. All participants were examined within a period of 3 months during 1994. Weight, height, and hip and waist measurements were taken. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC) were calculated for each subject. Two systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings were taken for each participant. Questionnaires were used to determine specific risk factors related to lifestyle. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to measure psychological well-being. Fasting blood samples were collected and analysed for serum lipids and iron status. Setting. The University of the North in the Northern Province of South Africa. Subjects. A complete data set of sociodemographic information, ...
Background: Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in India. Assessment of knowledge and practices of community about prevention of mosquito borne diseases is important for designing community-based interventions. Therefore, the study was carried out to assess such information. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 350 adults selected by systematic sampling method in a rural and urban area in Delhi. Data was collected using pretested semi-structured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square and Fishers Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P ,,/i, 0.05 was considered significant. Results: One hundred and forty-two (67.6%) subjects in rural and 89 (63.6%) in the urban area were able to name at least one mosquito borne disease. Only small number of participants (from rural 28.1% and urban 18.6% areas) was ...
Sir, The present study highlights the role of educational status on the cardiovascular health status of the study population. As identified by the authors, education as a proxy measure of socio-economic status has its own limitations and hence the title should have focused on educational level only. The study tool used for getting information on physical exercise also has some limitation. The question on physical exercise pertaining to exercise is nonspecific for the last response category inactive since exercising several times a year would also include those who are exercising four or more times a week. This overlap would cause confusion among the respondents while answering. The study nowhere mentions about the presence or absence of cardiovascular diseases viz. coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes etc. among the study population. The intake of medications, health interventions from the health care providers would also have relevance on the status of cardiovascular health as ...
In this cross-sectional cohort study, it was found that patients knowledge about BMI and weight-related risk factors has increased modestly. The possible causes are not fully known, although the participants recorded an increase in discussions about BMI with their primary care physician at their clinic visits. Some possible reasons for this increase in BMI knowledge include an increase in BMI measurement as a quality measure across different insurance plans and primary care medical home certification requirements for quality improvement.6 Previous literature suggests that physician discussion of healthy lifestyle increases the likelihood that a patient will make healthy lifestyle changes.5 However, despite the increase in patients knowledge and discussions about BMI with their primary care physician, there was not a decrease in BMI in the 2017 study population.. The current findings suggest that further study is needed to produce positive change in the treatment of patients with obesity and ...
The study showed a high prevalence of 25OHD deficiency in young, northern European men, which was significantly associated with decreased BMD. PTH and 25OHD were found to be inversely related to the markers of insulin resistance.
Objective data from the clinical laboratory are critical to the majority of medical decisions, including initial diagnosis and monitoring of treatment outcome. Laboratory errors, including inaccurate RIs, can lead to inappropriate diagnosis, unnecessary test repetition, and inappropriate follow-up investigations (7). Excessively wide RIs may mask subclinical disorders, and the use of incorrect RIs may confuse the clinical picture. Therefore, relevant RIs are essential for correct test result interpretation and reducing the risk of false negatives and false positives. Failure to provide proper RIs in the pediatric population carries obvious consequences for immunochemical analytes such as TSH (8) and ferritin (9).. The current investigation established RIs in a large, multiethnic pediatric cohort. However, the study was not without its limitations. As it was a cross-sectional investigation, the long-term health of the participating children was not verified. Additionally, the RIs provided are ...
The prevalence of depression and the association between depression and kidney function and health-related quality of life in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease: a multicenter cross-sectional study
van den Brink, A. M. A., Gerritsen, D. L., de Valk, M. M. H., Mulder, A. T., Voshaar, R. C. O., & Koopmans, R. T. C. M. (2018). What do nursing home residents with mental-physical multimorbidity need and who actually knows this? A cross-sectional cohort study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 81, 89-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.02.008 ...
In these three decades, following the dietary guidelines of different Govts., the increased calories in our diets have come from sugars and other carbohydrates. In the past 300 years too, sugar consumption has gone up by 50 times and diabetes has gone up from 3/lakh population in late 19th century to 8000/lakh by early 21st century.[39,40] Cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries have shown that for every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) the prevalence of diabetes increased by 1.1% (p ,0.001) and that the duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner.[41] There are many other studies that have implicated sugars and carbohydrates in the pathogenesis of modern diseases.[42-49]. The report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases , released in 2002-3, also blamed high consumption of ...
In these three decades, following the dietary guidelines of different Govts., the increased calories in our diets have come from sugars and other carbohydrates. In the past 300 years too, sugar consumption has gone up by 50 times and diabetes has gone up from 3/lakh population in late 19th century to 8000/lakh by early 21st century.[39,40] Cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries have shown that for every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) the prevalence of diabetes increased by 1.1% (p ,0.001) and that the duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner.[41] There are many other studies that have implicated sugars and carbohydrates in the pathogenesis of modern diseases.[42-49]. The report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases , released in 2002-3, also blamed high consumption of ...
Sampling Methods. Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very large populations, it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population, so the pool of available subjects becomes biased.. Systematic sampling is often used instead of random sampling. It is also called an Nth name selection technique. After the required sample size has been calculated, every Nth record is selected from a list of population members. As long as the list does not contain any hidden order, this sampling method is as good as the random sampling method. Its only advantage over the random sampling technique is simplicity. ...
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Combination of longitudinal and cross sectional design; starts with a cross sectional study of individuals with different ages then after some time, same individuals are tested again. ...
The current study found that baseline vitamin D status was an independent predictor of better β-cell function and AUCglucose after 3 years of follow-up in the PROMISE study cohort. This is the first study to examine the prospective association of serum 25(OH)D with β-cell function.. Previous studies assessing the association between 25(OH)D and β-cell function have used cross-sectional designs and have reported inconsistent findings (14,16-21,34). These inconsistencies may be attributed to the use of less-detailed, fasting-based surrogate measures of β-cell function (e.g., HOMA-β or C-peptide) in the majority of previous studies (16-18,20,34). Only two studies have used gold-standard methods, including the hyperglycemic clamp (14) and the IVGTT (21), but no significant association between 25(OH)D and β-cell function was found after adjusting for potential confounders. In contrast, the findings in the current study support our cross-sectional results in the PROMISE study cohort (19), in ...
Direction of study: Exposure and outcome at the same time. Strength of association: Strength of association in cross-sectional study is weak. Cross sectional study is popular study because:Easy to conduct: Readiness and easily it can conductedSimple: Simple in terms of design, calculation & conduct.Time: It can be done very quicklySuitable for problem identification and study cases…
Objective To assess whether randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that were registered were less likely to report positive study findings compared with RCTs that were not registered and whether the association varied by funding source.Design Cross sectional study.Study sample All primary RCTs published in December 2012 and indexed in PubMed by November 2013. Trial registration was determined based on the report of a trial registration number in published RCTs or the identification of the trial in a search of trial registries. Trials were separated into prospectively and retrospectively registered studies.Main outcome measure Association between trial registration and positive study findings.Results 1122 eligible RCTs were identified, of which 593 (52.9%) were registered and 529 (47.1%) were not registered. Overall, registration was marginally associated with positive study findings (adjusted risk ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.78 to 0.98), even with stratification as prospectively and
White, I.R.; Blane, D.; Morris, J.N.; Mourouga, P., 1999: Educational attainment, deprivation-affluence and self reported health in Britain: a cross sectional study
meant by Statistics ❖ What is meant by Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics ❖ Difference between Parameter & Statistic ❖ Types of Statistical
Health,A new study has found out that babies breastfed for six months have re... In the words of Caroline Chantry a pediatrician with UC Davis Ch... This research can be read in the February 2006 issue of Pediatrics.... An analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey ... Pneumonia wheezing and recurrent (three or more) colds or ear infe...,Another,advantage,of,breastfeeding,kids:,lower,chances,of,respiratory,illnesses,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Cross-sectional study example cancer Higher risk they have a higher incidence total smokers that gives me a prevalence, classified either a smoker or nonsmoker have a bias study we could have, surprisingly the value for the odds weeks in the early parts of this course.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The association between reduced GFR and hearing loss. T2 - a cross-sectional population-based study. AU - Vilayur, Eswari. AU - Gopinath, Bamini. AU - Harris, David C.. AU - Burlutsky, George. AU - McMahon, Catherine M.. AU - Mitchell, Paul. PY - 2010/10. Y1 - 2010/10. N2 - Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has long been associated with hearing loss in certain syndromes. Reported evidence to date has come from only small observational studies. We present the first community-based study to show an association between nonsyndromal CKD and hearing loss. Study Design: Cross-sectional population-based study to examine the relationship between CKD and age-related hearing loss. Setting & Participants: The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a survey of age-related hearing loss conducted in 1997-2004; a total of 2,564 participants had audiometric testing and complete renal data. Predictor or Factor: Moderate CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ,60 mL/min/1.73 ...
This page contains the ABSTRACT- High Prevalence of Daily and Multi-site pain -- A Cross-sectional Population-based Study Among 3000 Danish Adolescents http://www.chiro.org/pediatrics/ABSTRACTS/High_Prevalence_of_Daily_and_Multi-site.shtml
Cross-sectional comparisons of violence and injuries in an urban community, South Africa: Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study
Background Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic malignancy, has been shown to present different cytogenetic abnormalities, risk factors, and clinico-hematological features in different populations and geographic areas. Herein, we determined the cytoge...
Looking for online definition of Systematic sampling in the Medical Dictionary? Systematic sampling explanation free. What is Systematic sampling? Meaning of Systematic sampling medical term. What does Systematic sampling mean?
The need for a mobile workforce inevitably means that the length of the total work day (working and traveling time) will increase, but the health effects of commuting have been surprisingly little studied apart from perceived stress and the benefits of physically active commuting. We used data from two cross-sectional population-based public health surveys performed in 2004 and 2008 in Scania, Sweden (56% response rate). The final study population was 21, 088 persons aged 18-65, working | 30 h/week. Duration (one-way) and mode of commuting were reported. The outcomes studied were perceived poor sleep quality, everyday stress, low vitality, mental health, self-reported health, and absence from work due to sickness during the past 12 months. Covariates indicating socioeconomic status and family situation, overtime, job strain and urban/rural residency were included in multivariate analyses. Subjects walking or cycling to work | 30 min were used as a reference category. Monotonous relations were found
The present study described the research activity, self-reported success level, motivations and barriers of eight AHP teams in undertaking research and explored whether any relationships exist between the self-reported measures and audited research activity within each team. The study revealed variation in research activity between teams, however the majority of teams were undertaking some form of ethically approved research and had disseminated their research. All teams, apart from one, reported average success at undertaking various aspects of research. No significant correlations were found between self-reports of research success and team barriers to undertaking research with research activity. Motivating factors were found to have a stronger association with research activity, with enhancing team credibility having a significant correlation with funding received.. The most consistent form of research activity across teams was undertaking ethically approved research projects and conference ...
A cross sectional questionnaire based study on self medication practice of analgesics among MBBS students at Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka
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Active transport (e.g., walking, cycling) to school (ATS) can contribute to childrens physical activity and health. The built environment is acknowledged as an important factor in understanding childrens ATS, alongside parental factors and seasonality. Inconsistencies in methodological approaches exist, and a clear understanding of factors related to ATS remains equivocal. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of associates of childrens ATS, by considering the effects of daily weather patterns and neighbourhood walk ability and neighbourhood preferences (i.e., for living in a high or low walkable neighbourhood) on this behaviour ...
The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) provides a wealth of information on the Health Status of Americans. As one part of this cross-sectional survey study, researchers evaluated the relationship between serum levels of various antioxidant micronutrients and the prevalence of AMD. Data were presented at the 1998 annual meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research in Chicago (1). Methods: Cross-sectional relationships of serum levels of vitamins C, E and various carotenoids to the following: late AMD, presence of pigment abnormalities, and the presence of soft drusen (the latter 2 factors considered as early predictors of late AMD). Fundus photos and serum samples were obtained on 7935 participants age 40 and older. Age adjusted and multivariate logistic models were used. Factors adjusted for in the analyses included age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes and eye color. Results: Prevalence of late AMD was 0.7%, while ...
Background and aim: Cervical cancer (CC) is the 7th most common cancer worldwide. It is the 4th most common cancer in females causing 7.5% of all female cancer deaths. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of CC and other diseases worldwide. Despite several measures taken to reduce the risk of infection with HPV, the most effective method remains the HPV vaccine. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of parents in Sharjah towards HPV and whether or not they would vaccinate their daughters. Methods and Material: A quantitative, observational cross-sectional study of 400 subjects was conducted in public venues in Sharjah. Probability sampling method was used for selection of subjects (parents who have daughters). A self-administered 32- question questionnaire was distributed. SPSS 21 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) was used for entry and analysis of data. Frequency was calculated, Chi square test was used to conduct bivariate analysis and bar
Introduction: Change in lifestyle patterns associated with genetic factors is causing increasing prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity in India. Obesity during childhood and adolescence puts these children at a high risk for adult cardio-metabolic disorders and other chronic diseases. It is important that this avalanche is prevented in time by comprehensive school health education programmes and other timely interventions. An observational cross-sectional study, as a part of the School Health Education and Enlightened Living (SHEEL) project, was conducted to assess the prevalence in childhood overweight and obesity during the academic years 2000-2001 and 2013-2014 at a private school. Materials and Methods: As a part of the SHEEL project, a total of 2421 children consists of 1346 boys and 1075 girls (age ranged, 4 -15 years) were evaluated for their height (stadiometer), weight (electronic weighing scale) and body mass index (BMI) during the academic year 2000-2001 (stage 1 study). We ...
To analyze perceptions of health-related quality of life and associated factors in populations from the Manaus Metropolitan Region. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study from May to August 2015. Adults aged 18 years and older were selected using probabilistic three-phase cluster sampling and stratified by sex and age, based on official estimates. Quality of life data were collected using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions 3-Levels (EQ-5D-3L) along with socioeconomic, demographic, and health perception data. Utility scores were calculated using the Brazilian version of the EQ-5D-3L. Descriptive statistics were derived, and a multivariate Tobit regression model with correction for complex sampling was performed to identify the variables that influence utility levels. A total of 4001 participants were included. The average utility score was 0.886 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.881-0.890) with significant differences according to living area (the capital (0.882 ± 0.144) or inner
This study is designed to characterize and define serum and cerebrospinal fluid valued for inflammatory cytokines and early idiopathic Parkinsons disease (IPD). Researchers are also looking for patterns in early IPD, hoping that they may lead to early diagnosis before symptoms occur.
BACKGROUND: Policymakers argue that emergency department (ED) visits for conditions preventable with high-quality outpatient care contribute to waste in the healthcare system. However, access to ambulatory care is uneven, especially for vulnerable populations like minorities, the poor, and those with limited health literacy. The impact of limited health literacy on ED visits that are preventable with timely, high-quality ambulatory care is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the association of health literacy with preventable ED visits. METHODS: We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of potentially preventable ED visits (outcome) among adults (≥18 years old) in an ED serving an urban community. We assessed health literacy (predictor) through structured interviews with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). We recorded age, sex, race, employment, payer, marital and health status, and number of comorbidities through structured interviews or ...
Objective: Left ventricular (LV) rotation and twist play an important role in LV contraction and relaxation. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) deteriorates both diastolic and systolic functions. We evaluated the LV twist in patients with LBBB and preserved ejection fraction (EF) (>50%) to determine twist as a potential marker for subtle myocardial dysfunction. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study included 34 LBBB patients with preserved EF who were free from ischemic and valvular disease (Group 1) and 36 healthy controls (Group 2). All patients underwent 2-D Doppler and 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography. LV apical, basal rotation, and twist were evaluated in both groups and compared accordingly. In addition, subjects were dichotomized considering the median twist value of the study population. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent variables associated with inframedian twist. Results: Baseline clinical characteristics were similar in LBBB ...
Lower extremity defects in healthy children raises interest of researchers as confirmed by numerous published original and review articles. The relationship between lower extremity postural defects and body mass are unclear as published data are inconclusive. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to analyse the prevalence of lower extremity defects in a large group of 8- to 12-year-old children; and further to assess the probability of defects associated with values of body mass variables. The study included prospective anthropometric measurements data of 6992 children (3476 boys and 3516 girls) from Gdansk (Northern Poland). Standard screening test used in Poland for assessment of lower limb defects were used (intermalleolar or intercondylar distance for knee alignment, linear vertical compass for valgus heel, computer podoscope or classical footprint and measuring the Sztriter-Godunow index for flatfeet). Body mass was assessed with local centile charts and IOTF cutoffs. Prevalence of
Human aging is characterized by expanded and altered adaptive immune responses to human CMV (HCMV). It is unclear whether this expansion has its origins in age-related homeostatic disturbances or viral reactivation, whether anti-CMV immune surveillance may still be effective, and what are the consequences of this expanded immune response for health and longevity. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study in groups of HCMV-seropositive subjects aged ≥65 y of variable health status to compare the intensity of Ab responses against HCMV with those against EBV and with CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proinflammatory effector responses directed to HCMV-derived pp65 and immediate-early protein 1 synthetic peptides. Ab responses to HCMV, but not to EBV, and anti-HCMV CD4+, but not CD8+, T cell responses were more intense in elderly subjects aged ≥85 y in poor health and were inversely correlated with markers of functional activity and cognitive function. Therefore, humoral and CD4+ T cell anti-HCMV ...
The complex multiracial/multilingual situation of Malaysia poses challenges for local professionals, such as speech and language therapists, who work with children. The present cross-sectional study investigated ethnic Chinese childrens simultaneous phonological acquisition of English, Mandarin and Malay, which are the three major local languages for the Malaysian Chinese population. The aims were to provide preliminary normative data on phonological acquisition for this population, as well as to investigate processes underlying multilingual phonological acquisition. Sixty-four pre-school children aged between 2;06-4;05 were recruited. A single-word naming test, a word consistency production subtest and an intonation imitation sub-test were devised for each of the three languages. Particular attention was paid to the characteristics of the local adult speech varieties as the benchmark for assessing and analyzing the childrens responses on the tests. This sociolinguistic dimension has often ...
Free Online Library: Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography.(Research Article, Report) by BioMed Research International; Biotechnology industry High technology industry Cardiology Optical tomography Methods Tissue engineering Technology application
Early detection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in pregnant females starts by a request of the gynecologists, which is based on their knowledge and awareness of the guidelines on conducting these tests. This is an observational cross-sectional study that i
Purpose: To determine the distribution of corneal topographic patterns measured by Pentacam in a rural population based on age and gender. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, two different rural regions in Iran were randomly selected, by random cluster sampling. Detailed optometric examination including - refraction (objective and subjective), visual acuity assessment and slit lamp evaluation and Pentacam topography were conducted for all participants. Results: Corneal topographic maps of 794 rural cases were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 32.1+18.53 years. A total of 398 patients (51.1) were male and 396 patients (49.9) were female. The most prevalent topographic pattern was Symmetric Bowtie (21.6) and after that Superior Steepening (17.9) and the more rare patterns were Asymmetric Bowtie with Skewed Radial Axis (AB-SRAX) (3) and Round (5.6). The most prevalent topographic patterns in age range from 5-20yr were Oval and Symmetric bowtie (25.9), in 21-40yr was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Indices of adiposity as predictors of cardiometabolic risk and inflammation in young adults. AU - Pourshahidi, L. K.. AU - Wallace, J. M. W.. AU - Mulhern, M. S.. AU - Horigan, G.. AU - Strain, J. J.. AU - McSorley, E. M.. AU - Magee, P. J.. AU - Bonham, M. P.. AU - Livingstone, M. Barbara E.. PY - 2016/2/1. Y1 - 2016/2/1. N2 - BackgroundStudies investigating obesity and cardiometabolic risk have focused on at-risk populations and methodological inconsistencies have produced equivocal findings. The present cross-sectional study investigated indices of body composition as predictors of cardiometabolic risk and their relationship with inflammation in apparently healthy young adults.MethodsA fasting blood sample was taken from consenting adults (160 males, 32 females, aged 18-40 years) for assessment of cardiometabolic risk markers (blood pressure, lipid profiles and insulin resistance) and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, ...
|strong|Objective:|/strong| To quantify the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and its related factors (socio-demographic, health behavior, health status) in a national adult population in Indonesia. |strong|Material and Methods|/strong|: In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in 2014-15 in Indonesia, 29509 adults (median age 41.0 years, Inter Quartile Range=22.0, age range of 18-103 years) completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to determine the association between socio-demographic, health behavior and health status factors and underweight and overweight or obesity. |strong|Results|/strong|: Of total sample (n = 29509), 11.2% measured underweight (13.5% among men and 9.1% among women) (<18.5 kg/m|sup|2|/sup|), 39.8% normal weight (48.1% among men and 32.0% among women) and 49.0% had overweight or obesity (≥23 kg/m|sup|2|/sup|) (38.3% among men and 58.9% among women); 24.6% of the
This study aimed to investigate the measures of retention in care (RIC) in persons living with HIV (PLWH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by age group (younger vs. older adults). This was a longitudinal retrospective cross-sectional study that used secondary data from the Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS). We examined RIC in 798 adult PLWH + T2DM who visited a CNICS clinic at least once in 2015. Six measures of RIC were examined: missed visits [measured as a continuous variable (total number of missed visits) and dichotomous variable (0 = never missed, 1 = missed)], visit adherence, 6-month visit gap, 4-month visit constancy, and the Health and Resources Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureaus RIC measure. We calculated Spearman correlation coefficients and conducted logistic regression and multi-group path analysis. Most RIC measures were significantly correlated (p | 0.05) with one another; only 4-month visit constancy was not correlated with other measures.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate measures of dementia care environments by comparing a special care facility (SCF) with traditional institutional facilities (TIFs). DESIGN: A cross-sectional comparative study of nursing home environments conducted as part of a longitudinal study on quality of life for residents with dementia. SETTING: Twenty-four traditional nursing homes and one special care facility. PARTICIPANTS: One SCF with six distinct environments, 24 TIFs with 45 distinct environments, and 88 family members. MEASUREMENTS: Therapeutic Environment Screening Scale-2+ (TESS-2+); Special Care Unit Environmental Quality Scale (SCUEQS), a subset of the TESS-2+ items; Composite Above Average Quality Score (CAAQS), a composite score of all items on the TESS-2+; and Models of Care Instrument (MOCI). RESULTS: The SCUEQS did not detect a significant difference between the SCF and the TIFs (30.0 vs 27.2, P=.28). The CAAQS detected a significant difference between the SCF and the TIFs, whereby the SCF environments
Most patients in our study do not describe dissatisfaction with the diagnostic pathway of PD. However, more than one in seven patients is explicitly dissatisfied. The chance of dissatisfaction is increased with a lower level of education, the involvement of more than one additional healthcare provider, a second opinion on the patients initiative and delay caused by the healthcare provider. In addition, if only the GP and neurologist have been involved in the diagnostic pathway, women are more likely to be dissatisfied than men.. Although dissatisfaction with the diagnostic pathway of PD appears to be playing a limited role in quantitative terms, dissatisfaction with the initial diagnostic process can have an impact on long-term care, stressing the importance of paying attention to it: cognitions formed at an early stage tend to determine care experiences during the further treatment episode [2, 5, 20].. Our study shows that it is not the duration of the diagnostic pathway of PD on its own that ...
In the present study an attempt has been made to report on the nutritional status of the Assamese Muslim women of Dadara and Agyathuri villages of the Kamrup district in Assam, India on their basis of body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin (hb) content. Cross sectional data on 1034 women belonging to the age group of 19 years and above were collected following internationally accepted standards. The fertility of mothers by BMI range was found to be highest (6.50 (mean) ± 0.14 (SE) and range being 1-11) amongst underweight mothers. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test of BMI and fertility shows significant relation between different BMI groups with p < 0.01. highest haemoglobin levels were recorded in the age group of 23 years with a mean of 11.61 ± 0.06 g/dl, the range being 9.8-13.9 g/dl. whereas lowest levels of haemoglobin were found in the age groups of 44+ years having a mean value of 10.26 ± 0.04 g/dl and a range of 9.2-11.8 g/dl. the anova analysis for haemoglobin content and ...
A highly accelerating number of people around the world have been infected with novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mass screening programs were suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an effective precautionary measure to contain the spread of the virus. On 16 April 2020, a COVID-19 mass screening program was initiated in Saudi Arabia in multiple phases. This study aims to analyze the number of detected COVID-19 cases, their demographic data, and regions most affected in the initial two phases of these mass screening programs. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among the high-risk population as part of the COVID-19 mass screening program across all regions in Saudi Arabia during April and May 2020. A Chi-square-test was used to determine the associations between positive cases and various demographic variables. Out of 71,854 screened individuals, 13.50% (n = 9701) were COVID-19 positive, of which 83.27% (n = 59,835) were males. Among positive cases, in the 30-39
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinicoepidemiological Profile of Elderly PLHIV Attending a Tertiary Care Center in South India. AU - Madi, Deepak. AU - Ramakrishnan, Neha. AU - Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran. AU - Ramapuram, John. AU - Achappa, Basavaprabhu. AU - Rathi, Priya. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - Background: Physicians are coming across a considerable number of HIV-positive patients belonging to older age-group, in practice. They pose a challenge as they might present with advanced forms and comorbid conditions. We aimed to describe the clinicoepidemiological profile of elderly people living with HIV. Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. We analyzed the record of 120 patients from 2009 to 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients. Results: Of 786 HIV-positive patients, 120 were elderly. Mean age was 55.9 ± 6.1 years. Majority 68% were male. In all, 63.33% were male. Commonest route of ...
From Oracs link to Sullivans LB/RB blog about the first vaccinated-vs-unvaccinated study that Generation Rescue tried to get funding for ($ 800,000) and promoted in 2010:. http://leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk/index.php?s=deth. THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE NATIONAL HOME EDUCATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE (NHERI):. I. Projects Primary Purpose, and the Need it Addresses. The goal of this project is to test the association between vaccinations and both acute and chronic neuro-developmental disorders and the efficacy of preventive health strategies. This will be achieved by conducting a retrospective cross-sectional study comparing the incidence of chronic illnesses (i.e., asthma, obesity, and eczema), neuro-developmental disorders (i.e., autism, ADHD and learning disorders), and overall health and well-being among a random sample of vaccinated and unvaccinated children (5-18 years of age). The study will obtain information from a random sample of two populations: I) children being horne-schooled and belong to ...
Background: Traditionally, a fat child is considered as an attractive child and is often referred to as a healthy child, one who is likely to survive the rigors of undernourishment and infection. The obesity has been defined as a condition of abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissue, to the extent that health may be impaired. Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non-communicable diseases called New World Syndrome creating an enormous socio-economic and public health burden in poorer countries. Objective: Augmenting body mass index (BMI) and waist-height ratio for establishing more efficient obesity percentiles among school-going children by using BMI, waist to hip ratio and waist to height ratio. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out in the municipal corporation area among school going children during the period of 1 st September 2009-31 st August 2010. We prepared the list of children roll number wise from ...
Cross sectional data reporting the height, weight, and body mass index of UK patients with cystic fibrosis are presented. During the first decade of life height and weight in patients with cystic fibrosis are maintained at about 0.5 SD below those of the general population, which reflects an improvement over earlier published observations....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Classification of disease severity in retinitis pigmentosa. AU - Iftikhar, Mustafa. AU - Lemus, Marili. AU - Usmani, Bushra. AU - Campochiaro, Peter A.. AU - Sahel, José Alain. AU - Scholl, Hendrik. AU - Shah, Syed Mahmood. PY - 2019/11/1. Y1 - 2019/11/1. N2 - Aim: To develop a simple and easily applicable classification of disease severity in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Visual acuity (VA), visual field width (VF) and ellipsoid zone width (EZ) were obtained from medical records of patients with RP. A scoring criterion was developed wherein each variable was assigned a score from 0 to 5 depending on its distribution. The cumulative score (from 0 to 15) was used to classify disease severity from grade 0 to 5. The scores were correlated with each other and the final grade. The grades were then correlated with age and disease duration. Results: The median age (range) of patients (n=93) was 55 (12-87) years, 51% were female, 70% ...
Cervical cancer caused mainly by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 strains is the second most prevalent cancer among women in Kenya. It is often diagnosed late when treatment is difficult due to very low percentage of women attending screening thus, mortalities remain high. The most available tests in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) have relatively low specificity, low sensitivity, require a laboratory setting and huge technical and financial support not readily available. HPV 16/18 E6 oncoprotein has been identified as a potential biomarker in a more specific early diagnosis of cervical cancer. This retrospective cross-sectional study developed a paper-based nanokit with enhanced detection of HPV 16/18 E6 oncoprotein for cervical cancer screening. The HRP labelled antibodies HPV 16 E6/18 E6-HRP (CP15) passively conjugated to citrate stabilized 20 nm gold nanoparticles were evaluated for immune sensing mechanism using a recombinant viral HPV E6 protein. The diagnostic accuracy was
Background: Children and youth gain multiple health benefits from regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, in Thailand there is limited national data on children and youths PA behaviors and recent reports suggest that Thai children and youth have low levels of PA. Furthermore, there is almost no data on the factors associated with inactivity to support the development of a Thai National PA Plan. The purpose of this paper is to investigate Thai children and youths participation in PA and its correlates across sociodemographic characteristics and different PA domains. Methods: This study applied a cross-sectional study design with a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. A national representative sample of 13,255 children and youth aged 6-17 years were used for data analysis. A previously validated questionnaire was used to assess PA prevalence. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationships of socio-demographic factors, and participation in different PA ...
In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, reporting rates for tuberculosis (TB) are rising in an emerging HIV epidemic. To describe the HIV epidemic among TB patients and quantify its impact on rates of reported TB, we performed a repeated cross-sectional survey from 1997 through 2002 in a randomly selected sample of inner city TB patients. We assessed effect by adjusting TB case reporting rates by the fraction of TB cases attributable to HIV infection. HIV prevalence in TB patients rose exponentially from 1.5% to 9.0% during the study period. Young (&lt;35 years), single, male patients were mostly affected; injection drug use was a potent risk factor. After correction for HIV infection, the trend in TB reporting rates changed from a 1.9% increase to a 0.4% decrease per year. An emerging HIV epidemic, concentrated in young, male, injection drug users, is responsible for increased TB reporting rates in urban Vietnam.
For decades, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on glucose criteria, either the FPG or the 75-g OGTT. In 1997, the first Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus revised the diagnostic criteria, using the observed association between FPG levels and presence of retinopathy as the key factor with which to identify threshold glucose level. The Committee examined data from three cross-sectional epidemiologic studies that assessed retinopathy with fundus photography or direct ophthalmoscopy and measured glycemia as FPG, 2-h PG, and A1C. These studies demonstrated glycemic levels below which there was little prevalent retinopathy and above which the prevalence of retinopathy increased in an apparently linear fashion. The deciles of the three measures at which retinopathy began to increase were the same for each measure within each population. Moreover, the glycemic values above which retinopathy increased were similar among the populations. These analyses helped ...
Purpose: : Focal cortical disturbances associated with multiple sclerosis, trauma or tumor can interfere with higher visual processing even in the presence of preserved visual acuity (VA). Diabetes affects both retinal vasculature and neurons, but its effects on the CNS are less well described. We hypothesized that DM patients exhibit central visual processing deficits compared with non-DM controls. Methods: : Subjects aged 20-69 with ,0.5 logMAR ETDRS VA and varying stages of diabetic retinopathy (non-proliferative, severe untreated proliferative (PDR), severe PDR + pan-retinal photocoagulation, PRP), and non-DM controls underwent standard and psychophysical testing: monocular color vision (FM100Hue), binocular illusory contours (IC), motion-defined letter recognition (MDR), Titmus fly stereoacuity and Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity. After ensuring shape recognition, 5 IC and 1 control shape were presented at 2 support ratios (0.2 and 0.4, luminance-defined versus total contour length) at ...
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Objective A clinical trial (REQUIRE) was started to investigate the use of an ultrasound renal denervation system in the treatment of resistant hypertension (RHT). We analyzed the prevalence of patients who were eligible for inclusion in this cross-sectional study at the time of screening. Methods Nine-hundred ninety-nine consecutive hypertension (HT) patients who were treated in our hospital as outpatients were classified into the following categories: patients treated with at least 3 types of antihypertensive drugs including diuretic agents who were eligible for enrolment in SYMPLICITY HTN-Japan (SH-J) with an office systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥160 mmHg, who were ≤80 years of age, and an eGFR of ≥45 mL/min/1 ...
Objective-To evaluate the differences among each states Interstate Certificate of Veterinary Inspection (ICVI) form and the legibility of data on paper ICVIs used to support disease tracing in cattle. Design-Descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. Sample-Examples of ICVIs from 50 states and 7,630 randomly sampled completed paper ICVIs for cattle from 48 states. Procedures-Differences among paper ICVI forms from all 50 states were determined. Sixteen data elements were selected for further evaluation of their value in tracing cattle. Completed paper ICVIs for interstate cattle exports in 2009 were collected from 48 states. Each of the 16 data elements was recorded as legible, absent, or illegible on forms completed by accredited veterinarians, and results were summarized by state. Mean values for legibility at the state level were used to estimate legibility of data at the national level. Results-ICVIs were inconsistent among states in regard to data elements requested and availability of
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NVP-BSK805 al., 2011; Lataillade et al., 2010; Simen, et al., 2009) Examples with sufficient HIV viral tons (typically >10,000 copies/mL) had been further examined for low-level resistant variations to 0.4% from the circulating viral quasi-species (Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) that might have been skipped by regular genotyping strategies.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010; Li, et al., 2011; Simen, et al., 2009) Ultra-deep sequencing was still performed on examples with HIV viral tons bellow 10,000 copies/mL, nevertheless, NVP-BSK805 the degrees of mutations determined in these examples represent the percentage of sequenced PCR amplicons formulated with the mutation and could or might not represent the real percentage in the plasma test.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) Test size and data evaluation A formal test size calculation had not been conducted because of this cross-sectional evaluation. We expected a prevalence of HIV medication level ...
NVP-BSK805 al., 2011; Lataillade et al., 2010; Simen, et al., 2009) Examples with sufficient HIV viral tons (typically >10,000 copies/mL) had been further examined for low-level resistant variations to 0.4% from the circulating viral quasi-species (Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) that might have been skipped by regular genotyping strategies.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010; Li, et al., 2011; Simen, et al., 2009) Ultra-deep sequencing was still performed on examples with HIV viral tons bellow 10,000 copies/mL, nevertheless, NVP-BSK805 the degrees of mutations determined in these examples represent the percentage of sequenced PCR amplicons formulated with the mutation and could or might not represent the real percentage in the plasma test.(Kozal MJ, et al., 2011; Lataillade, et al., 2010) Test size and data evaluation A formal test size calculation had not been conducted because of this cross-sectional evaluation. We expected a prevalence of HIV medication level ...