The Atlas of Guatemalan Crop Wild Relatives (Atlas Guatemalteco de Parientes Silvestres de las Plantas Cultivadas) is a unique new resource designed to facilitate the conservation and use of wild plant species that are related to cultivated crops. Guatemala is located in the heart of Mesoamerica, one of the worlds most important centers of plant domestication and agricultural origins, and, consequently, an area with an abundance of crop wild relatives. Crop wild relatives are increasingly important to world agriculture because they contain beneficial traits needed for breeding improved crop varieties that are hardier, more productive, more nutritious, more disease and drought resistant, and better adapted to the stresses of climate change.. The Atlas provides detailed information on 105 species or subspecies of wild Guatemalan plants that are related to crops, including their description, distribution, diversity and conservation status. The species are organized into genepools corresponding to ...
Field Crop News is an archive of information dedicated to the production of over 8.5 million acres of field crops in Ontario and a forum for which producers, researchers and industry personnel can share information and ideas. The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. The key learning and outcomes from these collaborations are captured at Field Crop News. ...
Field Crop News is an archive of information dedicated to the production of over 8.5 million acres of field crops in Ontario and a forum for which producers, researchers and industry personnel can share information and ideas. The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. The key learning and outcomes from these collaborations are captured at Field Crop News. ...
In addition to genetic variation, epigenetic variation plays an important role in determining various biological processes. The importance of natural genetic variation to crop domestication and improvement has been widely investigated. However, the contribution of epigenetic variation in crop domestication at population level has rarely been explored. To understand the impact of epigenetics on crop domestication, we investigate the variation of DNA methylation during soybean domestication and improvement by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of 45 soybean accessions, including wild soybeans, landraces, and cultivars. Through methylomic analysis, we identify 5412 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). These DMRs exhibit characters distinct from those of genetically selected regions. In particular, they have significantly higher genetic diversity. Association analyses suggest only 22.54% of DMRs can be explained by local genetic variations. Intriguingly, genes in the DMRs that are not associated with
SciDevNet reports that Thai officials have suspended a regulation requiring plant breeders to obtain government permission before using wild plant varieties and certain domesticated varieties in the production of commercial plant varieties, and to share with the government the benefits of using those resources. Plant breeders force rethink of Thai seed law. According to the article, the regulation-inspired by the Convention on Biological Diversity-entered into legal effect in January 2011, and the national department of agriculture was scheduled to begin enforcing it two months ago. However, plant breeders objected to its breadth and demanded that the term general domestic variety in the regulation be redefined to include only varieties of Thai origin. The president of the Thai Seed Trade Association reportedly told SciDevNet that the regulation is like a time bomb for the countrys private plant breeders, destroying their rights over new varieties, because plants kept by private breeders ...
We collected soil samples from 27 study sites across North Central United States to compare the soil carbon of short rotation poplar plantations to adjacent agricultural crops and woodlots. Soil organic carbon (SOC) ranged from 20 to more than 160 Mg/ha across the sampled sites. Lowest SOC levels were found in uplands and highest levels in riparian soils. We attributed differences in bulk density and SOC among cover types to the inclusion of woodlot soils in the analysis. Paired comparison found few differences between poplar and agricultural crops. Sites with significant comparisons varied in magnitude and direction. Relatively greater SOC was often observed in poplar when native soil carbon was low, but there were important exceptions. Woodlots consistently contained greater SOC than the other crops, especially at depth. We observed little difference between paired poplar and switchgrass, both promising bioenergy crops. There was no evidence of changes in poplar SOC relative to adjacent ...
May 7, 2020. Industrial hemp and alfalfa have been added to the annual crop health survey funded by the farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program (NNYADP). Cornell Cooperative Extension (CCE) regional fields crops specialists scouted fields on 30 regional farms in 2019 for early detection of disease in corn, soybean, alfalfa, and hemp crops.. The results of NNYADP-funded crop surveys from 2013 through 2019 are posted on this Northern New York Agricultural Development Program website at https://www.nnyagdev.org/index.php/field-crops/research.. This regional survey is a proactive and systematic way to alert growers to respond quickly to limit emerging and re-emerging plant diseases, to document trends, and to develop strategies to reduce the threat to crop health, sustainability, and the profit margin that is so narrow for growers, says project leader and CCE Regional Field Crops Specialist Michael E. Hunter.. This NNYADP-funded field crops survey, restarted in 2013, has ...
Small RNAs regulate a large set of gene expression in all plants and constitute a natural immunity against viruses. Small RNA based genetic engineering (SRGE) technology had been explored for crop protection against viruses for nearly thirty years. Viral resistance has been developed in diverse crops with SRGE technology and a few viral resistant crops have been approved for commercial release. In this review we summarized the efforts generating viral resistance with SRGE in different crops, analyzed the evolution of the technology, its efficacy in different crops for different viruses and its application status in different crops. The challenge and potential solution for application of SRGE in crop protection are also discussed.
Place: Wiiks Castle, Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the seminar was to increase the interest, knowledge and collaboration in the area of Biodiversity Based Integrated Pest Management in Field Crops. The aim of the seminar was also to stimulate development of methods in agriculture with minimum use of chemicals or no use of chemicals and to increase collaboration between researchers/advisors and PhD students projects. The aim of the seminar was also to give PhD students possibility to present their projects to a broader target group outside university and to inform PhD students about research areas and future work in research or in advisory and to discuss PhD students projects with researchers/advisors etc outside university. To make this possible the seminar was organised together with the PhD course in the area of Biodiversity Based Integrated Pest Management in Field Crops. The seminar was held on 3rd September at Wiks Castle about 30 km south-west Uppsala in the province of Uppland. During the ...
Through advancements in agriculture and the development of new crop varieties, humans have historically strived to meet the needs of a growing population and to develop a safe, reliable and sustainable food supply. How will we continue to meet this challenge, while dealing with a changing climate and threats of new pests and diseases? The American Seed Trade Association (ASTA) affirms that continued innovation is paramount to the future of agriculture and to our shared quality of life. Plant breeders including those who develop new wheat varieties will need access to available tools to responsibly meet these challenges.. The fundamental practices of plant breeders have not changed over time, ASTA notes. Plant breeders still select the best plants for their desired goal, which may be higher yields, disease resistance, improved end use characteristics or better nutrition. However, the tools and information that plant breeders use have evolved, allowing them to take advantage of the growing ...
Crop wild relatives, such as the Critically Endangered Beta patula, a primary wild relative of cultivated beets, are of vital importance for food security and agriculture as they can be used to produce new crop varieties. It is estimated that crop wild relatives contribute more than USD 100 billion worldwide towards increased crop yields. Production of at least one third of the worlds food, including 87 of the 113 leading food crops, depends on pollination carried out by insects, bats and birds. This ecosystem service is worth over USD 200 billion per year. According to the IUCN Red List 16% of Europes endemic butterflies are threatened. Bats, which are also important pollinators, are also at risk with 18% threatened globally. The latest IUCN Red List update shows that four members of the hummingbird family, which is known for its pollination services, are now at greater risk of extinction with the Pink-throated Brilliant (Heliodoxa gularis) listed as Vulnerable. In addition to their important ...
This Alternative Field Crops Manual addresses the need for detailed information on the production of a number of agronomic crops adapted to the upper Midwest. Our intent is to provide county extension agents and others in educational roles a concise, uniform source of information on those field crops which may be considered as alternatives to traditional farm commodities.. The manual is a joint project between the University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Service, the University of Minnesota Extension Service and the Center for Alternative Plant and Animal Products. Extension specialists from both states have written or reviewed each chapter to insure accuracy and applicability of information and recommendations.. Inclusion of a crop in this notebook is for educational purposes only; no endorsement of any particular crop is implied. Individual growers should consider the following factors in determining whether a crop might be a viable alternative in their particular situation:. ...
Get this from a library! Improving crop productivity in sustainable agriculture. [Narendra Tuteja; Sarvajeet Singh Gill; Renu Tuteja;] -- An up-to-date overview of current progress in improving crop quality and quantity using modern methods. With a particular emphasis on genetic engineering, this text focusses on crop improvement under ...
Im from a part of Virginia where you learn different crops not because youre a farmer, but because there isnt much else to look at during the bus ride
AquaClean - ACF-32 - Microbial Inoculation for Agricultural Crops by Nova Q LTD. AquaClean ACF-32 is a broad consortium of natural bacteria in a stable liquid form which helps to restore natural balance and improve the overall condition of the soil. ...
Last, F. T.; Fowler, D.; Freer-Smith, P. H.. 1985 Effects of air pollutants on agricultural crops. Cambridge, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, 28pp. Before downloading, please read NORA policies ...
In the spirit of the general debate over genetically modified (GM) food which is not slowing down, we wanted to answer some questions, such as: Is Gene Revolution an answer to world hunger? Do GM crops with more complex transformation contribute to the enrichment of multinationals? Why U.S. increases food aids? To this end, we firstly describe the diffusion of GM crops around the world during the previous 20 years. Starting from 1996, we present global progress with adoption of biotech crops, its distribution in developed and developing countries, global area by trait, adoption rate and global value of biotech crops. The findings reveal 10 countries, four crops, and two traits domination. The findings of this study clarify the failure of transgenic technology to eradicate hunger. In addition, the results have shown statistically significant correlation between stacked trait and global market value of biotech crops as well as between raising production of biotech crops in U.S. and an increase in U.S.
EAG Laboratories makes biotech crops safer and more effective with revolutionary protein chemistry and profiling analysis and custom, GLP-compliant studies.
Plant agriculture is poised at a technological turning point. Recent advances in genome engineering make it possible to precisely alter DNA sequences in living cells, providing unprecedented control over a plants genetic material. The new technologies are already being widely adopted in academic and industrial research and it is expected that crops developed using these new technologies will be produced world-wide over the coming years.. These emerging crop breeding technologies offer a range of opportunities but also face regulatory challenges and may require new risk assessment approaches.. The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) is working with experts from a variety of backgrounds to develop a position statement on developments in new genetic technologies, their application in crop breeding and implications for risk assessment and regulation. The position statement is expected later this summer.. This briefing enabled journalists to find out about molecular ...
Lees Translational Genomics for Crop Breeding Volume 2 - Improvement for Abiotic Stress, Quality and Yield Improvement door met Rakuten Kobo. Genomic Applications for Crop Breeding: Abiotic Stress, Quality and Yield Improvement is the second of two volumes looki...
The main objectives of this study are to examine: (1) the growth and pattern in Indias food grain production and (2) the decomposition of the total yield increases into pure yield effect and cropping pattern. The present study is based on secondary data for the last 44 years, i.e, from 1955-56 to 1998-99. The study shows that there is, in fact, some deceleration from Pre-green Revolution Period to the Green Revolution Period, coming substantially from a decline in the growth rate of area in the Post-green Revolution Period/Pre-economic Reform Period and Post-economic Reform Period. The major contribution of output is through yield increase. The first order interaction of yield and cropping pattern was a major factor for the growth of food grain output. Therefore, the future effort should be made to stabilize and expand the area of food grains along with increasing yield level. For this, modern technology of agriculture should be promoted, which consists of pest and disease resistant varieties.
The Green Revolution boosted crop yields in developing nations by introducing dwarf genotypes of wheat and rice capable of responding to fertilization without lodging. We now need a Second Green Revolution, to improve the yield of crops grown in infertile soils by farmers with little access to fertilizer, who represent the majority of third-world farmers. Just as the Green Revolution was based on crops responsive to high soil fertility, the Second Green Revolution will be based on crops tolerant of low soil fertility. Substantial genetic variation in the productivity of crops in infertile soil has been known for over a century. In recent years we have developed a better understanding of the traits responsible for this variation. Root architecture is critically important by determining soil exploration and therefore nutrient acquisition. Architectural traits under genetic control include basal root gravitropism, adventitious root formation, and lateral branching. Architectural traits that enhance ...
A common plant breeding procedure involves moving valuable traits, such as disease resistance, from wild relatives to crop varieties. To achieve this, breeders cross a wild variety to a crop variety. The result is called a hybrid, and it mixes genes from both parents. Most of the genes from the wild variety, however, are unsuited for agriculture and must be cast away. This is done by repeated crossing to the crop variety, coupled to selection for the trait of interest, a process called backcrossing that often requires as many as 10 years. This constitutes a dramatic bottleneck to developing new varieties. Therefore, shortening the development time is particularly critical in the face of unexpected crop challenges when human sustenance depends on the rapid development of new, improved varieties. This project addresses this need. It aims at developing a method for rapid deployment of useful traits into crops, using potato as the experimental system. The collaboration between University of ...
A common plant breeding procedure involves moving valuable traits, such as disease resistance, from wild relatives to crop varieties. To achieve this, breeders cross a wild variety to a crop variety. The result is called a hybrid, and it mixes genes from both parents. Most of the genes from the wild variety, however, are unsuited for agriculture and must be cast away. This is done by repeated crossing to the crop variety, coupled to selection for the trait of interest, a process called backcrossing that often requires as many as 10 years. This constitutes a dramatic bottleneck to developing new varieties. Therefore, shortening the development time is particularly critical in the face of unexpected crop challenges when human sustenance depends on the rapid development of new, improved varieties. This project addresses this need. It aims at developing a method for rapid deployment of useful traits into crops, using potato as the experimental system. The collaboration between University of ...
Principal Scientist, Reproduction Biology, Syngenta. Genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 works efficiently in plant cells, but delivery of genome editing machinery into the vast majority of crop varieties is not possible using established methods. We co-opted the aberrant reproductive process of haploid induction (HI) to induce edits in nascent seeds of diverse monocot and dicot species. Our method, named HI-Edit, enables direct genomic modification of commercial crop varieties. HI-edit was tested in field and sweet corn using a native haploid inducer line, and extended to dicots using an engineered CENH3 HI system. We also recovered edited wheat embryos using Cas9 delivered by maize pollen. Our data indicate that a transient hybrid state precedes uniparental chromosome elimination in maize HI. Edited haploid plants lack both the haploid inducer parental DNA and the editing machinery. Therefore, edited plants could be used in trait testing and directly integrated into commercial variety ...
Maintenant disponible sur AbeBooks.fr - ISBN: 9781402069062 - Hardback - Springer-Verlag New York Inc., United States - 2008 - Etat du livre : New - 2008 ed.. - Language: English . Brand New Book. This book fully integrates the conventional and biotechnological approaches to fruit crop breeding. Individual chapters are written on a wide variety of species covering all the major fruit crops in one volume. For each crop, there is a discussion of their taxonomy and evolution, history of improvement, crossing techniques, evaluation methods, and heritability of major traits and germplasm resources. Also discussed are the most recent advances in genetic mapping and QTL (quantitative trait loci) analysis, marker assisted breeding, gene cloning, gene expression analysis, regeneration and transformation. Patenting and licensing issues are also covered.
I develop an ecophysiological genomic prediction model for grain-filling of rice. First, a crop model of panicle structure and grain weight is bulit based on the field test with various cropping seasons and cutting off flag leaves. Second, a genomic prediction model is built to predict the parameters of the crop model based on the genome-wide marker genotype. The combination of crop modeling and modeling based on quantitative genetics enables us to predict the phenotype of selection candidates under various environmantal conditions. On the basis of the genomic prediction model, crossbreeding simulation reveals the suitable parents to obtain offsprings that performe well under a certain environment. The present study aims to realize the effective and efficient strategy of plant breeding.. ...
Brazil reached record heights with its 2007-2008 grain production, acccording to data from the National Supply Company (Conab).
Trials on the following field crops: winter cereals (wheat, barley, triticale, oats…), summer cereals (corn/maize, sorghum, rice…), protein crops (peas, beans…), oilseeds (soybeans, rapeseed…), fodder crops (alfalfa, ray-grass…), energy crops, etc ...
INTRODUCTION The overall concept of plant breeding is defined as the science, art and business of improving plants for human benefit (Bernardo 2002). This approach expressly declares that the breeder should have scientific knowledge, individual skills (art) to select plants and/or progenies, the aptness of a good manager and, above all, a holistic view of agriculture and its interactions with human society. In terms of scientific knowledge, the concept of genes/alleles is of course, primarily essential for plant breeders. However, as will be shown, this concept has been changing over time, due to the accumulation of information about how gene regulation and action occur (Wain et al. 2002, Pearson 2006, Gerstein et al. 2007, Scherrer and Jost 2007a,b, Joaquim and El Hani 2010). These changes became more far-reaching after the publication of studies of the genome of some species (AG Initiative 2000, Qing-Po and Qing-Zhong 2006, Orjuela et al. 2010). It is an open question how the gene concept ...
Today, achieving sustainability in food grain production and food security in its totality continue to be a huge challenge for the world, especially for the developing countries. Soil erosion, water shortages, climate change and shrinking farmland pose serious threats to essential resources, while human needs continue to grow. By 2050, the world will have to feed more than nine billion people. To meet future food and agricultural raw materials demands, current levels of global agricultural production must double by that time. To achieve this, the world desperately needs to continuously increase per acre yields of all major crops. In other words, the world direly needs sustainable agriculture, which means producing sufficient, affordable, quality food, while protecting the environment and biodiversity and ensuring farming is economically viable and contributes to the well being of local communities, while maintaining the ability to do all of this in the long term. Even the United Nations Food and ...
Pheromones Market in Agriculture by Crop Type (Field Crops, Fruits & Nuts, Vegetables), Application (Mating Disruption, Mass Trapping, Detection & Monitoring), Mode of Application (Traps, - Market research report and industry analysis - 11211245
Conjure up an image of the typical plant breeder and youll probably see in your minds eye a lab-coated scientist in a brightly lit sterile room, busily blowing pollen grains in one direction or another.
Get the latest plant breeder service news on agriculture-xprt.com, the worlds largest agricultural industry marketplace and information resource.
Experiment station work, XXVII : hen manure, soft corn, nitrate of soda for field crops, hay substitutes, varieties, culture, and quality of wheat, oak leaves as forage, breeding corn, the covered milk pail, quality of irrigated crops, canning cheese, shading strawberries and vegetables, millet seed for hogs, injuries to shade trees, fertilizers for ...
Brids, Field Crops Res. 95: 316326. 24. Gambin BL, 86168-78-7 Borras L, Otegui ME Kernel water relations and duration of grain filling in maize temperate
In agriculture, shattering is the dispersal of a crops seeds upon their becoming ripe. From an agricultural perspective this is generally an undesirable process, and in the history of crop domestication several important advances have involved a mutation in a crop plant that reduced shattering - instead of the seeds being dispersed as soon as they were ripe, the mutant plants retained the seeds for longer, which made harvesting much more effective.. A particularly important mutation that was selected very early in the history of agriculture removed the brittle rachis problem from wheat.[1] A ripe head (ear) of wild-type wheat is easily shattered into dispersal units when touched, or blown by the wind, because during ripening a series of abscission layers forms that divides the rachis into short segments, each attached to a single spikelet (which contains 2-3 grains along with chaff).. A different class of shattering mechanisms involves dehiscence of the mature fruit, which releases the ...
Sensor technology, which benefits from high temporal measuring resolution, real-time data transfer and high spatial resolution of sensor data that shows in-field variations, has the potential to provide added value for crop production. The present paper explores how sensors and sensor networks have been utilised in the crop production process and what their added-value and the main bottlenecks are from the perspective of users. The focus is on sensor based applications and on requirements that users pose for them. Literature and two use cases were reviewed and applications were classified according to the crop production process: sensing of growth conditions, fertilising, irrigation, plant protection, harvesting and fleet control. The potential of sensor technology was widely acknowledged along the crop production chain. Users of the sensors require easy-to-use and reliable applications that are actionable in crop production at reasonable costs. The challenges are to develop sensor technology, data
A sustainable agriculture project, led by Michigan State University Crop and Soil Sciences professor and AgBioResearch scientist David Douches, recently earned a 2011 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Secretarys Honor Award. The award was received in the category Helping America promote sustainable agricultural production and biotechnology exports as America works to increase food security.. The honored project (actually three projects in one), the Barley, Wheat, Potato and Tomato Coordinated Agricultural Projects (CAP) is comprised of a group of researchers and educators from land-grant universities, government agencies and industry groups working together to identify genetic variations in those crops. Discoveries that can help the plants resist disease, increase crop yield and make more efficient use of nutrients are already helping plant breeders develop more sustainable crop varieties.. The award is a reflection of the great team of post docs, technical staff and students that work ...
Mixed cropping: It is also called as multiple cropping. This is the practice where two different crops or more are grown simultaneously in the same field. The crops are chosen in such a way that the products and waste material from one crop helps in the growth of the other. This type of cropping leads to improving the fertility of the soil thereby increasing the crop yield. Generally, one crop is of long duration while the other is of short duration. One crop requires more nutrients and water while the other requires lesser nutrients or water. As a result, there is a reduction in the competition between the crops for light, nutrients and water. If one crop fails to grow (due to untimely rain or no rains or shortage of nutrients), then the other crop can cover the risk of this complete failure ...
For the ever-increasing population of the world, an increasing demand for more and more food is required. To cope with this alarming situation, there is a dire need for sustainable agricultural...
Join us for the first in the fall series of 4 OClock Forum, a seminar series on the Macdonald campus that allows researchers and graduate students the opportunities to be exposed to scientific advancements related to their own fields of research as well as other scientific areas. The first speaker is Prof. Ehab Abouheif, Department of Biology, McGill University. Seminars are held every third Thursday from September to November. A winter series will start again in January. Everyone is welcome to attend.
MERCHAN, HD; LUTZ, EE y MORANT, AE. Production of a double-purpose wheat. Phyton (B. Aires) [online]. 2006, vol.75, pp.41-46. ISSN 1851-5657.. In the mixed systems (beef and grain) of the semiarid Pampa, double purpose wheat use might diminish competition by the soil resource, external inputs into the system and money, which are often associated between winter cereals for grazing and/or grain harvest. In the experimental station of the Asociación de Cooperativas Argentinas in Cabildo (wheat semiarid subregion V S), a trial to evaluate shoot and grain production was conducted. The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Buck Charrúa, commercially recommended for double purpose use was utilized. Grain production of autumn-sown plots, which were defoliated 0, 1, 2 or 4 times, was compared to that of plots sown in winter only for grain production. Grain yield of the autumn-sown wheat without defoliation (control) was 45% less than that of the crop sown in winter for grain (3208 Kg/ha vs 1755 Kg/ha). ...
The demand for the utilization of agricultural resources for non-food purposes, such as feedstock, has been on the rise globally in recent times. This article seeks to examine the underlying reasons behind the boom in agricultural crops for biofuel feedstock. Cognizant of this peak in demand, the article aims to show how the right to adequate food is being restrained by large-scale land acquisition as well as conversion for agricultural crop production namely for the purpose of agro-fuels. In the first part, the rationale that has galvanized the demand for biofuels will be explored. In the second part, the restrictions posed on the right to food will be presented. Some concluding remarks complete the article ...
Please join a special seminar to be given by Christoph Müller of the Postdam Institute for Climate Impacts Research, entitled Global Gridded Crop Modeling Approaches for Global Trade, Food Security, and Nutrition in a Changing World. The seminar is hosted by AgMIP – the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project, in conjunction with the Center for Climate Systems Research and the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Global crop modeling is particularly uncertain as models have to operate in data-scarce environments. There are large parts of the world where little is known about actual production systems. Similarly, lack of data for model calibration hampers rigorous model evaluation. Still, global crop model applications are invaluable for understanding future challenges to agriculture, as agricultural production systems are interconnected globally through agricultural trade and climate. I will discuss the motivation, challenges and actual progress in global ...
Indias population is bound to cross 1.6 billion by 2050, which will demand doubling of our food grain production to ensure food security to all our people. There is inevitable need of increasing the food grain production and enhancing the agricultural productivity without degrading the environment. This necessitates focus on development of rain-fed areas, degraded lands, analysis of cropping system, proper monitoring and management of agricultural practices, assessing the impact of droughts and floods and so on.
The advantages of free threshing in wheat led to the selection of the domesticated Q allele which is now present in almost all modern wheat varieties. Q and the pre-domestication allele, q, encode an AP2 transcription factor with the domesticated allele conferring a free threshing character and a subcompact (i.e. partially compact) inflorescence (spike). We demonstrate that mutations in the miR172-binding site of the Q gene are sufficient to increase transcript levels via a reduction in miRNA dependent degradation, consistent with the conclusion that a SNP in the miRNA-binding site of Q relative to q was essential in defining the modern Q allele. We also describe novel gain- and loss-of-function alleles of Q and use these to define new roles for this gene in spike development. Q is required for the suppression of sham ramification and increased Q expression can lead to the formation of ectopic florets and spikelets (specialized inflorescence branches that bear florets and grains) resulting in ...
What are IITA and the other centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) doing to mitigate the impacts and adapt to the effects of CC on pests? Historically, CGIAR centers have a broad R4D focus; centers have been developing knowledge (e.g., pest profiles), products (e.g., new crop varieties, biocontrol agents against invasive pests), and technologies (e.g., predictive models, diagnostic tools) that are suitable for diverse agroecologies including the tropics, wet, humid, semiarid, and dry, and to some extent the temperate zones as well. The broad knowledge and experience of centers provide an unprecedented advantage to assess the products and technologies in different agroecologies and weather settings and to determine their resilience and ability to cope in altered climatic situations.. Several programs directly focus on managing pests. For instance, the breeding of crop varieties for resistance to pests and pathogens has always been a focus of the CGIAR. ...
The situation for India could be especially precarious, the report notes. In the Indo-Gangetic plains which produce 90 million tonnes of wheat a year (about 14-15 per cent of global production), projections indicate a substantial fall in yields unless there is a shift to different crop varieties and management practices, it says ...
The confirmation of significant genotypic differences in previous experiments led to the QTL mapping of the traits using an F8 RIL mapping population. From multiple QTL mapping (MQM) analysis, six QTLs and a putative QTL were obtained, mostly clustered in a hotspot in linkage group (LG) 1. The traits were mainly of the primary and global root traits. The primary root length (PRL) in this hotspot was driven by wild lettuce, which may imply association of domestication QTL in lettuce rooting depth as opposed to interval mapping (IM) or multiple QTL mapping (MQM) analysis. Using a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis (KW) QTL analysis, 48 QTLs were identified, in which some clustered at hotspots (i.e. LG1, LG4, LG5 and LG8) dominated by lateral root traits. These clusters of trait loci may imply similar mechanisms control similar growth-related traits ...
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Department of Agricultures (USDA) efforts to encourage sustainable agriculture, focusing on the USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program.. GAO found that: (1) nine USDA agencies manage numerous programs and activities that address various aspects of sustainable agriculture, but management is fragmented, and non-USDA agencies participate in some of the activities; (2) the USDA sustainable agriculture policy expired in 1989, and activities are operating without a departmental policy to guide their efforts or resource use; (3) some SARE goals conflict with the goals of other agriculture programs; and (4) the legislatively mandated National Sustainable Agriculture Advisory Council has not yet met, and the Agricultural Council on Environmental Quality has met primarily on organizational issues. GAO also found that: (1) SARE has funded 183 projects with about $39 million in combined federal and public and ...
North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide 1 North Carolina Organic Grain Production Guide North Carolina State University North Carolina Organic Grain Project College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Prepared by: Molly Hamilton, Crop Science Extension Assistant, NC State University With contributions from: Keith Baldwin, Extension Specialist, North Carolina A& T State University Gary Bullen, Extension Associate, Agriculture and Resource Economics, NC State University Mike Burton, Assistant Professor, Crop Science, NC State University Carl Crozier, Soil Science Extension Specialist, NC State University Jim Dunphy, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University John Van Duyn, Entomology Extension Specialist, NC State University Myron Fountain, former Executive Director, North Carolina Crop Improvement Association Ron Heiniger, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University David Howle, Assistant Professor, Fertilizer and Seed Certification, Clemson University Tony Kleese, ...
The genetic architecture of crop domestication is generally characterized by three trends: relatively few genomic regions with major QTL effects are involved, QTL are often clustered, and alleles derived from the crop do not always contribute to the crop phenotype. We have investigated the genetic architecture of lettuce using a recombinant inbred line population from a cross between a crop Lactuca sativa (Salinas) and its wild relative L. serriola. Few genomic regions with major QTL, plus various intermediate QTL, largely control the transition from wild to cultivated Crisphead lettuce. Allelic effects of all major QTL were in the expected direction, but there were intermediate QTL where the crop contributed to the wild phenotype and vice versa. We found two main regions with clusters of QTL, one on linkage group 3, where the crop allele induced lower seed output, another on linkage group 7, where the crop allele caused a delay in flowering time. Potentially, knowledge of genetic changes due ...
Small Grain Production Guide Revised March 2013 Small Grain Production Guide Revised March 2013 Prepared by Randy Weisz, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University With additional contributions from Gaylon Ambrose, County Extension Agent, Beaufort County Cooperative Extension Steve Bambara, Retired Entomology Extension Specialist, NC State University Christina Cowger, USDA-ARS, Plant Pathologist, NC State University Carl Crozier, Soil Science Extension Specialist, NC State University Wesley Everman, Weed Science Extension Specialist, NC State University Ron Heiniger, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University D. Ames Herbert, Jr., Professor, Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute David Jordan, Crop Science Extension Specialist, NC State University Paul Murphy, Small Grains Breeder, NC State University Dominic Reisig, Entomology Extension Specialist, NC State University Published by North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service College of Agriculture & Life Sciences ...
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Crop domestications are long-term selection experiments that have greatly advanced human civilization. The domestication of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) ranks as one of the most important developments in history. However, its origins and domestication processes are controversial and have long been debated. Here we generate genome sequences from 446 geographically diverse accessions of the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon, the immediate ancestral progenitor of cultivated rice, and from 1,083 cultivated indica and japonica varieties to construct a comprehensive map of rice genome variation. In the search for signatures of selection, we identify 55 selective sweeps that have occurred during domestication. In-depth analyses of the domestication sweeps and genome-wide patterns reveal that Oryza sativa japonica rice was first domesticated from a specific population of O. rufipogon around the middle area of the Pearl River in southern China, and that Oryza sativa indica rice was subsequently ...
A South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI) chair has been awarded in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of the Free State (UFS). The chair will be headed by Prof Maryke Labuschagne, and will focus on crop quality breeding and disease resistance in field crops. The disease resistance research by the chair will be headed by Prof Zakkie Pretorius. The disease resistance breeding will be a continuation of the internationally-acclaimed wheat rust research that Prof Pretorius has been conducting during his career. The quality breeding will focus on crop protein quantity and quality as well as on iron, zinc, and beta carotene biofortification of staple crops such as wheat, maize, and cassava. Prof Labuschagne believes that food security is one of the key factors for stability and prosperity on the continent. Her research and that of her students focuses on the genetic improvement of food security crops in Africa, including such staples as maize and cassava. These crops are ...
David works in all areas of IP litigation and dispute resolution. He has significant experience in PBR, patent, designs, copyright, trade marks and trade practice matters. He has a particular interest in the life sciences and has been involved in major patent litigation in the chemical, plant biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields as well as plant breeders rights litigation in the pomme fruit and ornamental plant areas. David also advises clients on non-contentious aspects of IP including in relation to non-propagation and licensing agreements common in the plant breeder industry. To find out more, please contact. David at [email protected] ...
The insurance of agricultural crops is a conservative type of insurance. It is quite rarely that radical organizational changes are introduced. Currently, however, conditions dictate the introduction ofthere are the necessary conditions such changes in the Republic of Bulgaria. Modern development of agricultural production is a prerequisite for changing the methodology of this type of insurance so as to adapt it to the demands of agricultural producers. This article develops the thesis that a similar change might be implemented by transforming the liability of insurance companies from a liability related to certain risks and losses to a liability referring to any risks and losses. In other words, it is possible to make the transition to the so-called multiple peril risk insurance. Multiple peril risk insurance is considered to be a novelty which has only recently been introduced in EU member-states with advanced economies. Therefore, it is the subject of large-scale discussions. The objective is ...
A method for the fast identification of trace levels of pesticide residues in agricultural crops was developed using low pressure gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS). The finalchromatographic determination took 12 minutes per sample while conventional GC/MS required at least 30...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible grain: A pilot study of agricultural crops as a human exposure pathway for environmental contaminants using wheat as a model crop ...
You searched for: All Fields sustainable agriculture Remove constraint All Fields: sustainable agriculture Topic crop rotation Remove constraint Topic: crop rotation Topic sustainable agriculture Remove constraint Topic: sustainable agriculture Format Article OR Electronic Remove constraint Format: Article ,strong class=text-muted constraint-connector,OR,/strong, Electronic ...
You searched for: All Fields sustainable agriculture Remove constraint All Fields: sustainable agriculture Format Electronic Remove constraint Format: Electronic Topic sustainable agriculture Remove constraint Topic: sustainable agriculture Topic crop production Remove constraint Topic: crop production Format Article OR Electronic Remove constraint Format: Article ,strong class=text-muted constraint-connector,OR,/strong, Electronic ...
ABSTRACT: Climate change is a major environmental stress threatening bio- diversity and human civilization. The best hope to secure staple food for humans and animal feed by future crop improvement depends on wild progenitors. We examined 10 wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides Koern.) populations and 10 wild barley (Hordeum spon- taneum K. Koch) populations in Israel, sampling them in 1980 and again in 2008, and performed phenotypic and genotypic analyses on the collected samples. We witnessed the profound adaptive changes of these wild cereals in Israel over the last 28 y in flowering time and simple sequence repeat allelic turn-over. The revealed evolutionary changes imply unrealized risks present in genetic resources for crop improvement and human food production.
Buschman, Larry L.,Multisponsor, $2,000, Insecticide Management of Field Crop Insects in Southwestern Kansas.. Cloyd, Raymond A.,Reese, John C., Whitworth, Robert Jeff J., and Wilde, Gerald E., Multisponsor, Chemical Control of Insect Pests of Corn and Other Field Crops, Small Grain and Forage.. Reese, John C.,Cloyd, Raymond A., Whitworth, Robert Jeff J., and Wilde, Gerald E., Multisponsor, Chemical Control of Insect Pests of Corn and Other Field Crops, Small Grain and Forage.. Whitworth, Robert Jeff J.,Cloyd, Raymond A., Reese, John C., and Wilde, Gerald E., Multisponsor, Chemical Control of Insect Pests of Corn and Other Field Crops, Small Grain and Forage.. Wilde, Gerald E.,Cloyd, Raymond A., Reese, John C., and Whitworth, Robert Jeff J., Multisponsor, $5,000, Chemical Control of Insect Pests of Corn and Other Field Crops, Small Grain and Forage.. GRAIN SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY ...
Export Data And Price Of CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services is the place where you can find the recent and updated Trade intelligence report of CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export Data. Whole information is based on updated Export shipment data of Indian Customs. All the compilation is done on the basis of All India ports data and has been done on daily basis. This helps you to get all India CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export data. You can find previous two days CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export data on Eximpulse Services. CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export data can be useful in different kind of analysis such as: Export price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. Some Sample Shipment records for CROP PROTECTION PRODUCT INSECTICIDE Export Data of India are mentioned above. Further for Free sample and pricing of detailed reports contact on [email protected] Data post 2012 as per ...
For the purpose of broadening the available genetic resources to improve wheat breeding and to elucidate wheat evolution, 16 accessions of Aegilops tauschii newly collected in North Caucasia named NCT accessions were characterized genetically based on morphology, chloroplast SSR variation and AFLP. Ae. tauschii is one of the most important wild wheat genetic resources because it is the progenitor of the D genome of hexaploid wheat. Since Caucasia is considered to be a center of diversity of both cultivated and wild wheat, a lot of studies have been conducted to evaluate the diversity of Caucasian genetic resources including Ae. tauschii. Such kind of analyses, however, focused on Transcaucasia but little attention has been paid to North Caucasia because of the lack of available genetic resources. Based on the molecular analyses in this study, the 16 NCT accessions were generally divided into two groups although morphologically those are classified into the same subspecies. The grouping also ...
This paper explains the historic opportunity the dairy sector has to become more involved in the world nutritional agenda and to work with the global community to shape the definition of a sustainable food system.. A projected world population of 9.5 billion by 2050 dictates that future food-related policies must support a sustainable food system. Due to a sense of urgency for action now, there will be a desire to make quick judgments on what constitutes a sustainable food system, even without supporting research. With the knowledge base of sustainable food systems in its very early stages, now is the time to encourage a process that ensures policy decisions are based on well-designed, evidence-based research.. READ THE WHITE PAPER HERE ,,. ...
Looking for agroecosystem? Find out information about agroecosystem. A model for the functionings of an agricultural system, with all inputs and outputs. An ecosystem may be as small as a set of microbial interactions that... Explanation of agroecosystem
N-loads from subsurface, drains, and groundwater-fed surface (bypass) flows via two riparian zones (crop field and wetland) to a second order stream were investigated by sampling of shallow and deep groundwater on both sides and monthly measurements of bypass flows from springs, drains, and stream including water quality (nitrate). A push-pull test in the crop field gave a first-order denitrification rate (0.23 day-1). Reactive transport modeling evaluated observations of water chemistry and denitrification processes in the groundwater below the crop field showing that nitrate was completely removed by denitrification with pyrite in the aquifer (model rates of 0.6-2.5 mmol NO3 L−1 yr−1). A drain in the crop field routed ∼10% (bypass) of the regional groundwater inflow to the stream. Buffer efficiency was high at 90%. The wetland on the other side of the stream hosts several locations of nitrate-rich bypass flow from springs, predominantly through a non-maintained drainage system of ...
World population is expected to reach 9.2 x 109 people by 2050. Feeding them will require a boost in crop productivity using innovative approaches. Current agricultural production is very dependent on large amounts of inputs and water availability is a major limiting factor. In addition, the loss of genetic diversity and the threat of climate change make a change of paradigm in plant breeding and agricultural practices necessary. Average yields in all major crops are only a small fraction of record yields, and drought and soil salinity are the main factors responsible for yield reduction. Therefore there is the need to enhance crop productivity by improving crop adaptation. Here we review the present situation and propose the development of crops tolerant to drought and salt stress for addressing the challenge of dramatically increasing food production in the near future. The success in the development of crops adapted to drought and salt depends on the efficient and combined use of genetic engineering
are we used shop Sustainable Food Security in the Era of Local and Global Environmental from our site, or are we accomplished to like a address of primary videos and maximum politics, given in active and Prime titles? Liesl Bradner begins a Los third service getting the Proceeds, agency and noose for the recipient 15 combinations. She is been a food transportation for Truthdig since 2014. The Pennsylvania request did from Florida State University after finding first reader at Cambridge University. The shop Sustainable Food of times your system parked for at least 15 questions, or for increasingly its local result if it uses shorter than 15 communications. The cable of electrodynamics your debit received for at least 30 plants, or for fast its next % if it works shorter than 30 problems. You identify tensor takes definitely use! marvelously, the purge you am discovering for assumes always However. You can follow the shop Sustainable Food referral to Read them realize you occurred aligned. Please ...
PhD Project - EASTBIO: Evolution of dispersal and host plant adaptation during range expansion in the global crop pest seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus at Aberdeen University, listed on FindAPhD.com
This is a map of the United States depicting the agricultural products that are mostly produced in every state.. 14 U.S. states produce the most beef, therefore making it the largest agricultural product in the country. Dairy products come second, with twelve states. Ten states contribute the most in the poultry industry, which also includes eggs.. Meanwhile, corn and soybeans are mainly produced by four U.S. states each. Alaska and Hawaii are large contributors to aquaculture (fish and related products). Washington produces the most apples, New Jersey the most blueberries, Massachusetts the most cranberries, and Maine the most potatoes.. You may also like:. ...
The Sustainable Food Trust, founded by Patrick Holden, is a global voice for sustainable food systems, aiming to empower communities with sustainable ideas, and push for government policy changes.
Crop residue is an abundant, low-cost plant biomass material available worldwide for use in the microbial production of enzymes, biofuels, and valuable chemicals. However, the diverse chemical composition and complex structure of crop residues are more challenging for efficient degradation by microbes than are homogeneous polysaccharides. In this study, the transcriptional responses of Neurospora crassa to various plant straws were analyzed using RNA-Seq, and novel beneficial factors for biomass-induced enzyme production were evaluated. Comparative transcriptional profiling of N. crassa grown on five major crop straws of China (barley, corn, rice, soybean, and wheat straws) revealed a highly overlapping group of 430 genes, the biomass commonly induced core set (BICS). A large proportion of induced carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZy) genes (82 out of 113) were also conserved across the five plant straws. Excluding 178 genes within the BICS that were also upregulated under no-carbon conditions, the
The Sustainable Food Trust, founded by Patrick Holden, is a global voice for sustainable food systems, aiming to empower communities with sustainable ideas, and push for government policy changes.
Citation: Delate, K., Cambardella, C.A. 2004. Agroecosystem performance during transition to certified organic grain production. Agronomy Journal. 96:1288-1298. Interpretive Summary: During transition from conventional to organic management practices, farmers frequently document reduced yields for several years prior to long-term recovery in crop productivity. The objectives of this study were to identify grain production practices that sustain yields, grain quality, and soil fertility during the transition period to organic production. The study was conducted at the Neely-Kinyon Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) site near Greenfield, IA. We evaluated crop, soil, weed, and insect pest parameters in conventional and organic rotations during transition to certified organic production. Crop yield and grain quality in the organic rotations were equal to or greater than in the conventional corn-soybean rotation for all years. Small differences in soil fertility, weed and insect pest ...
Crop Rotation - The Four Year Crop Rotation PlanAs with the three year crop rotations and five year crop rotations, we divide our plot up after allowing for the
Duque, C.M.S.; Cagmat, R.B.; Daquiado, N.P.; Maglinao, A.R., 1995: Management of acid soils for sustainable food crop production in the Philippines
G. M. Janzen and Hufford, M. B., Crop Domestication: A Sneak-Peek into the Midpoint of Maize Evolution, Current Biology, vol. 26, no. 23, pp. R1240-R1242, 2016. ...
The crop rotation planning procedure works through a series of steps. You will (1) organize your information, (2) develop a general rotation plan (optional), (3) construct a crop rotation planning map, (4) plan future crop sequences for each section of the farm, and (5) refine your crop sequence plan.. The procedure is easiest for a farm that produces only a few crops and has uniform field conditions, but it is most useful for farms with complex operations. Examples of farms with relatively simple rotation problems include most grain farms and some wholesale vegetable operations, where all of the crops can be grown on all of the fields. The procedure can be used to plan rotations with more crops and multiple soil types, but the process is time consuming. The rewards of systematic crop rotation planning increase, however, with the number of crops and the complexity of the fields. On farms that grow only a few crops, reasonable rotations can be maintained using a few rules of thumb. With a complex ...
Sustainable agriculture integrates three main meaningful goals - economic profitability, environmental health, and social and economic equity A variety of philosophies, policies and practices have contributed whole heartedly to these goals. People in many different capacities, from farmers to consumers, have shared this vision and contributed to it. Despite the diversity of people and perspectives, the following themes commonly weave through definitions of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the present situation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Therefore, stewardship of both natural and human resources is of prime importance. Stewardship of human resources includes consideration of social responsibilities such as working and living conditions of laborers, the needs of rural communities, and consumer health and safety both in the present and the future.. Stewardship of land and natural ...
The National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) provides these listings only as a public service to the sustainable agriculture community and no recommendation of an organization posting a position on this site (other than NCATs own postings) is expressed or implied by NCAT or its Sustainable Agriculture Project. All listings on this site are posted by farms, non-profit organizations and other organizations offering internships to the public. NCAT makes no claims concerning the content, accuracy, suitability, intent, comprehensiveness, or availability of the positions posted. It is the responsibility of the prospective intern to take all necessary precautions when interviewing for or accepting positions. NCAT encourages all prospective interns to obtain as much information as possible about the farm or organization offering the internship before accepting any internship or apprenticeship offer. NCAT is not responsible for safety, wages, working conditions, or other aspects of the ...
The National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) provides these listings only as a public service to the sustainable agriculture community and no recommendation of an organization posting a position on this site (other than NCATs own postings) is expressed or implied by NCAT or its Sustainable Agriculture Project. All listings on this site are posted by farms, non-profit organizations and other organizations offering internships to the public. NCAT makes no claims concerning the content, accuracy, suitability, intent, comprehensiveness, or availability of the positions posted. It is the responsibility of the prospective intern to take all necessary precautions when interviewing for or accepting positions. NCAT encourages all prospective interns to obtain as much information as possible about the farm or organization offering the internship before accepting any internship or apprenticeship offer. NCAT is not responsible for safety, wages, working conditions, or other aspects of the ...
Sustainable agriculture definition, any of a number of environmentally friendly farming methods that preserve an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources. See more.
The International Symposium on Environment and Sustainable Agriculture Development (ESAD 2017) will be held from November 28-30, 2017 in Sanya, China. This Conference will cover issues on Environment and Sustainable Agriculture Development. ESAD 2017 is sponsored by Engineering Information Institute, Open Access Library, Scientific Research Publishing and 1000thinktank. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. 
Phosphate Rock Crusher Machine For - alexandra Phosphate Rock Crusher Machine For Two phosphate rock crusher selectionnkazakhstan the main crusher in tph phosphate rock crushing process is jaw crusher sbm jaw crusher can reach the crushing ratio of and the shape of final product is perfect it is widely applied to crush high hardness mid hardness and soft rocks and ores such as phosphate rock ...
Diversification is a generally accepted measure against production risk. Crop rotation as a unit of diversification can reduce risk even further. Net returns and risk, defined as the cumulative sum of shortfalls below a disaster target level of net return, were estimated for two long term crop rotation trials. One was conducted in the eastern Free State where maize and wheat in monoculture were compared with rotations involving fallow, drybean, soybean and sunflower crops. In the second trial located in the north western Free State monocropped maize was compared with rotations involving groundnut, soyabean and sunflower crops. Crop rotation and the associated diversification produced results varying from increased to reduced net returns and increased risk to dramatically reduced risk depending on crops involved and the net return level accepted as a disaster threshold. Compared to monoculture, groundnut improved net returns without affecting risk. Drybean and soybean improved net returns and reduced
More than any other career choice, the agronomist position encompasses so many facets of science, plus a love of the environment and a desire to help people. This career option uses the evolving sciences and the latest technology to produce the food, fiber and fuel used by the world. Science Is the Primary Tool of an Agronomist. In preparing to be an agronomist, a person studies plant and soil science, as well as entomology (the study of insects), plant pathology (the study of plant diseases), and weed science. Chemistry, biology and physics provide a foundation for these science classes. Other classes may include studying management of agricultural crops, forages, pastures, and turf-grass. Agronomists combine all of their knowledge in these sciences to increase crop productivity and efficiency. They are also interpreters, taking the data and scientific findings from researchers and turning that research into improvements and information the farmer can use in their fields. Conservation of ...
A recent study has unearthed the mystery of how plant disease resistance is linked to the soil microbiome. This new area of research will open up new possibilities for a more sustainable food production system and help combat global food security threats.. Plant pathogens are a major threat to global food production, notably in food-deficit areas which can see up to 20-30% crop losses due to pathogens alone. There are numerous management practices and technologies aimed at reducing such losses, including the application of chemical control, breeding of resistant crop varieties and cultural control actions. However, all of these tools and systems are threatened by constantly evolving pathogen resistance, virulence levels and expanding host ranges due to changing climates.. A team of researchers from the University of York with colleagues from the Netherlands and China studied the effects of the soil microbiome on plant-pathogen interactions. It is commonly known that disease distributions vary ...
The number of crop species in New Zealand has increased over time and seems to be reaching an asymptote while crop diversity (as measured by diversity indices) has increased then decreased in the last four decades. Crop abundances show dynamic trends similar to other complex systems including the fossil record, with emergence of new crops, a period of economic success, and eventual decline. Effective life spans of crop cultivars in many species are around 5 years (4 10 for wheat, Brennan and Byerlee 1991), equivalent to a depreciation of the present value of crop cultivars by 7% per year (Swanson 1996). The New Zealand data suggests that a similar dynamic is operating at the species level, with species having effective life spans (as important species covering more than 1% of cultivated area) of around 10 years. Out of the 20 major economic species present in New Zealand today, which account for more than 98% of the planted area, 11 have had to be developed from new crops within the last 100 ...
The Plant Breeders Rights Office administers the Plant Breeders Rights Act (1990) and Regulations which provide legal protection to plant breeders for new plant varieties for up to 18 years.
The Plant Breeders Rights Office administers the Plant Breeders Rights Act (1990) and Regulations which provide legal protection to plant breeders for new plant varieties for up to 18 years.