In the figure above, we take the abundance of silicon as a "standard candle" or reference point, and compare the abundances (relative to silicon) of the elements in the solar system and in galactic cosmic rays. Silicon is used as the reference because it is a common intermediate-weight element that is easy to measure. We see that there is less hydrogen and helium in the cosmic rays than in the solar system, we think because hydrogen and helium are harder to accelerate to high energies than heavier elements. We also see that some light elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) that are rare in the solar system (and in the rest of the universe) are quite common in cosmic rays. We also see more cosmic ray elements between silicon and iron than in the solar system.. The accepted reason for all the observed cosmic ray lithium, beryllium, and boron is that these are pieces of heavier cosmic ray elements, especially carbon and oxygen, that have had high speed collisions with the very tenuous gas in ...
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Cosmic rays can be accelerated in different ways. Some cosmic rays (called anomalous cosmic rays or ACR) are accelerated in the Solar System, at the shock where the solar wind meets interstellar space. Others are accelerated outside the solar system, by various processes in the Milky Way Galaxy and are called GCRs. Erics PhD thesis research involved separating these two components for cosmic ray hydrogen, and identifying which part of the observed hydrogen cosmic rays were ACRs. The key idea was that ACRs and GCRs, because they are accelerated by different processes, have different energies. GCRs have higher energies than ACRs. Therefore, you should be able (theoretically) to identify the two components by looking at their spectra. This can be seen in the proton (hydrogen nuclei) energy spectra below, which show two separate humps. Comparing the hydrogen spectra with those from other elemental cosmic rays, Eric speculated that the lower energy hump was from the population of ACRs and the higher ...
Figure 1: Earths Magnetosphere. Serious exposure to heavy ion galactic cosmic radiation occurs in regions beyond the outer red lines emanating from Earth in the above figure. Image credit: NASA. About 99 percent of galactic cosmic radiation is comprised of single protons, electrons, and helium nuclei. There are nine times as many helium nuclei as there are electrons and ten times as many protons as there are helium nuclei. Ions heavier than helium nuclei-for example, carbon-12, oxygen-16, silicon-28, and iron-56 nuclei-make up just one percent of all galactic cosmic rays.. Even though heavy nuclei make up such a tiny percentage, they inflict more biological damage than all the other forms of galactic cosmic radiation. Another reason heavy nuclei cosmic radiation caught the attention of Kumars team is that there is no technology available, or even conceivable, to protect astronauts in a spacecraft from heavy ion radiation. Furthermore, scientists know that at least 30 percent of astronauts ...
SALT LAKE CITY - An observatory run by the University of Utah found a "hotspot" beneath the Big Dipper emitting a disproportionate number of the highest-energy cosmic rays. The discovery moves physics another step toward identifying the mysterious sources of the most energetic particles in the universe. "This puts us closer to finding out the sources - but no cigar yet," says University of Utah physicist Gordon Thomson, spokesman and co-principal investigator for the $25 million Telescope Array cosmic ray observatory west of Delta, Utah. It is the Northern Hemispheres largest cosmic ray detector. "All we see is a blob in the sky, and inside this blob there is all sorts of stuff - various types of objects - that could be the source" of the powerful cosmic rays, he adds. "Now we know where to look." A new study identifying a hotspot in the northern sky for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays has been accepted for publication by Astrophysical Journal Letters.. Thomson says many astrophysicists suspect ...
Guest post by Bart Verheggen, Department of Air Quality and Climate Change , Energy research Institute of the Netherlands (ECN). In Part I, I discussed how aerosols nucleate and grow. In this post Ill discuss how changes in nucleation and ionization might impact the net effects. Cosmic rays. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are energetic particles originating from space entering Earths atmosphere. They are an important source of ionization in the atmosphere, besides terrestrial radioactivity from e.g. radon (naturally emitted by the Earths surface). Over the oceans and above 5 km altitude, GCR are the dominant source. Their intensity varies over the 11 year solar cycle, with a maximum near solar minimum. Carslaw et al. give a nice overview of potential relations between cosmic rays, clouds and climate. Over the first half of the 20th century solar irradiance has slightly increased, and cosmic rays have subsequently decreased. RC has had many previous posts on the purported links between GCR and ...
A multi-institution team has used positron beams to probe the nature of radiation effects, providing new insight into how damage is produced in iron films. This exploration can improve the safety of materials used in nuclear reactors and other radiation environments.
On 16 February 2016, the President of Senate Christine Defraigne handed Harald Koninckx the Odissea prize 2015 for his graduation work entitled "Measures Counteracting the radiation health risks on a manned lunar outpost" in the framework of the advanced masters in Space Studies. He carried out his research in the laboratories of SCK•CEN under the guidance of Sarah Baatout, Marjan Moreels and Merel Van Wallegem of the Radiobiology group.. Sarah Baatout "Harald investigated how astronauts can protect themselves against the risks arising from cosmic radiation during a longer stay on the moon. He did several experiments in our labs and on the basis of the results he introduced solutions to reduce health risks.". One of the major concerns for a future moon platform is the radiation environment and how to protect astronauts against cosmic radiation. The impact on DNA damage of various antioxidants and shieldings following simulated radiation environment was assessed on human cells.. Sarah Baatout: ...
Cosmic Radiation Could Cause Alzheimers in Mars Astronauts By SUSAN DONALDSON JAMES Jan. 1, 2013 Space travel has always been portrayed as risky -- no air or
Other investigators have reported difficulty in finding significant effects of the solar eruptions on clouds, and Henrik Svensmark understands their problem. "Its like trying to see tigers hidden in the jungle, because clouds change a lot from day to day whatever the cosmic rays are doing," he says. The first task for a successful hunt was to work out when "tigers" were most likely to show themselves, by identifying the most promising instances of sudden drops in the count of cosmic rays, called Forbush decreases. Previous research in Copenhagen predicted that the effects should be most notice-able in the lowest 3000 metres of the atmosphere. The team identified 26 Forbush decreases since 1987 that caused the biggest reductions in cosmic rays at low altitudes, and set about looking for the consequences.. Forgetting to sow the seeds. The first global impact of the shortage of cosmic rays is a subtle change in the colour of sunlight, as seen by ground stations of the aerosol robotic network ...
I know what youre saying - wasnt there already a glow in the dark version of Electron+? Yes. This new Outer Space Men Cosmic Radiation Electron+ is cast in a slightly different (and better) glow plastic with more paint highlights and for the first time, bent arms. The original release, for reasons not ever truly revealed, just had the straight arms only. If you just need a glow Electron+, either version is great - but if you want a matching glow set or the very best version you can get, get this new one. ...
The rates of anencephalus in 36 Canadian cities and the province of New Brunswick from 1950 through 1969 were reviewed with regard to the horizontal geomagnetic flux, city growth, and the magnesium (7439954) concentration of tap water. High geomagnetic flux was considered as inversely related to levels of cosmic radiation. Data were screened by a bipartite stratification of the variables for assoc
CREDO-II (Cosmic Radiation Environment and Dosimetry Experiment), provided by DERA, MoD, heritage of STRV-1b. Objective: To monitor those aspects of space radiation which cause single event effects in microelectronic components. The measurements comprise energetic proton fluxes from the inner radiation belt and solar flares, and the linear energy transfer spectra of heavy ions in cosmic rays and solar particle events. The instrument is as a compact, low power monitor housed on a single board. Two telescopes are employed, each comprising two pin diodes of area 3cm2 in coincidence, in order to define the arrival directions of the particles and their pathlength through the detector. In one telescope the charge depositions are amplified and pulse-height analyzed to give the linear energy transfer spectra, while in the other the counts above a low threshold are used to monitor the much higher proton fluxes. Counts are accumulated into programmable time bins to reflect the finer resolution required at ...
Comments: 8 Pages. Version 2.. NASA incorrectly claims that any cosmic radiation increases deliver energy directly and cause temperature rises. Because this does not happen (the opposite occurs, see Fig. 5), NASA claims that cosmic radiation does not have any effect on climate. However, increases in cosmic radiation increase high altitude cloud cover by the "Wilson cloud chamber" effect (well proved in nuclear physics), and so have a cooling effect on the earths climate by increasing Earths albedo. This mechanism is justified by a correlation between temperature and the inverse of the cosmic ray intensity (Fig. 5). The only reason why significant CO2 related temperature rises are predicted by all 21 IPCC climate models is that they all contain the same error: assuming that water vapour absorbs sunlight to amplify the CO2 injection by positive feedback, ignoring the fact that it would gain buoyancy, rise and condense into cloud cover. It is easy to prove that any net positive feedback by water ...
Jupiter Radiation Environment. Nicolas André. RPWI Kick-Off Meeting, Uppsala, Sweden , November 26-27 2009. Jupiter Radiation Environments. Radiation effects . Radiation environments. Total Ionizing Dose (TID) - Cumulative long- term ionizing damage Slideshow 6747383 by miranda-kinney
Ernest Rutherford stated in 1931 that "thanks to the fine experiments of Professor Millikan and the even more far-reaching experiments of Professor Regener, we have now got for the first time, a curve of absorption of these radiations in water which we may safely rely upon".[27] In the 1920s, the term cosmic rays was coined by Robert Millikan who made measurements of ionization due to cosmic rays from deep under water to high altitudes and around the globe. Millikan believed that his measurements proved that the primary cosmic rays were gamma rays; i.e., energetic photons. And he proposed a theory that they were produced in interstellar space as by-products of the fusion of hydrogen atoms into the heavier elements, and that secondary electrons were produced in the atmosphere by Compton scattering of gamma rays. But then, sailing from Java to the Netherlands in 1927, Jacob Clay found evidence,[28] later confirmed in many experiments, that cosmic ray intensity increases from the tropics to ...
This finding is important for understanding the origin of cosmic rays, which are atomic nuclei that strike the Earths atmosphere with very high energies. Scientists believe that some are produced by flares on the Sun, and others by similar events on other stars, or pulsars or black hole accretion disks. But, one of the prime suspects has been supernova shock waves. Now, a team of astronomers has used Chandra observations of Tychos supernova remnant to strengthen the case for this explanation. "With only a single object involved we cant state with confidence that supernova shock waves are the primary source of cosmic rays," said John P. Hughes of Rutgers University in Piscataway, New Jersey, and coauthor of a report to be published in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "What we have done is present solid evidence that the shock wave in at least one supernova remnant has accelerated nuclei to cosmic ray energies." In the year 1572, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe observed and ...
The author has suggested that the knee phenomenon in the cosmic ray energy spectrum at 3 PeV can be explained as a split between a radiation-dominated expansion and a matter-dominated expansion of an expanding heat bath. The model proposed in 1985, in fact, predicted that high energy cosmic rays are emitted from AGN, massive black holes, in agreement with recent data from the Pierre Auger Observatory. Similarly, the ankle phenomenon at 3 EeV is shown to be explained by a split between inflational expansion and ordinary material expansion of the expanding heat bath, not unlike that in the expansion of the universe. All the spectral indicies in the respective regions of the energy spectra agree with the theoretical calculation from the respective expansion rates. It is shown that the ankle energy is approximately equal to the threshold energy of cosmic ray production of an electron positron pair on the cmb photon.
A Forbush decrease is a rapid decrease in the observed galactic cosmic ray intensity following a coronal mass ejection (CME). It occurs due to the magnetic field of the plasma solar wind sweeping some of the galactic cosmic rays away from Earth. The term Forbush decrease was named after the American physicist Scott E. Forbush, who studied cosmic rays in the 1930s and 1940s. The Forbush decrease is usually observable by particle detectors on Earth within a few days after the CME, and the decrease takes place over the course of a few hours. Over the following several days, the solar cosmic ray intensity returns to normal. Forbush decreases have also been observed by humans on Mir and the International Space Station (ISS), and by instruments onboard Pioneer 10 and 11 and Voyager 1 and 2, even past the orbit of Neptune. The magnitude of a Forbush decrease depends on three factors: the size of the CME the strength of the magnetic fields in the CME the proximity of the CME to the Earth A Forbush ...
Spacecraft, both manned and unmanned, must cope with the high radiation environment of outerspace. Radiation emitted by the Sun and other galactic sources, and trapped in radiation "belts" is more dangerous and hundreds of times more intense than radiation sources such as medical X-rays or normal cosmic radiation usually experienced on Earth.[24] When the intensely ionizing particles found in space strike human tissue, it can result in cell damage and may eventually lead to cancer.. The usual method for radiation protection is material shielding by spacecraft and equipment structures (usually aluminium), possibly augmented by polyethylene in human spaceflight where the main concern is high energy protons and cosmic ray ions. On unmanned spacecraft in high electron dose environments such as Jupiter missions, or medium Earth orbit (MEO), additional shielding with materials of a high atomic number can be effective. On long duration manned missions, advantage can be taken of the good shielding ...
Spacecraft, both manned and unmanned, must cope with the high radiation environment of outerspace. Radiation emitted by the Sun and other galactic sources, and trapped in radiation "belts" is more dangerous and hundreds of times more intense than radiation sources such as medical X-rays or normal cosmic radiation usually experienced on Earth.[25] When the intensely ionizing particles found in space strike human tissue, it can result in cell damage and may eventually lead to cancer. The usual method for radiation protection is material shielding by spacecraft and equipment structures (usually aluminium), possibly augmented by polyethylene in human spaceflight where the main concern is high energy protons and cosmic ray ions. On unmanned spacecraft in high electron dose environments such as Jupiter missions, or medium Earth orbit (MEO), additional shielding with materials of a high atomic number can be effective. On long duration manned missions, advantage can be taken of the good shielding ...
Figure: The RAD Instrument.. The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is an investigation to detect and analyze the most biologically hazardous energetic particle radiation on the Martian surface as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. It has made the first-ever direct radiation measurements on the surface of Mars, detecting galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, secondary neutrons, and other secondary particles created both in the atmosphere and in the Martian regolith. The radiation environment on Mars is a key life-limiting factor that directly affects habitability and the ability to sustain life, and poses a challenge for future human explorers on the red planet. Thus, RAD measurements help planning for future human exploration and give us a direct measure of what levels of radiation to expect when we send astronauts to Mars in the future.. The RAD instrument combines charged- and neutral-particle detection capability over a wide dynamic range in a compact, low-mass, ...
The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is an investigation to detect and analyze the most biologically hazardous energetic particle radiation on the Martian surface as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. It has made the first-ever direct radiation measurements on the surface of Mars, detecting galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, secondary neutrons, and other secondary particles created both in the atmosphere and in the Martian regolith. The radiation environment on Mars is a key life-limiting factor that directly affects habitability and the ability to sustain life, and poses a challenge for future human explorers on the red planet. Thus, RAD measurements help planning for future human exploration and give us a direct measure of what levels of radiation to expect when we send astronauts to Mars in the future.. The RAD instrument combines charged- and neutral-particle detection capability over a wide dynamic range in a compact, low-mass, low-power instrument. These ...
A study in the July 2002 issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, published by the American Geophysical Union, proposes for the first time that interstellar cosmic rays could be the missing link between the discordant temperatures observed during the last two decades (since recorded satellite records began in 1979). The report, by Fangqun Yu of the State University of New York-Albany, proposes that the rays, tiny charged particles that bombard all planets with varying frequency depending on solar wind intensity, may have height-dependent effects on our planet s cloudiness. Previous research has proposed a link between cosmic rays and cloud cover, has not suggested the altitude dependence of the current study ...
This grant will investigate the potential of carbon-14 in ice cores as an absolute dating tool, as a tracer of the past cosmic ray flux and as a recorder of the past fossil fraction of the global methane budget. Cosmic ray particles produce carbon-14 from oxygen-16 directly within near-surface glacial ice and firn. This in-situ produced carbon-14 quickly reacts to form 14C-containing carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane in the ice matrix. Some or all of the resulting 14C-bearing gases may be lost from the firn to the atmosphere. This research will provide a thorough characterization of in-situ cosmogenic 14C in glacial firn and shallow ice in the Summit region of Greenland. It will examine the retention of cosmogenic 14C in ice grains at all depth levels in the firn column, the partitioning of 14C between carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane, as well as the production rates and accumulation of cosmogenic 14C in shallow ice below firn close-off. A thorough understanding of ...
Bulletin Board: A Post From the Community | Caption: (From left, front row) Andrew Marquardt (Benet), James Austgen (Benet), Quinlan McGrath (Benet), Dr. Jennifer Gimmell (Benet/COD), Cate Stoppelman, (Benet), Frank Kariuki (COD), Kris Gardner (COD), Zuriel Tronco (COD); (back row) Dr. Mark Adams (QuarkNet), Mike Boetel (COD), Mitch Gosma (COD) and Prerak Sanghvi (COD). Students in College of DuPage's Physics Club joined forces with Benet Academy high school students and the University of Chicago QuarkNet Center at Fermilab to build and use cosmic ray detectors. During the recent Cosmic Ray Workshop, participants spent two Saturdays in February on COD's campus in Glen Ellyn, first learning how to build ...
Emulsion photograph showing the birth and death of a cosmic ray pion (or pi-meson). A primary cosmic ray has struck and shattered an atomic nucleus to form the star at the bottom of the picture. Among the fragments of the collision, a pion has been created which forms the track moving towards the top right. The pion soon strikes another nucleus, forming a second star. The length of the pions track is about 0.11 mm. The picture, taken in 1947 by Lattes, Occhialini & Powell, was one of the first observations of the creation of a pion. - Stock Image A134/0001
While the link between cosmic rays and cloud cover is yet to be confirmed, more importantly, there has been no correlation between cosmic rays and global temperatures over the last 30 years of global warming.
While the link between cosmic rays and cloud cover is yet to be confirmed, more importantly, there has been no correlation between cosmic rays and global temperatures over the last 30 years of global warming.
NASA and private company SpaceX plan to send humans to Mars within the next 15 years--but need to figure out how to protect astronauts from the dangerous cosmic radiation of deep space. Now the lab of UCSF neuroscientist Susanna Rosi, PhD, has identified a potential treatment for the brain damage caused by cosmic rays--a drug that prevents memory impairment in mice exposed to simulated space radiation. The study was published May 18, 2018 in Scientific Reports.
An airline cabin crew member has today been charged after cocaine with an estimated street value of £98,000 was seized at Gatwick Airport.
The energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays carry fundamental information regarding their origin and propagation. These spectra, when measured near Earth, are significantly affected by the solar magnetic field. A comprehensive description of the cosmic radiation must therefore include the transport and modulation of cosmic rays inside the heliosphere. During the end of the last decade, the Sun underwent a peculiarly long quiet phase well suited to study modulation processes. In this paper we present proton spectra measured from 2006 July to 2009 December by PAMELA. The large collected statistics of protons allowed the time variation to be followed on a nearly monthly basis down to 400 MV. Data are compared with a state-of-the-art three-dimensional model of solar modulation.. ...
Results SMR for all-cause, specific cancer groups and most individual cancers were reduced in all aircrew groups. The only increases were seen for brain cancer in pilots (n=23, SMR 2.01, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.28) and for malignant melanoma (n=10, SMR 1.88, 95% CI 0.78 to 3.85). Breast cancer mortality among female cabin crew was similar to the general population (n=71, SMR 1.06, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.44). Overall median cumulative effective dose was 34.2 mSv (max: 116 mSv) for 1960-2014. No dose-response associations were seen in any of the models. For brain cancer, relative risks were elevated across dose categories. An indicative negative trend with increasing dose category was seen for large intestine cancer in female cabin crew (n=23). ...
Electronic components, based on current semiconductor technologies and operating in radiation rich environments, suffer degradation of their performance as a result of radiation exposure. Silicon carbide (SiC) provides an alternate solution as a radiation hard material, because of its wide bandgap and higher atomic displacement energies, for devices intended for radiation environment applications. However, the radiation tolerance and reliability of SiC-based devices needs to be understood by testing devices under controlled radiation environments. These kinds of studies have been previously performed on diodes and MESFETs, but multilayer devices such as bipolar junction transistors (BJT) have not yet been studied.. In this thesis, SiC material, BJTs fabricated from SiC, and various dielectrics for SiC passivation are studied by exposure to high energy ion beams with selected energies and fluences. The studies reveal that the implantation induced crystal damage in SiC material can be partly ...
Electronic components, based on current semiconductor technologies and operating in radiation rich environments, suffer degradation of their performance as a result of radiation exposure. Silicon carbide (SiC) provides an alternate solution as a radiation hard material, because of its wide bandgap and higher atomic displacement energies, for devices intended for radiation environment applications. However, the radiation tolerance and reliability of SiC-based devices needs to be understood by testing devices under controlled radiation environments. These kinds of studies have been previously performed on diodes and MESFETs, but multilayer devices such as bipolar junction transistors (BJT) have not yet been studied.. In this thesis, SiC material, BJTs fabricated from SiC, and various dielectrics for SiC passivation are studied by exposure to high energy ion beams with selected energies and fluences. The studies reveal that the implantation induced crystal damage in SiC material can be partly ...
When a star is disrupted by a supermassive black hole, and its debris are accreted onto it, a powerful hadronic jet can be generated and be a source of high energy neutrinos and cosmic rays. I review the simplest models of neutrino production from such Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs), and show that the resulting neutrino flux is detectable, and can explain a fraction of the diffuse neutrino flux detected at IceCube. The possibility of a joint explanation of the neutrino and Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray data is briefly illustrated. I discuss the hypothesis - which requires further study to be fully substantiated - that a single TDE burst might have been responsible for the 2014-2015 neutrino flare observed by IceCube ...
Women who fly during pregnancy, whether as passengers or crew, continue to fuel the debate over the potential impact on pregnancy outcome and fetal development, the two risk factors most commonly invoked being relative hypoxaemia due to the decreased cabin pressure and, more recently, cosmic radiation. On both theoretical and experimental grounds (altitude physiology and studies in pregnant women during flight), commercial flight poses no threat to the fetal oxygen supply in a normal pregnancy. As for cosmic radiation, only theoretical estimates are available of flight crew exposure: if annual doses approximate to background at ground level (3-5 mSv), the dose received during an individual pregnancy can be estimated from the fraction of annual flight time spent while pregnant. It is doubtful whether any epidemiological study could ever confirm or refute this theoretical estimate of a low increase in risk. Many airlines have opted to allow pregnant crew to continue flying. There is thus little if ...
New species do not emerge through breeding; their genetic makeup in the sex cell changes due to random changes that affect genetic inheritance. However, rapid emergence of new species is attributed to cosmic radiation capable of modifying sex cell DNA in more profound manner. This cosmic radiation is random, but for some reason has led to the emergence of more and more sophisticated species on this planet leading to Homo sapiens. In other words, Nature knew what it was doing. How can anyone be so ignorant not to look at other options regarding the source of the radiation? We live in the universe that is said to be 15 billion years old. Just give me some 2000 years in focused genetic research and I turn crocodile into a dog by radiating the environment where crocodiles live. There is no sound argument that disproves the possibility of someone finding this planet and using the primitive life here for accelerated evolutionary experiments ...
Hes got great accessories. The Gargoyle Gun is mostly painted silver, with the bare glow head plastic coming through. I wish they left the grip unpainted, and to be honest if they inverted the glow versus the silver that would also be nice. Its not bad. The staff is similarly cool, because the only painted element is a silver ball which hovers eerily above the figure with glowing wings. Now theres something out of your Phantasm-inspired nightmares.. For those keeping track, you might remember something about how these are made - specifically, a series worth of accessories are on a single sprue. This means that glowing helmets (instead of clear) and clear staffs (instead of glowing) exist and were run - we got samples of them in a baggie with the order, but right now it doesnt seem to be advertised as a bonus with all orders. This goes for Alpha 7, Electron+, and Commander Comet too - none of the year one guys seemed to have bonus parts in my order.. Now while it would be awesome to have ...
Adam Pawlus has written about Star Wars action figures, toys, and collectibles on the web since 1995. He has worked for a variety of magazines and websites and presently works as a Toy Evangelist / Buyer for Entertainment Earth. He also loves Jolt ...
Ok so ive been doing a lot of research which leads me to conclude that our solar system is stuck in a 4D time "bubble". The voyager 1 and 2 only reached the Heliopause which is one of the outer shells of our solar systems magnetic field, I believe that beyond the "bow shock" which is believed to be the final endpoint of the magnetic field, we would find exponential growth in the amount of cosmic radiation, I believe that these travel way beyond the speed of light, like super energy, or what the human aura can consist of. Anyways everything we are measuring from outside this bubble seems to slow down because for some reason this region we are in is highly dense. So relating it to the vatican and all of their lies and sun worshiping i believe that they are intentionally modifying the suns frequency to that of something very dense in order to inhibit the growth of our human dna. So basically all research states that our dna is highly influenced by cosmic radiation, the kind of code that reprograms ...
Space is a dangerous place. ESA scientists are aiming to learn a little bit more about what it takes to survive in the big empty.
Space is a dangerous place. ESA scientists are aiming to learn a little bit more about what it takes to survive in the big empty.
Earths magnetic field shields space station crew from much of the radiation that can damage the DNA in our cells and lead to serious health problems.. When future astronauts set off on long journeys deeper into space, they will be venturing into more perilous radiation environments and will need substantial protection. With the help of a biology experiment within a small satellite called BioSentinel, scientists at NASAs Ames Research Center, in Californias Silicon Valley, are taking an early step toward finding solutions.. To learn the basics of what happens to life in space, researchers often use "model organisms" that we understand relatively well. This helps show the differences between what happens in space and on Earth more clearly. For BioSentinel, NASA is using yeast - the very same yeast that makes bread rise and beer brew. In both our cells and yeast cells, the type of high-energy radiation encountered in deep space can cause breaks in the two entwined strands of DNA that carry ...
ABSTRACT The short term variability of the galactic cosmic ray flux (CRF) reaching Earth has been previously associated with variations in the global low altitude cloud cover. This CRF variability arises from changes in the solar wind strength. However, cosmic ray variability also arises intrinsically from variable activity of and motion through the Milky Way. Thus, if indeed the CRF climate connection is real, the increased CRF witnessed while crossing the spiral arms could be responsible for a larger global cloud cover and a reduced temperature, thereby facilitating the occurrences of ice ages. This picture has been recently shown to be supported by various data [PhRvL 89 (2002) 051102]. In particular, the variable CRF recorded in Iron meteorites appears to vary synchronously with the appearance ice ages.Here, we expand upon the original treatment with a more thorough analysis and more supporting evidence. In particular, we discuss the cosmic ray diffusion model which considers the motion of ...
Cosmic rays are small atomic nuclei-mostly hydrogen nuclei, or protons-that whiz through space at close to the speed of light. No ordinary star could boost matter to such unimaginably high speeds; some other high-energy process in deep space must be at work. Researchers suspect supernovas but dont yet have conclusive evidence. The problem is that cosmic rays themselves dont tell you where theyve come from. Because the particles carry electric charge, interstellar magnetic fields scramble their trajectories, making it impossible to identify their source. But if theorists are right that the cosmic rays get their initial kick from supernova remnants, then this boost has a byproduct: TeV gamma rays, which, being chargeless, zip through space as straight as an arrow. Find where those gamma rays come from, the theory goes, and you might just find a source of cosmic rays.. Gamma rays dont give up their secrets easily, however, because they cannot penetrate Earths atmosphere. Astronomers first got ...
This finding is important for understanding the origin of cosmic rays, which are atomic nuclei that strike the Earths atmosphere with very high energies. Scientists believe that some are produced by flares on the Sun, and others by similar events on other stars, or pulsars or black hole accretion disks. But, one of the prime suspects has been supernova shock waves. Now, a team of astronomers has used Chandra observations of Tychos supernova remnant to strengthen the case for this explanation ...
We thus find that there is no significant correlation of the CRF curve from Shavivs model and the temperature curve of Veizer, even after one of the four CRF peaks was arbitrarily shifted by 40 m.y. to improve the fit to the temperature curve. There also is no significant correlation between the original meteorite data and the temperature reconstruction. The explained variance claimed by [Shaviv and Veizer, 2003] is the maximum achievable by optimal smoothing of the temperature data and by making several arbitrary adjustments to the cosmic ray data (within their large uncertainty) to line up their peaks with the temperature curve. Regression of CO2 and temperature. The final argument of [Shaviv and Veizer, 2003] - that CO2 has a smaller effect on climate than previously thought - is based on a simple regression analysis of smoothed temperature and CO2 reconstructions. [Shaviv and Veizer, 2003] conclude that the effect of a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration on tropical sea surface ...
Charge-coupled device detectors are vulnerable to cosmic rays that can contaminate Raman spectra with positive going spikes. Because spikes can adversely affect spectral processing and data analyses, they must be removed. Although both hardware-based and software-based spike removal methods exist, they typically require parameter and threshold specification dependent on well-considered user input. Here, we present a fully automated spike removal algorithm that proceeds without requiring user input. It is minimally dependent on sample attributes, and those that are required (e.g., standard deviation of spectral noise) can be determined with other fully automated procedures. At the core of the method is the identification and location of spikes with coincident second derivatives along both the spectral and spatiotemporal dimensions of two-dimensional datasets. The method can be applied to spectra that are relatively inhomogeneous because it provides fairly effective and selective targeting of ...
This old argument is getting another airing among the internet climate change contrarian/denier ghetto. Briefly it claims that humans have nothing to do with current climate change - its all caused by the sun! Specifically the influence of cosmic rays originating from the sun on formation of clouds in the atmosphere. Of course things are…