Corynebacterium amycolatum is a Gram-positive, nonspore-forming, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacillus capable of fermentation with propionic acid as the major end product of its glucose metabolism. One of its best known relatives is Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria. C. amycolatum is a common component of the natural flora found on human skin and mucous membranes, and as such, is often disregarded by physicians as a contaminant when found in blood cultures. However, C. amycolatum is actually an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing serious human disease such as endocarditis and sepsis. First described in 1988, C. amycolatum is one of the diphtheroids most often isolated from clinical samples. However, it is often difficult to differentiate from other fermentative corynebacteria such as C. minutissimum and C. xerosis, both of which are known human pathogens. One method of differentiation, however, is by observing the cell wall. Unlike other members of this ...
Corynebacterium macginleyi is a species of bacteria with type strain JCL-2 (CIP 104099). It is considered pathogenic. Riegel, P.; Ruimy, R.; De Briel, D.; PReVOST, G.; Jehl, F.; Christen, R.; Monteil, H. (1995). Genomic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships among Lipid-Requiring Diphtheroids from Humans and Characterization of Corynebacterium macginleyi sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 45 (1): 128-133. doi:10.1099/00207713-45-1-128. ISSN 0020-7713. PMID 7857793. Joussen, A. M (2000). Corynebacterium macginleyi: a conjunctiva specific pathogen. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 84 (12): 1420-1422. doi:10.1136/bjo.84.12.1420. ISSN 0007-1161. Funke, Guido; Pagano-Niederer, Maja; Bernauer, Wolfgang (1998). Corynebacterium macginleyi has to date been isolated exclusively from conjunctival swabs. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 36 (12): 3670-3673. Dias, Meena; Rao, Suresh D.; Shet, Dinesh (2010). Corynebacterium macginleyia rare bacteria causing infection in an ...
An increasing body of evidence indicates that nondiphtheria corynebacteria may be responsible for respiratory tract infections. We report an outbreak of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum infection in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). To identify 18 C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains isolated from 13 French children with CF, we used molecular methods (partial rpoB gene sequencing) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Clinical symptoms were exhibited by 10 children (76.9%), including cough, rhinitis, and lung exacerbations. The results of MALDI-TOF identification matched perfectly with those obtained from molecular identification. Retrospective analysis of sputum specimens by using specific real-time PCR showed that ≈20% of children with CF were colonized with these bacteria, whereas children who did not have CF had negative test results. Our study reemphasizes the conclusion that correctly identifying bacteria at the species level facilitates
Free Online Library: Nosocomial endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium amycolatum and other nondiphtheriae corynebacteria. (Dispatches). by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Cross infection Causes of Drug resistance in microorganisms Research Endocarditis Microbial drug resistance Nosocomial infections Pathogenic microorganisms
Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum ATCC ® BAA-732™ Designation: Vitek #12653 TypeStrain=False Application: Quality control strain
More specific detection methods in recent years have allowed further investigation of the coryneform bacterias.C macginleyi was first identified in 1995 by Riegel et al 5-7 during investigations on lipophilic corynebacteria. It has been uniquely isolated from ocular surfaces. The first 18 cases ofC macginleyi conjunctivitis have been detected in Switzerland.8 Within the recent past we found in 10 patients 13 cases of C macginleyiconjunctivitis in Germany, indicating that the presence of this micro-organism is not geographically limited.. Thiel et al report on increasing percentage of patients positive for corynebacteria.10 11 We found in our patients 18.7% Staphylococcus aureus, 12.1% Corynebacterium macginleyi, and 8.4%Haemophilus influenzae. Fahmiet al, however, found coagulase negative staphylococci in 82% and corynebacteria in 58% of their mainly elderly patients.12 In our study group we foundC macginleyi predominantly in middle aged patients without any preference regarding sex. This is in ...
Corynebacterium minutissimum: …and attributed to the bacterium Corynebacterium minutissimum. The lesions are generally seen on the inner sides of the thighs, in the scrotum, in the toe webs, and in the armpits. Erythrasma is more likely to occur in a warm climate. It is usually effectively treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, but (on…
Corynebacterium minutissimum symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Corynebacterium minutissimum (Erythrasma) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
TY - JOUR. T1 - 9α-Hydroxylation of 4-androstene-3,17-dione by gel-entrapped Corynebacterium sp. cells. AU - Sonomoto, Kenji. AU - Usui, Naoki. AU - Tanaka, Atsuo. AU - Fukui, Saburo. PY - 1983/7/1. Y1 - 1983/7/1. N2 - Whole cells of Corynebacterium sp. having steroid 9α-hydroxylation system were immobilized by entrapment with photo-crosslinkable resin prepolymers, urethane prepolymers or several kinds of polysaccharides. Of various entrapment methods tested, cells entrapped in photo-crosslinked gels showed the highest activity to hydroxylate 4-androstene-3,17-dione at 9α-position. The properties of the photo-crosslinkable resin prepolymers, such as the hydrophobicity and the chain length of the prepolymers, affected markedly the activity of the entrapped cells. Addition of dimethyl sulfoxide to a buffer system at 15 vol. % was effective to solubilize the product, 9α-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione, and gave the highest yield. In an aqueous system, the activity of hydrophilic gel-entrapped ...
Three coryneform strains isolated from clinical samples were analysed. These strains fitted the biochemical profile of Corynebacterium striatum by conventional methods. However, according to recently described identification tests for fermenting corynebacteria, the strains behaved rather like Corynebacterium minutissimum. The three isolates could be distinguished from C. minutissimum by a positive nitrate and nitrite reductase test and by not fermenting maltose; from C. striatum by their inability to acidify ethylene glycol and to grow at 20 degrees C. Genetic studies based on 16S rRNA showed that the three strains were in fact different from C. minutissimum and C. striatum (96.9 and 98% similarity, respectively) and from other corynebacteria. They represent a new species for which the name Corynebacterium simulans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DSM 44415T (= UCL 553T = Co 553T).
1. The major free lipids of Corynebacterium aquaticum were characterized as dimannosyl diglyceride, monomannophosphoinositide and phosphatidylethanolamine. Bisphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol were also tentatively identified. 2. We regard this as the only well-documented case of an organism containing monomannophosphoinositide to the exclusion of dimannophosphoinositides and the higher homologues. 3. The co-existence of the two mannolipids in one organism is a distinctive feature. So also is the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine in a corynebacterium. 4. The monomannophosphoinositide apparently does not utilize phosphatidylinositol as a precursor, unlike the monomannophosphoinositide of Propionibacterium shermanii. CDP-diglyceride may be necessary for its synthesis.. ...
Author: S. MATHAVI, A.V. RAGHAVENDRA RAO, A. KAVITHA, G. SASIKALA, INDRA PRIYADHARSINI. Category: Microbiology. [Download PDF]. Abstract:. Introduction: Coryneform or the nondiphtherial Corynebacterium species remains a neglected group as contaminants. Theseorganisms havebeen associated with invasive disease, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Species like Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium jeikeium , Corynebacterium minutissimum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are reported with increasing frequency. An alarming rate of antibiotic resistance is also documented among such organisms. Aim and Objective: This study was done to find out the various species of clinically relevant Coryneforms and to determine their antibiogram.. Materials and Methods: A total of 857 clinical samples (Pus, wound swab, urine, blood, sputum and catheter tips) received in the Microbiology department during January 2013 to October 2013 were included in the study. They were subjected to Grams staining and ...
Specific bacterial commensals demonstrating multidrug resistance (MDR) are opportunistic pathogens for immunocompromised patients, including Corynebacterium species (spp.). Severe infections due to MDR corynebacteria are being increasingly reported where several MDR phenotypes have been described. One such phenotype, the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype (MLSB), is characterized by high-level resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B. Resistance is thought to be attributable to acquisition of the ermX gene, a methyltransferase that alters the ribosomal macrolide binding site. Until recently, ermX had been reported in only six Corynebacterium spp. We have observed other corynebacteria can also display high-level resistance to MLSB antimicrobials and are ermX positive. Hypotheses being tested include: 1) high-level macrolide and lincosamide resistance in Corynebacterium spp. is caused by acquiring ermX; 2) distribution of ermX is more widespread than previously ...
Background: Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans can cause a diphtheria-like illness in humans and have been found in domestic animals, which were suspected to serve as reservoirs for a zoonotic transmission. Additionally, toxigenic C. ulcerans were reported to take over the leading role in causing diphtheria in the last years in many industrialized countries. Methods: To gain deeper insights into the tox gene locus and to understand the transmission pathway in detail, we analyzed nine isolates derived from human patients and their domestic animals applying next generation sequencing and comparative genomics. Results: We provide molecular evidence for zoonotic transmission of C. ulcerans in four cases and demonstrate the superior resolution of next generation sequencing compared to multi-locus sequence typing for epidemiologic research. Additionally, we provide evidence that the virulence of C. ulcerans can change rapidly by acquisition of novel virulence genes. This mechanism is exemplified by an ...
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Corynebacterium renale ATCC ® 19412™ Designation: NCTC 7448 TypeStrain=True Application: Quality control strain Quality control for API Coryne
We conducted molecular typing of a Corynebacterium ulcerans isolate from a woman who died in Japan in 2016. Genomic DNA modification might have affected the isolates ribotyping profile. Multilocus sequence typing results (sequence type 337) were more accurate. Whole-genome sequencing had greater ability to discriminate lineages at high resolution.
Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl ...
Catalyzes the oxidation of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate and then the hydrolysis of 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate to 10-formyltetrahydrofolate.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation of Corynebacterium equi from a foal with an ulcerated leg wound and a pectoral abscess. AU - Smith, Bradford. AU - Jang, S.. PY - 1980/12/1. Y1 - 1980/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019275536&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019275536&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7440356. AN - SCOPUS:0019275536. VL - 177. SP - 623. EP - 624. JO - Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. JF - Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. SN - 0003-1488. IS - 7. ER - ...
An attempt was made by the authors to survey the distribution of C. renale in apparently healthy Korean male cattle and dairy cattle, and to determine the types of C. renale isolated in Korea. A total of 153 urine samples and 240 vaginal smears were collected from 253 cows for examination, and 124 urine samples of Korean cattle were investigated. Of them, one case showed cystitis symptoms. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The organism was detected from 8(6.5%) of 124 specimens of Korean cattle. The isolates studied in this survey belonged to type I (4.1%), type III (1.6%) and untypable(0.8%) of C. renale. 2. The rate of isolation of C. renale was 7.5% (19 of 253 individuals) in apparently healthy cow. The 26 strains isolated from the 19 dairy cattle belonged to type I (38.5%), type II (26.9%), type III (24.6%) and untypable(11.5%) in the serological classification. From the cow with clinical cystitis, type III strain was isolated. 3. It appears that the isolation rate depends on
Some species of Corynebacterium have sequenced genomes that range in size from 2.5 - 3 Mbp. They can be found in many environments including soil, trees and skin. The non-diptheiroid Corynebecterium can also be found in human mucous membranes. They grow slowly, even on enriched media, and undergo Chinese Letter division. Species of Corynebacterium have been used in the mass production of various amino acids including L-Glutamic Acid, a popular food additive that is made at a rate of 1.5 million tons/ year by Corynebacterium. The metabolic pathways of Corynebacterium have been further manipulated to produce L-Lysine and L-Threonine ...
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Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
Saltanat, N., Hossain, Alamgir and Alam, Muhammad (2010) An efficient pixel value based mapping scheme to delineate pectoral muscle from mammograms. In: IEEE Fifth International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications, 23-26 September 2010, Changsha, China. Sangal, Vartul, Nieminen, Leena, Weinhardt, Barbara, Raeside, Janice, Tucker, Nicholas, Florea, Catalina-Diana, Pollock, Kevin and Hoskisson, Paul (2014) Diphtheria-like disease caused by Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans strain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20 (7). pp. 1257-1258. ISSN 1080-6059 Sarac, Ferdi and Seker, Huseyin (2016) An instance selection framework for mining data streams to predict antibody-feature function relationships on RV144 HIV vaccine recipients. In: Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). IEEE, 003356-003361. ISBN 9781509018970 Sarac, Ferdi, Uslan, Volkan, Seker, Huseyin and Bouridane, Ahmed (2016) A supervised feature selection framework ...
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
«Corynebacterium» Corynebacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. They are widely distributed in nature and are mostly innocuous. Some are useful ...
Genomics: Corynebacterium diphtheriae: chromosome 2,488,635 bp; 2320 predicted ORFs (Cerdeno-Tarraga et al. 2003) Cell morphology: Rod-shaped cells; irregular, club-shaped ( Coryne), or V-shaped...
Thermo Scientific™ Culti-Loops™ are ready-to-use QC organisms recommended for use in performance testing of media, stains, reagents and identification kits, and for the evaluation of bacteriological procedures.
Sepsis with a previously undescribed species of Corynebacterium was documented in four patients. All patients had predisposing illness at the time of infection, three patients having leukemia in relapse and one having a porencephalic cyst and a ventriculoatrial shunt. The isolates from blood cultures had a characteristic metallic sheen when grown on blood agar. They were resistant to most antibiotics tested, including the penicillins, but were uniformly sensitive to vancomycin. Common biochemical characteristics, the metallic sheen, and the unusual antibiotic sensitivity pattern suggest that these isolates comprise a new species or group of closely related species of Corynebacterium that is capable of infection in man. ...
Corynebacterium argentoratense is part of the human skin microbiota and is occasionally detected in the upper respiratory tract of patients suffering from tonsillitis. The complete DNA sequence of the type strain DSM 44202 comprises 2,031,902 bp, yielding the smallest genome sequenced thus far for a corynebacterium associated with humans. ...
Cutaneous microbiota is extremely diverse. Its composition varies according to the cutaneous zone and between individuals, and its imbalance is associated with skin diseases.. Cutaneous microbiota is particularly complex, with extremely significant inter- and intra-individual variations1. It is composed of a set of microorganisms, bacteria, yeasts, viruses, and parasites. At least 19 major families of bacteria have been identified: the primary ones are Actinobacteria (Corynebacterium, etc.), Firmicutes (Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, etc.) and Proteobacteria (Acinetobacter, etc.)1,2. Among the bacterial strains present on healthy skin, the primary ones found are Corynebacterium jeikeium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis3. Microbiota composition varies based on the location, ranging from 100 microorganisms per cm2 on the back or the tips of the fingers to 106 on the forehead or in the armpits2.. This microbiota develops from birth, as a result of the ...
Corynebacterium glutamicum is together with C. callunae and C. efficiens a member of the diverse group of mycolic-acid containing actinomycetes, the mycolata. These bacteria are potent producer of glutamate, lysine and other amino acids on industrial scale. The cell walls of most actinomycetes contain besides an arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex large amounts of mycolic acids. This three-layer envelope is called MAP (mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan) complex and it represents a second permeability barrier beside the cytoplasmic membrane similar to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In analogy to the situation in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, channels are present in the mycolic acid layer of the mycobacterial cell wall for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. Molecular studies have provided far-reaching findings on the amino acid flux and its balance in C. glutamicum in general, but the L-glutamate export still remains unknown. The properties of the outer ...
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However I took about 18 of these samples and streaked them onto blood agar. After 24hrs the growth rates were very mixed. 3 had excellent growth and were all IDed as corynebacterium spp. The other 15 had very little growth and only one of these had enough growth for a full ID. This one came off as Clostridium ...
The antibiotic activity of three kinds of chitosans with different molecular weight(50, 100, 200 kD) and same deacelylated degree(85%), was evaluated against some bacteria(Staphyloccus aurueus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium minutissimum, Escherichia coli, Candida albillus).The growth of all the bacteria tested were inhibited by chitosans treatments, and the inhibiting rate decreased with the rising of chitosans molecular weight. The minimum inhibitory concentration of all the chitosans is above 0.5 g/L. The effects of temperature, metal ions on the antibiotic activity of chitosans were also assessed.
We describe the first reported case of Corynebacterium striatum (C. striatum) relapsing bacteraemia in a patient with peripheral arterial disease and proven Corynebacterium species colonization of a chronic foot ulcer, focusing on the difficulties in the management of the patient. We conclude that the optimal duration of the antibiotic treatment for relapsing C. striatum bacteraemia from a chronic ulcer should be 6 weeks together with surgical treatment.. Key words: Corynebacterium striatum, antibiotic treatment, peripheral arterial disease, relapsing bacteraemia, skin infection. Corynebacterium species other than Corynebacterium diphteriae are part of the normal flora of human skin and mucous membranes (Coyle and Lipsky, 1990). Corynebacterium striatum (C. striatum), a gram-positive bacillus, was traditionally regarded to be a colonizer or a contaminant (Watkins et al., 1993). The first published case of C. striatum infection was in 1980 in an immunocompromised patient with pleuropulmonary ...
The surface (S)-layer gene region of the Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 14067 was identified on fosmid clones, sequenced and compared with the genome sequence of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, whose cell surface is devoid of an ordered S-layer lattice. A 5-97 kb DNA region that is absent from the C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 chromosome was identified. This region includes cspB, the structural gene encoding the S-layer protomer PS2, and six additional coding sequences. PCR experiments demonstrated that the respective DNA region is conserved in different C. glutamicum wild-type strains capable of S-layer formation. The DNA region is flanked by a 7 bp direct repeat, suggesting that illegitimate recombination might be responsible for gene loss in C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. Transfer of the cloned cspB gene restored the PS2(-) phenotype of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, as confirmed by visualization of the PS2 proteins by SDS-PAGE and imaging of ordered hexagonal S-layer lattices on living ...
Corynebacterium striatum is a member of the non-diphtherial corynebacteria, which are ubiquitous in nature and generally colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans. Rarely, it causes infective endocarditis (IE). We report a case of rare left atrial bacterial vegetative mass due to C. striatum masquerading as a myxoma identified through a tortuous diagnostic process, and present a brief review of the relevant literature. We present a case of 63-year-old man who presented with progressively worsening dyspnea on exertion and lower leg edema, and was diagnosed with heart failure. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed that the left atrium was filled with a 2.7 cm × 2.6 cm mass. The patient, who had no signs of infection or related risk factors, was suspected of having a left atrial myxoma clinically. After excising the mass, the histopathology suggested thrombus with no myxocytes. Postoperatively, a fever appeared and C. striatum was isolated from the blood
Diphtheria toxin (DT) is produced by toxigenic strains of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae as well as zoonotic C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis. Toxigenic strains may cause severe respiratory diphtheria, myocarditis, neurological damage or cutaneous diphtheria. The DT encoding tox gene is located in a mobile genomic region and tox variability between C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans has been postulated based on sequences of a few isolates. In contrast, species-specific sequence analysis of the diphtheria toxin repressor gene (dtxR), occurring both in toxigenic and non-toxigenic Corynebacterium species, has not been done yet. We used whole genome sequencing data from 91 toxigenic and 46 non-toxigenic isolates of different pathogenic Corynebacterium species of animal or human origin to elucidate differences in extracted DT, DtxR and tox-surrounding genetic elements by a phylogenetic analysis in a large sample set. Sequences of both DT and DtxR, extracted from whole genome sequencing data,
The genus Corynebacterium is composed of Gram-positive bacteria that are widely distributed throughout the environment; these bacteria are also part of the normal microbiota of human skin and mucous membranes. Multiple studies have shown that species of this genus, including C. striatum, become pathogenic to humans under special conditions. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of clinical multiresistant strains of C. striatum that were isolated in our geographical region, to determine their diversity, and to compare them with the type strain and with related species. We studied fifty-two strains of C. striatum isolated from different hospitals from Mallorca, Spain, mainly from the Hospital Joan March in Bunyola, Mallorca. Most of the strains were isolated from sputum cultures of respiratory samples from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To gain further insight into the genetic diversity of the strains, we analysed several housekeeping genes and other genes associated with
Looking for Corynebacterium parvum? Find out information about Corynebacterium parvum. A genus of gram-positive, straight or slightly curved rods in the coryneform group of bacteria; club-shaped swellings are common; includes human and animal... Explanation of Corynebacterium parvum
The secondary glycine-betaine transporter BetP is one of four osmoregulated carriers, which mediate the import of compatible solutes in the Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum under hyperosmotic conditions. BetP serves both as an osmosensor and osmoregulator. Thus the protein has the ability to sense osmotic stress and to regulate its catalytic activity in dependence of the given stress situation. Investigations in proteoliposomes had shown that an elevated internal K+ concentration is the specific stimulus for BetP activation in vitro. In this work a stimulus for an osmosensor identified in vitro could be verified in vivo for the first time, as it was shown that BetP activity depends also in living cell on the presence of potassium. However, the in vivo measurements indicated that beyond K+ a second stimulus is required for osmoresponsive BetP-activation in living cells. It was known that the cytoplasmic C-terminal BetP-domain is essential for potassium sensing. Using ...
Background Methanol is present in most ecosystems and may also occur in industrial applications, e.g. as an impurity of carbon sources such as technical glycerol. Methanol often inhibits growth of bacteria, thus, methanol tolerance may limit fermentative production processes. Results The methanol tolerance of the amino acid producing soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was improved by experimental evolution in the presence of methanol. The resulting strain Tol1 exhibited significantly increased growth rates in the presence of up to 1 M methanol. However, neither transcriptional changes nor increased enzyme activities of the linear methanol oxidation pathway were observed, which was in accordance with the finding that tolerance to the downstream metabolites formaldehyde and formate was not improved. Genome sequence analysis of strain Tol1 revealed two point mutations potentially relevant to enhanced methanol tolerance: one leading to the amino acid exchange A165T of O-acetylhomoserine ...
One of the most important organisms in biotechnology, Corynebacterium glutamicum is currently used to produce 2 million tons of amino acids per year for a rapidly expanding market. Until now, research and information have been scattered among individual papers which are often difficult to locate in a timely manner. As the first complete compilation of major findings, Handbook of Corynebacterium glutamicum is a comprehensive source of scientific and technical information required for the understanding and manipulation of C. glutamicum. The book summarizes the current knowledge in the field ofC. glutamicum research from its discovery in 1957 through the most recent studies at the genomic and systemic level, and provides a basis for future work. Written by experts from industry and academia, chapters cover all major aspects of C. glutamicum, including physiology, biochemistry, genetics, and industrial applications. Just as C. glutamicum has proven its profitability in industry and research, this book will
One of the most important organisms in biotechnology, Corynebacterium glutamicum is currently used to produce 2 million tons of amino acids per year for a rapidly expanding market. Until now, research and information have been scattered among individual papers which are often difficult to locate in a timely manner. As the first complete compilation of major findings, Handbook of Corynebacterium glutamicum is a comprehensive source of scientific and technical information required for the understanding and manipulation of C. glutamicum. The book summarizes the current knowledge in the field ofC. glutamicum research from its discovery in 1957 through the most recent studies at the genomic and systemic level, and provides a basis for future work. Written by experts from industry and academia, chapters cover all major aspects of C. glutamicum, including physiology, biochemistry, genetics, and industrial applications. Just as C. glutamicum has proven its profitability in industry and research, this book will
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Trypsin-like activity (TLA), clinical parameters and TLA-postitive bacteria were examined in periodontitis and healthy sites in dogs. TLA was markedly higher in periodontitis than at healthy sites. There was good correlation between TLA positivity and severity of periodontal disease. The proportions of TLA-positive bacteria to total isolates in periodontitis and healthy sites were 21.1% and 2.1%, respectively. Among TLA-positive bacteria in periodontitis sites, 4.4% showed strong TLA activity, 35.3% showed moderate and 60.3% showed weak activity. In the healthy sites, all the TLA-positive bacteria showed weak activity. In all, 90% of the total number of TLA-positve bacteria were identified as belonging to the family Actinomycetaceae; 40% of bacteria belonging to the family Actinomycetaceae were identified as genus Corynebacterium with moderate trypsin-like activity and the remaining 60% were identified as genus Actinomyces with weak activity. Obligately anaerobic bacteria accounted for only 5.9% of the
The function of starch phosphorylase has long been debated on the regulation of starch metabolism during the growth and development of plants. In this study, we isolated starch phosphorylase genes (Pho1 and Pho2) from barley, characterized their gene and protein structures, predicated their promoters cis-elements and analyzed expression patterns. Multiple alignments of these genes showed that (1) both Pho1 and Pho2 genes possess 15 exons and 14 introns in all but three of the species analyzed, Aegilops tauschii (for Pho1 which contains 16 exons and 15 introns), potato (for Pho1b which contains 14 exons and 13 introns), and Triticum uraru (for Pho2 which contains 15 exons and 14 introns); (2) the exon-intron junctions of Pho1 and Pho2 flanking the ligand-binding sites are more conservative than the other regions. Analysis of protein sequences revealed that Pho1 and Pho2 were highly homologous except for two regions, the N terminal domain and the L78 insertion region. The results of real-time ...
Resistance to arsenite (As(III)) by cells is generally accomplished by arsenite efflux permeases from Acr3 or ArsB unrelated families. We analyzed the function of three Acr3 proteins from Corynebacterium glutamicum, CgAcr3-1, CgAcr3-2, and CgAcr3-3. CgAcr3-1 conferred the highest level of As(III) resistance and accumulation in vivo. CgAcr3-1 was also the most active when everted membranes vesicles from Escherichia coli or C. glutamicum mutants were assayed for efflux with different energy sources. As(III) and antimonite (Sb(III)) resistance and accumulation studies using E. coli or C. glutamicum arsenite permease mutants clearly show that CgAcr3-1 is specific for As(III). In everted membrane vesicles expressing CgAcr3-1, dissipation of either the membrane potential or the pH gradient of the proton motive force did not prevent As(III) uptake, whereas dissipation of both components eliminated uptake. Further, a mutagenesis study of CgAcr3-1 suggested that a conserved cysteine and glutamate are ...
The influence of pH and inoculum size on phenol utilization by bacterial isolates from oil refinery effluent was investigated. The substrate used for the assessment was phenol, which formed a model substrate for the experiment. Phenol was progressively degraded at pH range of 6.3 to 8.0. Maximum phenol degradation by Bacillus sp. RBD1 and Corynebacterium sp. RBD2 was obtained at pH value of 7.1. Conversely, utilization of phenol at pH 5.5 was significantly high for both organisms. Phenol was degraded at every cell density (inoculum size) tested with the two organisms but phenol degradation rate increased with increasing inoculum size. Cultures of Bacillus sp. RBD1 and Corynebacterium sp.RBD2 with the lowest cell densities exhibited highest specific rate of utilization of phenol. The results obtained indicated lower phenol utilization rate per colony forming unit at higher cell density. It was also found that pH 6.3 to 8.0 was found to be optimal for phenol degradation by the test organisms ...
Dear collegues, I´d like to get to know people (scientists, work groups et c.), who work on any topic concerning the genera Corynebacterium or Brevibacterium. As I started my PhD studying Corynebacterium glutamicum (osmotic stress - amino acid production) last year I would be grateful to get in contact with as many people as possible sharing interest in this field of research. However, please don´t hesitate to contact me, if you´re working on the molecular biology level. My aim is to get to know problems you don´t read from in the literature or even share some problem solutions.... Thank you. If reply, please remove the nospam Yours, Hendrik Rönsch University of Cologne, Biochemistry Please visit my homepage: http://come.to/hendrik.roensch ...
The procedure has been used successfully for isolation of different medium-copy-number plasmids carrying pHM1519 or pBL1 origins of replication from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032. Yield of plasmid DNA was typically 0.4-1.5 µg per ml LB culture, although yield was dependent on the vector, the insert, and the size of the plasmid ...
l-Ornithine, a non-essential amino acid, has enormous industrial applications in food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. Currently, l-ornithine production is focused on microorganism fermentation using Escherichia coli or Corynebacterium glutamicum. In C. glutamicum, development of high l-ornithine producing C. glutamicum was achieved by deletion of argF, but was accompanied by growth deficiency and arginine auxotrophy. l-Arginine has been routinely added to solve this problem; however, this increases production cost and causes feedback inhibition of N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase activity. To avoid the drawbacks of growth disturbance due to disruption of ArgF, strategies were adopted to attenuate its expression. Firstly, ribosome binding site substitution and start codon replacement were introduced to construct recombinant C. glutamiucm strains, which resulted in an undesirable l-ornithine production titer. Then, we inserted a terminator (rrnB) between argD and argF, which significantly improved l
The dicarboxylic acid glutarate is an important building-block gaining interest in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Here, a synthetic pathway for fermentative production of glutarate by the actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum has been developed. The pathway does not require molecular oxygen and operates via lysine decarboyxylase followed by two transamination and two NAD-dependent oxidation reactions. Using a genome-streamlined L-lysine producing strain as basis, metabolic engineering was performed to enable conversion of L-lysine to glutarate in a five-step synthetic pathway comprising lysine decarboxylase, putrescine transaminase and γ-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli and GABA/5AVA amino transferase and succinate/glutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase either from C. glutamicum or from three Pseudomonas species. Loss of carbon via formation of the by-products cadaverine and N-acetylcadaverine was avoided by deletion of the respective acetylase and export genes. As
The genus of Gram positive bacilli including Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the cause of diphtheria in humans. Genus also includes C. minutissimum, the cause of erythrasma in humans and the diphtheroids which are commensal corynebacteria making up part of the human respiratory tract normal flora.. ...
Molecular cloning of the Corynebacterium glutamicum (Brevibacterium lactofermentum AJ12036) odhA gene encoding a novel type of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase
Funke, G, von Graevenitz, A, Clarridge III, J. Clinical microbiology of coryneform bacteria. Clin Microbiol Rev. vol. 10. 1997. pp. 125-59. (A nice review of the clinical microbiology of this group of organisms.) Hollis, DG, Weaver, RE. Gram-positive organisms: a guide to identification. 1981. (A comprehensive review of the microbiology of all gram-positive organisms.) Meyer, DK, Reboli, AC, Mandell, GL, Dolin, R, Bennett, JE. Other Corynebacteria and Rhodococcus. Principles and practice of infectious diseases. 2010. pp. 2695-706. (An excellent review of the taxonomy, microbiology, and clinical manifestations of all coryneform bacteria other than Corynebacterium diptheriae.) Trost, E, Ott, L, Schneider, J. The complete genome sequence of FRC41 isolated from a 12-year-old girl with necrotizing lymphadenitis reveals insights into gene-regulatory networks contributing to virulence. BMC Genomics. vol. 11. 2010. pp. 728(Review of the genetics and virulence.) Copyright © 2017, 2013 Decision ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased Susceptibility to Escherichia coli Infection in Mice Pretreated with Corynebacterium parvum. AU - Yoshikai, Yasunobu. AU - Miake, Shunji. AU - Sano, Masatoshi. AU - Nomoto, Kikuo. PY - 1983/1/1. Y1 - 1983/1/1. N2 - The contribution of activated macrophages to protection against Escherichia coli was studied in mice treated intravenously with Corynebacterium parvum 7 days before infection. C. parvum‐treated mice showed increased phagocytic activity and enhanced resistance to Listeria infection. In contrast, these mice showed increased susceptibility to a subsequent challenge with E. coli that correlated closely with a reduction in the LD50 of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in these mice. The peritoneal macrophages obtained from C. parvum‐treated mice had a strong ability to phagocytize and kill E. coli in in vitro experiments. A rapid decline in the number of bacteria in the liver of C. parvum‐treated mice was observed in the early period of infection. However, the number ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Corynebacterium parvum versus bacille calmette-guérin adjuvant immunotherapy of stage II malignant melanoma. AU - Lipton, Allan. AU - Harvey, Harold A.. AU - Balch, Charles M.. AU - Antle, Charles E.. AU - Heckard, Robert. AU - Bartolucci, Alfred A.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Two separate studies have been reported comparing Corynebacterium parvum and bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as adjuvant immunotherapy for stage II melanoma patients (The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 48 patients; Southeastern Cancer Study Group [SECSG], 162 patients). As the criteria for patient selection and drugs used were similar, we have pooled the data to analyze the effects of these two treatments. Both studies used BCG (Tice, Chicago, IL) 3 x 108 live organisms per treatment by Tine technique and C parvum (Burroughs-Wellcome, Triangle Park, NC) subcutaneous at a dose of 4 mg/m2 (SECSG) or 5 μg/m2 (Hershey) per treatment. The only difference in these studies was the frequency of immunization, ...
The construction of microbial cell factories requires cost-effective and rapid strain development through metabolic engineering. Recently, RNA-guided CRISPR technologies have been developed for metabolic engineering of industrially-relevant host. To demonstrate the application of the CRISPR interference (CRISPRi), we developed two-plasmid CRISPRi vectors and applied the CRISPRi in Corynebacterium glutamicum to repress single target genes and double target genes simultaneously. Four-different single genes (the pyc, gltA, idsA, and glgC genes) repressions were successfully performed using the CRISPRi vectors, resulting significant mRNA reductions of the targets compared to a control. Subsequently, the phenotypes for the target gene-repressed strains were analyzed, showing the expected cell growth behaviors with different carbon sources. In addition, double gene repression (the idsA and glgC genes in a different order) by the CRISPRi resulted in an independent gene repression to each target gene
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for gi|145295828|ref|YP_001138649.1| from Corynebacterium glutamicum R. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Although Corynebacterium equi is a well-known pathogen for domestic animals, this species has not been documented as a cause of human infection. In the following case report C. equi was isolated in pure culture from a lung abscess and subcutaneous abscess in a patient with an impaired immune mechanism. The characteristics of this species and its significance in veterinary medicine are discussed. ...
We report an annotated draft genome of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. intermedius NCTC 5011. This strain is the first C. diphtheriae bv. intermedius strain to be sequenced, and our results provide a useful comparison to the other primary disease-causing biovars, C. diphtheriae bv. gravis and C. diphtheriae bv. mitis. The sequence has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank with the accession number AJVH01000000.. ...
FIG. 4. Comparison of mRNA levels and determination of the transcriptional start sites of the C. glutamicum genes pstS (A), ugpA (B), phoR (C), ushA (D), and nucH (E) by primer extension analysis. The reverse transcriptase reactions were performed with the oligonucleotides pstS_prext2, ugpA_prext2, phoR_prext1b, ushA80prext, and nucH90prext for these four genes, respectively, and 20 μg of total RNA was isolated from the following strains: the wild type grown under phosphate excess (lane 1); the wild type 60 min (A and B), 10 min (C), or 90 min (D and E) after a shift from 13 mM Pi to 0.065 mM Pi (lane 2); the ΔphoRS mutant grown under Pi excess (lane 3); and the ΔphoRS mutant 60 min (A and B), 10 min (C), or 90 min (D and E) after a shift from 13 mM Pi to 0.065 mM Pi (lane 4). The transcriptional start sites are indicated by asterisks. The corresponding sequencing reactions were generated by using the same IRD-800-labeled oligonucleotide as in the primer extension reactions as well as PCR ...
Respiratory diphtheria is it contagious? Contagiousness of Respiratory diphtheria including infectiousness, transmission, and contagion methods and vectors.
Previously, we showed that C. glutamicum mycothiol peroxidase MPx, similar to the glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), was resistant to and induced by organic and inorganic peroxides [55]. Moreover, E. faecium gpx is regulated by MarR-type AsrR [44]. Thus, we suggested C. glutamicum MPx was regulated by CosR. The lacZ activity of Pmpx::lacZ chromosomal promoter fusion reporter in relevant C. glutamicum strains and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) profiling of mpx expression were quantitatively measured in bacterial cells either untreated or treated with different toxic agents of various concentrations (Figure 5A,B). Concentrations of CHP applied were able to reduce the growth rate but under sub-lethal concentrations (Supplementary Figure S5). As expected, high levels of the promoter lacZ activity of mpx were detected in the ΔcosR strain, regardless of whether or not CHP was present. Under normal conditions (without CHP treatment), the promoter lacZ activity of mpx in ΔcosR strain was 6.5 times ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae answers are found in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Wagner KS, White JM, Neal S, Crowcroft NS, Kuprevičiene N, Paberza R, Lucenko I, Jõks U, Akbaş E, Alexandrou-Athanassoulis H, Detcheva A, Vuopio J, von Hunolstein C, Murphy PG, Andrews N; Members of the Diphtheria Surveillance Network (DIPNET), Efstratiou A., Screening for Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans in patients with upper respiratory tract infections 2007-2008: a multicentre European study., Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 17, (4), 2011, p519-525 Journal Article, 2011 DOI ...
Pierce, chase C.; Fauve, R M.; and Dubos, R, Corynebacterial pseudotuberculosis in mice. I. Comparative susceptibility of mouse strains to experimental infection with coryne- bacterium kutscheri. (1964). Subject Strain Bibliography 1964. 1371 ...
Dtsch Med J. 1969 Aug;20(15):480-5. Review. German.. The localization and distribution of Corynebacterium acnes and its antigens in normal skin and in lesions of acne vulgaris ...
1.B.34 The Corynebacterial Porin A (PorA) Family. The mycolata are a group of mycolic acid-containing bacteria which include the genera Rhodococcus, Gordona, Dietzia, Tsukamurella, Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium and Norcadia. They have an outer membrane in which the constituent mycolic acids are linked via ester bonds to the arabinogalactan that is attached to the murein of the cell wall. The mycolic acids are 2-branched, 3-hydroxylated fatty acids of varying lengths depending on the organism (i.e., 60-90 carbon atoms for the Mycobacteria, 46-58 carbon atoms for the Norcadia and 22-38 carbon atoms for the Corynebacteria). Porins allow permeation of small hydrophilic molecules across the outer membrane permeability barrier (see the MBP family, TC# 1.B.24). PorA is a small (45 aa) porin of Corynebacterium glutamicum with an excess of four negative charges in agreement with its cation selectivity. It forms wide, oligomeric water-filled pores. It is encoded by a 138 bp gene, porA. Deletion of this ...
As a gram-positive bacterium with good genomic stability, C. glutamicum is more difficult to engineer than genetically tractable hosts such as E. coli [40, 48]. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ssDNA recombineering was developed for deleting 400 bp chromosomal fragment in C. glutamicum in the time this manuscript was being prepared [35]. However, gene deletion and insertion with plasmid-borne editing templates that are key enabling techniques for reconstruction and integration of metabolic pathways are still in demand. In this study, a tailor-made CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox was developed for efficient and comprehensive engineering of C. glutamicum. Notably, gene deletion and insertion with plasmid-borne editing templates were efficiently implemented. Moreover, single-nucleotide editing and double-locus editing were achieved at efficiencies of 90.0 and 40.0%, respectively, which will considerably accelerate precise genome editing of C. glutamicum.. S. pyogenes Cas9 is suggested to be toxic to C. glutamicum and ...
Task 5. Test at cistinase (Pizy test). In the column of gelose with cistin by a prick sow the studied culture and put a test tube in a thermostat. In 1 day a medium is blaking on motion a prick, on the depth of 1 cm view a brown cloud appears from a surface. Difteroidy does not form a cloud .. Task 6. Test at urease (Zaksa test). Determination of urease is made sowing on media with urea. As an indicator in a nutrient media, bring in phenolic red. A nutrient medium with culture Corynebacterium spp. put on 30 minutes in a thermostat (37 C). For this time an urea fissions with formation of ammonia and an medium becomes red (a test is positive, because changes).. Task 7. The indirect hemagglutination test determine the antitoxin antibodies concentration in blood serum. It is made according to the formula: X=10*A/B, where X is content of diphtheria antitoxin in assayed serum (IU), 10- titer of control serum (IU/ml), A - maximal dilution of assayed serum with positive result, B - maximal dilution of ...