We assessed the relationship between changes in corticosterone concentrations and hearing in mice exposed to noise during the light (inactive) and dark (active) phases. Serum corticosterone concentrations and hearing levels were measured before, and 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days after, noise exposure between 8:00-11:00 h and 15:00-18:00 h. Serum corticosterone concentrations were significantly lower at 8:00-11:00 h than at 15:00-18:00 h and were significantly lower before than after noise exposure. In addition, serum corticosterone concentrations were significantly lower at 11:00 h after noise exposure than at 18:00 h before noise exposure. Mice exposed to noise at 8:00-11:00 h showed significantly elevated threshold shifts after noise exposure than did mice exposed to noise at 15:00-18:00 h. Endogenous serum corticosterone concentration has a significant effect on hearing after noise exposure. Noise exposure during the inactive phase of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may be more harmful to the
Repeated exposure to stressful situations has been shown to increase individual reactivity to addictive drugs. However, the biological factors involved in such stress-induced changes are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of corticosterone in the effects of restraint Stress on the response to psychostimulants and opioids. The effects of repeated restraint stress on amphetamine- and morphine-induced locomotor activity were compared in: (i) animals with an intact hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; (ii) animals in which stress-induced corticosterone secretion was blocked by adrenalectomy, but who received exogenous corticosterone from a subcutaneous implant. The implanted pellets (50 mg) slowly release corticosterone producing a stable plasma level within the normal physiological range over a period of 20 days. Restraint stress increased the locomotor response to both amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) and morphine (2 mg/kg s.c.) in animals with an intact HPA axis, but not in ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate possible membrane and genomic effects of corticosterone on the noradrenergic system of the rat brain. Corticosterone effects were studied in vivo by treating rats s.c. with 10 mg/kg corticosterone for 7 or 14 days. In the first two experiments corticosterone significantly decreased the noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) levels in the pons-medulla, an area which contains the A1-A7 noradrenergic cell groups, while the NA and DA levels in the dorsal hippocampus remained unchanged. In a third experiment where the locus coeruleus (LC) and the A1 and A2 nuclei (A1,A2) were analysed separately, NA levels were unchanged but total MHPG levels and the total MHPG/NA ratio were decreased in the A1,A2 area. Chronic corticosterone treatment (14 days) did not alter the α2-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of [3H]NA release from dorsal hippocampal slices. Neither the spontaneous outflow nor the electrically stimulated release of [3H]NA from dorsal hippocampal ...
The results of this study indicate that MA causes sex-dependent activation of the HPA axis with females showing a more prolonged elevation in plasma corticosterone compared to males. In females, the plasma corticosterone response following MA exposure peaked at 70 min post injection and subsequently decreased, but remained elevated above baseline levels at 120 min. In males, MA induced an earlier peak plasma corticosterone response at 30 min with a faster decline by 70 min and levels similar to baseline at 120 min. This sex difference in HPA axis activation with greater plasma corticosterone responses in females than males is similar to that observed in adult rodents following novelty and restraint stress (Handa et al. 1994a, 2009; Zuloaga et al. 2011), as well as administration of pharmacological agents such as the SSRI citalopram (Goel et al. 2011). Furthermore, the pattern of sex difference in HPA axis activation seen in the current study is similar to that seen following chronic exposure to ...
Adolescence is a critical period with ongoing maturational processes in stress-sensitive systems. While adolescent individuals show heightened stress-induced hormonal responses compared to adults, it is unclear whether and how the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of chronic stress would differ between the two age groups. Here we address this issue by examining the effects of chronic exposure to the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), in both adolescent and adult animals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with CORT (40 mg/kg) or vehicle for 21 days during adolescence (post-natal day (PND) 29-49) or adulthood (PND 71-91) and then subjected to behavioral testing or sacrifice for western blot analyses. Despite of similar physical and neuroendocrine effects in both age groups, chronic CORT treatment produced a series of behavioral and neurobiological effects with striking age differences. While CORT-treated adult animals exhibited decreased sucrose preference, increased
The role of the vagal nerve within the immune system has not been fully elucidated. Vagal afferents connect to several central nervous system structures, including the hypothalamus. We investigated the effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) on serum corticosterone levels in rats. Corticosterone levels were measured following 1 h of high frequency (30 Hz) or low frequency (1 Hz) VNS in awake animals. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum corticosterone levels following 30 Hz VNS compared to 1 Hz VNS or sham stimulation. These results suggest an immediate effect of VNS on the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and support the role of the vagal nerve in immunomodulation. ...
1. in order to examine the effects of corticosterone in the anxiety response, the effect of acute, subchronic and chronic corticosterone (CORT) administration were studied using two animal models to study using two animal models to study anxiolytic effects of drugs: the elevated plus-maze and the blockade of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced clonic convulsion.2. the results obtained with the plus-maze showed an increase in the percentage of open arm entries and time spent in the open arms after acute treatment with the CORT. These results may be interpreted as an anxiolytic effect of corticosterone. Three days of vehicle treatment followed by an acute CORT administration, produced results that should also indicate anxiolytic effect of the corticosteroid. No effect was seen after 14 days of vehicle treatment followed by an acute CORT injection. Subchronic or chronic CORT treatment did not produce results different from controls. CORT treatment did not affect the PTZ-induced clonic convulsion.3. in ...
These experiments provide evidence that postnatal adoptions and separations have different behavioral and endocrine effects on the adult offspring, depending on the time of the postnatal treatment. Adult rats that have undergone a 1 min separation within the first 3-6 hr of life display an increased locomotor reactivity to novelty and decreased recognition capacities in a Y-maze test, but no changes of spatial learning in a water maze. The early separation also prolongs stress-induced corticosterone secretion. The adoption procedure carried out on day 1 prevents all of these long-term effects induced by the early separation. In contrast, adult offspring of day 5 and 12 adoptions exhibit increased locomotor reactivity to novelty and impaired spatial learning in the water maze, and rats adopted at day 12 demonstrate impaired recognition memory at the 6 hr delay. Moreover, both later adoptions have long-term endocrine effects in that stress-induced corticosterone secretion is prolonged in the adult ...
Saito, E; Mukai, M; Muraki, T; Ichikawa, Y; and Homma, M, "Inhibitory effects of corticosterone on cell proliferation and stero- idogenesis in the mouse adrenal tumor cell line y-1." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 2174 ...
In the study, the researchers stimulated an aggression-related part of the rat hypothalamus. The rats suddenly released the stress hormone corticosterone (similar to cortisol, which humans release under stress) - even without another rat present. Rats dont usually respond in this way unless they face an opponent or another severe stressor. Lead author Menno Kruk said, "It is well known that these stress hormones, in part by mobilizing energy reserves, prepare the physiology of the body to fight or flee during stress. Now it appears that the very same hormones talk back to the brain in order to facilitate fighting.". To study the hypothesized feedback loop from the other direction, the scientists removed the rats adrenal glands to prevent any natural release of corticosterone. Then researchers injected the rats with corticosterone. Within minutes of injection, the hormone facilitated stimulation evoked attack behavior. Thus, in rapid order, stimulating the hypothalamic attack area led to ...
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is known to play a major role in coordinating neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress. We demonstrate that expression of the CRF1 receptor (CRF-R1) is regulated by stress in the brain and by agonist treatments in cultured cells. Expression of CRF-R1 mRNA was decreased in the frontal cortex but increased in the hippocampus by chronic unpredictable stress. Chronic corticosterone administration did not influence levels of CRF-R1 mRNA in either region, suggesting that regulation of CRF-R1 expression is mediated by CRF itself or by another stress-related factor. Differential regulation of CRF-R1 mRNA by agonist treatment was also observed in two cultured cell lines. In CATH.a cells, a neuron-derived cell line, incubation with CRF decreased levels of CRF-R1 mRNA, whereas in AtT-20 cells, a pituitary-derived cell line, agonist (CRF) treatment increased levels of CRF-R1 mRNA. Further studies demonstrated that the observed changes in both cell lines could be ...
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Maternal stress can impair foetal development and program sex-specific disease outcomes in offspring through the actions of maternally produced glucocorticoids, predominantly corticosterone (Cort) in rodents. We have demonstrated in mice that male but not female offspring prenatally exposed to Cort (33 µg/kg/h for 60 h beginning at E12.5) develop cardiovascular/renal dysfunction at 12 months. At 6 months of age, renal function was normal but male offspring had increased plasma aldosterone concentrations, suggesting that altered adrenal function may precede disease. This study investigated the long-term impact of prenatal exposure to Cort on adrenal growth, morphology and steroidogenic capacity as well as plasma Cort concentrations in offspring at postnatal day 30 (PN30), 6 months and 12 months of age. Prenatal Cort exposure decreased adrenal volume, particularly of the zona fasciculata, in male offspring at PN30 but increased both relative and absolute adrenal weight at 6 months of age. By 12 ...
Domestic animals have been modified by selecting individuals exhibiting desirable traits and culling the others. To investigate the alterations introduced by domestication and selective breeding in heat stress response, 2 experiments were conducted using Red Jungle Fowl (RJF), village fowl (VF), and commercial broilers (CB). In experiment 1, RJF, VF, and CB of a common chronological age (30 d old) were exposed to 36 ± 1°C for 3 h. In experiment 2, RJF, VF, and CB of common BW (930 ± 15 g) were subjected to similar procedures as in experiment 1. Heat treatment significantly increased body temperature, heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, and plasma corticosterone concentration in CB but not in VF and RJF. In both experiments and irrespective of stage of heat treatment, RJF showed lower heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, higher plasma corticosterone concentration, and higher heat shock protein 70 expression than VF and CB. It can be concluded that selective breeding for phenotypic traits in the domestication ...
Immunoreactive corticosterone and corticosterone metabolites (ICCM) were quantified in excreta of permanently single housed (n=10) and permanently pair housed (n=20) roosters. The pair housed roosters were separated and single housed, and ICCM were quantified in the droppings before and during 15 days after separation. There was no statistically significant difference in ICCM excretion in the droppings between the permanently single or pair housed roosters. After separation, however, the previously pair housed roosters showed a significantly transient elevated excretion of ICCM in droppings the second day after separation indicating that the separation and relocation is associated with an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The excretion of ICCM in droppings was not correlated to the concentration of ICCM in droppings. It is thus important that excretion of ICCM be expressed as amount excreted per time unit since the total excretion is dependant on both concentration of ICCM ...
Results By comparing gene expression profiles in RNA from mice treated with corticosterone or placebo, we found that corticosterone specifically regulated 391 genes. To further investigate the genes targeted by corticosterone treatment we performed gene ontology analysis with the aid of heat maps. We found that the expression of genes implicated in osteoblast differentiation and the regulation of bone remodelling was downregulated in mice treated with corticosterone compared to placebo. We observed a downregulation of the osteoblast markers Runx2, Colα1, osteocalcin and sclerostin in corticosterone-treated mice compared to placebo. In addition BMP4 and BMP7 followed the same pattern. Genes that were most profoundly downregulated in the array analysis were validated by qRT-PCR.. Consistent with mRNA levels, osteocalcin serum levels were suppressed to almost undetectable levels.. ...
A STRESSFUL life in the womb is known to affect adult behaviour in both animals and humans. But stress is a complex biological phenomenon, so scientists have found it hard to pin down the mechanism for this link. Now a team of researchers in France says that the stress hormone corticosterone is to blame. They …
Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters measured, and expressed less anxious behavior. We conclude that repeated blood sampling ...
1. Isolated hind limbs of rats were perfused and vascular smooth muscle sensitivity to noradrenaline, methoxamine and potassium chloride was measured and dose-response curves were obtained.. 2. The sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle to noradrenaline is attenuated by adrenalectomy and low sodium diet; it is enhanced by corticosterone. High sodium diet or administration of deoxycorticosterone did not alter the dose-response curve significantly.. 3. The increased sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle after corticosterone treatment is not related to changes in the contractile protein or alterations in the neuronal uptake and extraneuronal metabolism of noradrenaline.. 4. These results suggest that the increased sensitivity in corticosterone-treated rats may be due to the number of receptors, receptor affinity to noradrenaline, or changes in the functional link between receptor and contractile apparatus.. ...
The effects of corticosterone (CORT) administration on the development of muscular tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) fed with diets differing in lipid content were investigated. The experimental chickens were given one of two exp
Systemic injections of opiate agonists were made in male rats to elucidate the involvement of multiple opioid receptors in the stress response. As an index of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, plasma corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. Rats were injected with ethylketocyclazocine (EKC), U50488H, MR2034, bremazocine or tifluadom and sacrificed 1 hr later. These kappa agonists produced potent, dose-dependent, stereospecific increases in plasma corticosterone levels at doses far below those needed to elicit analgesia. These effects were reversed by opiate antagonists, naloxone or Win 44441-3, which by themselves caused dose-dependent decreases in plasma corticosterone. Animals made tolerant to the prototype kappa agonist, U50488H, showed an attenuated response to an acute injection of the drug. However, when animals made tolerant to morphine were injected acutely with U50488H, the drug caused a dramatic increase in corticosterone levels. In hypophysectomized ...
Preadipocytes (3T3 L1) were used between 7 and 14 days after differentiation; they were incubated with 44 nM 3H-esterone. The medium was supplemented with 1 μM recombinant murine leptin, 10 nM recombinant human insulin, or 1 μM corticosterone for up to 72 hr. In a second series of experiments, cells were incubated for 48 hr with different concentrations of leptin, insulin or corticosterone, and compared with controls (plain medium). Cells were harvested, washed in buffer and homogenized, and protein was measured. Lipid extracts of cell homogenates were used for HPLC; the label distribution in free and acyl-estrone peaks was measured. Overall uptake of estrone (i.e., the sum of free and acyl-estrone) by cells was not affected by leptin or corticosterone, but strongly reduced by insulin. Leptin and corticosterone increased the synthesis of acyl-esterone in a dose- and time-dependent way. Insulin decreased acyl-estrone synthesis at low concentrations and with little change over time. The results ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether spatial hippocampus-dependent learning is affected by the serotonergic system and stress. Therefore, 5-HTT knockout (-/-), heterozygous (+/-) and wildtype (+/+) mice were subjected to the Barnes maze (BM) and the Morris water maze (WM), the latter being discussed as more aversive. Additionally, immediate early gene (IEG) expression, hippocampal adult neurogenesis (aN), and blood plasma corticosterone were analyzed. While the performance of 5-HTT-/- mice in the BM was undistinguishable from both other genotypes, they performed worse in the WM. However, in the course of the repeated WM trials 5-HTT-/- mice advanced to wildtype level. The experience of a single trial of either the WM or the BM resulted in increased plasma corticosterone levels in all genotypes. After several trials 5-HTT-/- mice exhibited higher corticosterone concentrations compared with both other genotypes in both tests. Corticosterone levels were highest in 5-HTT-/- mice tested ...
Cushings syndrome and glucocorticoid therapy lead to central obesity, insulin resistance, and symptoms of altered energy regulation similar to those observed in the metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that excess glucocorticoids alter energy sensing/signaling in skeletal muscle through mediation of the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, three 100 mg pellets of corticosterone were implanted subcutaneously in each of nine rats for two weeks. Responses were compared with sham operated controls fed ad libitum or food restricted to produce the body weights similar to the treatment group rats. After the treatment period, animals were anesthetized and the right gastrocnemius-plantaris and soleus were removed for analysis. After tibial nerve stimulation for 5 min, the left gastrocnemius-plantaris and soleus were also removed. We assessed AMPK activity and subunit expression, as well as several metabolic indicators including ATP, creatine phosphate, creatine, glycogen, and malonyl-CoA levels
4 ± 5.4%, n = 4), p < 0.01; ethanol + MRS + KRGE60 group vs. ethanol + eticlopride + KRGE60. group (10.2 ± 2.5%, n = 4), p < 0.01; ethanol + MRS + KRGE60 group vs. ethanol + SCH23390 + KRGE60 group (27.4 ± 6.1%, n = 4), p > 0.05] ( Fig. 3B). Taken together, these results suggest that the anxiolytic effects of KRGE during EW were mediated by D2R in the CeA. Plasma CORT levels, a hormonal marker of anxiety in rats, were measured with an RIA to confirm the anxiolytic Dabrafenib solubility dmso effects of KRGE. Plasma CORT levels were significantly higher in ethanol-treated control rats (858.4 ± 181.3, n = 4) than in saline-treated controls [F (3, 13) = 18.2, p < 0.001; ethanol-treated control group (858.4 ± 181.3, n = 4) vs. saline-treated control group (318.6 ± 57.3, n = 5), p < 0.001]. Also in agreement with the behavioral data, the administration of both doses of KRGE significantly inhibited EW-related increases in plasma CORT levels [ethanol-treated control group vs. ethanol + KRGE 20 ...
We administered corticosterone to wild-type and Pomc−/− mice for 10 days, achieving comparable plasma corticosterone and hypothalamic CRH expression levels. Only in the Pomc−/− mice did this cause increased body weight and fat mass. An increase in food intake was also only seen in Pomc-null mice, with this exacerbation of preexisting hyperphagia likely to be as a result of a corticosterone-dependent increase in the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptide, AgRP.. Ten days of glucocorticoid treatment did not increase blood glucose levels but did increase plasma insulin levels in both wild-type and Pomc−/− mice. However, the absolute plasma insulin levels measured and fold increase from control were markedly higher in Pomc-null mice. Furthermore, corticosterone treatment to mice from weaning resulted in a progressive rise in blood glucose and frank diabetes by 10-12 weeks only in Pomc−/− mice, having no such effect in wild-type animals.. Two other groups have investigated the ...
Chronic stress often affects growth and development negatively, and these effects are often mediated via glucocorticoid hormones, which elevate during stress. We investigated latitudinal variation in corticosterone (CORT) response to chronic predator stress in Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500-km latitudinal cline in Sweden tadpoles, in a laboratory experiment. We hypothesized that more time-constrained high-latitude populations have evolved a lower CORT response to chronic stress to maintain higher growth under stressful conditions. Southern tadpoles had higher CORT content in response to predators after 1 day of exposure, whereas there was no increase in CORT in the northern populations. Two weeks later, there were no predator-induced CORT elevations. Artificially elevated CORT levels strongly decreased growth, development and survival in both northern and southern tadpoles. We suggest that the lower CORT response in high-latitude populations can be connected with avoidance of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determination of corticosterone in rat and mouse plasma by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry. AU - Shu, Pin Yen. AU - Chou, Shiu Huey. AU - Lin, Cheng Huang. PY - 2003/1/5. Y1 - 2003/1/5. N2 - A simple, highly sensitive and specific method based on gas-chromatography-selected ion monitoring (SIM) mass spectrometry has been developed for the quantitation of corticosterone in rat and mouse plasma. After extraction of the plasma with ethyl acetate, the residue was trimethy-silylated with pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine-trimethylsilyl (PFBO-TMS). Detection of the derivatives was accomplished by a quadruple mass spectrometer in the selected ion monitoring mode (m/z of 316, 648, 663 and 678). The detection limit of the assay was 0.1 pg on column. The results show that in the plasma of non-stressed animals, only minor amounts of corticosterone were found; whereas in the plasma of stressed animals, it was dramatically increased. The method developed here can be ...
This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and ...
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Pyramidal neurons in the rat CA1 hippocampal area contain intracellular mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) to which the adrenal hormone corticosterone can bind with differential affinity. The pyramidal neurons also have high amounts of 5-HT1a receptors, which mediate a membrane hyperpolarization. With intracellular recording in vitro, we found that selective occupation of MRs suppresses the 5-HT-induced hyperpolarization of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The suppression of 5-HT responses was observed 1-4 hr after a brief (20-min) application of the steroids. Binding properties of the 5- HT1a receptor were not significantly affected by in vitro steroid application. Furthermore, responses to the GABAB agonist baclofen were not changed after treatment with MR ligands, implying that the K+ conductance to which both GABAB and 5-HT1a receptors are linked is also no target for the steroid action. The MR-mediated effect on 5-HT responsiveness potentially enhances cellular ...
Comparisons of hypothalamic dysfunction between Huntington’s Disease (HD) patients and rodent models of HD have not always yielded similar results. Cortisol levels in HD patients have been contradictory, with reports ranging from hypo- to hypercorticoidism of morning measurements. Initial reports of major elevations in circulating corticosterone levels in the R6/2 mouse model of HD have only been followed up in one other closely related model, the R6/1 mouse, and the results were not perfectly congruent. To determine if abnormal stress hormones were a characteristic of disease, we examined diurnal and stress-induced corticosterone levels in multiple HD mouse models ...
Corticosterone ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative detection of corticosterone in serum and plasma and in extracted fecal samples. (KA3385) - Products - Abnova
The stress response is an important component of an individuals suite of physiological and behavioural responses to environmental events. As such, research into both the physiological consequences of stress and the evolutionary constraints imposed by the response to stress have recently become significant areas of research. The commonly used surrogates of stress are the glucocorticoid steroids produced by the adrenal cortex. These hormones (primarily cortisol in primates, and corticosterone in birds, reptiles and rodents) are released in response to stressful environmental events, and are crucial in initiating the `flight or fight response as well as a range of essential physiological and behavioural reactions to stress (Nelson, 1995). These include increasing the peripheral blood supply, reducing digestive processes and mobilising glucose reserves (Silverin, 1998; Buchanan, 2000; Sapolsky et al., 2000); as well as reducing reproductive activity, and increasing both foraging and escape ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Plasma levels of corticosterone in methylandrostenediol-salt-induced hypertension. by Paul M. Hyde et al.
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Detect and quantitate human corticosterone in serum, buffered solution, and cell culture supernatants using a homogeneous AlphaLISA no-wash assay.
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Stress is known to induce dendritic hypertrophy in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and to enhance anxiety. Stress also leads to secretion of glucocorticoids (GC), and the BLA has a high concentration of glucocorticoid receptors. This raises the possibility that stress-induced elevation in GC secretion might directly affect amygdaloid neurons. To address the possible effects of GC on neurons of amygdala and on anxiety, we used rats treated either acutely with a single dose or chronically with 10 daily doses of high physiological levels of corticosterone (the rat-specific glucocorticoid). Behavior and morphological changes in neurons of BLA were measured 12 days after the initiation of treatment in both groups. A single acute dose of corticosterone was sufficient to induce dendritic hypertrophy in the BLA and heightened anxiety, as measured on an elevated plus maze. Moreover, this form of dendritic hypertrophy after acute treatment was of a magnitude similar to that caused by chronic treatment. ...
Techniques. Rodent models of infectious diseases and cancer with emphasis on the immune system and toxicology; flow cytometry; luminescent imaging using mice with reporter genes (NF-kappaB); microarray analysis (transcriptomics); Ingenuity pathway analysis; immunological assays such as commercial or customized ELISA, multiplexed bead array (Luminex), NK cell assay, total and specific antibodies, differential cell counts; general assays for, apoptosis; cellular viability; cell cycle analysis; cellular signaling (by western blot and using ELISA-like kits); transcription factor activation/inhibition. Circular dichroism to evaluate conformational change in purified proteins (in collaboration with Ed Lewis in the Department of Chemistry); mouse model for binge drinking of alcohol; mouse and rat models of stress effects, including quantitative assessment using area under the corticosterone concentration vs. time curve; distinguishing stress effects from other mechanisms of action of immunotoxicants; ...
The effect of the presence either of a familiar or non-familiar conspecific animal on serum corticosterone and some behavioral responses in the open field was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats....
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In the study of `Dietary Vitamin E Deficiency Increases Anxiety-Like Behavior in Juvenile and Adult Rats`by Terada Y, Okura Y, Kikusui T, Takenaka A., posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher in the vitamin E-deficient rats in response to the stress of a behavioral test. Based on these results, we conclude that dietary vitamin-E deficiency induces anxiety in adult rats as well as juvenile rats. This might be due to an elevated plasma corticosterone concentration ...
The influence of a chronic social stress upon immunity was investigated in Wistar rats, submitted for four weeks to two different behavioral situations, balanced in a factorial design: housing with three females and membership rotation. The combination of these two factor led to adrenal enlargement (43.3%), thymus involution (39.5%) and increased basal corticosterone levels, all indices of activation of the hypothalamic-hypophysis-adrenal axis. However, neither natural killer cell activity, splenocyte reactivity to mitogen nor the rate of spontaneous development of antibodies against Mycoplasma pulmonis, a common pathogen of the respiratory tract, were changed in the endocrine activated animals. Analysis of the data on kinetics of stress at 1, 7 and 28 days after the initial mixing of the animals gave the same results. These data question the immunosuppressant activity usually conferred to corticosteroids, at least when adrenal hyperactivity is induced by chronic environmental ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The CNS site of glucocorticoid negative feedback during LPS- and psychological stress-induced fevers. AU - Morrow, Lee E.. AU - McClellan, Jennifer L.. AU - Klir, John J.. AU - Kluger, Matthew J.. PY - 1996/9/1. Y1 - 1996/9/1. N2 - Glucocorticoids exert negative feedback in the anterior hypothalamus (AH) during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fevers, but the central location of their negative feedback during psychological stress-induced fever has not been determined. To confirm that glucocorticoid modulation of LPS fever occurs in the AH, adrenalectomized animals were injected intrahypothalamically with either 0.25 ng of corticosterone or vehicle followed by 50 μg/kg LPS intraperitoneally. Animals pretreated with corticosterone developed significantly smaller fevers (P = 0.007) than animals given vehicle. To determine if glucocorticold modulation during psychological stress-induced fever may occur in the hippocampus, the fornix was transected to block hippocampal communication ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucocorticoid negative feedback selectively targets vasopressin transcription in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. AU - Kovács, Krisztina J.. AU - Földes, Anna. AU - Sawchenko, Paul E.. PY - 2000/5/15. Y1 - 2000/5/15. N2 - To identify molecular targets of corticosteroid negative feedback effects on neurosecretory neurons comprising the central limb of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we monitored ether stress effects on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA) expression in rats that were intact or adrenalectomized (ADX) and replaced with corticosterone (B) at constant levels ranging from nil to peak stress concentrations. Under basal conditions, relative levels of both primary transcripts varied inversely as a function of plasma B titers. In response to stress, the kinetics of CRF hnRNA responses of intact and ADX rats replaced with low B were similar, peaking at 5 min after stress. By contrast, intact rats ...
Stress has been considered one of the most relevant factors promoting aggressive behavior. Animal and human pharmacological studies revealed the stress hormones corticosterone in rodents and cortisol in humans to constitute a particularly important neuroendocrine determinate in facilitating aggression and beyond that, assumedly in its continuation and escalation. Moreover, cortisol-induced alterations of social information processing, as well as of cognitive control processes, have been hypothesized as possible influencing factors in the stress-aggression link. So far, the immediate impact of a preceding stressor and thereby stress-induced rise of cortisol on aggressive behavior as well as higher-order cognitive control processes and social information processing in this context have gone mostly unheeded. The present thesis aimed to extend the hitherto findings of stress and aggression in this regard. For this purpose two psychophysiological studies with healthy adults were carried out, both ...
A seminal review in Frank Moores lab confirmed that acute exposure to either endogenous or exogenous corticosterone exposure caused male rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) to exhibit lowered clasping of girls, a courtship behavior that normally lasts hrs or times (Moore & Miller 1984). Importantly, the inhibition of the behavior occurs eight minutes soon after corticosterone publicity (Orchinik et al. 1991). Membrane-sure corticosterone receptors, which do not migrate towards the nucleus, ended up also uncovered from the newt Mind (Orchinik et al. 1991, 1992). These conclusions are essential given that they exhibit that reproductive actions can be quickly downregulated adhering to the discharge of corticosterone. A lot of mating and courtship behaviors are conspicuous, which enhances the risk of predation (Cooper 1999). This may clarify why anxiety-response devices which are activated by predators rapidly downregulate reproductive things to do inside the confront of threats. In woman ...
Although prolonged stress and corticosteroid exposure induce morphological changes in the hippocampal CA3 area, the adult CA1 area is quite resistant to such changes. Here we addressed the question whether elevated corticosteroid hormone levels change dendritic complexity in young, developing CA1 cells. In organotypic cultures (prepared from P5 rats) that were 14-21 days cultured in vitro, two doses of corticosterone (30 and 100 nM) were tested. Dendritic morphology of CA1 neurons was established by imaging neurons filled with the fluorescent dye Alexa. Application of 100 nM corticosterone for 20 minutes induced atrophy of the apical dendritic tree 1-4 hours later. Fractal analysis showed that total neuronal complexity was reduced twofold when compared with vehicle-treated neurons. Exposing organotypic slices to 30 nM corticosterone reduced apical length in a more delayed manner: only neurons examined more than 2 hours after exposure to corticosterone showed atrophy of the apical dendritic tree. ...
Light plays a critical role in the regulation of numerous aspects of physiology and behaviour, including the entrainment of circadian rhythms and the regulation of sleep. These responses involve melanopsin (OPN4)-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) in addition to rods and cones. Nocturnal light exposure in rodents has been shown to result in rapid sleep induction, in which melanopsin plays a key role. However, studies have also shown that light exposure can result in elevated corticosterone, a response that is not compatible with sleep. To investigate these contradictory findings and to dissect the relative contribution of pRGCs and rods/cones, we assessed the effects of light of different wavelengths on behaviourally defined sleep. Here, we show that blue light (470 nm) causes behavioural arousal, elevating corticosterone and delaying sleep onset. By contrast, green light (530 nm) produces rapid sleep induction. Compared to wildtype mice, these responses are altered in melanopsin