Unfortunately, coral reef ecosystems are severely threatened. Some threats are natural, such as diseases, predators, and storms. Other threats are caused by people, including pollution, sedimentation, unsustainable fishing practices, and climate change, which is raising ocean temperatures and causing ocean acidification. Many of these threats can stress corals, leading to coral bleaching and possible death, while others cause physical damage to these delicate ecosystems. During the 2014-2017 coral bleaching event, unusually warm waters (partially associated with a strong El Niño) affected 70% of coral reef ecosystems worldwide. Some areas were hit particularly hard, like the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, where hundreds of miles of coral were bleached. Corals are able to recover from bleaching events if conditions improve before they die, though it can take many years for the ecosystems to fully heal. Scientists are also testing new ways to help coral reef ecosystems, such as growing coral in ...
Coral reefs are among the worlds most biodiverse, yet most threatened ecosystems. Climate change is greatly compounding local anthropogenic stressors, with many reefs transitioning from coral-dominant to less functional states. These changes in benthic habitat alter the abundance and composition of reef-associated organisms and their subsequent interactions. Of particular importance to ecosystem function are the interactions between parasites, their hosts and their environment. Due to reductions in habitat condition, altered host-parasite interactions have affected ecosystem function and disease prevalence in terrestrial and coastal systems. Reductions in habitat condition can therefore create negative feedbacks that may further affect ecosystem function. To date, the effects of habitat condition on host-parasite interactions have not been investigated on coral reefs. The objective of my PhD is to investigate how the condition of coral reef habitats affects parasitism of coral reef fishes. This ...
Cold-water coral reefs are known to locally enhance the diversity of deep-sea fauna as well as of microbes. Sponges areamong the most diverse faunal groups in these ecosystems, and many of them host large abundances of microbes in theirtissues. In this study, twelve sponge species from three cold-water coral reefs off Norway were investigated for therelationship between sponge phylogenetic classification (species and family level), as well as sponge type (high versus lowmicrobial abundance), and the diversity of sponge-associated bacterial communities, taking also geographic location andwater depth into account. Community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that asmany as 345 (79%) of the 437 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the dataset were sharedbetween sponges and sediments, while only 70 (16%) appeared purely sponge-associated. Furthermore, changes inbacterial community structure were significantly related to sponge ...
Increased terrestrial sediment and nutrient yields are regarded as significant threats to coral reef health. Within the central Great Barrier Reef lagoon, where water quality has reportedly declined since European settlement (since ca. A.D. 1850), inner-shelf reef conditions have purportedly deteriorated. However, the link between reef decline and water-quality change remains controversial, primarily because of a lack of pre-European period ecological baseline data against which to assess contemporary ecological states. Here we present a high-resolution record of reef accretion and coral community composition from a turbid-zone, nearshore reef on the inner shelf of the Great Barrier Reef; the record is based on six radiocarbon date-constrained cores, and extends back to ca. 1200 calibrated yr B.P. Results demonstrate not only the potential for coral communities to initiate and persist in settings dominated by fine-grained terrigenous sediment accumulation, but also that a temporally persistent ...
The acidification of the ocean due to the industrial emission of carbon dioxide is destroying the worlds coral reefs, a coalition of marine experts has warned in the recently released Honolulu Declaration. Coral reefs are at the heart of our tropics, and millions of people around the world depend on these systems for their livelihoods, said Lynne Hale, director of The Nature Conservancys Marine Initiative. Without urgent action to limit carbon dioxide emissions and improve management of marine protected areas, even vast treasured reefs like the Great Barrier Reef and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands will become wastelands of dead coral. Coral reefs have long been known to be threatened by effects of global warming, including coral bleaching, higher ocean temperatures and rising sea levels. But these threats are surpassed by the dangers of ocean acidification, which was named the number one threat to ocean life by scientists from the International Coral Reef Symposium in July. For many years, ...
Anthropogenic impacts and climate change are increasing the frequency and intensity at which ecosystems are being perturbed. On tropical reefs, disturbances can result in loss of live coral and sometimes initiate a transition to an alternative community state, frequently one dominated by macroalgae. Because algae-dominated reefs may have lower productivity, decreased species diversity and reduced ecosystem services, there has been considerable interest in elucidating the mechanisms that mediate a transition to an algae dominated state or the re-establishment of coral. In this dissertation I explore how physical attributes of a coral reef and the echinoid and fish communities control algal growth and influence the return to coral dominance. Recent disturbances in Moorea, French Polynesia offer an opportunity to examine the effects of architectural complexity of the substrate on recruitment of new coral colonists. I explore how the success of new coral colonists is affected by variation in ...
Dr Pim Bongaerts, a Research Fellow at The University of Queenslands Global Change Institute (GCI) and ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, and lead author of the study, said deep reefs share coral species with the shallow reef, which has led to the idea that deep reefs could be an important source of larvae and help to reseed shallow reefs. We argue that this concept of deep coral populations reseeding their shallow-water counterparts may be relevant to some species, but is ultimately unlikely to aid more broadly in the recovery of shallow reefs, he said. Given the impossibility of tracking the movements of individual coral larvae on the reef, understanding the connectivity between shallow and deep coral populations relies on methods that assess the genetic similarity between coral populations. The team focused on the relatively isolated reef system of Bermuda in the Western Atlantic where they screened the genomes of more than 200 individual coral colonies from shallow and ...
Welcome to the website for the Coral Reef Ecosystems (CRE) Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia. Under the guidance of Professor Ove Hoegh-Guldberg and Associate Professor Sophie Dove, the lab is conducting research into a variety of topics related to coral reef ecosystems. The lab is part of the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and receives considerable support from this important centre within Australian science. The lab currently hosts 25 people which includes 6 Post-Docs, 12 PhD students and 7 Professional staff which include a Lab Manager, 2 research assistants, project officer, a software engineer, a electronic and data management technician and casual research assistants. This website gives access to their personal profiles and peer-reviewed publications.. This 360 degree video shows the work our lab group does at Heron Island. It shows our staff working on the aquarium deck and the deployment of our ...
With the Coral Reefs Palette, Chantecaille has continued its tradition of offering must-have makeup with an environmental benefit. Chantecaille has proudly joined the Marine Conservation Institute in their efforts to protect 10% of the worlds oceans by 2020. The oceans cover 71% of the earth, providing 80% of our oxygen and food for 3.5 billion people; yet less than one half of one percent of our oceans are protected. The health of the ocean is vital, and coral reefs are the alert system. Today three quarters of the worlds coral reefs are at risk due to over-fishing, pollution, and global warming. Maintaining 10% of the oceans ecosystems as no-take marine protected areas is the best chance for corals survival. Five percent of the proceeds from the Coral Reefs Palette will be donated to the Marine Conservation Institute to help meet our goals (not their goals, our goals ...
Surgeonfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reef while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. The majority of surgeonfishes are exclusively found on coral reef habitat, and of these, approximately 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and degradation of coral reef habitat quality across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that recruit into areas with live coral cover, especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012 ...
Surgeonfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reef while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. The majority of surgeonfishes are exclusively found on coral reef habitat, and of these, approximately 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and degradation of coral reef habitat quality across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that recruit into areas with live coral cover, especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012 ...
15 credits, Level 7 (Masters). Autumn teaching. Coral reefs are one of the most ecologically and economically important habitats on the planet. They have exceptional levels of biodiversity, are critical to the life-history and development of many pelagic as well as reef-associated marine species, and provide critical ecosystem services upon which many human communities rely.. However, coral reefs are also globally threatened from direct human activities and the indirect impact of climate change. Coral reefs therefore provide both an exceptional setting to learn about marine ecology, and also one for which there is a real and urgent need for an improved understanding to inform policy and conservation management strategies.. This field course will be involve scuba and snorkel-based data collection at coral reefs, giving you the opportunity to learn and apply techniques from marine biology, develop and test scientific hypotheses, and gain an in-depth understanding of the unique ecosystem of coral ...
CORVALLIS, Ore. - The invasion of predatory lionfish in the Caribbean region poses yet another major threat there to coral reef ecosystems - a new study has found that within a short period after the entry of lionfish into an area, the survival of other reef fishes is slashed by about 80 percent.. Aside from the rapid and immediate mortality of marine life, the loss of herbivorous fish also sets the stage for seaweeds to potentially overwhelm the coral reefs and disrupt the delicate ecological balance in which they exist, according to scientists from Oregon State University.. Following on the heels of overfishing, sediment depositions, nitrate pollution in some areas, coral bleaching caused by global warming, and increasing ocean acidity caused by carbon emissions, the lionfish invasion is a serious concern, said Mark Hixon, an OSU professor of zoology and expert on coral reef ecology.. The study is the first to quantify the severity of the crisis posed by this invasive species, which is native ...
Executive Summary and full report, Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs: 1970-2012: http://bit.ly/1puLHlp. High resolution photos: http://bit.ly/1qLdYmc. An 8-minute video, From Despair to Repair, about the reports implications: http://www.iucn.org/?16050. About GCRMN. The Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) was established in 1994 to support the global call for action of the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) to commit to increasing research and monitoring of coral reefs in order to provide the data needed to inform policy makers to sustain coral reefs and to strengthen management. Today, the GCRMN works through a global network of stakeholders to support the management and conservation of coral reefs. The work of GCRMN focuses on increasing the scientific understanding of the status and trends of coral reef ecosystems worldwide by making reef monitoring data publicly available, linking people and existing organizations, improving the communication among GCRMN ...
Coral reefs have been declining during the last four decades as a result of both local and global anthropogenic stresses. Numerous research efforts to elucidate the nature, causes, magnitude, and potential remedies for the decline have led to the widely held belief that the recovery of coral reefs is unlikely if public and private sector decisions that affect coral reefs continue to ignore the economic value of the goods and services (ecosystem services) they provide. However, including ecosystem services in a decision process requires that they be characterized and quantified (and subsequently valued). In particular, the scientific contribution to the decision process should include identifying which coral reef attributes are associated with which ecosystem services, how those attributes are affected by human activities, and how human activities may affect the future provision of ecosystem services. This knowledge would place the decision process on a sounder scientific footing and provide a ...
Without drastic efforts to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate globalized stressors, tropical coral reefs are in jeopardy. Strategic conservation and management requires identification of the environmental and socioeconomic factors driving the persistence of scleractinian coral assemblages-the foundation species of coral reef ecosystems. Here, we compiled coral abundance data from 2,584 Indo-Pacific reefs to evaluate the influence of 21 climate, social and environmental drivers on the ecology of reef coral assemblages. Higher abundances of framework-building corals were typically associated with: weaker thermal disturbances and longer intervals for potential recovery; slower human population growth; reduced access by human settlements and markets; and less nearby agriculture. We therefore propose a framework of three management strategies (protect, recover or transform) by considering: (1) if reefs were above or below a proposed threshold of ,10% cover of the coral taxa important for structural ...
Rützler, Klaus. 2009. Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems: Thirty-Five Years of Smithsonian Marine Science in Belize. in Proceedings of the Smithsonian Marine Science Symposium, edited by Lang, Michael A., Macintyre, Ian G., and Rützler, Klaus., Washington D.C. ed. 43-71. Smithsonian contributions to the marine sciences (no. 38). Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press ...
A model that resolves reef island formation in relation to both reef platform substrate development and mid-Holocene sea-level change is presented for Bewick Island, northern Great Barrier Reef, based on morphostratigraphic analysis and radiometrically dated island sediments and reef corals. On Bewick Island, microatolls record reef-flat development at higher sea level (+1.5 m) by 6500 yr B.P. Island building began on a partially emergent reef flat 5000-4000 yr B.P., when sea level was 0.5 m above present. As sea level fell to its present level, the reef platform process window closed and the island core stabilized. Results present the first unequivocal evidence of island building directly over a reef flat comprising microatolls, and the first detailed model of island formation from the Great Barrier Reef. The model demonstrates that the interplay of sea level and reef surface elevation can vary between sites but their convergence is critical for island initiation. Future trajectories of island ...
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Coral Reef Conditions and Structure - Ideal coral reef conditions include warm, clear, nutrient-poor saltwater. See how these coral reef conditions can lead to different types of reefs.
A popular herbicide used widely in coastal regions of Australia has been found at dangerous levels in the Great Barrier Reef, posing a toxic threat to the worlds largest coral reef system. The chemical Diuron, which is used largely by sugar cane farmers along the Queensland coast, was found at levels 55 times higher than safety standards in creeks that drain into the reef, and at levels 100 times the safe standards in the reef itself, according to a new report by the World Wildlife Fund. After a decade-long review, the Australian government on Tuesday announced it would continue a suspension of the chemical except in the countrys tropical regions. A decision on a permanent ban will be made by November, the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority said. In a recent report, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority called a decline in the quality of water in catchment areas one of the greatest threats facing the reef. Nick Heath, the WWF freshwater and reef coordinator, said ...
Interspecies interactions, especially symbiotic relationships, are at the heart of ecosystem functioning, stability, and diversity on coral reefs. The effects of coral-associated fish on their host coral colony are dynamic in terms of the fish-derived benefits that promote coral growth. The ecosystem function of this aggregating fish and coral mutualism may be widespread and have a significant impact on coral demographic rates and health. Considering that coral populations occur across a broad range of environmental conditions (e.g. latitude, light, reef position), and interact with a variety of fish species, knowledge of how these factors operate in synergy is essential in understanding how corals are impacted by aggregating fish interactions.. This project will investigate the effects of coral-fish symbioses on coral populations. Specifically, my proposed research will determine where the symbiosis is established and the variations, how it interacts with environmental factors (nutrients, ...
The diversity, frequency, and scale of human impacts on coral reefs are increasing to the extent that reefs are threatened globally. Projected increases in carbon dioxide and temperature over the next 50 years exceed the conditions under which coral reefs have flourished over the past half-million years. However, reefs will change rather than disappear entirely, with some species already showing far greater tolerance to climate change and coral bleaching than others. International integration of management strategies that support reef resilience need to be vigorously implemented, and complemented by strong policy decisions to reduce the rate of global warming.. ...
Revision}} This article describes the habitat of the coral reefs. It is one of the sub-categories within the section dealing with biodiversity of [[marine habitats and ecosystems]]. It gives an overview of the formation, distribution, biology, [[zonation]], requirements for development, biota and threats. ==Introduction== Coral reefs are one of the most diverse [[ecosystems]] in the world. The organisms belong to the Phylum [http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1267 Cnidaria]. The best known type of corals is the one living in clear, warm tropical waters with plenty of colourful fishes. This is a rocky, shallow water type. The water is clear because of the low concentrations of [[nutrient,nutrients]]. But there are also deep water corals that live in dark cold waters and soft corals that live in shallow, cold waters. They are wave resistant rock structures, created by calcium carbonate -secreting animals and plants. [[image:Coral reef.jpg,right,thumb,300px,caption,Coral ...
The architectural complexity of coral reefs has declined drastically over the last 40 years throughout the Caribbean. Structurally complex reefs with a rugosity of greater than 2 have been virtually lost from the entire region. Today, the flattest reefs (rugosity less than 1.5) comprise approximately 75 per cent of the total compared with approximately 20 per cent in the 1970s, with most of the increase in the proportion of flattest reefs occurring in the 2000s. The high proportion of complex reefs in the 1960s and 1970s is unlikely to result from researchers tending to visit just the most pristine reefs at this time, because less architecturally-complex categories were also well represented during this period. The loss of architectural complexity is nonlinear and has occurred over three distinct phases that coincide closely with large-scale events that have affected Caribbean reef ecosystems. The rate of decline was steepest prior to 1985. The sample sizes are small and variance high during the ...
As the name would suggest, marine snow resembles snowflakes suspended in the oceans water column. Marine snow is the aggregations of a variety of suspended material consisting of calcareous algae, organic detritus, and mucus secreted by plankton, algae, bacteria and corals. Increased nutrient concentrations in coastal waters enhance algal growth, which indirectly increases the levels of marine snow (review by Wolanski et al. 2003). Increased carbon levels resulting from sewage runoff and mucus secretion* also directly influence marine snow. Until recently, the significance of marine snow and coral reef health has been neglected. The adhesive property of marine snow means that it readily attaches itself to suspended sediment (fine clay) from coastal runoff resulting in it becoming negatively buoyant. This muddy marine snow is detrimental and even lethal to coral reefs as it settles on the reef smothering it (Fabricius and Wolanski 2000). Rich in carbohydrates, marine snow is a source of energy ...
Throughout the tropics, coral reef ecosystems, which are critically important to people, have been greatly altered by humans. Differentiating human impacts from natural drivers of ecosystem state is essential to effective management. Here we present a dataset from a large-scale monitoring program that surveys coral reef fish assemblages and habitats encompassing the bulk of the US-affiliated tropical Pacific, and spanning wide gradients in both natural drivers and human impact. Currently, this includes |5,500 surveys from 39 islands and atolls in Hawaii (including the main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands) and affiliated geo-political regions of American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and the Pacific Remote Islands Areas. The dataset spans 2010-2017, during which time, each region was visited at least every three years, and ~500-1,000 surveys performed annually. This standardised dataset is a powerful resource that can be used to understand how human, environmental and
New research has provided insight into the basic immune response and repair mechanisms of corals to disease and changing environmental conditions.. The study, published in the latest issue of the journal Coral Reefs, found that increased growth is the underlying physiological process associated with disease, wounding and stress-related color changes in reef-building corals.. The study investigated distinct green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments responsible for the green, red and purple-blue colors of many reef-building corals.. By examining these GFP- pigments in four coral species from the Arabian/Persian Gulf, Red Sea and Fiji, researchers found that their presence shows growing tissue in growing branch tips and margins of healthy coral colonies; as well as in disrupted colony parts, in comparison to un-disrupted areas.. Dr Joerg Wiedenmann, Senior Lecturer of Biological Oceanography and Head of the Coral Reef Laboratory at the University of Southampton, who led the study, says: The ...
This dataset contains data on carbon chemistry on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Main parameters measured were temperature, total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon. The data was collected six times over two years (September 2011 - June 2012) covering a comprehensive latitudinal range. The aim of this study was to investigate carbon chemistry on inshore reefs, and compare it to offshore reefs and historical data. Research to date on reef calcification and inorganic carbon dynamics within the GBR system has largely focused upon on-reef processes on mid- and outer-shelf reefs. Relatively little work has been done on the shelf-scale dynamics of inorganic carbon in the GBR system and almost no consideration has been given to the many inshore reefs close to the coast that are under the greatest threat from increases in runoff of sediment, nutrients and pesticides. The ratio of primary productivity and respiration (P/R) of inshore reefs are often lower than on reefs further from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Environmental conditions and paternal care determine hatching synchronicity of coral reef fish larvae. AU - Chaput, Romain. AU - Majoris, John Edwin. AU - Guigand, Cédric M.. AU - Huse, Megan. AU - DAlessandro, Evan K.. N1 - KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01 Acknowledgements: We thank R. Francis and E. Schlatter for their assistance with the field work in Belize, and R. Delp, M. Connelly, M. Kendi, C. Cresci and C. Purcell for their assistance with the field work in Florida. We wish to thank K. Clements, R. McBride, and an anonymous reviewer for helpful comments on the manuscript. This study was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF OCE awards 1459156 and 249446) and the International Light Tackle Association Fund.. PY - 2019/8/27. Y1 - 2019/8/27. N2 - For all fishes, hatching is a short but crucial event, and the conditions under which it occurs considerably influence the success of the larvae. For coral reef fish, hatching is even more important because ...
Coral reefs are facing unprecedented global, regional and local threats that continue to degrade near-shore habitats. Water quality degradation, due to unsustainable development practices at coastal watersheds, is one of the greatest stressors across multiple spatial scales. The goal of this study was to assess near-shore coral reef benthic community spatio-temporal response to sedimentation patterns, weather, and oceanographic dynamics at Bahía Tamarindo and Punta Soldado in Culebra Island, Puerto Rico. Benthic data were collected across a distance gradient from the shore through high-resolution images at marked belt transects. Environmental data were assessed and contrasted with benthic assemblages using multivariate correlations and multiple linear regression. Coral colony abundance and coral recruit assemblages showed significant variation among seasons, sites and distance zones (PERMANOVA, p Porites astreoides, P. porites, and Siderastrea radians. Difference in coral abundance and coral recruits
University of Miamis Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science The persistence of coral reef ecosystems may largely depend on the exchange of offspring between populations that exist on the edge of species ranges. While reef-building corals expand to the subtropics, their range is not only bounded by latitude, but also by water depth. This is mostly because sunlight attenuates very quickly through the water column and corals harbor microscopic photosynthetic symbiotic algae, which need to uptake light to help nourish the coral. Light-dependent coral reefs and associated benthic communities found between 30 and 100 meters (100-330 feet) in the Gulf of Mexico are called mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) and are central to our study. The MCEs of Pulley Ridge, located 66 kilometers west of the Dry Tortugas, inhabit a relatively stable environment, decoupled from stresses related to the proximity of coastal pollution or from water temperature fluctuations and mass bleaching affecting ...
PROVIDENCE R.I. -- Coral bleaching a stress response that turns rain...In an experiment with three species of Hawaiian corals researchers ...James Palardy a Brown University graduate student and co-author of... These super-feeders have an ecological advantage one that ma...Coral reefs reduce beach erosion support tourism and serve as bree...,Coral,reef,resilience:,Better,feeders,survive,bleaching,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Johnson, M.D., M.D. Fox, E.L.A. Kelly, B.J. Zgliczynski, S.A. Sandin, J.E. Smith (2020) Ecophysiology of coral reef primary producers across an upwelling gradient in the tropical central Pacific. PloS one 15(2). [pdf]. Kelly, E.L.A., A.L. Cannon, J.E. Smith (2020) Environmental impacts and implications of tropical carageenophyte seaweed farming. Conservation Biology. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13462. Lewis, L.L. & J.E. Smith (2019) Functional diversity among herbivorous sea urchins on a coral reef: grazing rate, dietary preference, and metabolism. Marine Ecology Progress Series. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps13038. Darling et al. (2019) Social-environmental drivers inform strategic management of coral reefs in the Anthropocene. Nature Ecology & Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0953-8. Fox, M.D., Carter, A.L., Edwards, C.B., Takeshita, Y., M.D. Johnson, C. Amir, V. Petrovic, E. Sala, S.A. Sandin, J.E. Smith. (2019) Limited coral mortality following acute thermal stress and widespread ...
Doubling the size of the southern Atlantics largest reef system. Scientists announced yesterday the discovery of reef structures they believe doubles the size of the Southern Atlantic Oceans largest and richest reef system, the Abrolhos Bank, off the southern coast of Brazils Bahia state. The newly discovered area is also far more abundant in marine life than the previously known Abrolhos reef system, one of the worlds most unique and important reefs.. Researchers from Conservation International (CI), Federal University of Espà -rito Santo and Federal University of Bahia announced their discovery in a paper presented today at the International Coral Reef Symposium in Fort Lauderdale. We had some clues from local fishermen that other reefs existed, but not at the scale of what we discovered, says Rodrigo de Moura, Conservation International Brazil marine specialist and co-author of the paper. It is very exciting and highly unusual to discover a reef structure this large and harboring such ...
BUFFALO, N.Y. - When hurricanes Maria and Irma tore through the Caribbean, they not only wreaked havoc on land, but also devastated ocean ecosystems.. Coral reefs off St. John, part of the U.S. Virgin Islands, suffered severe injury during the storms, say scientists from the University at Buffalo and California State University, Northridge who traveled there in late November to assess the damage - the first step in understanding the reefs recovery.. Some coral colonies lost branches. Others were cloaked in harmful algal growth. Many - weakened by the hurricanes - were left with ghostly, feather-like strands of bacteria hanging off open wounds where bits of coral had been scraped off.. Researchers also observed sites where whole coral colonies, akin to individual trees in a forest, had been swept away by the fury of the storms.. VIDEO: For video clips of the trip, contact Charlotte Hsu in UB Media Relations at [email protected] Hurricanes generate huge waves. The effect is like sandblasting ...
The clownfish A. percula clearly has a close association with coral reefs surrounding vegetated islands. Both clownfish and host anemone numbers are high on island reefs and sparse on other emergent reefs. Within island reef systems, numbers are the greatest immediately adjacent to the islands themselves, where they are often found beneath overhanging vegetation. Given the strong association between host anemones and island reefs, A. percula larvae can clearly maximize their chances of finding a suitable settlement site by being able to locate and orient towards islands. The islands themselves are a potential source of many olfactory water-borne cues that would not be emanating from reefs without islands. Elevated levels of organic material from the lush tropical rainforest vegetation could clearly extend some distance from the islands. The experimental data presented here strongly suggest that A. percula has an innate olfactory attraction to rainforest vegetation, and once detected, could use ...
Reef Carbonate™ is a concentrated (4,000 meq/L) optimized blend of carbonate and bicarbonate salts designed to restore and maintain alkalinity in the reef aquarium. Calcium and carbonates are essential to all coral growth. If either becomes deficient, coral growth will cease, followed by a rapid decline in coral health. To prevent this you must provide carbonates (Reef Carbonate™) and calcium (Reef Advantage Calcium™ or Reef Complete®). Whereas competing products simply use sodium bicarbonate, Reef Carbonate™ is made with a blend of carbonate and bicarbonate salts. This blend of salts results in Reef Carbonate™ yielding a pK of roughly 9.0 in saltwater (higher than competing products). In a closed reef system, the multitude of organics produced by reef inhabitants tends to force pH downward, but the advantage of Reef Carbonates™ higher pK is a stabilization of pH around 8.3-8.4. Competing products formulations make them incapable of such a claim, so pH will always fall below desirable
Pollution from land-based sources is a primary cause of coral reef degradation throughout the world. In the Caribbean, for example, approximately 80 percent of ocean pollution originates from activities on land. As human populations expand in coastal areas, development alters the landscape, increasing runoff from land. Runoff often carries large quantities of sediment from land-clearing, high levels of nutrients from agricultural areas and sewage outflows, and pollutants such as petroleum products and pesticides. These land-based sources of pollution threaten coral reef health.. Excess nutrients result in poor water quality, leading to decreased oxygen and increased nutrients in the water (eutrophication). This can lead to enhanced algal growth on reefs, crowding out corals and significantly degrading the ecosystem. In addition, sediment deposited onto reefs smothers corals and interferes with their ability to feed and reproduce. Finally, pesticides interfere with coral reproduction and growth. ...
Single-celled dinoflagellate algae known as zooxanthellae live symbiotically within coral polyps. Chemical exchanges occur between the coral polyps and zooxanthellae, and both thrive in a mutually beneficial relationship (mutualism). The zooxanthellae, which are essentially tiny green plants that can produce food from sunlight, water, and dissolved minerals, supply some coral species with more than 90% of their nutrition on sunny days. In exchange for nutrients, the coral polyps supply a habitat and essential minerals to the algae. Another result of this relationship is more rapid development of coral reefs. During photosynthesis, the zooxanthellae remove carbon dioxide from the water, which promotes calcium carbonate production, in turn allowing the coral to more easily secrete its home.. In addition to the food provided by their zooxanthellae, corals prey on tiny planktonic organisms. Some corals paralyze their prey using stinging cells, or nematocysts, located on their tentacles. Other corals ...
The Enhancer Pack combines those products essential for any reef (Reef Complete®, Reef Carbonate™, and Reef Plus™).. Reef Calcium™ is a concentrated (50,000 mg/L) bioavailable polygluconate complexed calcium intended to maintain calcium in the reef aquarium without altering pH. Polygluconate complexation confers several benefits: it increases the bioavailability of the calcium, it provides a rich source of metabolic energy to help maintain peak coral growth, and it prevents calcium precipitation/alkalinity depletion. Polygluconate contains no nitrogen or phosphorous, thus it is biologically impossible for it to lead to algae growth in a properly maintained reef system. Reef Calcium™ may be used alone to maintain calcium but will provide enhanced levels of coral growth when used in conjunction with an ionic calcium supplement (Reef Complete®, Reef Advantage Calcium™). Reef Calcium™ is intended to maintain calcium levels; if calcium becomes seriously depleted one should either ...
Status of reef health incorporating species-wise cover of scleractinians has been reported covering 61 stations in 29 reef locations of the four major reef regions in India as of March 2011, alongside a review of available reef health data since 1998 until 2011 Coral bleaching has been identified as a major factor determining the live coral cover (in the order high to low impact) in Lakshadweep, Gulf of Mannar (GOM) and Andaman reefs Reductions in live cover (from 2010) were observed in Lakshadweep and GOM reefs Recovery from the bleaching event in 2010 was reported from Andaman, though long-term impacts of bleaching, reef area loss due to seismic up-lift and the 2004-tsunami were observed by the declining trend in reef health Local scale stressors are more intense in Gulf of Kachchh (GOK) and GOM reefs, however are more chronic in the former, which is reflected in the species composition as stress tolerators (Edinger and Risk 2000) forming the major cover in these reefs In GOM, recovery from ...
Coral reefs are our most diverse marine habitat. They provide over US$30 billion to the world economy every year and directly support over 500 million people. However, they are vulnerable with climate change impact models predicting that most of our coral reefs will be eradicated within this century if we do not act immediately to protect them.. Dr Rachel Levin from The University of New South Wales, Australia and her international team of researchers may have found a solution to reduce coral bleaching by genetically engineering the microalgae found in corals, enhancing their stress tolerance to ocean warming.. These microalgae are called Symbiodinium, a genus of primary producers found in coral that are essential for coral reef health and, thereby, critical to ocean productivity. Symbiodiniumphotosynthesize to produce molecules that feed the corals, which is necessary corals to grow and form coral reefs.. Coral bleaching is caused by changes in ocean temperatures which harm Symbiodinium, ...
A team of fisheries biologists led by Jacob Johansen and Andrew Esbaugh of The University of Texas Marine Science Institute have discovered that oil impacts the higher-order thinking of coral reef fish in a way that could prove dangerous for them--and for the coral reefs where they make their home.
Coral reefs are fundamental in providing ecological, social and economical benefits to local communities, governments and nations. In Australia, the Great Barrier Reef is an iconic symbol in our national psyche, representing approximately 17% of the global tropical coral reef area with an estimated economic value at greater than AUD$5 billion per year. Coral reefs are constructed through the close association between reef building corals and their symbiotic dinoflagellate microalgae (Symbiodinium). However just as in other animal systems, corals are now thought of as a holobiont, forming additional close and intricate associations with a range of other microbial organisms such as bacteria, archaeae, fungi and viruses. Over the last decade a greater understanding has been obtained in how corals shape and structure their microbial partners, providing important functional roles in maintaining overall coral fitness. The cycling of nitrogen and sulfur compounds within the holobiont are increasingly ...
By combining our research activities involving mapping, monitoring, and retrospectively investigating reef processes such as calcification, reef metabolism, and microbial cycling, we will reveal linkages among them and establish connections to ecosystem services or outputs including reef edification, seawater chemistry, sand production, and habitat construction. Our work addresses several key issues related to the current status and potential declining health and resilience of shallow-water reef communities in the U.S. Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and Florida Keys. Improved understanding and information resulting from our work will help guide policies and best management practices to preserve and restore U.S. coral reef resources.. The specific objectives of this project are to identify and describe the processes that are important in determining rates of coral-reef construction. How quickly the skeletons of calcifying organisms accumulate to form massive barrier-reef structure is determined by ...
Phone: +61 7 336 57229. Overview. Photobiology of isolated reefs and their ability to withstand a range of future climate scenarios. 1) Photobiology of corals - How do host and symbiont interact to provide a highly efficient autotrophic organism that is able to export energy and thereby maintain Coral Reef growth despite high rate of erosion and minimal energy importation? Are some symbionts hosted by corals more parasitic than others - translocating less energy to their hosts? Do some corals cannibalize asexually produced polyps in the interest of promoting genet survival?. 2) Effects of elevated temperature and acidification on coral physiology - What alterations do corals undergo on a seasonal basis under elevated temperatures that fall within their Q10 coping range? How do these alterations differ from the effects of temperature above this range? When does bleaching shift from a controlled response that is beneficial for holobiont performance to a detrimental uncontrolled response that leads ...
Habitat degradation alters the chemical landscape through which information about community dynamics is transmitted. Olfactory information is crucial for risk assessment in aquatic organisms as predators release odours when they capture prey that lead to an alarm response in conspecific prey. Recent studies show some coral reef fishes are unable to use alarm odours when surrounded by dead-degraded coral. Our study examines the spatial and temporal dynamics of this alarm odour-nullifying effect, and which substratum types may be responsible. Field experiments showed that settlement-stage damselfish were not able to detect alarm odours within 2 m downcurrent of degraded coral, and that the antipredator response was re-established 20-40 min after transferral to live coral. Laboratory experiments indicate that the chemicals from common components of the degraded habitats, the cyanobacteria, Okeania sp., and diatom, Pseudo-nitzschia sp.prevented an alarm odour response. The same nullifying effect was ...
The establishment of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) on coral reefs is a common management strategy for conserving the diversity, abundance, and biomass of reef organisms. Generally, well-managed and enforced MPAs can increase or maintain the diversity and function of the enclosed coral reef, with some of the benefits extending to adjacent non-protected reefs. A fundamental question in coral reef conservation is whether these benefits arise within small MPAs (|1 km2), because larval input of reef organisms is largely decoupled from local adult reproduction. We examined the structure of fish assemblages, composition of fish feeding groups, benthic cover, and key ecosystem processes (grazing, macroalgal browsing, and coral replenishment) in three small (0.5-0.8 km2) no-take MPAs and adjacent areas where fisheries are allowed (non-MPAs) on coral reefs in Fiji. The MPAs exhibited greater species richness, density, and biomass of fishes than non-MPAs. Furthermore, MPAs contained a greater abundance and
The Great Barrier Reef is home to about 360 species of hard corals including bottlebrush coral, bubble coral, brain coral, mushroom coral, staghorn coral, tabletop coral and needle coral. Hard corals, also known as stony corals, are a group of marine animals that live in shallow tropical waters and are responsible for building the structure of a coral reef. Colonies of hard corals grow in various shapes and sizes such as mounds, plates and branches. As previous coral colonies die, new ones grow on top of the limestone skeletons of their predecessors. Over time, this growth creates the three-dimensional architecture of a coral reef. Colonies of hard corals consist of thousands of small individal invertebrates referred to as coral polyps. Each polyp is radially symmetrical with a tube-like body that has a tentacle-rimmed mouth at the tip that it uses to feed ...
This experiment assessed the natural gene expression variation present between colonies of the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora, and additionally explored whether gene expression differed between two different intron haplotypes according to intron 4-500 in a carbonic anhydrase homolog. This study found no correspondence between host genotype and transcriptional state, but found significant intercolony variation, detecting 488 representing unique genes or 17% of the total genes analyzed. Such transcriptomic variation could be the basis upon which natural selection can act. Underlying variation could potentially allow reef corals to respond to different environments. Whether this source of variation and the genetic responses of corals and its symbionts will allow coral reefs to cope to the rapid pace of global change remains unknown. A. millepora colonies were brought to a common garden in the reef lagoon, i.e. under the same environmental conditions. This common garden combined with
Coral reef degradation has been observed worldwide over the past few decades resulting in significant decreases in coral cover and abundance. However, there has not been a clear framework established to address the crucial need for more sophisticated understanding of the fundamental ecology of corals and their response to environmental stressors. Development of a quantitative approach to coral population ecology that utilizes formal, well established principles of fishery systems science offers a new framework to address these issues. The goal of this dissertation is to establish a quantitative foundation for assessment of coral reefs by developing some essential ecological and population-dynamic components of a size-structured demographic model for coral populations of the Florida Keys coral reef ecosystem. The objective provides the potential to build a quantitative systems science framework for coral populations. A two-stage stratified random sampling design was implemented during two separate
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When you Adopt a Coral Reef® for a loved one, your gift will help to protect one of the worlds most threatened tropical coral reef marine systems underneath the placid blue Pacific waters surrounding the Republic of Palau.. Your gift includes all our exclusive member benefits, a personalized certificate, coral reef fact sheet and four issues of our award-winning magazine. With a gift of $50 or more, theyll receive all of our exclusive member benefits, an adoption certificate, fact sheet and a years worth of Nature Conservancy magazine.. ...
Phenotypic acclimatization is an organismal response to environmental change that may be rooted in epigenetic mechanisms. In reef building corals, organisms that are severely threatened by environmental change, some evidence suggests that DNA methylation is an environmentally responsive mediator of acclimatization. We investigated changes in DNA methylation of the reef coral Porites astreoides in response to simulated environmental change. Coral colonies were sampled from a variety of habitats on the Belize Barrier Reef and transplanted to a common garden for one year. We used restriction site associated DNA sequencing, including a methylation-sensitive variant, to subsample the genome and assess changes in DNA methylation levels after a year in the common garden. Methylation changes among the 629 CpG loci we recovered were subtle, yet coral methylomes were more similar to each other after a year in the common garden together, indicating convergence of methylation profiles in the common environment.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Consistency and inconsistency in multispecies population network dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. AU - Holstein, Daniel M.. AU - Paris, Claire B.. AU - Mumby, Peter J.. PY - 2014/3/3. Y1 - 2014/3/3. N2 - Different marine species and their larvae have characteristics that can expand or contract their potential dispersal, which can add complexity to the management of species assemblages. Here we used a multi-scale biophysical modeling framework, the Connectivity Modeling System, for the analysis of network connectivity for 5 Caribbean coral reef-associated species in order to gauge similarities and dissimilarities among species as well as among Caribbean regions. We estimated local dispersal and retention to assess regional exchanges, and our results revealed that the population structures of coral and fish are different and should thus have dissimilar management requirements in many regions, with some notable exceptions. Populations of Porites astreoides corals appear ...
Coral reefs are declining dramatically and losing species richness, but the impact of declining biodiversity on coral well-being remains inadequately understood. Here, we demonstrate that lower coral species richness alone can suppress the growth and survivorship of multiple species of corals (Porites cylindrica, Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora millepora) under field conditions on a degraded, macroalgae-dominated reef. Our findings highlight the positive role of biodiversity in the function of coral reefs, and suggest that the loss of coral species richness may trigger negative feedback that causes further ecosystem decline.
Scleractinian corals produce large amounts of calcium carbonate as they grow, sustaining the three-dimensional reef framework that supports the high productivity and biodiversity associated with tropical coral reefs. The rate of skeletal growth of corals is therefore not only essential for their fitness and ecological success, i.e. determining the ability of corals to compete for space and light, and repair structural damage caused by humans, storms, grazers and bioeroders, but can also have profound repercussions on the recovery and resilience of coral reef systems. This thesis investigates possible environmental controls of coral growth through the analyses of emergent patterns on larger spatio-temporal scales. Past growth rates and patterns in massive Porites corals sampled from around the Thai-Malay Peninsula at reef-island scales were reconstructed using sclerochronology, and examined in the context of varying climate/environment. Located within the political boundaries of Singapore, ...
October 2018 - Stony Coral Tissue Loss Disease was first discovered on St Maartens coral reefs in October 2018. A 60% infection and mortality rate of the most susceptible species were found in the Nature Foundations March 2019 surveys at the Man of War Shoal National Marine Park (MWSNMP). On coral reefs outside the Marine Protected Area, an even higher average is found; At least 70% of the same species were either diseased or dead when surveyed on coral reefs outside MWSNMP in February 2019 (Melanie Meijer zu Schlochtern, pers. comm.). Below - See the report issued by Nature Foundation St. Maarten on Coral Reef Disease. ...
The growth of modular organisms is achieved by the asexual iteration of conserved units, and the biological implications of this type of growth are vast. One direct consequence of modularity is the potential for exponential growth through asexual reproduction and dispersal, thereby removing the genotype from the physiological constraints of senescence and permitting it to become virtually immortal. However, senescence at the level of individual modules may still exist. Scleractinian corals are an excellent model system to test for effects of age and size because colonies often experience fission, fusion, and fragmentation, thereby decoupling the relationship between age and size. Understanding how fission and fragmentation affect coral growth is timely because the likelihood of partial mortality and fission will increase due to global degradation of coral reefs, resulting in large numbers of small, yet old, colonies. In order to test the effects of age and size on growth in corals, two ...
Background: Ecosystems worldwide are suffering the consequences of anthropogenic impact. The diverse ecosystem of coral reefs, for example, are globally threatened by increases in sea surface temperatures due to global warming. Studies to date have focused on determining genetic diversity, the sequence variability of genes in a species, as a proxy to estimate and predict the potential adaptive response of coral populations to environmental changes linked to climate changes. However, the examination of natural gene expression variation has received less attention. This variation has been implicated as an important factor in evolutionary processes, upon which natural selection can act. Results: We acclimatized coral nubbins from six colonies of the reef-building coral Acropora millepora to a common garden in Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, GBR) for a period of four weeks to remove any site-specific environmental effects on the physiology of the coral nubbins. By using a cDNA microarray platform, we
TY - JOUR. T1 - A snapshot of a coral holobiont. T2 - A transcriptome assembly of the scleractinian coral, Porites, captures a wide variety of genes from both the host and symbiotic zooxanthellae. AU - Shinzato, Chuya. AU - Inoue, Mayuri. AU - Kusakabe, Makoto. PY - 2014/1/15. Y1 - 2014/1/15. N2 - Massive scleractinian corals of the genus Porites are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific, and they are more resistant to thermal stress than other stony corals, such as the genus Acropora. Because coral health and survival largely depend on the interaction between a coral host and its symbionts, it is important to understand the molecular interactions of an entire coral holobiont. We simultaneously sequenced transcriptomes of Porites australiensis and its symbionts using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. We obtained 14.3 Gbp of sequencing data and assembled it into 74,997 contigs (average: 1,263 bp, N50 size: 2,037 bp). We successfully distinguished contigs originating from the host ...
We investigated variation in transcript abundance in the scleractinian coral, Acropora millepora, within and between populations characteristically exposed to different turbidity regimes and hence different levels of light and suspended particulate matter. We examined phenotypic plasticity by comparing levels of gene expression between source populations and following 10 days of acclimatization to a laboratory environment. Analyses of variance revealed that 0.05% of genes were differentially expressed between source populations, 1.32% following translocation into a common laboratory and 0.07% in the interaction (source population-dependent responses to translocation). Functional analyses identified an over-representation of differentially expressed genes associated with metabolism and fluorescence categories (primarily downregulated), and environmental information processing (primarily upregulated) following translocation to a lower light and turbidity environment. Such metabolic downregulation ...
Summary. Fifteen reefs in the Cooktown - Lizard Island sector were surveyed for crown-of-thorns starfish and coral disease outbreaks using manta tow. Intensive SCUBA surveys for benthic organisms, reef fishes and agents of coral mortality (SCUBA searches) were also completed on sites on eight of these reefs. Preliminary results of the manta tow surveys and SCUBA searches are presented in this report. No active outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) were found but one Incipient Outbreak was recorded at Startle Reef. COTS were recorded in low numbers on seven reefs during manta tow surveys with localized Incipient Outbreak levels of COTS observed on five. COTS were also observed on five reefs during SCUBA searches. COTS feeding scars were recorded on many of the survey reefs and a number of spot checks revealed a few individuals hiding in amongst the reef matrix. Above normal levels of coral mortality were also observed on parts of the Startle Reef (Incipient Outbreak). The directors of the ...
The Assorted Aussie Acropora Coral offers coral collectors and Acropora aficionados a convenient way to create a beautiful reef aquarium landscape with diverse Acropora species. This thoughtful selection contains 3 different species of high quality Australian Acropora coral frags boasting varying color forms and growth habits for a truly noteworthy presentation. Our packaging crew will hand select these pieces, and we are confident you will be pleased.. The Assorted Aussie Acropora Coral may include the following Acropora corals: Acropora tenuis, Acropora aculeus, Acropora sarmentosa, Acropora cerealis, and Acropora microclados for one incredible price.. The ideal environment for the corals included in the Assorted Aussie Acropora Coral is an established reef aquarium with coral-friendly fish and invertebrates. Provide bright lighting conditions achieved with T-5s, powerful LEDs or the more intense metal halides. Under the right conditions, the growth rate of Acropora corals is much more rapid ...
It is long been identified that sharks assist nourish coral reefs, however precisely to what extent has by no means been scientifically mapped out - till now.. Pioneering research - led by scientists from Imperial School London in collaboration with marine biologists from UC Santa Barbara - discovered that the predators, by way of their fecal materials, switch essential vitamins from their open ocean feeding grounds into shallower reef environments, contributing to the general well being of those fragile ecosystems. The researchers particularly examined the function of gray reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), a predatory species generally related to coral environments; however whose broader ecological role has long been debated. The worldwide workforces findings seem within the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.. Our examine reveals that giant cellular predators comparable to sharks could also be an important supply of vitamins for even the smallest reef creatures, comparable to ...
Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO/n-type ZnO were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation shows that the adopted synthesis leads to high crystalline quality nanostructures. The morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures are dominated mainly by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence of the decorated ZnO nanostructures is enhanced by the presence of the NiO.
Brain coral is a common name given to various corals in the families Mussidae and Merulinidae, so called due to their generally spheroid shape and grooved surface which resembles a brain. Each head of coral is formed by a colony of genetically identical polyps which secrete a hard skeleton of calcium carbonate; this makes them important coral reef builders like other stony corals in the order Scleractinia. Brain corals are found in shallow warm-water coral reefs in all the worlds oceans. They are part of the phylum Cnidaria, in a class called Anthozoa or flower animals. The lifespan of the largest brain corals is 900 years. Colonies can grow as large as 1.8 m (6 ft) or more in height. Brain corals extend their tentacles to catch food at night. During the day, they use their tentacles for protection by wrapping them over the grooves on their surface. The surface is hard and offers good protection against fish or hurricanes. Branching corals, such as staghorn corals, grow more rapidly, but are ...
Exploring Individual- to Population-Level Impacts of Disease on Coral Reef Sponges: Using Spatial Analysis to Assess the Fate, Dynamics, and Transmission of Aplysina Red Band Syndrome ARBS. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In the Caribbean, a large number of coral colonies on which this alga was transplanted developed white plague whereas unexposed colonies did not. In addition, the plant was found to be a reservoir for the marine bacterium Aurantimonas coralicida, causative agent of the disease. The spread of macroalgae on coral reefs may account for the elevated incidence of coral diseases over past decades. Moreover, measures to reduce seaweed abundance may be essential if significant coral populations are to survive on coral reefs ...
Acidification of seawater owing to oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 originating from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes has raised serious concerns regarding its adverse effects on corals and calcifying communities. Here we demonstrate a net loss of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) material as a result of decreased calcification and increased carbonate dissolution from replicated subtropical coral reef communities (n=3) incubated in continuous-flow mesocosms subject to future seawater conditions. The calcifying community was dominated by the coral Montipora capitata. Daily average community calcification or Net Ecosystem Calcification (NEC=CaCO3 production - dissolution) was positive at 3.3 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under ambient seawater pCO2 conditions as opposed to negative at −0.04 mmol CaCO3 m−2h−1 under seawater conditions of double the ambient pCO2. These experimental results provide support for the conclusion that some net calcifying communities could become
The Branched Montipora Coral is a small polyp stony (SPS) coral often referred to as Velvet Branch, or Velvet Finger Coral. This branching coral comes in a variety of colors and is a fast growing species. The form that the coral takes in its growth will be highly variable depending on the lighting, water movement and placement within the aquarium. However, it will typically maintain its branched form in most aquariums. When the polyps are expanded, the coral has a very fuzzy appearance, with smooth growth tips adding to its overall appeal. The Branched Montipora Coral is peaceful and can be placed in close proximity to other similar peaceful corals in the reef aquarium. It is a relatively hardy coral and requires just a moderate amount of care when housed in a mature reef aquarium. It will require medium to high lighting combined with a medium water movement within the aquarium. For continued good health, it will also require the addition of calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the ...
In New Hampshire-based artist Megan Bogonovichs magical ceramic sculptures, well-dressed women and men peek into gigantic anemones and castle-like coral reefs, plunging headfirst inside like Alice in Wonderland.
Tropical sea cucumbers could play a key role in saving coral reefs from the devastating effects of climate change, say scientists at One Tree Island, the University of Sydneys research station on the Great Barrier Reef.
Although early studies qualitatively documented the importance of cross-habitat energy transfers from seagrasses to coral reefs, such exchanges have yet to be quantified. Empirical evidence suggests that grazing by reef-associated herbivores along the coral reef-seagrass interface can be intense (e.g. conspicuous presence of bare-sand halos surrounding coral reefs). This evidence must be interpreted with caution, however, as most of it comes from areas that have experienced sustained, intense overfishing. To quantify the impacts of piscivore removal on cross-habitat energy exchange at the coral reef-seagrass interface, we compared grazing intensity along fished and no-take reefs in the upper and lower Florida Keys. Using visual census techniques and direct measures of seagrass grazing, we documented the impacts of piscivore density on herbivory along the seagrass-coral reef interface. Grazing rates were greater than observed seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) production near reefs in the upper Keys, but
Victoria University of Wellington Viruses are a ubiquitous component of coral reef ecosystems, with several viral types, from at least seven prokaryotic and 20 eukaryotic virus families currently characterised from the surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML), coral tissue and the water column. However, little is known about the ecology and function of these viruses. For example, what are the environmental drivers of viral abundance and diversity on coral reefs? In this study, the abundance and distribution of virus-like particles (VLPs) associated with the SML and reef water of the coral Montipora capitata were determined using epifluorescence microscopy, while transmission electron microscopy was employed to determine the morphological diversity of VLPs. Sampling was conducted across the Coconut Island Marine Reserve (CIMR) reef system, Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Viral abundance was correlated with select environmental drivers and prokaryote abundance, while non-metric multidimensional ...
Only six months after one of the worst summers in history for coral bleaching, a new coral reef biodiversity and health survey suggests some of Australias most biologically important fringing reef communities in the central Kimberley remain intact.
The aim of the Coral Reef Optics (CRO) course is to study the light ecology of coral reef benthic organisms and communities. There are two basic goals: the first is to understand variability in the quantity and quality of light reaching the seafloor and the second is to understand how that light drives fundamental reef processes. The CRO course is an intensive, integrated program comprised of lectures, required reading, laboratory exercises and field surveys. Lectures cover a broad range of relevant topics and ecological principals in coral reef optical ecology including concepts in hydrologic optics, fundamentals of aquatic photosynthesis, and metabolism and calcification of reef organisms and communities. Lectures are supplemented by readings from the primary literature with attention given to active areas of research. The course is divided into evening lectures and discussions (1-2 hours) that are complemented with extensive laboratory and field activities on Bermudas reef system. The ...
Coral tissue damage that normally heals on its own will not mend when ...UCF associate professor of biology John Fauth and scientists from the ...Scientists have long been concerned about declining coral reef health ...The loss of coral harms natural reef ecosystems and can hurt Floridas... Were losing places where animals can hide and fish can feed Fauth ...,Pollution,threatens,coral,health,by,preventing,lesions,from,healing,,UCF,study,shows,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Corals are marine animals in class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria typically living in compact colonies of many identical individual polyps. The group includes the important reef builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton. Scientists have discovered two viruses that appear to infect the single-celled microalgae that reside in corals and are important for coral growth and health, and they say the viruses could play a role in the serious decline of coral ecosystems around the world. These viruses, including an RNA virus never before isolated from a coral, have been shown for the first time to clearly be associated with these microalgae called Symbiodinium. If its proven that they are infecting those algae and causing disease, it will be another step toward understanding the multiple threats that coral reefs are facing. The research was published today in the ISME Journal, in work supported by the National Science Foundation.
After purchasing your adoption plan- Its easy as 1, 2, 3!. 1. Name - Personalize your adopted coral by naming it! A plaque with your corals name will be permanently placed on our coral propagation unit.. 2. Nurture - BREEF will monitor the growth and health of your baby coral and maintain your plaque on the coral propagation unit. 3. Nature - Watch your baby Staghorn coral continually grow and be trimmed and out planted on the reef over and over every year.. *Now offering 2 nursery locations to choose from!. Coral Reef Sculpture Garden. Andros Great Barrier Reef. ...
In order to understand the effects of global climate change on reef-building corals, a thorough investigation of their physiological mechanisms of acclimatization is warranted. However, static temperature manipulations may underestimate the thermal complexity of the reefs in which many corals live. For instance, corals of Houbihu, Taiwan experience up to 10°C changes in temperature over the course of a day during spring tide upwelling events. To better understand the phenotypic plasticity of these corals, a laboratory-based experiment was conducted whereby specimens of Seriatopora hystrix (Dana, 1846) from the upwelling reef, Houbihu, and conspecifics from a non-upwelling reef (Houwan) were exposed to both a stable seawater temperature (26°C) and a regime characterized by a 6°C fluctuation (23-29°C) over a 12 hour period for seven days. A suite of physiological and molecular parameters was measured in samples of both treatments, as well as in experimental controls, in order to determine site ...
Biofilms play an important role as a settlement cue for invertebrate larvae and significantly contribute to the nutrient turnover in aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, little is known about how biofilm community structure generally responds to environmental changes. This study aimed to identify patterns of bacterial dynamics in coral reef biofilms in response to associated macrofouling community structure, microhabitat (exposed vs. sheltered), seasonality, and eutrophication. Settlement tiles were deployed at four reefs along a cross-shelf eutrophication gradient and were exchanged every 4 months over 20 months. The fouling community composition on the tiles was recorded and the bacterial community structure was assessed with the community fingerprinting technique Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA). Bacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) number was higher on exposed tiles, where the fouling community was homogenous and algae-dominated, than in sheltered habitats, which ...
Theres little doubt that coral reefs the world over face threats on many fronts: pollution, diseases, destructive fishing practices and warming oceans. But reefs appear to be more resistant to one potential menace - seaweed ...
Little is known about long-term changes in coral reef fish communities. Here we present a new technique that leverages fish otoliths in reef sediments to reconstruct coral reef fish communities. We found over 5, otoliths in modern and mid-Holocene bulk samples from Caribbean Panama and Dominican Republic mid-Holocene and modern reefs, demonstrating otoliths are abundant in reef sediments. With a specially-built reference collection, we were able to assign over 4, otoliths to one of 56 taxa 35 families though mostly at genus and family level. Many otoliths were from juvenile fishes for which identification is challenging. Richness by rarefaction of otolith assemblages was slightly higher in modern than mid-Holocene reefs, but further analyses are required to elucidate the underlying causes. We compared the living fish communities, sampled using icthyocide, with the sediment otolith assemblages on four reefs finding the otolith assemblages faithfully capture the general composition of the living ...
Read Genetic diversity of isolated populations of Nautilus pompilius (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.