Cold-water coral reefs are known to locally enhance the diversity of deep-sea fauna as well as of microbes. Sponges areamong the most diverse faunal groups in these ecosystems, and many of them host large abundances of microbes in theirtissues. In this study, twelve sponge species from three cold-water coral reefs off Norway were investigated for therelationship between sponge phylogenetic classification (species and family level), as well as sponge type (high versus lowmicrobial abundance), and the diversity of sponge-associated bacterial communities, taking also geographic location andwater depth into account. Community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that asmany as 345 (79%) of the 437 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the dataset were sharedbetween sponges and sediments, while only 70 (16%) appeared purely sponge-associated. Furthermore, changes inbacterial community structure were significantly related to sponge ...
Increased terrestrial sediment and nutrient yields are regarded as significant threats to coral reef health. Within the central Great Barrier Reef lagoon, where water quality has reportedly declined since European settlement (since ca. A.D. 1850), inner-shelf reef conditions have purportedly deteriorated. However, the link between reef decline and water-quality change remains controversial, primarily because of a lack of pre-European period ecological baseline data against which to assess contemporary ecological states. Here we present a high-resolution record of reef accretion and coral community composition from a turbid-zone, nearshore reef on the inner shelf of the Great Barrier Reef; the record is based on six radiocarbon date-constrained cores, and extends back to ca. 1200 calibrated yr B.P. Results demonstrate not only the potential for coral communities to initiate and persist in settings dominated by fine-grained terrigenous sediment accumulation, but also that a temporally persistent ...
The acidification of the ocean due to the industrial emission of carbon dioxide is destroying the worlds coral reefs, a coalition of marine experts has warned in the recently released Honolulu Declaration. "Coral reefs are at the heart of our tropics, and millions of people around the world depend on these systems for their livelihoods," said Lynne Hale, director of The Nature Conservancys Marine Initiative. "Without urgent action to limit carbon dioxide emissions and improve management of marine protected areas, even vast treasured reefs like the Great Barrier Reef and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands will become wastelands of dead coral." Coral reefs have long been known to be threatened by effects of global warming, including coral bleaching, higher ocean temperatures and rising sea levels. But these threats are surpassed by the dangers of ocean acidification, which was named the number one threat to ocean life by scientists from the International Coral Reef Symposium in July. For many years, ...
Anthropogenic impacts and climate change are increasing the frequency and intensity at which ecosystems are being perturbed. On tropical reefs, disturbances can result in loss of live coral and sometimes initiate a transition to an alternative community state, frequently one dominated by macroalgae. Because algae-dominated reefs may have lower productivity, decreased species diversity and reduced ecosystem services, there has been considerable interest in elucidating the mechanisms that mediate a transition to an algae dominated state or the re-establishment of coral. In this dissertation I explore how physical attributes of a coral reef and the echinoid and fish communities control algal growth and influence the return to coral dominance. Recent disturbances in Moorea, French Polynesia offer an opportunity to examine the effects of architectural complexity of the substrate on recruitment of new coral colonists. I explore how the success of new coral colonists is affected by variation in ...
Dr Pim Bongaerts, a Research Fellow at The University of Queenslands Global Change Institute (GCI) and ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, and lead author of the study, said deep reefs share coral species with the shallow reef, which has led to the idea that deep reefs could be an important source of larvae and help to reseed shallow reefs. We argue that this concept of deep coral populations reseeding their shallow-water counterparts may be relevant to some species, but is ultimately unlikely to aid more broadly in the recovery of shallow reefs, he said. Given the impossibility of tracking the movements of individual coral larvae on the reef, understanding the connectivity between shallow and deep coral populations relies on methods that assess the genetic similarity between coral populations. The team focused on the relatively isolated reef system of Bermuda in the Western Atlantic where they screened the genomes of more than 200 individual coral colonies from shallow and ...
Welcome to the website for the Coral Reef Ecosystems (CRE) Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia. Under the guidance of Professor Ove Hoegh-Guldberg and Associate Professor Sophie Dove, the lab is conducting research into a variety of topics related to coral reef ecosystems. The lab is part of the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and receives considerable support from this important centre within Australian science. The lab currently hosts 25 people which includes 6 Post-Docs, 12 PhD students and 7 Professional staff which include a Lab Manager, 2 research assistants, project officer, a software engineer, a electronic and data management technician and casual research assistants. This website gives access to their personal profiles and peer-reviewed publications.. This 360 degree video shows the work our lab group does at Heron Island. It shows our staff working on the aquarium deck and the deployment of our ...
With the Coral Reefs Palette, Chantecaille has continued its tradition of offering must-have makeup with an environmental benefit. Chantecaille has proudly joined the Marine Conservation Institute in their efforts to protect 10% of the worlds oceans by 2020. The oceans cover 71% of the earth, providing 80% of our oxygen and food for 3.5 billion people; yet less than one half of one percent of our oceans are protected. The health of the ocean is vital, and coral reefs are the alert system. Today three quarters of the worlds coral reefs are at risk due to over-fishing, pollution, and global warming. Maintaining 10% of the oceans ecosystems as "no-take marine protected areas" is the best chance for corals survival. Five percent of the proceeds from the Coral Reefs Palette will be donated to the Marine Conservation Institute to help meet our goals (not their goals, our goals ...
Surgeonfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reef while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. The majority of surgeonfishes are exclusively found on coral reef habitat, and of these, approximately 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and degradation of coral reef habitat quality across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that recruit into areas with live coral cover, especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012 ...
Surgeonfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reef while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. The majority of surgeonfishes are exclusively found on coral reef habitat, and of these, approximately 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and degradation of coral reef habitat quality across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that recruit into areas with live coral cover, especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012 ...
CORVALLIS, Ore. - The invasion of predatory lionfish in the Caribbean region poses yet another major threat there to coral reef ecosystems - a new study has found that within a short period after the entry of lionfish into an area, the survival of other reef fishes is slashed by about 80 percent.. Aside from the rapid and immediate mortality of marine life, the loss of herbivorous fish also sets the stage for seaweeds to potentially overwhelm the coral reefs and disrupt the delicate ecological balance in which they exist, according to scientists from Oregon State University.. Following on the heels of overfishing, sediment depositions, nitrate pollution in some areas, coral bleaching caused by global warming, and increasing ocean acidity caused by carbon emissions, the lionfish invasion is a serious concern, said Mark Hixon, an OSU professor of zoology and expert on coral reef ecology.. The study is the first to quantify the severity of the crisis posed by this invasive species, which is native ...
Executive Summary and full report, "Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs: 1970-2012": http://bit.ly/1puLHlp. High resolution photos: http://bit.ly/1qLdYmc. An 8-minute video, "From Despair to Repair," about the reports implications: http://www.iucn.org/?16050. About GCRMN. The Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) was established in 1994 to support the global call for action of the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) to commit to increasing research and monitoring of coral reefs in order to provide the data needed to inform policy makers to sustain coral reefs and to strengthen management. Today, the GCRMN works through a global network of stakeholders to support the management and conservation of coral reefs. The work of GCRMN focuses on increasing the scientific understanding of the status and trends of coral reef ecosystems worldwide by making reef monitoring data publicly available, linking people and existing organizations, improving the communication among GCRMN ...
Coral reefs have been declining during the last four decades as a result of both local and global anthropogenic stresses. Numerous research efforts to elucidate the nature, causes, magnitude, and potential remedies for the decline have led to the widely held belief that the recovery of coral reefs is unlikely if public and private sector decisions that affect coral reefs continue to ignore the economic value of the goods and services (ecosystem services) they provide. However, including ecosystem services in a decision process requires that they be characterized and quantified (and subsequently valued). In particular, the scientific contribution to the decision process should include identifying which coral reef attributes are associated with which ecosystem services, how those attributes are affected by human activities, and how human activities may affect the future provision of ecosystem services. This knowledge would place the decision process on a sounder scientific footing and provide a ...
A model that resolves reef island formation in relation to both reef platform substrate development and mid-Holocene sea-level change is presented for Bewick Island, northern Great Barrier Reef, based on morphostratigraphic analysis and radiometrically dated island sediments and reef corals. On Bewick Island, microatolls record reef-flat development at higher sea level (+1.5 m) by 6500 yr B.P. Island building began on a partially emergent reef flat 5000-4000 yr B.P., when sea level was 0.5 m above present. As sea level fell to its present level, the reef platform process window closed and the island core stabilized. Results present the first unequivocal evidence of island building directly over a reef flat comprising microatolls, and the first detailed model of island formation from the Great Barrier Reef. The model demonstrates that the interplay of sea level and reef surface elevation can vary between sites but their convergence is critical for island initiation. Future trajectories of island ...
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Coral Reef Conditions and Structure - Ideal coral reef conditions include warm, clear, nutrient-poor saltwater. See how these coral reef conditions can lead to different types of reefs.
A popular herbicide used widely in coastal regions of Australia has been found at dangerous levels in the Great Barrier Reef, posing a toxic threat to the worlds largest coral reef system. The chemical Diuron, which is used largely by sugar cane farmers along the Queensland coast, was found at levels 55 times higher than safety standards in creeks that drain into the reef, and at levels 100 times the safe standards in the reef itself, according to a new report by the World Wildlife Fund. After a decade-long review, the Australian government on Tuesday announced it would continue a suspension of the chemical except in the countrys tropical regions. A decision on a permanent ban will be made by November, the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority said. In a recent report, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority called a decline in the quality of water in catchment areas one of the greatest threats facing the reef. Nick Heath, the WWF freshwater and reef coordinator, said ...
The architectural complexity of coral reefs has declined drastically over the last 40 years throughout the Caribbean. Structurally complex reefs with a rugosity of greater than 2 have been virtually lost from the entire region. Today, the flattest reefs (rugosity less than 1.5) comprise approximately 75 per cent of the total compared with approximately 20 per cent in the 1970s, with most of the increase in the proportion of flattest reefs occurring in the 2000s. The high proportion of complex reefs in the 1960s and 1970s is unlikely to result from researchers tending to visit just the most pristine reefs at this time, because less architecturally-complex categories were also well represented during this period. The loss of architectural complexity is nonlinear and has occurred over three distinct phases that coincide closely with large-scale events that have affected Caribbean reef ecosystems. The rate of decline was steepest prior to 1985. The sample sizes are small and variance high during the ...
As the name would suggest, marine snow resembles snowflakes suspended in the oceans water column. Marine snow is the aggregations of a variety of suspended material consisting of calcareous algae, organic detritus, and mucus secreted by plankton, algae, bacteria and corals. Increased nutrient concentrations in coastal waters enhance algal growth, which indirectly increases the levels of marine snow (review by Wolanski et al. 2003). Increased carbon levels resulting from sewage runoff and mucus secretion* also directly influence marine snow. Until recently, the significance of marine snow and coral reef health has been neglected. The adhesive property of marine snow means that it readily attaches itself to suspended sediment (fine clay) from coastal runoff resulting in it becoming negatively buoyant. This muddy marine snow is detrimental and even lethal to coral reefs as it settles on the reef smothering it (Fabricius and Wolanski 2000). Rich in carbohydrates, marine snow is a source of energy ...
New research has provided insight into the basic immune response and repair mechanisms of corals to disease and changing environmental conditions.. The study, published in the latest issue of the journal Coral Reefs, found that increased growth is the underlying physiological process associated with disease, wounding and stress-related color changes in reef-building corals.. The study investigated distinct green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments responsible for the green, red and purple-blue colors of many reef-building corals.. By examining these GFP- pigments in four coral species from the Arabian/Persian Gulf, Red Sea and Fiji, researchers found that their presence shows growing tissue in growing branch tips and margins of healthy coral colonies; as well as in disrupted colony parts, in comparison to un-disrupted areas.. Dr Joerg Wiedenmann, Senior Lecturer of Biological Oceanography and Head of the Coral Reef Laboratory at the University of Southampton, who led the study, says: "The ...
This dataset contains data on carbon chemistry on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Main parameters measured were temperature, total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon. The data was collected six times over two years (September 2011 - June 2012) covering a comprehensive latitudinal range. The aim of this study was to investigate carbon chemistry on inshore reefs, and compare it to offshore reefs and historical data. Research to date on reef calcification and inorganic carbon dynamics within the GBR system has largely focused upon on-reef processes on mid- and outer-shelf reefs. Relatively little work has been done on the shelf-scale dynamics of inorganic carbon in the GBR system and almost no consideration has been given to the many inshore reefs close to the coast that are under the greatest threat from increases in runoff of sediment, nutrients and pesticides. The ratio of primary productivity and respiration (P/R) of inshore reefs are often lower than on reefs further from ...
University of Miamis Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science The persistence of coral reef ecosystems may largely depend on the exchange of offspring between populations that exist on the edge of species ranges. While reef-building corals expand to the subtropics, their range is not only bounded by latitude, but also by water depth. This is mostly because sunlight attenuates very quickly through the water column and corals harbor microscopic photosynthetic symbiotic algae, which need to uptake light to help nourish the coral. Light-dependent coral reefs and associated benthic communities found between 30 and 100 meters (100-330 feet) in the Gulf of Mexico are called mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) and are central to our study. The MCEs of Pulley Ridge, located 66 kilometers west of the Dry Tortugas, inhabit a relatively stable environment, decoupled from stresses related to the proximity of coastal pollution or from water temperature fluctuations and mass bleaching affecting ...
PROVIDENCE R.I. -- Coral bleaching a stress response that turns rain...In an experiment with three species of Hawaiian corals researchers ...James Palardy a Brown University graduate student and co-author of... These super-feeders have an ecological advantage one that ma...Coral reefs reduce beach erosion support tourism and serve as bree...,Coral,reef,resilience:,Better,feeders,survive,bleaching,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Johnson, M.D., M.D. Fox, E.L.A. Kelly, B.J. Zgliczynski, S.A. Sandin, J.E. Smith (2020) Ecophysiology of coral reef primary producers across an upwelling gradient in the tropical central Pacific. PloS one 15(2). [pdf]. Kelly, E.L.A., A.L. Cannon, J.E. Smith (2020) Environmental impacts and implications of tropical carageenophyte seaweed farming. Conservation Biology. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13462. Lewis, L.L. & J.E. Smith (2019) Functional diversity among herbivorous sea urchins on a coral reef: grazing rate, dietary preference, and metabolism. Marine Ecology Progress Series. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps13038. Darling et al. (2019) Social-environmental drivers inform strategic management of coral reefs in the Anthropocene. Nature Ecology & Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0953-8. Fox, M.D., Carter, A.L., Edwards, C.B., Takeshita, Y., M.D. Johnson, C. Amir, V. Petrovic, E. Sala, S.A. Sandin, J.E. Smith. (2019) Limited coral mortality following acute thermal stress and widespread ...
Doubling the size of the southern Atlantics largest reef system. Scientists announced yesterday the discovery of reef structures they believe doubles the size of the Southern Atlantic Oceans largest and richest reef system, the Abrolhos Bank, off the southern coast of Brazils Bahia state. The newly discovered area is also far more abundant in marine life than the previously known Abrolhos reef system, one of the worlds most unique and important reefs.. Researchers from Conservation International (CI), Federal University of Espà -rito Santo and Federal University of Bahia announced their discovery in a paper presented today at the International Coral Reef Symposium in Fort Lauderdale. "We had some clues from local fishermen that other reefs existed, but not at the scale of what we discovered," says Rodrigo de Moura, Conservation International Brazil marine specialist and co-author of the paper. "It is very exciting and highly unusual to discover a reef structure this large and harboring such ...
The clownfish A. percula clearly has a close association with coral reefs surrounding vegetated islands. Both clownfish and host anemone numbers are high on island reefs and sparse on other emergent reefs. Within island reef systems, numbers are the greatest immediately adjacent to the islands themselves, where they are often found beneath overhanging vegetation. Given the strong association between host anemones and island reefs, A. percula larvae can clearly maximize their chances of finding a suitable settlement site by being able to locate and orient towards islands. The islands themselves are a potential source of many olfactory water-borne cues that would not be emanating from reefs without islands. Elevated levels of organic material from the lush tropical rainforest vegetation could clearly extend some distance from the islands. The experimental data presented here strongly suggest that A. percula has an innate olfactory attraction to rainforest vegetation, and once detected, could use ...
Pollution from land-based sources is a primary cause of coral reef degradation throughout the world. In the Caribbean, for example, approximately 80 percent of ocean pollution originates from activities on land. As human populations expand in coastal areas, development alters the landscape, increasing runoff from land. Runoff often carries large quantities of sediment from land-clearing, high levels of nutrients from agricultural areas and sewage outflows, and pollutants such as petroleum products and pesticides. These land-based sources of pollution threaten coral reef health.. Excess nutrients result in poor water quality, leading to decreased oxygen and increased nutrients in the water (eutrophication). This can lead to enhanced algal growth on reefs, crowding out corals and significantly degrading the ecosystem. In addition, sediment deposited onto reefs smothers corals and interferes with their ability to feed and reproduce. Finally, pesticides interfere with coral reproduction and growth. ...
The Enhancer Pack combines those products essential for any reef (Reef Complete®, Reef Carbonate™, and Reef Plus™).. Reef Calcium™ is a concentrated (50,000 mg/L) bioavailable polygluconate complexed calcium intended to maintain calcium in the reef aquarium without altering pH. Polygluconate complexation confers several benefits: it increases the bioavailability of the calcium, it provides a rich source of metabolic energy to help maintain peak coral growth, and it prevents calcium precipitation/alkalinity depletion. Polygluconate contains no nitrogen or phosphorous, thus it is biologically impossible for it to lead to algae growth in a properly maintained reef system. Reef Calcium™ may be used alone to maintain calcium but will provide enhanced levels of coral growth when used in conjunction with an ionic calcium supplement (Reef Complete®, Reef Advantage Calcium™). Reef Calcium™ is intended to maintain calcium levels; if calcium becomes seriously depleted one should either ...
Status of reef health incorporating species-wise cover of scleractinians has been reported covering 61 stations in 29 reef locations of the four major reef regions in India as of March 2011, alongside a review of available reef health data since 1998 until 2011 Coral bleaching has been identified as a major factor determining the live coral cover (in the order high to low impact) in Lakshadweep, Gulf of Mannar (GOM) and Andaman reefs Reductions in live cover (from 2010) were observed in Lakshadweep and GOM reefs Recovery from the bleaching event in 2010 was reported from Andaman, though long-term impacts of bleaching, reef area loss due to seismic up-lift and the 2004-tsunami were observed by the declining trend in reef health Local scale stressors are more intense in Gulf of Kachchh (GOK) and GOM reefs, however are more chronic in the former, which is reflected in the species composition as stress tolerators (Edinger and Risk 2000) forming the major cover in these reefs In GOM, recovery from ...
Coral reefs are our most diverse marine habitat. They provide over US$30 billion to the world economy every year and directly support over 500 million people. However, they are vulnerable with climate change impact models predicting that most of our coral reefs will be eradicated within this century if we do not act immediately to protect them.. Dr Rachel Levin from The University of New South Wales, Australia and her international team of researchers may have found a solution to reduce coral bleaching by genetically engineering the microalgae found in corals, enhancing their stress tolerance to ocean warming.. These microalgae are called Symbiodinium, a genus of primary producers found in coral that are essential for coral reef health and, thereby, critical to ocean productivity. Symbiodiniumphotosynthesize to produce molecules that feed the corals, which is necessary corals to grow and form coral reefs.. Coral bleaching is caused by changes in ocean temperatures which harm Symbiodinium, ...
A team of fisheries biologists led by Jacob Johansen and Andrew Esbaugh of The University of Texas Marine Science Institute have discovered that oil impacts the higher-order thinking of coral reef fish in a way that could prove dangerous for them--and for the coral reefs where they make their home.
Coral reefs are fundamental in providing ecological, social and economical benefits to local communities, governments and nations. In Australia, the Great Barrier Reef is an iconic symbol in our national psyche, representing approximately 17% of the global tropical coral reef area with an estimated economic value at greater than AUD$5 billion per year. Coral reefs are constructed through the close association between reef building corals and their symbiotic dinoflagellate microalgae (Symbiodinium). However just as in other animal systems, corals are now thought of as a holobiont, forming additional close and intricate associations with a range of other microbial organisms such as bacteria, archaeae, fungi and viruses. Over the last decade a greater understanding has been obtained in how corals shape and structure their microbial partners, providing important functional roles in maintaining overall coral fitness. The cycling of nitrogen and sulfur compounds within the holobiont are increasingly ...
By combining our research activities involving mapping, monitoring, and retrospectively investigating reef processes such as calcification, reef metabolism, and microbial cycling, we will reveal linkages among them and establish connections to ecosystem services or outputs including reef edification, seawater chemistry, sand production, and habitat construction. Our work addresses several key issues related to the current status and potential declining health and resilience of shallow-water reef communities in the U.S. Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and Florida Keys. Improved understanding and information resulting from our work will help guide policies and best management practices to preserve and restore U.S. coral reef resources.. The specific objectives of this project are to identify and describe the processes that are important in determining rates of coral-reef construction. How quickly the skeletons of calcifying organisms accumulate to form massive barrier-reef structure is determined by ...
Phone: +61 7 336 57229. Overview. Photobiology of isolated reefs and their ability to withstand a range of future climate scenarios. 1) Photobiology of corals - How do host and symbiont interact to provide a highly efficient autotrophic organism that is able to export energy and thereby maintain Coral Reef growth despite high rate of erosion and minimal energy importation? Are some symbionts hosted by corals more parasitic than others - translocating less energy to their hosts? Do some corals cannibalize asexually produced polyps in the interest of promoting genet survival?. 2) Effects of elevated temperature and acidification on coral physiology - What alterations do corals undergo on a seasonal basis under elevated temperatures that fall within their Q10 coping range? How do these alterations differ from the effects of temperature above this range? When does bleaching shift from a controlled response that is beneficial for holobiont performance to a detrimental uncontrolled response that leads ...
The increasing violence of storms under global climate change will hav...A scientific team from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Stu...In a paper in the international scientific journal Nature Dr Joshua M...How coral assemblages respond to the power of the sea is essential for... Coral reef experts have long had a general sense of which coral shape...,Stormy,days,ahead,for,coral,reefs,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Twenty two new schools across Queensland have joined the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authoritys Reef Guardian Schools program, bringing the total number to more than 300.. Currently in its 12th year, the environmental education program now involves more than 123,000 students across Queensland. GBRMPA Reef Guardian Schools acting program manager Carolyn Luder said students learn about the Reefs ecosystem and the role they can take in protecting it for the future. They learn that activities in the catchments can affect the health of the Reef.. "Were delighted to welcome the newest schools and centres to the program," she said.. "Reef Guardian School students are future custodians of the Great Barrier Reef and it is important to encourage them to care for their local environment and promote real change in their communities.. "Through this environmental education program, each school undertakes a variety of activities aimed at improving the Reefs health and resilience.". Among the latest ...
Batch fecundity of female Plectropomus leopardus, a coral reef fish targeted by commercial and recreational fishing, was compared between reefs open to fishing and reefs within no-take marine reserves within three regions of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Length, weight, and age had positive effects on batch fecundity of spawners from northern and central reefs but negligible effects on spawners from southern reefs. Females were least fecund for a given length, weight, and age in the southern GBR. Batch fecundity of a 500-mm fork length female was 430 % greater on central reefs and 207 % greater on northern reefs than on southern reefs. The effects of length and age on batch fecundity did not differ significantly between reserve and fished reefs in any region, but weight-specific fecundity was 100 % greater for large 2.0 kg females on reserve reefs compared with fished reefs in the central GBR. We hypothesize that regional variation in batch fecundity is likely driven by water ...
SYDNEY - Australias spectacular Great Barrier Reef is under threat from massive floods swamping the countrys northeast which are pouring harmful debris and sediment into the sea, an expert said Wednesday.. The full impact of the floods, which are rushing huge volumes of water into the pristine surrounds of the worlds largest coral reef, is not yet known, but the influx will stress the colourful corals, said Michelle Devlin.. "This does impact on the reef. It just impacts on the reefs resilience so you get very stressed corals, you get stressed sea grass," Devlin, a researcher at James Cook University in northern Queensland, told AFP.. "So lets just say that a big cyclone came along, knocked them all out. They might not recover so well because they are already very stressed.". Devlin said while the rivers have always poured into the reef, the floods were no longer bringing just rainwater but also sediment, nutrients and pesticides.. "Top soil will run straight off into the water and that ...
This article summarises the sometimes controversial contributions made by the different sciences to predict the path of ocean acidification impacts on the diversity of coral reefs during the present century. Although the seawater carbonate system has been known for a long time, the understanding of acidification impacts on marine biota is in its infancy. Most publications about ocean acidification are less than a decade old and over half are about coral reefs. Contributions from physiological studies, particularly of coral calcification, have covered such a wide spectrum of variables that no cohesive picture of the mechanisms involved has yet emerged. To date, these studies show that coral calcification varies with carbonate ion availability which, in turn controls aragonite saturation. They also reveal synergies between acidification and the better understood role of elevated temperature. Ecological studies are unlikely to reveal much detail except for the observations of the effects of carbon dioxide
View this term paper on Use of Remote Sensing to Monitor the Health of Coral Reef Systems. The coastal regions the points where the sea waters come into contact...
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1 The Coral Reefs of Eilat Past, Present and Future: Three Decades of Coral Community Structure Studies Yossi Loya 1.1 Introduction Here, I shall present a brief review of ca. 35 years of our studies on
Introduction When we begin to talk of coral reefs, several things spring to the mind forthwith. One is the high biological productivity, highest among all tropical marine ecosystems, they sustain, the second is the largest biological diversity associated with them, the third is the richness of their inorganic (coral blocks, debris, sands, ornamental corals, molluscan shells) and organic (food fishes, aquarium fishes, marine algae) resources, the fourth is the biomedical prospects the reef dwellers hold, the fifth is the aesthetic value of the reefs and the tourism potential, and so on. At the same time we also become conscious of the need to manage the reefs in a sensible way if we are to draw benefits from their resources over a long term. The distinction is obvious: no reef resource can be brought under total protection, especially when the local population depends on them for sustenance. The next best alternative is have your cake and eat it too - adopt a sustainable use policy, be it for ...
The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system, composed of roughly 3,000 individual reefs and 900 islands that stretch for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) and cover an area of approximately 344,400 km². The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland in northeast Australia. A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.. The Great Barrier Reefs environmental pressures include lowered water quality from runoff including suspended sediment, excess nutrients, pesticides, and fluctuations in salinity. The effects of climate change, including increased temperatures, storms and coral bleaching. Cyclic outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish, overfishing which disrupts food chains, and shipping routes which can result in oil spills or improper ballast discharge also damage the reef.. ...
Coral reef decline is a global phenomenon whose causes are being studied world wide. Especially in the Caribbean and tropical western Atlantic, this decline is being greatly structured by increasing frequencies and distribution of coral diseases (Richardson 1998). Disease impacts not only the coral species affected, but also the associated reef community. Human induced stressors, synergistic with disease-causing organisms, are thought to be the direct or indirect cause of much coral disease (Bruckner 2002). Environmental stresses, anthropogenic stresses, microbial pathogens, and other organisms have all been cited as contributing to or causing coral disease and mortality (Brown and Howard 1985), yet the etiology of most coral diseases remains elusive (Richardson 1998). Caribbean coral reefs have shown a continuing trend towards a phase shift from coral-dominated to algal-dominated ecosystems with diseases as one of the primary causes (Lessios et al. 1984, Aronson and Precht 2001), and such ...
Puerto Morelos plays host to the Mexico Coral Reef Ecology and Conservation Short Term Internship, which focuses on coral reef ecology and career development, right in the heart of Mexico.
that are theoretically protected against any illicit activities less...It is now established that coral reef resilience (1) depends on functi...The criteria of size and isolation of MPAs as well as the distribution......,Coral,reef,conservation,by,means,of,the,global,network,of,Marine,Protected,Areas,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
In this study, investigators develop and present a framework for responding to coral disease outbreaks with implications for reef ecosystem health. The framework contains four components, including an early warning system, a tiered impact assessment program, scaled management actions, and a communication plan.. A combination of predictive tools with in situ observations of areas at risk for disease outbreak constitute the early warning system, while reports of increasing disease prevalence triggers a tiered response of assessment, research, or management actions. Response to the disease outbreak risk is scaled based on the severity and spatial extent of impacts incurred by a disease outbreak to coral species.. Additionally, the study reviews potential management actions to mitigate coral disease impacts and facilitate recovery of the reef ecosystem, and considers coral disease-specific strategies as well as strategies already used in reef resilience.. Author: Beeden R., J.A. Maynard, P.A. ...
A Gorgonia coral or Sea Fan in the Great Barrier Reef. Already under stress from the impacts of climate change such as ocean acidification and temperature rise, the Great Barrier Reef is now under further threat from Australias coal boom. Inland coal mines will transport the coal to shipping ports along the Queensland coast to be shipped through the Reef resulting in a massive increase in shipping through the World Heritage area. The proposed developments prompted the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisations (UNESCO) World Heritage Committee to consider placing the GBR on the
Aim of this thesis is the study of biogeography and ecology, genetic population structure, and molecular phylogeny of fishes on coral reefs in the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea. Ecological and genetic pattern are compared on different spatial scales and molecular markers add a temporal scale to study of evolutionary processes.Biogeographic analysis supported the differentiation of the Arabian sub-province from the Indian Ocean, but the affiliation of the Arabian Gulf is not clear.The analy
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