Injectable contraceptives are hormones delivered to a woman through an inter-muscular or subcutaneous injection. Depending on the type, an injectable lasts for one, two or three months before a new injection is needed to maintain efficacy as a contraceptive. They are highly effective, reversible, safe, private and convenient. Injectable contraceptives are rapidly increasing in popularity, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The types of injectables include: combined injectable contraceptives containing both progestin and estrogen, administered once a month; progestin-only injectable contraceptives containing norethisterone oenanthate (NET-EN), administered once every two months; progestin-only injectable contraceptives containing depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), administered every three months. The primary function of injectables are to stop monthly ovulation (release of eggs from ovaries). They also thicken cervical mucus, making it difficult for sperm to pass through to the uterus.
The use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) has increased from 1.3 to 5.5 percent over the past decade. There are three LARCs available in the United States: the etonogestrel single-rod implant and two types of intrauterine devices (IUDs; copper T380A and levonorgestrel intrauterine system [Mirena]). The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has released a practice bulletin to guide physicians on the use of LARCs.
A contraceptive implant is an implantable medical device used for the purpose of birth control. The implant may depend on the timed release of hormones to hinder ovulation or sperm development, the ability of copper to act as a natural spermicide within the uterus, or it may work using a non-hormonal, physical blocking mechanism. As with other contraceptives, a contraceptive implant is designed to prevent pregnancy, but it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections. Since the COVID-19 virus outbreak in December 2019, the disease has spread to almost 100 countries around the globe with the World Health Organization declaring it a public health emergency. The global impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are already starting to be felt, and will significantly affect the Contraceptive Implants market in 2020.. COVID-19 can affect the global economy in three main ways: by directly affecting production and demand, by creating supply chain and market disruption, and by its ...
In this partially randomized patient preference study, women aged 18-29 seeking oral or injectable contraception will be offered an opportunity to try LARC instead; the FDA-approved options include two types of intrauterine products and one type of subdermal contraceptive implant. Over a 24-month period, the experiences of LARC users will be compared to the experiences of those opting for their initial short-acting method. It is expected that 38% of the participants using short-acting methods will stop using them during the first year and be at risk of unintended pregnancy. In contrast, less than 20% of LARC users will want to have their contraceptive removed. Continuation rates will be measured and pregnancies will be tallied in the two groups to document any differences that emerge ...
Abbreviations: BMI = body mass index; CHC = combined hormonal contraceptive; Cu-IUD = copper-containing intrauterine device; DMPA = depot medroxyprogesterone acetate; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; LNG-IUD = levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device; POP = progestin-only pill; STD = sexually transmitted disease; U.S. MEC = U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010.. * In cases in which access to health care might be limited, the blood pressure measurement can be obtained by the woman in a nonclinical setting (e.g., pharmacy or fire station) and self-reported to the provider.. † Weight (BMI) measurement is not needed to determine medical eligibility for any methods of contraception because all methods can be used (U.S. MEC 1) or generally can be used (U.S. MEC 2) among obese women (Box 2). However, measuring weight and calculating BMI at baseline might be helpful for monitoring any changes and counseling women who might be concerned about weight change perceived to ...
Pharmacology and key clinical study for Sayana Press (medroxyprogesterone acetate), a long-acting reversible contraceptive for subcutaneous injection.
Injectable contraceptives are one of the most effective and convenient form of birth control means as more than 30 million women are using it throughout the world. There are two main choices of progestron only injectable methods include depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) used 90-day intervals and norethisterone enantate (NET-EN) used at 60-day intervals which only less than 1 million women use this type and it is used as Unidepo in Malaysia since 1976. It contains a synthetic hormonal progestron, like the natural female progesterone and its annual pregnancy rates is less than one per 100 users. Although birth control injections have a number of advantages, but like all other medications, have some potential side effects. One of the most worrying complications is bone density reduction. Bone loss and in turn osteoporosis as a systemic multi factorial skeletal disease is a growing public health concern especially in elderly people particularly in postmenopausal women that is reaching an ...
The rate of unintended pregnancy among opioid-dependent women is extremely high: nearly 9 of every 10 pregnant opioid-dependent women report that the current pregnancy was unintended, a rate 2-3 times that of the general population. Despite these dire statistics, there is a dearth of scientific knowledge about contraceptive use in this population and about how to promote use of more effective contraceptives (e.g., birth control pills, IUDs, implants).. The aim of this Stage I Behavioral and Integrative Treatment Development Program application is to develop and pilot test a novel contraceptive management program to increase use of more effective contraceptives among OM women. OM women (N=100) at risk for unintended pregnancy will be randomly assigned to a 6-month contraceptive management program or to usual care. The contraceptive management program will consist of two components: (1) the World Health Organizations contraception protocol and (2) reinforced follow-up visits. At their first ...
A contraceptive implant is a device that is put under the skin in order to offer you an even dose of contraception without you having to take a daily pill.
Question - Bleeding after contraceptive implant. On microgynon. Bleeding not stopped. On cerazette. Cause of continuous bleeding?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Progesteroen-only pill, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
Results Patient backgrounds were, initial group: average age 54 years, bio-naïve rate 37.2%, MTX combination rate 37.2%, average DAS28-ESR at introduction 5.7; middle group: average age 60 years, bio-naïve rate 28.3%, MTX combination rate 47.5%, average DAS28-ESR at introduction 5.6; late group: average age 59 years, bio-naïve rate 25.8%, MTX combination rate 63.4%, average DAS28-ESR at introduction 5.3. The MTX combination rate was high in the late group (p=0.001).. 12-month continuation rates were 70.8% (80/113) in the initial group, 82.8% (82/99) in the middle group, 90.3% (84/93) in the late group, which was high in the late group (p=0.002). The mean DAS28-ESR after 12 months showed no difference at 2.9 in the initial group, 3.0 in the middle group and 2.8 in the late group. Discontinuations numbered 20 patients in the initial group (insufficient effect in 6 cases, adverse drug reactions in 9 cases, others (such as economic reasons) in 5 cases), 14 patients in the middle group ...
Transitioning away from a popular contraceptive shot known as DMPA could help protect women in Sub-Saharan Africa and other high-risk regions from becoming infected with HIV, according to a research review published in the Endocrine Societys journal Endocrine Reviews.. The predominant contraceptive in Sub-Saharan Africa is depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)-a birth control shot administered every three months. Human studies suggest DMPA use may raise the risk of HIV infection by 40 percent. Other forms of contraceptive shots do not show the same correlation with HIV infection. In this article, the authors review the underlying biological mechanisms that could contribute to increased risk of HIV infection for certain hormonal contraceptives but not others.. According to UNAIDS, 36.7 million people worldwide were living with HIV as of 2016. AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection.. "To protect individual and public health, it is important to ensure women in areas with high rates of ...
Depo-Provera is an injectable contraceptive used to prevent pregnancy. In 2004, the FDA announced that a black box warning would be added to Depo-Provera labeling,
During the COVD-19 outbreak, reproductive desires and pregnancy planning should be discussed with all women of childbearing potential. This discussion should include information on what is known and not known about COVID-19 during pregnancy. Preconception discussions should be patient-centered and should include the option to defer efforts to conceive until after the peak of the pandemic and/or more is known about the effect of COVID-19 during pregnancy. Women may be at increased risk of unintended pregnancy when stay-at-home measures are in effect and continuation or initiation of appropriate contraception should be addressed, including emergency contraception. Based on clinical trial data, use of intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants beyond the expiration date specified on a package insert may be considered. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate may also be considered for subcutaneous self-injection ...
Similar to any other technique of birth control, the DMPA contraceptives also have their advantages and disadvantages. First, a look at the advantages. This method is hassle free and effective. It has been used by over 90 million women and is reported to be as effective as sterilization. One injection can prevent pregnancy for 3 months. Secondly, it offers no hindrance to normal sexual life and can be made use of at any stage. Thirdly, it is extremely safe and can be even used by nursing mothers as early as six weeks after childbirth. Also, there is probably no increase in congenital abnormalities when contraception failure occurs. Fourthly, there are no side effects related to estrogen, which involve the risk of heart attack. Fifthly, it shields the body from ovarian and endometrial cancer and uterine fibroids. Lastly, it is reversible and one can plan a family after a gap of three to six months on stopping the usage.. The disadvantages include alteration in menstrual bleeding, which implies ...
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Contraceptive injections moderately increase a womans risk of becoming infected with HIV, a large scientific analysis has found. The research in a leading medical journal will further fuel a controversy that has been raging for more than two decades. The implications of a possible link between hormonal injections and the virus alarm both HIV and birth control campaigners…" (Boseley, 1/8).. TIME: This Contraceptive Is Linked to a Higher Risk of ...
For further information, explanation on how to get it and how its put in and personal experiences see The Contraceptive Implant The implant has been met with heavy scepticism, with one type even being taken off the listing because it caused so much scarring. This is Norplant. Some of you might still have it in, but its been discontinued in the UK. The main type now is Implanon. Its a small, flexible tube that is about the same size as a Kirby grip, containing progestogen. It releases it steadily into the bloodstream from the comfiness of your upper arm. It lasts for three years. [Norplant for 5]. It basically does what most contraceptives in the body do; thicken mucus around your cervix, thins your uterine lining and also prevents egg release [and therefore bleeds, in time] When it is put in [usually first day of period], you are likely to be given a local anaesthetic, then have the implant injected. You will probably be bruised and sore for a few days. Youll be able to feel and fiddle with ...
The only implant currently available in the UK is Nexplanon. It is a small plastic rod, about the size of a matchstick, which is inserted under the skin of your upper arm. The implant slowly releases a low dose of progestogen. This method is highly reliable. It lasts for three years.. Inserting and removing the implant is a simple, quick procedure in the clinic, needing just a little local anaesthetic to numb the skin.. You will most likely need to discuss Nexplanon carefully with the doctor or nurse at your first visit. You might get Nexplanon inserted at the same visit. A Nexplanon removal would be done in a booked appointment clinic.. ...
Characteristics of Implants Why might these women be interested in using implants? Breastfeeding mother Adolescent Infected with HIV Has little to no access to a health care facility Desires no more children Ask participants for reasons why these women might prefer or avoid implants. Then, click the mouse to reveal the next example.
Depo-Provera Contraceptive official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more.
View drug interactions between Depo-Provera Contraceptive and gabapentin. These medicines may also interact with certain foods or diseases.
What the Quality Payment Program (QPP) lacks in simplicity, it makes up for in deck-stacking. In the January issue, read how after three years, Medicares program to drive value-based care continues to generate confusion, frustration, and worry that its only going to swallow up more physicians in its complex and financially punitive gameplay. Plus, a new state initiative could boost access to long-acting reversible contraceptives, or LARCs.. ...
What the Quality Payment Program (QPP) lacks in simplicity, it makes up for in deck-stacking. In the January issue, read how after three years, Medicares program to drive value-based care continues to generate confusion, frustration, and worry that its only going to swallow up more physicians in its complex and financially punitive gameplay. Plus, a new state initiative could boost access to long-acting reversible contraceptives, or LARCs.. ...
Special consideration: Adolescents, In general, adolescents are eligible to use any method of contraception and must have access to a variety of contraceptive choices. Age alone does not constitute a medical reason for denying any method to adolescents. While some concerns have been expressed regarding the use of certain contraceptive methods in adolescents (e.g. the use of progestogen-only injectables by those below 18 years), these concerns must be balanced against the advantages of avoiding pregnancy. It is clear that many of the same eligibility criteria that apply to older clients apply to young people. However, some conditions (e.g. cardiovascular disorders) that may limit use of some methods in older women do not generally affect young people since these conditions are rare in this age group. Social and behavioural issues should be important considerations in the choice of contraceptive methods by adolescents. For example, in some settings, adolescents are also at increased risk for STIs, ...
Depo-provera or projesterone contraceptions: definition, side effects, what to expect, where to get it, cost complications, benefits of
Call (585) 279-4890 to get the shot Depo-Provera, and other affordable and confidential birth control services for teens and adults. Walk-ins are welcome. Free bus passes are available.
In three districts, a USAID-funded grant1 enabled ChildFund International to introduce a new method of contraceptives to rural areas through community-based distributors (CBDs). To meet growing demand, the injectable contraceptive Dep-Provera was added as a third option to condoms and contraceptive pills. In the context of human resource shortages, the provision of family planning services at the community level has shifted from health workers to CBDs. The project established a learning site through which other NGOs could witness best practices for CBDs, which has facilitated broader distribution of Depo-Provera.. The CBDs program has been instrumental in increasing the uptake of family planning services, with the number of users increasing over six-fold in just four years - from 1,822 in 2012 to 11,700 users in 2015. Ruth Mushili, a 33-year-old woman from Kamoba village commented, "Access to family planning [before CBDs] was never easy. The distance to the facility used to discourage me and the ...
On October 6, the Trump administration released an overhaul of federal regulations governing religious objections to the Affordable Care Acts (ACA) contraceptive coverage guarantee. The move had been long expected.
The WHO reclassification last month of progestogen-only injectable contraceptives has triggered a critical debate in the family planning community over how to manage the potential link between higher rates of HIV acquisition and one of the most popular birth control methods in many at-risk communities....Providers said the new guidance is causing them to rethink how to identify a woman with a higher likelihood of acquiring HIV and how to communicate the possible risk of the injectables to those clients. The stakes are enormous. ...
I just had my contraceptive implant out on Dec 18th - I had it for the 3 years. Havent DTD since having it removed, but no sign of AF yet. Hoping AF arrives so can begin to track cycles and see where Im at now Im 30 and havent had a period for 3 years lol ...
Purpose : To compare attitudes and practices related to clinicians use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate Depo-Provera DMPA and levonorgestrel implants in adolescents in three northern European countries and the United States. Methods : Between the fall of 1993 and the winter of 1995, surveys eliciting clinician attitudes and practices with...
Background & aim: Sexual health is an essential element of quality of life, affecting both physical and psychological domains. Hormones used in contraceptive methods have contradictory effects on sexual function. In this study, we aimed to compare sexual function in women using combined oral contraceptives (COC) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), referred to healthcare centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran in 2013. Methods: This descriptive, comparative study was performed on 240 women (n=120 per group), selected through multistage sampling in Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire consisting of three parts, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), demographic characteristics, and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), was completed through interviews. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were calculated, and independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square, and Fishers exact test were performed, using SPPS version 16. P-value less than 0.05 was
DISCUSSION. We can consider that our population has a differential in relation to other studies evaluating the effect of DMPA, considering that our group was paired with the control group at baseline for BMI (± 1 kg/m2) and age (± 1 year), becoming a homogeneous group. Our study found that after 12 months of follow-up the injectable DMPA users had significant weight gain (3.01 kg). As most prospective studies evaluating the effect of DMPA were for at least 30 months (6,8,9), we can consider that the follow-up period of our study is short compared to the others, but we can already observe significant changes in important variables studied.. To better assess changes in weight and body composition, we made a subdivision of the DMPA group for weight gain (, 3 kg and , 3 kg), and observed significant changes in weight and body composition in both groups, but the group which gained , 3 kg had the more pronounced changes. This group had a mean gain of 5.53 kg, increased fat mass (2.3 kg) and fat-free ...
Expanding contraceptive options through self-injection may improve access and confidentiality. There are few published studies on contraceptive self-injection in sub-Saharan Africa and none in West Africa, a region with high unmet need. This study was performed to assess feasibility of subcutaneous DMPA self-injection in Senegal. These first research results on contraceptive self-injection in West Africa indicate initial feasibility and acceptability of the practice. Results underscore the importance of designing self-injection programs that empower and support women, including those with limited education.. ...
From August 2013 to March 2015, we enrolled 461 participants with pregnancy durations of 75 days or less. Of participants included in the abortion outcome analyses, 14 of 220 (6.4%) and 12 of 226 (5.3%) in the Quickstart and Afterstart groups, respectively, had surgery to complete the abortion; the upper 90% confidence limit on this difference was 4.9%, within our prestipulated 5% noninferiority margin. Ongoing pregnancy after initial abortion treatment was significantly more common in the Quickstart group (8/220 [3.6%]) than in the Afterstart group (2/226 [0.9%]); the difference was 2.7% (90% confidence interval 0.4-5.6%). By 6 months, 5 of 213 (2.3%) and 7 of 217 (3.2%) in the Quickstart and Afterstart groups, respectively, became pregnant (exact log-rank test, P=.64). Use of highly effective contraceptives was significantly more common in the Quickstart group at 31 days (P,.001), but no difference was apparent at 6 months. The Quickstart group was significantly more satisfied with group ...
Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate is a commonly used injectable contraceptive that has been associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition. This study compares effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate on immune parameters from several upper reproductive tract compartments relevant to HIV-1 susceptibility in repetitive samples from 15 depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate users and 27 women not on hormonal contraceptives. Compared with samples from unexposed women in the mid-luteal phase, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate use was associated with: increased endocervical concentrations of MCP1 and IFNalpha2; decreased endocervical concentrations of IL1beta and IL6; increased proportions of endometrial CD4+ and CD8+ cells expressing the activation marker HLADR; increased density of endometrial macrophages; and decreased density of endometrial regulatory T cells. Unlike previous reports with samples from the vagina, we did not observe increased expression of the HIV co-receptor CCR5 on CD4+ T ...
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In the entire study 27% of participants used hormonal contraception at some point during the study. What the researchers found was that, in general, women who reported using hormonal contraceptives had a longer delay to onset of AIDS and a longer time until death. Specifically, those who used hormonal contraception had on average 3.92 years until death, and 3.72 years until AIDS, compared to 3.04 years until death and 2.98 years until AIDS or those without hormonal contraceptive use. Interestingly, this study also took note as to what kind of behavioral patterns the hormonal contraceptive users engaged in compared to the nonusers. This study found that women using hormonal contraceptives had on average a higher degree of education, were in the median age category (25-35), and were also less likely to use condoms. These have to be taken into account as well as the hormonal contraceptive use as possible variables affecting onset of AIDS and death ...
Break Through Bleeding (BTB) - vaginal bleeding that requires use of sanitary protection during the time of active hormonal contraception. Combined hormonal contraception (CHC) - hormonal contraception that contains both estrogen and progestin Continuous use - ongoing use of a CHC without a consistently planned hormone-free interval Consult - conferring with a health care provider for information and direction without transferring care DMPA - depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, brand name Depo-Provera™ EC - emergency contraception, 150mg levonorgestrel in a single oral dose if unprotected intercourse occurred in past 5 days, or copper IUD if unprotected intercourse occurred within the past 7 days ECP - emergency contraceptive pill(s) Extended use - using a CHC for two or more cycles without a hormone-free interval with a planned hormonal-free interval Hormone Free Interval (HFI) - the interval in which a client using combined hormonal contraceptives takes either a placebo dose or ≤7 days off, ...
Although CBD of injectable contraceptives is no longer a novel idea in sub-Saharan Africa, the process of translating community-based health care policies into effective programs is not always straightforward. For example, policy makers in Mozambique were supportive of CBD, but there was limited country-specific experience and no country-level data to support the policy. Consequently, this study generated evidence to support CBD of DMPA in northern Mozambique and found that provision of injectable contraceptives by APEs and TBAs was feasible, safe, effective, and acceptable among women. Very few morbidities at the injection site and no deaths were reported. The study demonstrated that APEs and TBAs can improve contraceptive access and use in rural Mozambican communities; in fact, the majority of women in the study started using contraception for the first time during the study period, and satisfaction with community-based providers was high and improved over the entire study ...
Background: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) contraceptive use is associated with an increased risk for Chlamydia infection. However, prior studies inadequately account for potential differences in sexual behavior between users of DMPA and users of other contraceptive methods. In this study we compare sexual risk-taking behavior in women using DMPA to women using oral contraceptive pills (OCP) to assess risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Methods: In this cross-sectional study of 630 reproductive-aged women seeking routine gynecologic care (449 OCP and 181 DMPA users) sexual risk-taking was evaluated by use of the Safe Sex Behavior Questionnaire, a validated measure of sexual behaviors and attitudes ...
Title: Hormonal Contraceptive Use Can Be a Major Downer. Summary: Hormonal contraception was introduced way back in 1960 with the release of the combined oral contraceptive pill (containing two hormones: estrogen and progestin).
This is a clinical study of bone and renal safety with concurrent use of tenofovir (TDF)-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use for pregnancy prevention. This five-year study will be conducted in Kampala, Uganda and will enroll a prospective cohort of 400 HIV-uninfected young women initiating DMPA and non-hormonal contraception who will all be offered PrEP. Bone health outcomes in women using DMPA and PrEP concurrently will be compared to women using other PrEP/contraceptive combinations. Primary outcomes include assessing the relationship between concurrent use of PrEP and DMPA on bone health including bone mineral density, rates of bone turnover and subclinical kidney injury (precursors to bone loss), and attainment of peak bone mass. ...
The new guidelines ignore basic facts about how breastfeeding works," says Dr. Gerald Calnen, President of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (ABM). "Mothers start making milk due to the natural fall in progesterone after birth. An injection of artificial progesterone could completely derail this process.". The CDC report, "U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010," released in the May 28 issue of Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), contains important changes in what constitutes acceptable contraceptive use by breastfeeding women. The criteria advise that by 1 month postpartum the benefits of progesterone contraception (in the form of progestin-only pills, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DPMA) injection, or implants), as well as the use of combined (progestin-estrogen) oral contraceptives outweigh the risk of reducing breastfeeding rates. Previously, progesterone birth control was not recommended for nursing mothers until at least 6 weeks after giving birth, ...
Butt , S A , Lidegaard , Ø , Skovlund , C W , Hannaford , P , Iversen , L , Fielding , S & Mørch , L S 2018 , Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of pancreatic cancer : A cohort study among premenopausal women , PloS ONE , vol. 13 , no. 10 , 0206358 , pp. 1-8 . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206358 , https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. ...
Zanger, P., Nurjadi, D., Gaile, M., Gabrysch, S. and Kremsner, P.G. (2012) Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Persistent Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 55, 1625-1632.
Contraceptive implants are long-acting, effective methods of contraception. They are over 99% reliable in preventing pregnancy. The implant works by slowly releasing a hormone called progestogen into your body. They can be started at any time during your menstrual cycle, as long as you and your doctor are reasonably sure that you are not pregnant.. The implant is a small flexible rod like structure that is put under the skin inside the upper arm. The implant can be felt if the skin is touched but you are unable to see it ...
Depo-provera (depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate) is an injectable birth control drug that is made of a hormone similar to progesterone.
The new guideline will apply not only to depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) -based injectable contraceptive drugs like Depo-Provera, but will also apply to norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) injectables as well.. Until now, the WHO had recommended that injectable contraceptives could be used with "no restrictions…including DMPA for women at high risk of HIV (MEC Category 1)."[4]-[5] The WHO had maintained a "MEC category 1 with clarification" on progestogen-only injectables. This meant that women at risk for HIV could use these injectables without restriction but should have been counseled that injectables "may or may not increase their risk of HIV acquisition"[6] and should have been provided with condoms and counseling about how to reduce their risk for HIV transmission.. While the WHO specifically mentions condoms as a "prevention strategy" against HIV, abstinence (the only one-hundred percent reliable prevention strategy against HIV) is never mentioned once. In one particularly ...