Infection Control Long Term Care: Guidelines for Tuberculosis Contact Investigation Form Mobile App - It provides nursing professionals with criteria for...
... FOR LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENTS An Overview of North Carolinas Procedure for Ebola Contact Tracing : Guidance, Tools, and Exercises for Public Health Presented by the N.C. Communicable Disease Branch October 2014 Use this next week to Get Ready:      Acknowledge the critical role that contact tracing plays in interrupting disease transmission Assess your capacity to conduct a scalable Ebola contact tracing event Describe the process and locate the data collection data management tools Prepare for onsite state and federal assistance Exercise multiple tabletop exercises for Ebola contact tracing  R - Review the Guidance  E - Engage your Epi Team  A - Assess your Capacity  D - Designate your Tracers  Y - Yes to Tabletop Exercises  Deploy state team immediately for assistance with data management  Epidemiologist  Deploy state team for field investigations  Nurse Consultant  Disease Intervention Specialist    Access to Risk ...
To stem the spread of infectious diseases, epidemiologists use contact tracing interviews to identify individuals who may need treatment or, if indicated, quarantine or isolation. Given the high stakes, the most exhaustive list of potentially infected contacts must be reported. However, standard contact tracing procedures may fail to extract the most complete report possible from sick individuals. One of the most reliable methods for maximizing recall is the Cognitive Interview (CI). The CI uses several techniques grounded in psychological theory and was expected to increase the number of contacts listed during contact tracing interviewing compared to a standard contact tracing interview. In Study One, participants imagined they were infected with meningococcal meningitis, and reported every person with whom they had physical contact, shared saliva, or lived with over the previous three days (i.e., at a high risk for developing meningococcal meningitis). Participants were interviewed with either a CI or
There have recently been several proposals for pseudonymous contact tracing, including from Apple and Google. To both cryptographers and privacy advocates, this might seem the obvious way to protect public health and privacy at the same time. Meanwhile other cryptographers have been pointing out some of the flaws.. There are also real systems being built by governments. Singapore has already deployed and open-sourced one that uses contact tracing based on bluetooth beacons. Most of the academic and tech industry proposals follow this strategy, as the "obvious" way to tell whos been within a few metres of you and for how long. The UKs National Health Service is working on one too, and Im one of a group of people being consulted on the privacy and security.. But contact tracing in the real world is not quite as many of the academic and industry proposals assume.. First, it isnt anonymous. Covid-19 is a notifiable disease so a doctor who diagnoses you must inform the public health authorities, ...
There have recently been several proposals for pseudonymous contact tracing, including from Apple and Google. To both cryptographers and privacy advocates, this might seem the obvious way to protect public health and privacy at the same time. Meanwhile other cryptographers have been pointing out some of the flaws.. There are also real systems being built by governments. Singapore has already deployed and open-sourced one that uses contact tracing based on bluetooth beacons. Most of the academic and tech industry proposals follow this strategy, as the "obvious" way to tell whos been within a few metres of you and for how long. The UKs National Health Service is working on one too, and Im one of a group of people being consulted on the privacy and security.. But contact tracing in the real world is not quite as many of the academic and industry proposals assume.. First, it isnt anonymous. Covid-19 is a notifiable disease so a doctor who diagnoses you must inform the public health authorities, ...
Contact tracing in the context of STDs before HIV relied on the patients cooperation and this cooperation was secured by the fact that the anonymity of the index patient (that is, the patient who is to serve as the reference point for all contact traces - the one in the doctor ís office) would be preserved. The people being notified would then be able to begin treatment. In the initial stages of the AIDS epidemic, several facts about HIV led to the opposition of contact tracing; namely, the fact that it was untreatable in the early stages (and ultimately incurable) and the fact that it was initially spread most commonly by homosexual contact. Thus the battle began between invasion of privacy vs. potential benefit.
In light of concerns about the spread of lethal Ebola virus in the US, there is an urgent need to develop methods to better understand how to track the spread of the disease and how to contact everyone who may have been exposed to the disease. Our proposal addresses this specific need rapidly and in a timely manner, and will produce software applications that can be installed on smart phones.. We propose a framework that uses existing readily available technologies that can do effective contact tracing without compromising the privacy of the users. The framework has two parts: aggregator: which collects information from the users, and analyser: which processes the information to do contact tracing.. Note that applications such as IDid-Inc already have the capability to collect contextual information on the user, hence it is possible to design and develop our aggregator rapidly. This application tracks the daily activities of the user including places visited, people visited, mode of ...
Contact tracing of sexual partners is an important part of the clinical management of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and initiation of contact tracing is the responsibility of the diagnosing clinician. Research has shown that some general practitioners would like to improve their skills in this area. | RACGP
Baylor College of Medicine. Most of us have now endured two months of sheltering in place, yet The New York Times refers to our current situation regarding the spread of Covid-19 as a stubborn plateau. Still, the economic losses from lockdowns are causing many state leaders to continue relaxing restrictions on businesses and other public places. Experts from academia continue to worry that the U.S. lacks sufficient testing and contact tracing to reopen safely. Multiple reports by experts are out this week arguing that the government response regarding the amount of testing, contact tracing and vaccine development is insufficient.. Epidemiology and Treatment. On Friday May 8, data from the Covid Tracking Project indicated that the 7-day average number of daily new cases fell 11% to 25,895 compared to 29,119 a week earlier. Statistics for the country as a whole mask the realization that new hot spots are continually emerging. This New York Times graphic shows that daily new cases are steadily ...
It is passed from person-to-person through contact with saliva. For your personal use, we have created an extensive patient library covering an array of educational topics, which can be found on the side of each page. It is passed from person-to-person through contact with saliva. For your personal use, we have created an extensive patient library covering an array of educational topics, which can be found on the side of each page. It is passed from person-to-person through contact with saliva. For your personal use, we have created an extensive patient library covering an array of educational topics, which can be found on the side of each page. It is passed from person-to-person through contact with saliva.. For your personal use, we have created an extensive patient library covering an array of educational topics, which can be found on the side of each page. It is passed from person-to-person through contact with saliva. It is passed from person-to-person through contact with saliva. For your ...
In expedited partner therapy (EPT), health care providers give medications or prescriptions to patients diagnosed with a treatable STI, such as chlamydia or gonorrhea, to give to their sex partner(s) without the provider first examining the partner(s). Medications or prescriptions are generally provided for partners from the prior 60 days, or to the most recent partner if the patient has not had sex in the 60 days prior to diagnosis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that medications or prescriptions be accompanied by treatment instructions, applicable warnings about taking medication (e.g., pregnancy or allergy), general health counseling, and a statement advising partners to seek medical evaluation for any symptom of an STI (CDC-STD 2015). EPT is one option in a comprehensive strategy for partner management, and does not replace other strategies such as provider-assisted referral (CDC-EPT). ...
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has released guidelines on expedited partner therapy for chlamydial and gonorrheal sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).{ref61}{ref62} Wh... more
Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health challenge especially in low- and middle-income countries reflects improper, delayed or missed diagnosis. Contact screening should be utilized both as an efficient and effective targeted approach to intensify TB case finding. Methods Through a comprehensive systematic literature review of online database, this paper aims at providing an insight into the current practice of TB contact screening and to provide evidence based practice for formulation of appropriate policies in low- and middle-income countries. There are 24 articles included in this review from studies published from 2005 to 2014. Results Findings in literature varies substantially. Generally, contact screening is better intensified with clear operational guidelines, adequate training, include close contact outside household as appropriate and follow up at least for 1 year. Prioritizing high risk close contacts is helpful in resource limited setting. Tuberculin skin test is ...
HIV case-finding and linkage to care are critical for control of HIV transmission. In Kenya, |50% of seropositive individuals are unaware of their status. Assisted partner notification is a public health strategy that provides HIV testing to individuals with sexual exposure to HIV and are at risk of infection and disease. This parallel, cluster-randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of implementing HIV assisted partner notification services at HIV testing sites (clusters) in Kenya. Eighteen sites were selected among health facilities in Kenya with well-established, high-volume HIV testing programs, to reflect diverse communities and health-care settings. Restricted randomization was used to balance site characteristics between study arms (n = 9 per arm). Sixty individuals testing HIV positive (index partners) will be enrolled per site (inclusion criteria: ≥18 years, positive HIV test at a study site, willing to disclose sexual partners, and
Victoria is strengthening its contract tracing programme to ensure is maintains a steady decline in cases.. State Premier Daniel Andrews says the state government will set up five contact tracing teams to focus on different geographic areas of the southeastern state of Australia, making it easier to target specific areas when patients are diagnosed.. Andrews says the lower daily case figures show the states on the right track with its tough lockdowns.. "I think well be able to take some significant steps soon because the trend is with us, the trend is good," he said in a televised news conference, referring to more rural areas of the state.. Aljazeera. ...
A Contact Tracing Team made up of St. Olaf staff will reach you after a positive result to help ascertain who you may have been in contact with and when. Each team member underwent six hours of training through Johns Hopkins to learn about the process and how to keep confidentiality. After learning of a potential exposure, they will call the person you came in contact with and only reveal that they may have been exposed and the date when the exposure occurred. No names or events will be shared. The Team is building a pipeline with the Minnesota Department of Health to share information so that county and state statics can be constantly updated. St. Olaf will not be informing an individuals health care provider or family members of test results. St. Olaf will treat all test results as confidential. We will use the information gathered only for the purposes of notifying the Department of Health of any positive tests, ensuring those who test positive quarantine for an appropriate period of time, ...
Contact tracing -- a process of identifying everyone who has come into contact with those infected by a particular disease -- combined with targeted, indoor spraying of insecticide can greatly reduce the spread of the mosquito-borne dengue virus, finds a study led by Emory University researchers funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The results were published today in the journal Science Translational Medicine and based on analyses from a 2009 outbreak of dengue in Cairns, Australia.
Triasih R, Robertson C, de Campo J, Duke T, Choridah L, Graham SM. An evaluation of chest X-ray in the context of community-based screening of child tuberculosis contacts. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 19 (12) : 1428 - 34(2015) PubMed ...
Link to original source (journal subscription may be required for access)Cochrane-Ferreira 2013).. Based on effectiveness among HIV patients, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also recommends patient notification by provider referral for syphilis and, in high priority cases, gonorrhea and chlamydia (CDC MMWR-Partner services 2008). When resources do not allow provider referral, CDC recommends that patients infected with chlamydia and gonorrhea be counseled to inform their partners (CDC MMWR-Partner services 2008). Additional research is needed to confirm the most effective type of referral for STIs other than HIV (Ferreira A, Young T, Mathews C, Zunza M, Low N. Strategies for partner notification for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013;(10):CD002843 ...
Objective To understand delay in seeing medical care,partner notification and underlying determinants among male STD patients Methods Cross-sectional studies of first male visitors were performed in 4 STD clinics Results Among 406 cases under the study,80% felt stigmatized due to STDs,28% visited a doctor in less than 1 week after the onset of symptoms and 40% persisted in sex activities even though they felt some symptoms No visible relation was seen between stigma and delay in seeking medical care 77% of the married patients were reluctant to notify STI to their wives,and those who were feeling stigmatized were more reulctant to do so(OR=0 44,95%CI:0 21-0 85) Conclusions Preventive measures including health counseling should be taken so as to reduce patients stigmatization,raise the rate of timely seeking medical care and encourage STD patients to notify their spouses
Poster Abstract Session: Tuberculosis Epidemiology and Diagnosis. Chandrasekaran P, Thiruvengadam K, Gupte N, Luck EH, Mave M, Gupte A, Gupta A, Swaminathan S. ...
Results In total, 119,873 HBV (HBcAb +/- HBsAg) tests were undertaken between Jan 2005 and Jan 2015; 69,256 HBsAg tests (+/- cAb) were subsequently identified with appropriate address and postcode information.. HBsAg was detected (positive) in 851/69,256 laboratory requests (0.01%); median age 36 years, Female 55%, with 661 individual patients diagnosed with HBV in this period (HBcAb+ 77%).. Clinical indications for testing and the requesting speciality were poorly documented, but antenatal HBV testing was the predominant indication/specialty with 23,719 requests.. 159/661(24%) of HBsAg-positive cases were detected in primary care, 395/661 (60%) in Hospital outpatients (Gastro/Hepatology); 10/661 (1.5%) in Antenatal services and 3/661 (0.45%) in Prisons.. 814 unique patient addresses were identified for 661 HBV positive patients; 54 HBV positive patients shared the same address (26 households, range 2-3/household), with an additional 203 negative HBsAg requests made in the remaining household ...
Noting that the high number of cases recorded in Lagos and Abuja was due their functions as a gateway for international air travel, Ehanire said the incidence of new cases into Nigeria would reduce the number of implications as a result of the closure of the airport and land borders.. "We will be dealing largely with those which have already been brought into the country and are being transmitted from person to person. The presidential task force later today will review activities and update measures to protect the health and well-being of Nigerians.. "Additional strategies are being developed to intensify contact tracing to support prompt case detection, isolation, and treatment in order to reduce the spread of this infection.," he said.. He disclosed that retired staff of the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, NCDC, and the Ministry of Health have reported for duties.. According to him, NCDC has engaged hundreds of ad-hoc staff to support call centres, contact tracing and laboratory work. He ...
Great points.. Dr. Anthony Fauci, the director of NIHs National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, addressed some of these ideas in a recent interview with Vanity Fair. Ill repost here:. We keep hearing the words, "contact tracing." Can you just explain how that works? Because that feels crazy to me that you can trace a persons movements over the course of several days.. Yeah. So, to do it over several days gets really problematic, because particularly when people move around a lot, because for every single case, if you got to trace 800 people, then youve got a problem. Because you probably dont have the man power to do it. A somewhat practical contact tracing is if someone goes to a meeting, or a class and goes back home two days later, and winds up having documented coronavirus disease, what you would want to do is to see when the person was in this classroom, or in this theater, or in this club. Who were the people that that person was in contact within six feet for more than ...
How to maintain the required minimum distance at the workplace? - A small device helps. The developers are looking for partners in order to realize a mass production.
Google and Apple just released software to let developers create contact-tracing apps and fight COVID-19. What does this do? We can explain.
Of 281 contacts (median age 33 months), 44 (15.7%) started anti-tuberculosis treatment and 234 (83.3%) received IPT, 80.3% of whom completed a 6-month course. After adjustment for age and human immunodeficiency virus status, cough (aOR 4.10, 95%CI 1.39-12.11) and reduced playfulness (aOR 7.79, 95%CI 2.12-25.18) were associated with radiological TB. Screening based on cough or reduced playfulness had a sensitivity of 81.8% and a negative predictive value of 97.6%.. ...
... most often occurs through contact with stool from an infected person. As this part of the eMedTV site explains, transmission also occurs through contact with respiratory droplets. This page discusses polio transmission in detail.
It is surprising to me that this actress still can go out and smile everyday and keep plugging away at her career. She is probably a C+. Movies mainly. Almost exclusively actually. Even though she is a C+ in the acting world, you would probably still recognize the name for sure, although putting a face to it would be a little tougher. At one point she was the lead in a movie. That seems a long time ago. When she got the lead she did so through contacts she made at her church. They made it clear to her that there would be payback. She balked at what their payback was. It turns out that when new recruits come through the door they wanted her to act as their greeter and to show them around. They also wanted her to flirt and if the person had enough money and was a big catch, the flirting should turn into something more. She refused. She then had a year long dry spell acting. Apparently at some point all was forgiven and she started getting roles again. All the roles were set up through contacts of ...
HIV/AIDS affects people of all ages and racial/ethnic backgrounds. Usually, infants and children acquire the infection from the mother during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. The most common mode of transmission for teens and adults is sexual contact. Currently, the largest number of HIV-infected people lives in Africa, India, and Southeast Asia. In the United States, homosexual men and injecting drug users have the highest prevalence of infection. However, adolescents and women, particularly those of African-American and Hispanic background, have the highest rates of new infections.. Casual, classroom, or household contact with an HIV-infected person poses no risk. Transmission cannot occur from sharing dishes, towels, or bathroom facilities. Saliva, urine, and stool are not contagious unless there is visible blood in the fluid.. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected semen or cervical secretions. People who have sexual contact with an infected person are at risk of acquiring ...
HIV/AIDS affects people of all ages and racial/ethnic backgrounds. Usually, infants and children acquire the infection from the mother during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. The most common mode of transmission for teens and adults is sexual contact. Currently, the largest number of HIV-infected people lives in Africa, India, and Southeast Asia. In the United States, homosexual men and injecting drug users have the highest prevalence of infection. However, adolescents and women, particularly those of African-American and Hispanic background, have the highest rates of new infections.. Casual, classroom, or household contact with an HIV-infected person poses no risk. Transmission cannot occur from sharing dishes, towels, or bathroom facilities. Saliva, urine, and stool are not contagious unless there is visible blood in the fluid.. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected semen or cervical secretions. People who have sexual contact with an infected person are at risk of acquiring ...
We can make well-informed predictions about those who should be given priority. Most obviously, testing is essential for those who are known to have been significantly exposed to an infected person, as determined by "contact tracing." But testing is also important for those who have been or will soon be mixing with large groups in close quarters at work; entering the schools and colleges that are now reopening; and attending public events like concerts and sports matches.. The financial and other practical demands of widespread testing can be lowered by making rational decisions about the optimal times for performing the tests - a few days after being in contact with an infected person, for instance, or just before congregating with many others.. The logistics and costs can be further reduced by simplifying the tests - using saliva samples collected at home, rather than uncomfortable nasal swabs that require trained personnel at specific locations; or by using so-called antigen tests, a cheap ...
151 my belief that the indications for such inspections are knowledge or reasonable suspicion that there are concealed cases of venereal disease in the unit. In units where an appreciable number of such cases are found, inspections should be frequent until men are convinced that concealment is not desirable. Whenever there is punitive action against commanders for high venereal disease rates, such commanders are loath to order physical inspections because discovery of cases will increase their rate. There have been indications that commanders of some units in the Far East Command have at times avoided ordering physical inspections for this reason. It is likely that in many areas lack of inspection of troops is a factor in maintaining the reservoir of venereal infection in the civilian community.. Contact tracing in the Orient presents many problems. Identification of persons and places is complicated by barriers of language and the use of Oriental symbols which have no resemblance to the Roman ...
WebMD Chief Medical Officer John Whyte talks with Dr Eric Topol about the need for better testing, contact tracing, and surveillance, and where we should be spending more of our efforts.
Germs can be found everywhere. Bacteria and viruses that cause colds and infectious diseases such as hepatitis A, E. coli, shigella, and salmonella, are spread through contact with a contaminated surface or by persons who dont wash their hands after using the bathroom. Washing your hands correctly will greatly reduce the chances of having those germs enter your body when you touch your nose or mouth, or spreading them to others through handling food or person-to-person contact ...
HIV refers to the human immunodeficiency virus, which is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus family) that infects humans. The mode of infection is mainly through contact with infected body fluids (such as [Read More ...] ...
In the first months of its outbreak in the UK, H1N1 mostly affected young people, and was most commonly spread through contact at school, research by the HPA has
Having just gone through the post-collegiate job market, I can say that this alone is worth a lot. In addition to lower salaries, the majority of other professions do not present such a clean-cut "do this, then this, then this" approach to recruiting and instead require that you go through contacts or wait long periods of time without much certainty to get a job. The banks and consulting firms also do a good job of convincing applicants that "if you work here, you can do a, b, or c afterwards", whereas many other industries do not make such claims. This is an interesting market design perspective on I-banking and consulting recruiting - I dont think Americas youth is suddenly much greedier than it once was and is drawn by large salaries. Certainly some people are, but not all. I think what the I-banking and consulting firms really offer is 1) they recruit early, 2) they offer a very well-understood process towards getting a job, and 3) a clear vision of your future (I make no claim as to ...
A touch screen display works through contact by a finger or a stylus that completes a circuit through either electrical resistance or capacitance. Resistive touch screens require the user to press...
Read about the different places that offer STI testing, including NHS GUM clinics and community contraception clinics, what happens during an STI test, and how partner notification works. Get helpful information about how home test kits work, and where you can get these from, including on the high street and online.
File I/O and performance tuning; utlbstat and utlestat, library cache, data dictionary cache, data cache hit ratios, sorting, and rollback wait stats.
Background Investigation of household contacts exposed to infectious tuberculosis (TB) is widely recommended by international guidelines to identify secondary cases of TB and limit spread. There is little data to guide the use of contact investigations outside of the household, despite strong evidence that most TB infections occur outside of the home in TB high burden settings. In older adolescents, the majority of infections are estimated to occur in school. Therefore, as part of a project to increase active case finding in Swaziland, we performed school contact investigations following the identification of a student with infectious TB. Methods The Butimba Project identified 7 adolescent TB index cases (age 10-20) with microbiologically confirmed disease attending 6 different schools between June 2014 and March 2015. In addition to household contact investigations, Butimba Project staff worked with the Swaziland School Health Programme (SHP) to perform school contact investigations. At 6 school TB
The aim of this study was to evaluate how patients with Chlamydia trachomatis infection perceived the legal enforcement of partner notification and to seek their views on legislation impinging on their own sexual behaviour. The investigation was performed at STD clinics in Stockholm, Sweden in 1997. Consecutive patients (n=192) answered a questionnaire about sexual behaviour and contact tracing. More men (40%) than women (21%) had had sexual intercourse during the past 6 months with an occasional partner. The mean number (6 months prior to this) was 2.3 partners (1-15) for men and 2.2 partners (1-21) for women. Eighteen per cent admitted to having avoided disclosing the name of their partner(s). Ninety per cent considered it beneficial that chlamydial infection was regulated and that a named partner could be forced to undergo STD testing. Partly based on this report, the government has recommended police enforcement to be removed from the legislation as a tool for contact tracing in chlamydial ...
While contact tracing and case isolation are considered as the first choice of interventions against a smallpox bioterrorist event, their effectiveness under vaccination is questioned, because not only susceptibility of host and infectiousness of case but also the risk of severe clinical manifestations among cases is known to be reduced by vaccine-induced immunity, thereby potentially delaying the diagnosis and increasing mobility among vaccinated cases. We employed a multi-type stochastic epidemic model, aiming to assess the feasibility of contact tracing and case isolation in a partially vaccinated population and identify data gaps. We computed four epidemiological outcome measures, i.e., (i) the threshold of a major epidemic under the interventions; (ii) the expected total number of cases; (iii) the probability of extinction, and (iv) the expected duration of an outbreak, demonstrating that all of these outcomes critically depend on the clinical impact of past vaccination on the diagnosis and
Background Home-initiated tuberculosis (TB) evaluation could improve test uptake and linkage to care among at-risk contacts of active TB index patients. However, there is a need to systematically explore why contacts accept, decline, or are unable to complete these services. We sought to describe the barriers to home-based sputum collection as part of enhanced household contact investigation for TB in Kampala, Uganda. Methods Using a parallel convergent mixed-methods design, we collected quantitative data describing home sputum collection among 82 household contacts of active TB patients and qualitative interviews from a sub-sample of 19 of those contacts. Data were analyzed in parallel to produce a more complete picture of the underlying barriers to home sputum collection. Results Men were significantly more likely than women to provide sputum when eligible (p=0.04). Contacts who reported risk factors for or symptoms of TB but no active cough where significantly less likely to provide sputum (p=0.05).
RALEIGH, N.C. (WNCT) The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (NCDHHS) launches new initiatives to expand COVID-19 testing and contact tracing across the state and help North Carolinians protect their families and neighbors. Testing and tracing are core public health measures and key components of North Carolina
... available for download at Retina Consultants of Southwest Florida serving patients in the greater Fort Myers area and beyond.
A report is provided of a contact investigation conducted in rural South Carolina to identify, counsel, and educate men infected with or exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Valuable information was gained about ...
In addition to trained medical professionals continuing to test, rapid community testing can allow people infected to learn quickly of their condition and quarantine appropriately.. Another aspect of safe traveling is the use of contact tracing - identifying and contacting those who potentially came in contact with an infected person, and advising them on the next steps. Contact tracing can decrease spread of the virus if the contacts can quarantine for the recommended two to three weeks.. When it comes to transportation, Greenough recommends selecting an airline, train or bus that tests passengers before boarding, seats passengers at least 6 feet apart and adheres to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations regarding vehicle cleaning. Although traveling by car with coronavirus-negative passengers is safer, Greenough notes that all passengers must be mindful of the potential for exposure to the virus when stopping at gas stations, rest stops and other places where crowds ...
Separate from contacts not seen are contacts lost to follow up. The former are simply people who the contact teams didnt have time to visit, or maybe couldnt find on that particular day. The latter are people the contact teams cant find, period. They have gone missing. We only have data on this variable for Liberia, but what we see is concerning. Its not uncommon for dozens of people to be lost to follow up each day. We dont know how many of these people eventually return to the system, but my (uninformed) guess is that its relatively rare ...