Purpose : TRPV cation channels are osmo-mechano-and-thermo-sensitive membrane proteins. These proteins are extensively involved in pathophysiology including inflammation and pain. Hyperosmotic tears and ocular surface inflammation are hallmarks of dry eye condition. Here we explore expression and osmotic modulation of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in human conjunctival epithelial cells (hCjE). Methods : hCjE cells were cultured to confluence in supplemented Keratinocyte Serum Free Medium (GIBCO). Presence of TRPV mRNA and proteins in hCjE were determined by Reverse Transcription-Quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. Results : The RT-qPCR and western blot studies confirm the presence of TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPV4 mRNA and proteins in hCjE cells. None of the TRPC genes were detected in the hCjE cells. Incubation of hCjE cells for 24h with 5 μM GSK 1016790A (a specific TRPV4 agonist) upregulated the TRPV4 gene by 58 folds (SEM=0.23, N=3, P=0.0001) compared to ...
Purpose: : Epithelial cells from several mucosal sites (including conjunctiva) have been shown to actively participate during inflammatory episodes by producing and secreting cytokines and chemokines. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of cytokines/chemokine secretion from conjunctival epithelial cells under the effect of Th1 and Th2-type cytokines to further clarify the role of conjunctival epithelium in ocular surface inflammation. Methods: : IOBA-NHC (normal human conjunctival) epithelial cells were exposed to Th1- (IFN-γ and TNF-α) or Th2- (IL-4 and IL-13) derived cytokines for 48 h. Time dependency (30 min, 2 h and 24 h) of TNF-α induced cytokine/chemokine secretion was additionally studied. Cytokine/chemokine production was determined in supernatants by a 22-multiplex bead-based assay in a Luminex 100-IS. Additionally, eotaxin-2 and -3 production was analyzed with by ELISA. Results: : After 48 h of Th1 stimulation, cells produced high levels of IL-1α, IL-6, IL8, RANTES ...
The conventional technique of impression cytology provides a non-invasive method for the evaluation of conjunctival epithelium alterations. Using indirect immunofluorescence procedures two inflammatory markers, class II MHC antigens HLA DR and the receptor to IgE (CD23), were sought in impression cytology specimens obtained from 80 patients. In normal subjects conjunctival epithelial cells did not show any reactivity. Only scattered dendritic cells were found to express class II antigens but not the receptor to IgE. In contrast patients with chronic conjunctivitis of various aetiologies, mainly infectious or allergic, had 40-100% of brightly positive conjunctival cells for one or both antigens. In these cases epithelial cells and goblet cells reacted similarly. Twenty four eyes in 12 patients with idiopathic dry eye syndrome disclosed results similar to those from normal conjunctival specimens. However 18 other specimens from patients suffering from idiopathic tear deficiency but undergoing ...
Synonyms for conjunctiva in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for conjunctiva. 16 words related to conjunctiva: eye, oculus, optic, eyelid, lid, palpebra, bulbar conjunctiva, conjunctival layer of bulb, tunica conjunctiva bulbi.... What are synonyms for conjunctiva?
View Notes - Lecture 5a-Vision.pdf from CHEMISTRY 432 at San Diego State University. Sectional Anatomy of the Eye Ora serrata Fornix Palpebral conjunctiva Posterior cavity (Vitreous chamber
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the components for fibroblast mediated prevention of T cell apoptosis were present in vivo in human conjunctiva. This is the first report of the in vivo production of IFNβ by HTF, staining positive in the conjunctiva of three of our glaucoma patients. In addition, the conjunctiva of our glaucoma patients contained T lymphocytes. Therefore, our study has that all the components for this particular fibroblast/T cell interaction were present in human conjunctiva.. T cell/fibroblast interactions appear to have an important role in the development of abnormal scarring.2 Hitchings and Grierson showed that early trabeculectomy failures were associated with excessive inflammation and increased conjunctival fibroblast numbers.14 Nuzzi et al demonstrated that the preoperative conjunctiva of repeat filtration surgery patients contained an increased number of activated T lymphocytes and fibroblasts.15 In our study, T lymphocytes and IFNβ producing ...
Candia, O.A., Shi, X.P., and Alvarez, L.J. (1998). Reduction in water permeability of the rabbit conjunctival epithelium by hypotonicity. Exp. Eye Res. 66, 615-624.. Candia, O.A., Patarca, R., and Alvarez, L.J. (1998). Reduction of water permeability by anisotonic solutions in frog corneal epithelium. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39, 378-384.. Alvarez, L.J., Candia, O.A., Turner, H.C., and Zamudio, A.C. (1999). Phorbol ester modulation of active ion transport across the rabbit conjunctival epithelium. Exp. Eye Res. 69, 33-44.. Turner, H.C., Alvarez, L.J., and Candia, O.A. (2000). Cyclic AMP-dependent stimulation of basolateral K(+)conductance in the rabbit conjunctival epithelium. Exp. Eye Res. 70, 295-305.. Turner, H.C., Alvarez, L.J., Bildin, V.N., and Candia, O.A. (2000). Immunolocalization of Na-K-ATPase, Na-K-Cl and Na-glucose cotransporters in the conjunctival epithelium. Curr. Eye Res. 21, 843-850.. Turner, H.C., Alvarez, L.J., and Candia, O.A. (2001). Identification and localization of ...
The conjunctiva is examined by direct inspection. The bulbar conjunctiva is directly visible between the eyelids the palpebral conjunctiva can only be examined
Figure 1A: Bulbar conjunctiva of the left eye imaged in a 50 degrees red-free mode with the RFI. Temporal conjunctiva of the patients left eye with microangiopa
Shunting to the subconjunctival space involves the mechanism of diverting aqueous humor to the subconjunctival space from an ab interno stent placed in the angle through a clear corneal incision. The device was created to solve a major problem with tube shunts and trabeculectomy, which is that pressure can reduce, but prevention of hypotony relies on subjective scarring and suture tightness. Shunting to the sub conjunctiva was designed to prevent excessively low pressures and reduce reliance on subjective measures to dictate flow. A bleb is created but it is a more diffuse, low, and less cystic bleb than that with a trabeculectomy. A comfort level with treating blebs post-operatively, such as needling, is required so likely glaucoma specialists and those comfortable with trabeculectomies will find the benefit of this procedure most.. ...
Impression cytology is fast, easy to perform, economical and noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of conjunctival eye diseases. Conjunctival impression cytology using cellulose acetate filter paper of the ocular surface epithelium with no side effects or contraindication. In this article, technique of conjunctival impression cytology is reviewed ...
68 sentence examples: 1. Several live worms were found in his conjunctiva sac. 2. The conjunctiva often remains intact, but subconjunctival bleeding can produce circumferential bloody chemosis (shown). 3. Incisions in sclera and bulbar conjunctiva we
Location of the redness can be important so a brief review of eye anatomy is important. The term conjunctivitis means inflammation of the conjunctiva (singular) or conjunctivae (plural). The conjunctiva is usually described as having three parts, all of which are thin, transparent layers of mucous membrane. The most external and easily observable portion is that which overlies the white portion (sclera) of the eyeball itself. This is called the bulbar or ocular conjunctiva. It covers the entire sclera, but it does not cover the central anterior portion of the eyeball (the cornea). That is, it extends onto the eyeball up to, but not beyond, the limbus. The limbus is the union of the cornea and the sclera and a conjunctivitis limited to the limbus is an important clue to more serious cause of a red eye. When the bulbar conjunctiva is normal (not inflamed), it cannot be differentiated from the sclera beneath it, because it is clear. Another portion of the conjunctiva, visible if the eyelids are ...
Detta protokoll visar samtidig upptäckt av reaktiva syrearter (ROS), levande celler och döda celler i levande primära kulturer från...
bulbar-conjunctiva definition: Noun (plural bulbar conjunctivas or bulbar conjunctivae) 1. (anatomy) One of three parts of the conjunctiva, the bulbar conjunctiva is the conjunctiva covering the eyeball, over the sclera. ...
Olopatadine is an inhibitor of the release of histamine from the mast cell and a relatively selective histamine H1?antagonist that inhibits the in vivo and in vitro type 1 immediate hypersensitivity reaction including inhibition of histamine induced effects on human conjunctival epithelial cells. Olopatadine is devoid of effects on alpha adrenergic, dopamine and muscarinic type 1 and 2 receptors. Following topical ocular administration in human, olopatadine was shown to have low systemic exposure.. ...
Disorders of the conjunctiva and cornea are a common source of eye complaints. The surface of the eye is exposed to various external influences and is especially suspectible to trauma, infections, and allergic reactions. The conjunctiva is best known because of its inflamed state, conjunctivitis (more commonly known as pinkeye). Conjunctival irritation is one of the adverse health effects that can take place after overexposure to VOCs (Volatile organic compounds). ...
The bulbar conjunctival microvessels are typically imaged with a high-magnification slit lamp with green filters.[24][25][26] With such high-magnification imaging systems, it is possible to see groups of individual red blood cells flowing in vivo.[24] Fundus cameras may also be used for low-magnification wide field-of-view imaging of the bulbar conjunctival microvasculature. Modified fundus cameras have been used to measure conjunctival blood flow [27] and to measure blood oxygen saturation.[23] Fluorescein angiography has been used to study the blood flow of the bulbar conjunctiva and to differentiate the bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microcirculation.[28][29][30] ...
NHE8, the latest characterized NHE isoform in the NHE family, has been shown to participate in transmembrane electrolyte exchange and mucosal protection in the intestine and the kidney (25, 49-51). Although NHE8 is expressed in the epithelial cells in the intestine and the kidney, whether NHE8 is expressed in the ocular surface epithelia remains unknown (25, 49). In the present study, we showed that NHE8 mRNA is expressed in human and mouse eyes. Similar to NHE8 protein localization in the intestinal epithelial cells (49, 50), NHE8 is also located at the plasma membrane of the epithelial cells in the conjunctiva, the cornea, and the lacrimal glands in human and mouse eye tissues. The presence of NHE8 in the ocular surface epithelia suggests a possible role of this protein in ocular function.. Tear film plays a very important role in ocular protection. It is believed that the majority of tears is produced by lacrimal glands, but the ocular epithelial cells, especially conjunctiva, could also ...
Intestinal epithelial cells condition tolerogenic properties in DCs. Aqueous-deficient dry eye is associated with goblet cell (GC) loss and increased IFN-γ expression in the conjunctiva. We hypothesized that loss of GCs reduces tolerance-inducing properties of antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the conjunctiva and draining nodes. Mice lacking the SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (Spdef) that is required for GC differentiation had an increased frequency of macrophages in the conjunctiva and CD11b+CD11c+ DCs in the conjunctiva and draining nodes, and these cells had greater IL-12 expression than WT mice. Conditioned media from cultured WT conjunctival GCs suppressed LPS-induced IL-12 production by conjunctival APCs. OVA antigen-specific OTII CD4+ T cells primed by Spdef-KO draining lymph node APCs showed greater proliferation, lower frequency of Foxp3+, increased frequency of IFN-γ+ and IL-17+ cells, and greater IFN-γ production than those primed by WT APCs. The immune ...
The substantia propria (or stroma of cornea) is fibrous, tough, unyielding, and perfectly transparent. It is composed of about 200 flattened lamellæ, superimposed one on another.[1] These fibrils run at different angles between limbi. Fibres of the layers frequently interweave, the anterior lamellæ interweaving more than posterior lamellæ. The fibres of each lamella are parallel with one another, but at right angles to those of adjacent lamellæ. The lamellæ are produced by keratocytes, which occupy about 10% of the substantia propria. These lamellæ are made up of bundles of modified connective tissue, the fibres of which are directly continuous with those of the sclera. More collagen fibres run in a temporal-nasal direction than run in the superior-inferior direction. This is often ignored by corneal transplant surgeons, leading to poor corneal mechanical strength in corneal transplant patients. Keratoconus is a condition caused by disorganised lamellæ, leading to a bulbous cornea. ...
Avoid contamination with skin flora. Collect swab of conjunctiva using an ESwab (preferred) or a sterile swab wetted with sterile saline and placed in a cup. Inoculate scraping of corneal ulcer, or washing of lacrimal duct onto a SAB plate, also inoculate a sterile glass slide for a direct smear. Avoid contamination with skin flora. Do not incubate. For optimum recovery, send directly to MLabs. If specimen must be stored, refrigerate immediately after specimen collection. May be refrigerated up to 24 hrs. Specify fungal species suspected. Indicate specimen source, collection date/time, current antibiotic or antifungal therapy and clinical diagnosis on requisition. If an unacceptable specimen is received, the client will be notified before disposal of the original specimen.. ...
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Data collected for conjunctival swab study from October 2014 to May 2016 including collection method, subject number, eye, date, indication, number of injections in the last 6 months, 12 months, antibiotic used, age of patient, gender, organisms cultured and antibiotics to which those organisms were found resistant.
Conjunctivitis - which is also known as pink eye - is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is a thin transparent layer that covers the white part of your eye. Inflammation of the conjunctiva is considered very common especially among children in school age. It is also very contagious and can be transmitted from one person to another.. Many things can cause this inflammation including viruses, bacteria, allergic agents such as dust and other chemicals that can irritate such as smoke and certain shampoos. Conjunctivitis is not considered a major problem, but you should still be careful. If your baby has a pink eye, you should immediately consult a doctor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A case of primary jejunal endocrine cell carcinoma. AU - Takenaka, Ryuta. AU - Tomoda, Jun. AU - Makidono, Chiho. AU - Murakami, Takako. AU - Kondo, Junichi. AU - Yoshioka, Toshifumi. AU - Sakata, Tatsuro. AU - Hirota, Shigeru. AU - Ohkawa, Takaomi. AU - Fuchimoto, Sadanori. AU - Yanai, Hiroyuki. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - A 60-year-old man visited our hospital for the purpose of further examination of the anemia. Physical examination showed no abnormalities except that his palpebral conjunctiva was slightly anemic. Laboratory data were as follws ; RBC 432 × 104/mm3, Hb 11.5 g/dl, Ht 38.4%, Fe 22 μg/dl, Ferritin 25.4 ng/dl, CA19-9 134.4 ng/ml, and CEA 0.6 U/ml. Double contrast radiography of the small bowel revealed annular stenosis in the jejunum. Digital endoscopic examination showed an ulcerated, circumscribed tumor with clearly defined sharp margins and coated with dirty whitish exudate, like type 2 carcinoma in Borrmanns gross classification. We made a diagnosis of ...
Aaron Feser, O.D.. When our eyes are uncomfortable, the answer or reason is usually not as simple as you might think. Allergies, poor tear film, plugged oil glands, oral medications, systemic health problems (example arthritis), or a combination of those issues and others can certainly make our eyes itch and burn.. The term that is used to describe those factors together is Ocular Surface Disease. The ocular surface is the tissues that make up the front surface of the eye. They include the cornea, tear film, eyelids, and conjunctiva (the clear covering over the "whites" of our eyes). When the ocular surface is inflamed it not only causes discomfort, but also affects the quality of our vision. We all know that inflammation in the joints in our body give us achy hands and knees, for example. Inflammation also makes our ocular surface hurt. The doctors and staff at Vision Care Associates are dedicated to providing you with the most clear and comfortable vision possible which goes beyond the ...
In anatomy, the tears of three layers. The first layer (mucin) layer that is attached to the cornea and is produced by goblet cells in the conjunctiva. The second layer in the middle layer akuos, produced by the main lacrimal gland and lacrimal glands of Krause and extras such as lymph glands fornik wolfring found on the conjunctiva. ...
... : A small purulent abscess was present under corneal epithelium in the substantia propria (or stroma of cornea) (H&E stain, original magnification x10 ...
Diagnosis Code 372.89 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, ICD-10 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Diagnosis Code 372.64 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, ICD-10 conversion and references to the diseases index.
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Hylo-Parin is an eye drop wets and protects the cornea and conjunctiva and relieves ocular irritation caused by environmental factors. Calm redness, burning and itchy eyes.
Two unique eye drops which stimulate the production of all three tear film layers while supporting the health of the cornea, conjunctiva and eye lid.
The slit lamp exam is usually performed during eye exams. It looks for any diseases or abnormalities in the anterior portion of the eye, which includes the eyelids, lashes, lens, conjunctiva, cornea, and iris.
Looking for online definition of superior conjunctival fornix in the Medical Dictionary? superior conjunctival fornix explanation free. What is superior conjunctival fornix? Meaning of superior conjunctival fornix medical term. What does superior conjunctival fornix mean?
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The conjunctiva is a mucous membrane that covers the sclera and lines the inside of the eyelids. Throughout the conjunctiva are goblet cells that secrete mucins to protect the eye. Chronic inflammatory diseases such as allergic conjunctivitis and early dry eye lead to increased goblet cell mucin secretion into tears and ocular surface disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the actions of the inflammatory mediators, the leukotrienes and the proresolution resolvins, on secretion from cultured rat and human conjunctival goblet cells. We found that both cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) receptors, CysLT(1) and CysLT(2,) were present in rat conjunctiva and in rat and human cultured conjunctival goblet cells. All leukotrienes LTB(4), LTC(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4), as well as PGD(2), stimulated goblet cell secretion in rat goblet cells. LTD(4) and LTE(4) increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), and LTD(4) activated ERK1/2. The CysLT(1) receptor antagonist MK571 ...
The purpose of this research is to compare the histological and immunohistochemical changes induced by fixed combinations of timolol maleate and prostaglandin analogues in the rabbit conjunctiva. Thirty left eyes of rabbits, divided into three groups, were treated for 30 days with the following combinations of drugs: bimatoprost 0.03% + timolol 0.5%, travoprost 0.004% + timolol 0.5% and latanoprost 0.005 + timolol 0.5%. The right eyes served as controls and received no medication. At the end of the experiment, after enucleation, the conjunctivas were assessed through histomorphometry (number of inflammatory and goblet cells, epithelial thickness) and immunohistochemistry (anti-actin antibody to assess the degree of fibrosis). Histomorphometrically, there was infiltration of inflammatory cells in all the treated eyes. An increased number of goblet cells was observed with the use of all fixed combinations of prostaglandin analogues associated with timolol maleate in comparison with the control group. The
Purpose: To compare the outcomes of conjunctival autograft fixation using autologous serum vs fibrin glue to cover the bare sclera in pterygium excision surgery.. Study Design: Quasi experimental study.. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Ophthalmology Department of CMH Kharian from April 2018 to November 2018.. Material and Methods: Forty patients with primary pterygium were selected by convenient sampling technique. Patients with recurrent Pterygia and moderate to severe dry eyes, keratitis or secondary to trauma were excluded. The patients were divided into two groups, group A treated with fibrin glue and group B treated with autologous serum technique. All patients underwent pterygium excision under topical anaesthesia. The conjunctival autograft was removed from superior temporal bulbar conjunctiva to cover the scleral bed produced by pterygium excision. Post operatively the patients were followed-up for three months to assess the fixation or otherwise. Data was noted ...
An accurate description of human primary and recurrent pterygium histopathology was previously performed by Chui et al. in 2011 [22]. The authors launched the hypothesis that primitive cell clusters of basal epithelial cells are responsible for the invasive behavior and recurrences of human pterygium through their activation as a result of UV radiation. Using thymine dimer immunostaining, we observed clusters of intensely stained positive thymine dimer cells grouping in the basal portion of the epithelium from primary pterygium. Moreover, for recurrent pterygium, only scattered basal cells retained positivity for thymine dimers as a sign of a possible lack of the DNA repair mechanism. It is already recognized that the defects in the DNA repair mechanism can cause genetic instability, increased and uncontrolled proliferation, and irreversible errors in protein sequences [8]. The persistence of thymine dimer positive basal cells from the recurrent pterygium specimens observed in the present study ...
Concretion in the palpebral conjunctiva, is called conjunctival concretion, that is a (or a cluster) small, hard, yellowish-white calcified matter, superficially buried beneath the palpebral conjunctiva. Most of concretions in the eye form in the palpebral conjunctiva, which is a clear membrane to surround the inside of the eyelid. Less can be located in the cornea and retina. Chronic conjunctivitis (e.g. trachoma) and aging factor are two causes of conjunctival concretion, which will make the conjunctiva cellular degeneration to produce an epithelial inclusion cyst, filled with epithelial cells and keratin debris. After calcification, the conjunctival cyst hardens and forms a conjunctival concretion. Congenital conjunctival concretion condition is also more common. Conjunctival concretions are generally asymptomatic. Common symptoms include eye discomfort, eye irritation, and foreign body sensation. Sometimes, the larger, harder or multiple concretions make the rubbing off of the superficial ...
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects at 1 year of preservative-free timolol gel and preserved timolol eye drops on conjunctiva and tear parameters. METHODS: Forty patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were randomized to the two treatment groups and compared with 20 healthy age-matched controls. Clinical tests (IOP, Schirmer I test, and lacrimal film break-up time BUT) and in vivo conjunctival confocal microscopy (IVCM) were performed in all patients at baseline and after 12 months. IVCM (HRT II Rostock Cornea Module; Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) was performed after topical anaesthesia in the four cardinal locations and at the corresponding limbus to analyse conjunctiva cells. The main IVCM outcomes were goblet cell density and epithelial regularity. RESULTS: IVCM and clinical parameters were similar in the three groups at baseline. After 12 months, intra-epithelial goblet cell density was significantly lower in the preserved (48.25 ± 7.70) than in the ...
Results: Patients with OA and OID demonstrated increased hyperreflectivity of corneal (71% and 78%) and conjunctival SE (63% and 42%) as compared to controls (0%). SE cell border reflectivity in the area of tight junctions was increased in the cornea for OA and OID (83%) and the conjunctiva (77% OA; 70% OID) compared to controls (0% cornea; 11% conjunctiva). While central corneal DC density was lower in acute OA (46.8±31 cells/mm2) vs. acute OID (83.7±37) cases, patients with chronic OA (256.3±243) had higher DC density compared to chronic OID (65.6±56; p,0.05). In the peripheral cornea, a 35% (acute OA) and 90% (chronic OA) increase in DC density was observed as compared to controls. Moreover, conjunctival DC density was significantly increased in both OA (131.2±100) and OID (234.4±206) as compared to controls (17.5±16.2; p,0.05). Finally, conjunctival vessels demonstrated increased immune cell adhesion in OA (5.5±0.7 cells/100μm vessel length) and OID (5.7±1.7) compared to controls ...
Patients with recurrent pterygia without symblepharon were randomly assigned to undertake pterygium excision followed by amniotic membrane associated with a small conjunctival autograft (2x3mm) or conjunctival autograft (approximately 5x8mm) alone. The patients were examined after 1, 7, 30, 90, 180 and 360 days after the surgery. Recurrence was considered as a fibrovascular ingrowth of 1.5 mm or more beyond the limbus with conjunctival drag ...
symblepharon is a partial or complete adhesion of the palpebral conjunctiva of the eyelid to the bulbar conjunctiva of the eyeball. It results either from disease (conjunctival sequelae of Trachoma) or trauma. Cicatricial pemphigoid[1] and, in sever
symblepharon is a partial or complete adhesion of the palpebral conjunctiva of the eyelid to the bulbar conjunctiva of the eyeball. It results either from disease (conjunctival sequelae of Trachoma) or trauma. Cicatricial pemphigoid[1] and, in sever
symblepharon is a partial or complete adhesion of the palpebral conjunctiva of the eyelid to the bulbar conjunctiva of the eyeball. It results either from disease (conjunctival sequelae of Trachoma) or trauma. Cicatricial pemphigoid[1] and, in sever
symblepharon is a partial or complete adhesion of the palpebral conjunctiva of the eyelid to the bulbar conjunctiva of the eyeball. It results either from disease (conjunctival sequelae of Trachoma) or trauma. Cicatricial pemphigoid[1] and, in sever