The South Africa Field Epidemiology Training Program (SAFETP) builds global health security by enhancing South Africas capacity to prevent, detect and respond to public health threats through a 2-year training program in applied epidemiology, focused on supervised work experience and training to develop practical public health skills and knowledge.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcomes following surgical treatment compared to radiation for stage I NSCLC. T2 - A SEER database analysis. AU - Monirul Islam, K. M.. AU - Shostrom, Valerie. AU - Kessinger, Anne. AU - Ganti, Apar Kishor P. PY - 2013/10/1. Y1 - 2013/10/1. N2 - Introduction: Outcomes following surgery are better than following radiation therapy (RT), for stage I NSCLC. Whether this is due to selection of healthier patients for surgery is unclear. This study was undertaken to compare outcomes between surgical patients and patients who were surgical candidates but did not receive surgery. Methods: Data of patients with stage I NSCLC between 1988 and 2007, included in the SEER database were analyzed. Overall survival (OS) was examined by treatment type (surgery only, radiation only, surgery and radiation, and no treatment). OS was compared between RT patients who refused surgery and those not fit for surgery. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare outcomes by treatment type. Results: ...
Data & statistics on Indiana Lung Cancer Average Incidence and Mortality Rates ALL RACES: Indiana Lung Cancer Average Incidence and Mortality Rates, 1996-2000, Average Indiana Cancer Incidence and Mortality, 1996-2000, Average Indiana Cancer Incidence and Mortality, 1996-2000...
EIS has a 65+ year history of success in training disease detectives. EIS officers step up at a moments notice to investigate public health threats in the United States and around the world. Worn out shoe leather with a prominent hole worn through has been a recurring visual theme of EIS through the decades, a reference to the practice of EIS officers personally investigating disease outbreaks at the local population level, in all parts of the world.. Each year, EIS officers conduct approximately 80 short-term epidemiologic assistance investigations, or Epidemiologic Assistance (Epi-Aids), worldwide. From the threat of bioterrorism during the Korean War era in the early 1950s to the Ebola outbreak in 2014, EIS officers have been called upon to help CDC protect people and save lives.. ...
This trial assessed the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients in SEER-Medicare Database. The study determined the
Prevalence Over Time and Risk Factors for Sexually Transmissible Infections Among Newly Arrived Female Sex Workers in Timika, Indonesia, at TheBody.com, the complete HIV/AIDS resource.
Foreword by Professor Sir Michael Marmot. To date, much of the empirical work in social epidemiology has demonstrated the existence of health inequalities along a number of axes of social differentiation. However, this research, in isolation, will not inform effective solutions to health inequalities. Rethinking Social Epidemiology provides an expanded vision of social epidemiology as a science of change, one that seeks to better address key questions related to both the causes of social inequalities in health (problem-focused research) as well as the implementation of interventions to alleviate conditions of marginalization and poverty (solution-focused research). This book is ideally suited for emerging and practicing social epidemiologists as well as graduate students and health professionals in related disciplines.. ...
How is Center of Social Epidemiology and Population Health abbreviated? CSEPH stands for Center of Social Epidemiology and Population Health. CSEPH is defined as Center of Social Epidemiology and Population Health very rarely.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent the fastest growing key population for incident HIV cases in China. We examined five consecutive years of HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors data among MSM in Guangxi Province with the second highest estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) in China in 2011. Methods: We collected demographic and behavioral data from national sentinel surveillance and HIV/syphilis blood samples in five annual cross-sectional surveys from 2008 to 2012.. We analyzed HIV and syphilis prevalence trends stratified by social/behavioral characteristics. Results: HIV prevalence climbed steadily from 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 3.0) in 2008 to 3.7% (95% CI: 3.0 to 5.0) in 2012. Syphilis prevalence increased steadily from 5.1% (95% CI: 4.0 to 6.0) in 2008 to 8.4% (95% CI: 7.0 to 10.0) in 2012.. HIV prevalence rose notably among MSM who were ,=25 years of age, never married, did not engage in sexual intercourse with women in the past six ...
Colon cancers are thought to be an inevitable result of aging, while testicular cancers are thought to develop in only a small fraction of men, beginning in utero. These models of carcinogenesis are, in part, based upon age-specific incidence data. The specific incidence for colon cancer appears to monotonically increase with age, while that of testicular cancer increases to a maximum value at about 35 years of age, then declines to nearly zero by the age of 80. We hypothesized that the age-specific incidence for these two cancers is similar; the apparent difference is caused by a longer development time for colon cancer and the lack of age-specific incidence data for people over 84 years of age. Here we show that a single distribution can describe the age-specific incidence of both colon carcinoma and testicular cancer. Furthermore, this distribution predicts that the specific incidence of colon cancer should reach a maximum at about age 90 and then decrease. Data on the incidence of colon carcinoma
1 1J1D1ES A SPECIAL REPORT SERIES BY THE N.C. DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH, AND NATURAL RESOURCES STATE CENTER FOR HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL STATISTICS P.O. BOX 29538, RALEIGH, N.C. 27626-0538 No. 67 June 1992 THE QUALITY OF CANCER INCIDENCE DATA IN NORTH CAROLINA An Evaluation ofthe CentralCancerRegistry 1990Database by Carol R. Dickinson and Tim E. Aid rich ABSTRACT The North Carolina Central Cancer Registry (CCR) has completed its first year of statewide data collection. During 1990, 127 of 132 facilities submitted cancer incidence data; 29 of those were tumor registries. For the facilities without tumor registries, the CCRconducted a complete review ofall incidence reports for quality assurance and completeness, and provided trainingto all new staffmembers. Thisquality control process led to two-thirds of these facilities having an accuracy rate in excess of 96 percent. For facilities with new tumor registrars, CCR offered training sessions and a 100 percent evaluation of their abstracts ...
The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and human rights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity. The first section describes the goals and work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The second section discusses the role of human rights in the Commissions work. The third section evaluates, from the perspective of social epidemiology, two rights-based approaches to advancing health and health equity as compared to a view that focuses more broadly on social justice. The concluding section identifies four areas where social epidemiologists, practitioners of social medicine, and health and human rights advocates can and must work together in order to make progress on health and health equity.. ...
A Molecular Epidemiological Analysis Of Programmed Cell Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) Protein Expression, Mutations And Survival In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Abstract - Objective: The purpose of this paper is to describe the extent of the public health problem presented by palatine tonsillar cancer in the United States by analyzing recent incidence and mortality rate trends.. Methods: Using the National Cancer Institutes Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program database, age-adjusted incidence rates (1973-2001) for five histological types of palatine tonsillar cancer by race and sex were calculated. For total palatine tonsillar cancer age-specific incidence (1973-2001) and mortality (1969-2001) rates by race and sex were calculated. Mortality and population data were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the U.S. Census Bureau. The Joinpoint Regression Model was employed to establish the statistical significance of incidence and mortality rate trends.. Results: The majority of palatine tonsillar cases diagnosed in SEER-9 registries from 1973 to 2001 occurred among white males, age 40-64 years, with ...
High blood cholesterol is a leading risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) (1,2). The risks associated with high blood cholesterol can be reduced by screening and early intervention (3). Current clinical practice guidelines provide evidenced-based standards for detection, treatment, and control of high blood cholesterol (4). Healthy People 2020 monitors national progress related to screening and controlling high blood cholesterol through the National Health Interview Survey and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). State-level estimates of self-reported cholesterol screening and high blood cholesterol prevalence are available using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. To assess recent trends in the percentage of adults aged ≥18 years who had been screened for high blood cholesterol during the preceding 5 years, and the percentage among those who had been screened within the previous 5 years and who were ...
CALL FOR PAPERS Workshop on Computational Advances in Molecular Epidemiology (CAME 2011) held in conjunction with the 5th IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (BIBM 2011) Atlanta, GA, November 12-15, 2011 http://alan.cs.gsu.edu/CAME11/ Molecular epidemiology is an integrative scientific discipline that considers molecular biological processes in specific epidemiological settings. It relates molecular biological events to etiology, distribution and prevention of disease in human populations. Over years, molecular epidemiology has became extensively fused with mathematical and computational science and immensely benefitted from this tight association. The CAME workshop aims to bring together field practitioners of molecular epidemiology, molecular evolutionists, population geneticists, medical researchers, bioinformaticians, statisticians and computer scientists interested in the latest developments in algorithms, mining, visualization, modeling, simulation and other ...
The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) Hip Fracture Incidence Map displays country-specific incidence of hip fracture per population of 100 000. The country-specific risk of hip fractures has been determined on a worldwide basis from a systematic review of literature.. The Hip Fracture Incidence Map was developed by J. A. Kanis et al. on behalf of International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) Epidemiology/Quality of Life Working Group. "A systematic review of hip fracture incidence and probability of fracture worldwide" Osteoporosis International 2012.. CLOSE. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Completion of therapy by medicare patients with stage III colon cancer. AU - Dobie, Sharon A.. AU - Baldwin, Laura Mae. AU - Dominitz, Jason A.. AU - Matthews, Barbara. AU - Billingsley, Kevin. AU - Barlow, William. PY - 2006/5/3. Y1 - 2006/5/3. N2 - Background: Certain factors, such as race or age, are known to be associated with variation in initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer, but little is known about what factors are associated with completion of adjuvant therapy. To determine whether predictors of initiation also predict completion, we analyzed Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program data linked to Medicare claims. We investigated mortality as a means to testing the validity of the completion measure that we created. Methods: We studied 3193 stage III colon cancer patients whose diagnosis was recorded in 1992-1996 SEER program data linked to 1991-1998 Medicare claims and who initiated adjuvant chemotherapy after colon cancer ...
prevalence of high blood pressure, prevalence of high blood pressure by age, prevalence of high blood pressure in nigeria, prevalence of high blood pressure in canada, prevalence of high blood pressure in australia, prevalence of high blood pressure in the uk, prevalence of high blood pressure in india, prevalence of high blood pressure in the world, prevalence of high blood pressure in south africa, prevalence of high blood pressure in society today
TY - JOUR. T1 - A population-based cross-sectional study of age-specific risk factors for high risk human papillomavirus prevalence in rural Nigeria. AU - Clarke, Megan A.. AU - Gage, Julia C.. AU - Ajenifuja, Kayode O.. AU - Wentzensen, Nicolas A.. AU - Adepiti, Akinfolarin C.. AU - Wacholder, Sholom. AU - Burk, Robert D.. AU - Schiffman, Mark. PY - 2011/8/2. Y1 - 2011/8/2. N2 - Background: Cervical cancer, caused by persistent infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), is particularly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with a high mortality rate. Some studies in West Africa, including our own, have found unusually high HR-HPV across all ages with a slight peak in older women. This increased prevalence at older ages may complicate screen-and-treat programs, which are implemented in regions where HPV prevalence declines with age and typically target women between 30-49 years. A better understanding of the determinants of high HR-HPV prevalence at older ages is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-Expandable Metal Stents in Esophageal Cancer in a High HIV Prevalence Area. T2 - A Survival Analysis and Evaluation of Prediction Scores. AU - Loots, Emil. AU - Anderson, Frank. AU - Clarke, Damian L. AU - Mulder, Chris J J. AU - Madiba, Thandinkosi E. PY - 2016/12. Y1 - 2016/12. N2 - INTRODUCTION: Esophageal cancer (EC) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common in parts of South Africa. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa presents generally in advanced stages and is mostly palliated by the deployment of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS). This study analyses these relationships between coexistent HIV infection, SEMS deployment, and survival scores.METHODOLOGY: Information on patients managed with SEMS between October 2013 and December 2014 was retrieved from a prospective database of EC and followed up until April 2015. Data collected included demographics, HIV status, clinical presentation, prognostic indicators, management, and ...
CDC COVID-NET Surveillance Team.. CDC COVID-NET Team.. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.). Epidemic Intelligence Service.. Eagle Global Scientific (Atlanta, Georgia). California Emerging Infections Program.. Colorado. Department of Public Health and Environment.. Yale School of Public Health. Connecticut Emerging Infections Program.. Emory University School of Medicine. Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine.. Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Emerging Infections Program.. Foundation for Atlanta Veterans Education and Research.. Maryland. Department of Health.. Michigan. Department of Health and Human Services.. Minnesota. Department of Health.. New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Albuquerque, New Mexico. New Mexico. Department of Health.. New York (State). Department of Health.. University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry.. Ohio.Department of Health.. Oregon Health Authority.. Vanderbilt University Medical Center.. Salt Lake County (Utah). Health ...
The incidence of molar pregnancy has demonstrated marked geographic and ethnic differences. The reported data in Nepal is inconsistent with minimal published literature. Thus, we designed a study to determine prevalence of molar pregnancies and demonstrate clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients attending a tertiary care center in eastern Nepal. A retrospective review of medical records was conducted to determine the prevalence of molar pregnancies at the B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) from the year 2008 to 2012. Secondary data from the medical records were analyzed. Annual and 5-year prevalence of molar pregnancy per 1000 live births was calculated. Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, management methods and complications of molar pregnancy were studied. The 5- year prevalence of molar pregnancy at BPKIHS is 4.17 per 1000 live births with annual prevalence ranging 3.8-4.5 per 1000 live births. More than one third of the patients were in the age
Rationale: Xpert MTB/RIF is a novel automated molecular diagnostic recently endorsed by the World Health Organization. However, performance-related data from high HIV prevalence settings are limited. Objectives: The impact of sample-related factors on performance and the significance of Xpert MTB/RIF-positive culture-negative discordance remain unclear. Methods: Xpert MTB/RIF was evaluated using single archived spot-sputum samples from 496 South African patients with suspected TB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture positivity and phenotypic resistance to rifampicin served as reference standards. Measurements and Main Results: Overall, Xpert MTB/RIF detected 95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88-98%; 89 of 94) of smear-positive culture-positive cases and the specificity was 94% (91-96%; 320 of 339). The sensitivity in smear-negative cases was 55% (35-73%; 12 of 22) when the analysis was restricted to 1 ml of unprocessed sputum and culture time-to-positivity of less than or equal to 28 days. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occupational asbestos exposure and the incidence of non-hodgkin lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract. T2 - An ecologic study. AU - Treggiari, Miriam M.. AU - Weiss, Noel S.. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - PURPOSE: A previous case-control study observed a strong association between occupational exposure to asbestos and the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract (GINHL). To test this hypothesis, we sought to determine whether the geographic pattern of the incidence of GINHL in the US has paralleled that of mesothelioma. METHODS: Using data obtained from the nine US regions participating in the National Cancer Institutes Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program, we examined the incidence of malignancies among men ages 50 to 84 years between 1973 and 1984. RESULTS: Results The rates of mesothelioma, but not of GINHL, were about two times higher in the areas of Seattle and San Francisco, than in the other regions. Overall, there was no correlation ...
Data & statistics on Georgia Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Georgia Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates by Geography, Breast Cancer Mortality7 (Graph 19) Breast cancer mortality rates declined slightly for all women during 1997 to 2005. In 2005, at the local and state level, African American women followed by white women had the highest rates of breast cancer mortality.10, Age specific incidence of the breast cancer, rates per 100000 women, Georgia, 2007...
Geographic expansion of dengue incidence has drawn a global interest to identify the influential factors that instigate the spread of this disease. The objective of this study was to find the environmental factors linked to dengue incidence in a dengue epidemic area of Nepal by negative binomial models using climatic factors from 2010 to 2017. Minimum temperature at lag 2 months, maximum temperature and relative humidity without lag period significantly affected dengue incidence. Rainfall was not associated with dengue incidence in Chitwan district of Nepal. The incident rate ratio (IRR) of dengue case rise by more than 1% for every unit increase in minimum temperature at lag 2 months, maximum temperature and relative humidity, but decrease by .759% for maximum temperature at lag 3 months. Considering the effect of minimum temperature of previous months on dengue incidence, the vector control and dengue management program should be implemented at least 2 months ahead of dengue outbreak season.
Equine piroplasmosis is significant tick-borne disease with wide distribution. The prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina is unknown. In aim to obtain a first insight into the prevalence we performed molecular epidemiological study which included 142 horses, on seven locations in these three countries. We first performed PCR for the detection of a 450bp long section of the 18S rRNA of piroplasma-specific region. For all positive samples we have done multiplex PCR for the species detection. Species determination was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of 10 randomly selected Theileria equi and all Babesia caballi samples. The overall prevalence rates in analysed region for T. equi and B. caballi were 22.5% and 2.1%, respectively. Possible risk factors (such as location, age, sex and activity) associated with PCR positivity were evaluated. Marked differences were found in prevalence between geographic areas. There was no significant association ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of Enterobacter spp. from three distinct populations in Grampian, UK. AU - Wagenlehner, F. M.. AU - MacKenzie, Fiona. AU - Forbes, Kenneth James. AU - Gould, Ian M. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The distribution of Enterobacter spp. within the population of Aberdeen Royal Infirmary was compared with the outpatient population with regard to molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance. Enterobacter spp. from 60 patients and one environmental site were characterised as ITU, non ITU and outpatients isolates. Thirty-five percent were blood culture isolates. Cefotaxime resistant strains in the hospital were frequent. Cefotaxime (64%) sensitive isolates were inducible for hyperproduction of Bush group I P-lactamase. Isolates were further investigated by PFGE. Isolates (27%) were clonally related and typed in four clusters. Consecutive isolates were studied in selected patients showing minor genomic changes. One environmental isolate ...
Abstract:. Background: Hemoglobinopathies comprising of thalassemias and various hemoglobin (Hb) variants continue to plague the health system of India. Aims: To find out the prevalence of various hemoglobinopathies in the study population and to identify any association with the various ethnic groups residing in rural community of Darjeeling district, West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Naxalbari block of Darjeeling district, West Bengal from June 2011 to August 2011, involving hemoglobin variant screening by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method of 188 antenatal women, selected through multistage random sampling technique. Results: 26.6% of mothers had abnormal hemoglobin, the commonest being the Hemoglobin E (Hb E) trait (15.42%). The prevalence of homozygous HbE, HbE thalassemia, -thalassemia trait and hemoglobin S-trait in the studied population was 6.91%, 0.53%, 2.12% and 1.06% respectively. There was a single ...
Weekly statistics from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), a nationwide collaboration that enables all levels of public health-local, state, territorial, federal, and international-to share notifiable disease-related health information. Annual statistics from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), a nationwide collaboration that enables all levels of public health-local, state, territorial, federal, and international-to share notifiable disease-related health information. ...
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the lifetime risk of undergoing primary total hip (THR) or knee (TKR) replacement in the UK. METHOD: A Population-based cohort study of 25,845 patients who had undergone a THR and 23,260 patients who had undergone a TKR between 1991 and 2006, using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. RESULTS: The estimated mortality-adjusted lifetime risk of THR at age 50 for the year 2005 was 11.6% (95% CI: 11.1, 12.1) for women and 7.1% (95% CI: 6.7, 7.5) for men. For TKR the risks were 10.8% (95% CI: 10.3, 11.3) for women and 8.1% (95% CI: 7.6, 8.5) for men. Between 1991 and 2006, the lifetime risk of THR at age 50 rose from 4.0% (95% CI: 3.5, 4.4) to 11.1% (95% CI: 10.6, 11.6) for women and for men from 2.2% (95% CI: 1.8, 2.5) to 6.6% (95% CI: 6.2, 7.0). Over the same period, for TKR the risk for women increased from 2.9% (95% CI: 2.6, 3.3) to 10.6% (95% CI: 10.1, 11.1) and for men from 1.8% (95% CI: 1.5, 2.2) to 7.7% (95% CI: 7.3, 8.2). CONCLUSION: The lifetime risk of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy of laryngectomy alone for treatment of locally advanced laryngeal cancer. T2 - A stage- and subsite-specific survival analysis. AU - Cervenka, B. P.. AU - Rao, Shyam. AU - Farwell, D Gregory. AU - Bewley, Arnaud. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Objective: Total laryngectomy is a well-established treatment for locally advanced laryngeal cancer. Evidence for the benefit of post-operative radiotherapy after laryngectomy in patients with locally advanced primaries and N0 or N1 nodal disease is limited. This study aimed to determine whether total laryngectomy alone is adequate therapy for certain patient subgroups with locally advanced laryngeal cancer. Design: We performed a retrospective survival analysis of patients in the surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) database with locally advanced laryngeal cancer between 2004 and 2012. Outcome Measures: Primary outcome measure was overall survival. Results: For all patients with T3-4aN0-1 tumours, overall survival ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lymph node ratio as a prognostic factor in elderly patients with pathological N1 non-small cell lung cancer. AU - Wisnivesky, Juan P.. AU - Arciniega, Jacqueline. AU - Mhango, Grace. AU - Mandeli, John. AU - Halm, Ethan A.. PY - 2011/4. Y1 - 2011/4. N2 - Background: Lymph node (LN) metastasis is an important predictor of survival for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prognostic significance of the extent of LN involvement among patients with N1 disease remains unknown. A study was undertaken to evaluate whether involvement of a higher number of N1 LNs is associated with worse survival independent of known prognostic factors. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, 1682 resected patients with N1 NSCLC diagnosed between 1992 and 2005 were identified. As the number of positive LNs is confounded by the total number of LNs sampled, the cases were classified into three groups according to the ratio of positive to ...
South Koreas National Intelligence Service (NIS) said Monday that North Korea has completed preparations for another nuclear test at its Punggye-ri test site, adding that Pyongyang was likely to launch a ballistic missile during the ongoing US-South Korean Ulchi Freedom Guardian (UFG) military drills or on September 9 to commemorate the anniversary of its states foundation.. "Preparations for the nuclear test have been completed at the second and third tunnels [of Punggye-ri]," the intelligence services representative told a parliamentary briefing, as quoted by the Yonhap news agency.. The NIS also suggested that North Korea would carry out another missile launch in the coming days either during the UFG drill, or around September 9, marking the Day of the Foundation of the Republic.. "There is the possibility that the North will launch a ballistic missile on the Foundation Anniversary [September 9], and we are preparing for that," the NIS said.. When briefing the parliament on Pyongyangs ...
Waterborne Campylobacter jejuni outbreaks are common in the Nordic countries, and PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis) remains the genotyping method of choice in outbreak investigations. However, PFGE cannot assess the clonal relationship between isolates, leading to difficulties in molecular epidemiological investigations. Here, we explored the applicability of whole genome sequencing to outbreak investigation by re-analysing three C. jejuni strains (one isolated from water and two from patients) from an earlier resolved Finnish waterborne outbreak from the year 2000. One of the patient strains had the same PFGE profile, as well as an identical overall gene synteny and three polymorphisms in comparison with the water strain. However, the other patient isolate, which showed only minor differences in the PFGE pattern relative to the water strain, harboured several polymorphisms as well as rearrangements in the integrated element CJIE2. We reconstructed the genealogy of these strains with ClonalFrame
BOSTON (WHDH) - The Massachusetts Department of Public Health announced Thursday that the West Nile virus has been detected in mosquitoes in Massachusetts for the first time this year.. The presence of WNV was confirmed by the Massachusetts State Public Health Laboratory in a mosquito sample that was collected July 3 in Boston in Suffolk County, according to DPH.. No human or animal cases of WNV or Eastern Equine Encephalitis have been detected so far this year. There is no elevated risk level or risk-level change associated with this finding.. "The first WNV positive mosquito sample is often identified in Massachusetts sometime during the last week of June or the first week in July," DPH State Epidemiologist Dr. Catherine Brown said in a statement. "Risk for human infection generally builds through the season with peak risk occurring in August.". WNV is usually transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.. In 2018, there were 49 human cases of WNV infection acquired in ...
article{f963b6fc-e756-4df4-ac43-a0f6062f09ae, abstract = {,p,Aims/hypothesis: Sleep duration is a risk factor for incident diabetes mellitus and CHD. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate, in sex-specific analyses, the role of incident diabetes as the possible biological mechanism for the reported association between short/long sleep duration and incident CHD. Considering that diabetes is a major risk factor for CHD, we hypothesised that any association with sleep duration would not hold for cases of incident CHD occurring before incident diabetes (non-diabetes CHD) but would hold true for cases of incident CHD following incident diabetes (diabetes-CHD). Methods: A total of 6966 men and 9378 women aged 45-73 years from the Malmö Diet Cancer Study, a population-based, prospective cohort, who had answered questions on habitual sleep duration and did not have a history of prevalent diabetes or CHD were included in the analyses. Incident cases of diabetes and CHD were ...
BACKGROUND: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 led to a decrease in the incidence of Kaposis sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL), but not of other cancers, among people with HIV or AIDS (PWHA). It also led to marked increases in their life expectancy. METHODS: We conducted a record-linkage study between the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and nine Swiss cantonal cancer registries. In total, 9429 PWHA provided 20,615, 17,690, and 15,410 person-years in the pre-, early-, and late-HAART periods, respectively. Standardised incidence ratios in PWHA vs the general population, as well as age-standardised, and age-specific incidence rates were computed for different periods. RESULTS: Incidence of KS and NHL decreased by several fold between the pre- and early-HAART periods, and additionally declined from the early- to the late-HAART period. Incidence of cancers of the anus, liver, non-melanomatous skin, and Hodgkins lymphoma increased in the early- compared with the ...
We talk about Lyme disease and the serious threat here in Massachusetts all the time, but its not the only tick-borne illness we should be aware of. Black-legged ticks are very prevalent in South Shore and Fall River, and they can carry several other diseases as well: Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Powassan, and now the newest tick disease recognized in this area Borellia miyamotoi, are all transmitted by the deer tick. In an article published by the Herald News, deputy state epidemiologist Dr. Catherine Brown warns of the concerns of these illnesses. Not only from deer ticks but also the Lone Star tick that is "moving this way". Lone Star ticks carry STARI, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever which is rare in Massachusetts but expected to grow. Dr. Brown believes that humans moving out of the cities into the suburbs can be causing the introduction of newer disease. Powassan and B. Miyamotoi are the latest of these diseases and while still rare, a recognized threat. ...
Abstract. This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Laos. We selected a random sample of 96 S. aureus SSTI isolates received by the Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, between July 2012 and June 2014, including representation from seven referral hospitals. Isolates underwent susceptibility testing by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods, spa typing and DNA microarray analysis, with whole genome sequencing for rare lineages. Median patient age was 19.5 years (interquartile range 2-48.5 years); 52% (50) were female. Forty-three spa types, representing 17 lineages, were identified. Fifty-eight percent (56) of all isolates encoded Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), representing six lineages: half of these patients had abscesses and three had positive blood cultures. The dominant lineage was CC121 (39; 41%); all but one isolate encoded PVL and 49% (19) were from children under five.
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An SKF power transmission chain drive transmits mechanical power from one shaft to another efficiently. Our transmission chains are manufactured to the highest standards.
This study addresses the epidemiologic relatedness of a collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients attending the Pediatric Clinic, Catania, Sicily. Genome macrorestriction analysis after pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to characterise all strains. Furthermore, a rapid typing procedure, developed in this study, based on polymerase chain reaction amplified ribosomal DNA spacer polymorphisms (PCR-ribotyping), straight from bacterial cultures, was used. On the basis of macrorestriction analysis after PFGE, persistence of infection was shown in all patients; two cross-transmission episodes were identified in the nosocomial as well as in the familiar environment. PCR-ribotyping proved to be useful for a DNA-based identification test, suitable for screening purposes. The rapid amplification protocol here tested is proposed to evaluate the discriminatory power of other specific target sequences in PCR-based typing assays, for epidemiologic purposes.
The field of travel medicine is concerned primarily with ways to maintain the health of international travelers. Remaining current in this area requires up-to-date knowledge of global infectious diseases, patterns of drug resistance, advances in preventive measures, and public health regulations pertaining to the crossing of international borders. This review of off-line commercial databases and Internet sources will assist infectious disease consultants in accessing current reliable travel health information. Of the North American pretravel off-line databases, TRAVAX (United States) and The Medical Letter are the most comprehensive, whereas the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network is extraordinary in its provision of global infectious disease epidemiology for posttravel assessment. A total of 65 Web sites are listed within 9 categories, covering such areas as authoritative government travel health recommendations, commercially-oriented sites, and travel medicine listserv ...
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Previous reports have suggested an increasing incidence of highly fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli causing bacteremia among cancer patients on prophylactic therapy. We used genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA digests and random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting to study clonal relationships among such isolates obtained at 10 cancer centers located across Europe and the Middle East. Analysis by both methods indicated that isolates from different centers were genotypically unrelated to each other. There were five centers from which more than one individual patient isolate was available, and most demonstrated significant within-center genetic diversity of strains. Strains shared among patients could be identified at two centers. At the center with the largest number of bloodstream isolates from cancer patients available, fluoroquinolone-resistant control isolates from surgical patients and fluoroquinolone-susceptible control isolates from patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - UV, latitude, and spatial trends in prostate cancer mortality. T2 - All sunlight is not the same (United States). AU - Schwartz, Gary G.. AU - Hanchette, Carol L.. PY - 2006/9/1. Y1 - 2006/9/1. N2 - Objective: We showed previously that Caucasian mortality rates from prostate cancer for 1970-1979 are significantly inversely correlated with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We now present the analysis of prostate cancer mortality data over a 45-year period (1950-1994) in order to examine the persistence of this pattern. Furthermore, because vitamin D synthesis does not occur during winter months at latitudes higher than 40° N, we examined this relationship above and below 40° N latitude. Methods: We used trend surface and linear regression analyses to characterize the relationship between prostate cancer mortality and UV radiation for U.S. counties at northern and southern latitudes. Results: For U.S. Caucasians, prostate cancer mortality rates at the county and SEA levels followed a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - How many lymph nodes properly stage a periampullary malignancy?. AU - Gutierrez, Juan C.. AU - Franceschi, Dido. AU - Koniaris, Leonidas G.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - The impact of lymphadenectomy in prognosis and staging in periampullary malignancies remains largely undefined. We examined all pancreaticoduodenectomies for periampullary carcinomas in the SEER cancer registry from 1993 through 2003. Overall, 5465 pancreaticoduodenectomies for nonmetastatic periampullary carcinomas were identified. The cohort was comprised of 62.5% pancreatic, 18.9% ampullary, 11.6% distal bile duct, and 7.0% duodenal cancers. A linear association between the number of lymph nodes (LNs) examined and overall survival was observed overall and for pancreas and ampullary cancers for node-negative (N0) disease. Median survival for all patients with localized, N0 disease improved from 24 to 31 months, with sampling of a minimum of 10 LNs, whereas 2 and 5-year survival improved from 52 and 29%, ...
1 National Cancer Institute. A Snapshot of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/researchandfunding/snapshots/adolescent-young-adult.. 2 Archie Bleyer et al., "The distinctive biology of cancer in adolescents and young adults," Nature Reviews Cancer 8, no. 4 (2008): 288-298. Available at: http://www.mendeley.com/catalog/distinctive-biology-cancer-adolescents-young-adults-1.. 3 National Cancer Institute. 2006 Fact Book. Available at: http://obf.cancer.gov/financial/attachments/06Factbk.pdf.. 4 American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2011- 2012. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-030975.pdf. 5 National Cancer Institute. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results. SEER Stat Fact Sheets 2013: Breast. Available at: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html.. 6 Carey K. Anders et al., "Breast Carcinomas Arising at a Young Age: Unique Biology or a Surrogate for Aggressive ...