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F. Rattay and P. Lutter, "Speech sound representation in the auditory nerve: Computer simulation studies on inner ear mechanisms", ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ANGEWANDTE MATHEMATIK UND MECHANIK, vol. 77, 1997, pp. 935-943 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Non-linear response and hydrogen bond dynamics for electron solvation in methanol. AU - Turi, László. AU - Mináry, Péter. AU - Rossky, Peter J.. PY - 2000/1/21. Y1 - 2000/1/21. N2 - Non-equilibrium and equilibrium adiabatic mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics computer simulations of the solvation dynamics of an excess electron in methanol are reported. We develop the connection between the multiple time scales reflected in solvent response and individual physical phenomena, such as the radial collapse of the electron and structural relaxation of the hydrogen-bonding network of the solvent. The significant role of the latter aspect appears responsible for the breakdown of the linear response approximation for the relaxation of the adiabatic ground state energy of the excess electron.. AB - Non-equilibrium and equilibrium adiabatic mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics computer simulations of the solvation dynamics of an excess electron in methanol are reported. We ...
The present thesis reports computer simulation studies of several phase transition related phenomena in a range of soft-condensed matter systems. A coherent unifying theme of the thesis is the understanding of dynamics of phase transitions through free energy calculations using recently developed efficient non-Boltzmann sampling methods. Based on the system/phenomena of interest, the thesis has been classified into four major parts: I. Isotropic-nematic (IN) phase transition in liquid crystals. II. Nucleation phenomena in gas-liquid transition with particular emphasis on the systems close to the spinodal curve. III. Collapse transition in linear hydrocarbon (n-alkane) chains for a varying range of length, solvent and temperature. IV. Crystallization of unbranched polymer chains in dilute solution, with particular emphasis on the temperature dependent crossover between the rod-like crystalline state and spherical molten globule state. The thesis has been further divided into ten chapters running ...
Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to account for the nature and distribution of tabular uranium and vanadium-uranium deposits of the Colorado Plateau. In one of these hypotheses it is suggested that the deposits resulted from geochemical reactions at the interface between a relatively stagnant groundwater solution and a dynamic, ore-carrying groundwater solution which permeated the host sandstones (Shawe, 1956; Granger, et al., 1961; Granger, 1968, 1976; and Granger and Warren, 1979). The study described here was designed to investigate some aspects of this hypothesis, particularly the nature of fluid flow in sands and sandstones, the nature and distribution of deposits, and the relations between the deposits and the host sandstones. The investigation, which was divided into three phases, involved physical model, field, and computer simulation studies. During the initial phase of the investigation, physical model studies were conducted in porous-media flumes. These studies verified the fact that
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A needs analysis of the computer simulation area within ABB is performed, to create input for a coming strategy formulation. The needs analysis is performed in two parts, where part 1 is presented in this report.. Needs are gathered through six qualitative interviews with respondents from different stakeholder groups from ABB Corporate Reseach Centers (CRCs); Simulation expert, technical manager and Program Manager. The target population of the study is mainly the Business Units (BUs). Based on the needs gathering, three different approaches of using computer simulations within ABB are found:. · Simulation support: CRC simulation experts perform simulations on the request of BU, and deliver the result back.. · Simulation tools: CRC simulation experts develop and deliver a simulation tool to BU, enabling the BU side to perform the simulations on their own.. · CAD-embedded simulation: BU uses CAD-embedded simulation, effectively integrating the simulations into the design phase, enabling the ...
Deborah Haar My dissertation centers on the epistemology of computer simulations and modeling. Examining how computer simulation models are built in cases where there is important empirical information lacking, I argue in my first paper that computer simulation modeling is ampliative. That these computer simulation models are built with computer simulations weighs on the argument…
Process of building a computer model, and the interplay between experiment, simulation, and theory. Computer simulations reproduce the behavior of a system using a mathematical model . Computer simulations have become a useful tool for the mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics ( computational physics ), astrophysics , climatology , chemistry and biology , human systems in economics , psychology , social science , and engineering . Simulation of a system is represented as the running of the system's model. It can be used to explore and gain new insights into new technology and to estimate the performance of systems too complex for analytical solutions . Computer simulations are computer programs that can be either small, running almost instantly on small devices, or large-scale programs that run for hours or days on network-based groups of computers. The scale of events being simulated by computer simulations has far exceeded anything possible (or perhaps even imaginable) using
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As a philosophical exercise not much turns on whether we classify computer simulations (CS) as experiments, a form of modeling, or some type of hybrid activity that straddles both camps. Since they typically exhibit features from all three categories it might seem a waste of time debating the distinctions required for a fine grained classification. What is important however is how we characterise the outputs of computer simulation since their epistemic status is the crucial feature in deciding what kind of knowledge computer simulations deliver. In this latter context the relationship to experiment and modelling takes on a new dimension, one that shows just how the results generated by some CS can qualify as a new type of experimental knowledge, rather than a hybrid of traditional forms of modelling and experiment. In order to document the relationship to models and experiments and illustrate both the novelty and epistemic dimension of CS results I want to focus on particular methodological ...
Nonlinear imaging of two phase-typed scatterers in super-Gaussian laser beams is modeled and its properties obtained by computer simulation are presented. The formations of hot images and second-order hot images are verified. It is found that the in-beam locations of hot images correspond to those of the scatterers, but that there can be only one second-order hot image, which is at the middle point between the in-beam locations of the scatterers. Interestingly, the image intensity can be suppressed and it increases in an oscillating manner with some regularity as the distance between the scatterers increases. Moreover, one more scatterer makes the effect of the B integral and that of the phase shift caused by scatterers quite different from the predictions for single- scatterer case. The variation trend of hot image intensity with the B integral is not in agreement with that described by the analytical result for the single-scatterer case. The variation of phase shift caused by the scatterers ...
Use of computer simulation method in resource management in healthcare; A study in outpatient clinics Simulation can be used to determine the work load of the health staff and the needs of system resources in healthcare. We performed a simulation study for outpatient clinics of an internal medicine department. The data are obtained from electronic health recording system (EHR) except for the duration of doctor examination. Data from 18,750 patients were used. We used different scenarios to determine the critical factors affecting patient queue size. We found that the number of doctors was the most important factor influencing the waiting duration and patients queue size. Other factors affecting the system performance were the mean examination time and the revolving fund processes. In conclusion, this study shows that simulation is a possible method to determine critical factors for service performance.. ...
PREFACE xiii. CHAPTER 1 DYNAMIC-SYSTEM MODELS AND SIMULATION 1. SIMULATION IS EXPERIMENTATION WITH MODELS 1. 1-1 Simulation and Computer Programs 1. 1-2 Dynamic-System Models 2. 1-3 Experiment Protocols Define Simulation Studies 3. 1-4 Simulation Software 4. 1-5 Fast Simulation Program for Interactive Modeling 5. ANATOMY OF A SIMULATION RUN 8. 1-6 Dynamic-System Time Histories Are Sampled Periodically 8. 1-7 Numerical Integration 10. 1-8 Sampling Times and Integration Steps 11. 1-9 Sorting Defined-Variable Assignments 12. SIMPLE APPLICATION PROGRAMS 12. 1-10 Oscillators and Computer Displays 12. 1-11 Space-Vehicle Orbit Simulation with Variable-Step Integration 15. 1-12 Population-Dynamics Model 17. 1-13 Splicing Multiple Simulation Runs: Billiard-Ball Simulation 17. INRODUCTION TO CONTROL-SYSTEM SIMULATION 21. 1-14 Electrical Servomechanism with Motor-Field Delay and Saturation 21. 1-15 Control-System Frequency Response 23. 1-16 Simulation of a Simple Guided Missile 24. STOP AND LOOK 28. 1-17 ...
Now in a second edition, this book teaches physical concepts using computer simulation. The text illustrates structured programming techniques and encourages students to develop good programming habits in the context of doing physics. Designed for college students at all levels, An Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods, uses True Basic, a user-friendly, accessible computer language. As an introduction to the use of computer simulations, this book is also appropriate for students majoring in fields other than physics.Gould, Harvey is the author of Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods Applications to Physical Systems, published 1995 under ISBN 9780201506044 and ISBN 0201506041. [read more] ...
Results of our studies reveal the vast potential of integrating computational simulation tools into formal learning experiences. Outcomes of our studies include: a) a set of learning outcomes associated with instructors goals for incorporating simulation tools into their teaching and b) a framework that identifies major benefits on students learning and that suggest ways to address their difficulties when using or building computational simulation tools.
Disponible ahora en Iberlibro.com - Gastos de envío gratis - ISBN: 9787811302363 - paperback - Condición del libro: New - Language:Paperback.Paperback Pages Number: 215 in Publisher: Jiangsu University Press; 1st edition (September 1. 2011). Computer simulation technology and its application in agricultural engineering an overview of the principles of computer simulation. combined with Jiangsu University Agricultural Engineering Research Institute in recent years the use of computer simulation technology. agricultural engineering research and design examples and detailed MATLAB simulation on ADAMS rigid body mot.
CitaciónMontañola, C., Gilabert, JF, Casanovas, J., Prats, C., Lopez, D., Valls, J., Cardona, P.J., Vilaplana, C. Modeling tuberculosis in Barcelona. A solution to speed-up agent-based simulations. A: Winter Simulation Conference. "Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference". Huntington Beach, California: 2015, p. 1295-1306 ...
The multiple reciprocity boundary element method (MRBEM) is applied to the modeling of Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF). With the MRBEM, the Helmholtz equation is converted into an integral equation using a series of higher order fundamental solutions of the Laplace equation. It is a much more efficient method to analyze the dispersion, birefringence and nonlinearity properties of PCFs compared with the conventional direct boundary element method (BEM).. ©2004 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
This paper discusses a computer simulation model, designed specifically for the analysis and evaluation of military mobile radio communication systems in t
In stand-alone simulations, objects come into (and go out of) existence with the passage of simulation time and the disposition of these objects is solely the purview of the simulation. When acting within a confederation, the simulation-object relationship is more complicated. The simulation-object ownership property is dynamic, i.e. during its lifetime an object may be owned by more than one simulation. In fact, for any value of simulation time, several simulations may own different attributes of a given object. By convention, a simulation owns an object if it owns the "identifying" attribute of the object. Owning an objects attribute means that a simulation is responsible for calculating and reporting changes to the value of the attribute. Objects not owned by a particular simulation but within the area of perception for the simulation are known as ghosts. Ghosts are local copies of objects owned by other simulations. When a simulation creates an object, it reports this fact to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic rupture propagation on fault planes with explicit representation of short branches. AU - Ma, Xiao. AU - Elbanna, A.. PY - 2019/10/1. Y1 - 2019/10/1. N2 - An active fault zone is home to a plethora of complex structural and geometric features that are expected to affect earthquake rupture nucleation, propagation, and arrest, as well as interseismic deformation. Simulations of these complexities have been largely done using continuum plasticity or scalar damage theories. In this paper, we use a highly efficient novel hybrid finite element-spectral boundary integral equation scheme to investigate the dynamics of fault zones with small scale pre-existing branches as a first step towards explicit representation of anisotropic damage features in fault zones. The hybrid computational scheme enables exact near-field truncation of the elastodynamic field allowing us to use high resolution finite element discretization in a narrow region surrounding the fault zone that encompasses ...
|p style=text-indent:20px;|In this paper, we present a multiscale model reduction framework within Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) for nonlinear elliptic problems. We consider an exemplary problem, which consists of nonlinear p-Laplacian with heterogeneous coefficients. The main challenging feature of this problem is that local subgrid models are nonlinear involving the gradient of the solution (e.g., in the case of scale separation, when using homogenization). Our main objective is to develop snapshots and local spectral problems, which are the main ingredients of GMsFEM, for these problems. Our contributions can be summarized as follows. (1) We re-cast the multiscale model reduction problem onto the boundaries of coarse cells. This is important and allows capturing separable scales as discussed. (2) We introduce nonlinear eigenvalue problems in the snapshot space for these nonlinear harmonic functions. (3) We present convergence analysis and numerical results, which show that
Often in simulation procedures are not proposed unless they are supported by a strong mathematical background. As will be shown in this thesis, this approach does not always give good results when the procedures are applied to complex simulation models, especially on output analysis. For this reason we have used an empirical rather than a theoretical approach for dealing with some of the output problems of simulation. The research carried out has dealt mainly with queuing networks. The first problem we address is that of the identification of possible unstable queues. We also deal with the problem of the identification of queues that may require a long simulation run length to reach the steady state. The method of replications is used for the estimation of terminating and sometimes of steady state parameters. In this thesis we study the relationship that exists between the number of replications used in the simulation and the simulation run length required for the parameter being estimated to ...
The role of computer simulation in the automobile industry is changing because of the increasing feasibility of meeting the challenges it faces. The increase in feasibility is the result of increases in computer equipment capability and decreases in equipment costs. In particular, the use of computer simulation in accident reconstruction is increasing rapidly. Key issues for computer simulation in the accident reconstruction industry are credibility, cost, software availability, and visualization of both the simulation process and results. Visualization is a key issue because most reconstruction is in support of litigation so that results must be made as clear and easy to understand as is possible ...
The performance of an imaging technique relying on the spatial correlation of laser-speckle intensity measurements is evaluated on the basis of theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and laboratory results. A theoretical expression for the signal-to-noise ratio of the recovered imaging targets power spectrum is used to estimate the imaging performance expected in the computer simulation and laboratory experiment. Power-spectrum estimates for an imaging target, obtained both in the laboratory and through simulation, are compared with the theoretical results and with the true spectrum of the target. Images recovered from the simulation data and the laboratory data are also compared. Our results suggest that the signal-to-noise ratio expression provides an accurate means for estimating the recoverable frequency content of a simple target.. © 1991 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
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The biosimulation market is expected to reach USD 3.77 billion by 2024, according to a new study by Grand View Research, Inc. The unprecedented global shift in the adoption of unhealthy lifestyles is resulting in the high prevalence of chronic diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, is expected to drive the biosimulation market during the forecast period. In addition, the rising geriatric population base highly susceptible to acquire the aforementioned chronic diseases result in enhanced demand for highly efficacious pharmacological drugs. This high requirement of efficacious drugs can be effectively met at a faster rate through the incorporation of the in silico approach, thus creating a high potential for biosimulation market growth opportunities in the future. Furthermore, increasing drug resistance, high drug failure rate, and availability of limited drugs to treat several diseasessuch as AIDS, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and others indicate the indisputable requirement for the incorporation of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Computer simulation of polarization characteristics of channeling radiation for relativistic electrons. AU - Vyatkin, E. G.. AU - Pivovarov, Yu L.. AU - Vorobiev, S. A.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - A computation method for the polarization characteristics of relativistic particle radiation in a crystal has been developed. This method is based on the computer simulation of particle trajectories. Formation of the total radiation spectrum and the Stokes parameters by averaging over the possible electron trajectories under planar channeling has been analyzed. A comparison with experimental data has been made.. AB - A computation method for the polarization characteristics of relativistic particle radiation in a crystal has been developed. This method is based on the computer simulation of particle trajectories. Formation of the total radiation spectrum and the Stokes parameters by averaging over the possible electron trajectories under planar channeling has been analyzed. A comparison ...
We investigate the effects of interactive computer-based simulations which are presented prior to inquiry-based laboratory experiments on students conceptual understanding of mechanics, waves/optics, and thermal physics. In principle, the…
Under a grant from the United States Coast Guard. Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. Marine Department is conducting research to develop techniques for reconstructing collision accidents involving recreational boats. One of the purposes of this research is to identify technologies that have proven useful in other areas of accident reconstruction that may contribute significantly to the analysis of boat collisions. One of the technologies that has been recognized as providing much success in the past is that of computer simulation and computer aided accident reconstruction. This document outlines the necessary steps to be taken in which an attempt will be made to model a boat collision accident using state of the art computer simulation technology.*COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION
Day, R.(1986).The Computer Simulation in the Education Process or Computer Simulations go to School. Australian Educational Computing 1(1),40-45 ...
We present a mathematical model and the computer simulation of Brownian motion of nanoparticle-bioprobe-polymer contrast agent complexes and their hybridization to immobilized targets. Our model is a stochastic counterpart of the continuous model presented in Ericson et al. Anal BioChem 317 (2003). We present results for the dependence of incubation times on the number of particles available for detection, and the geometric layout of the biochip. We derive values for the time necessary for a single particle hybridization within a prescribed probability error, as well as values for maximal hybridization concentration in many particle systems. We use both explicit computations with the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distributions, and computer simulations for docking to targets. The parameters of our model can be derived from these theoretical values and fast Monte Carlo simulations. Knowledge of the proper incubation times in advance makes it possible to assess the feasibility of single
Competition of computer simulation industry is more and more fierce. In the meantime, merger and capital operation among large computer simulation corporations are ever frequent. And the outstanding computer simulation corporations in China are placing more importance on the research of the industry market, especially the depth research of industry development environment and customer demand.
The Mutcuf Computer Simulation Program (also known as Arse Mutcuf according to the Mutcuf One ) is a program the Mutcuf created in order to operate through a larger network of space bases. It appears as a holographic, pulsing gumdrop that floats above a chair in front of a signature Mutcuf...
One of the grand challenges for computational neuroscience and high-performance computing is computer simulation of a human-scale whole brain model with spiking neurons and synaptic plasticity using supercomputers. To achieve such a simulation, the target network model must be partitioned onto a number of computational nodes, and the sub-network models are executed in parallel while communicating spike information across different nodes. However, it remains unclear how the target network model should be partitioned for efficient computing on next generation of supercomputers. Specifically, reducing the communication of spike information across compute nodes is essential, because of the relatively slower network performance than processor and memory. From the viewpoint of biological features, the cerebral cortex and cerebellum contain 99% of neurons and synapses and form layered sheet structures. Therefore, an efficient method to split the network should exploit the layered sheet structures. In this
This paper will discuss how accurate simulation of the real world conditions and ART/ADT (accelerated reliability/durability testing) technology is influencing accurate efficiency predicting as a final goal of product/process design, manufacturing, and development.The paper begins with the overview of current approaches of predicting the efficiency for a complete product and its components with an examples of life cycle costs (LCC), empirical reliability, physics-based reliability, their benefits and risks. It includes also the history of reliability prediction. As a result of the overview, it will be conclude that one cannot ensure that predicting results will not be misinterpreted or misapplied, even though all assumptions and rationale have been meticulously documented and clearly stated.The paper will demonstrate the proposed principles of solution for accurate efficiency predicting through obtaining accurate initial information for this predicting and improving engineering culture. This is ...
Computer simulation is an essential tool in studying the chemistry and physics of liquids. Simulations allow us to develop models and to test them against experimental data. They can be used to evaluate approximate theories of liquids, and to provide detailed information on the structure anddynamics of model liquids at the molecular level. This book is an introduction and practical guide to the molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. The first four chapters describe these methods in detail, and provide the essential background in intermolecular forces and statistical mechanics. Chapters 5 and 6 emphasize the practical aspects of writing efficient programs and analysing the simulation results. The remaining chapters coveradvanced techniques, non-equilibrium methods, Brownian dynamics, quantum simulations, and some important applications. FORTRAN code is presented in the text.
Large multiscale neuronal network simulations are of increasing value as more big data are gathered about brain wiring and organization under the auspices of a current major research initiative, such as Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies. The development of these models requires new simulation technologies. We describe here the current use of the NEURON simulator with message passing interface (MPI) for simulation in the domain of moderately large networks on commonly available high-performance computers (HPCs). We discuss the basic layout of such simulations, including the methods of simulation setup, the run-time spike-passing paradigm, and postsimulation data storage and data management approaches. Using the Neuroscience Gateway, a portal for computational neuroscience that provides access to large HPCs, we benchmark simulations of neuronal networks of different sizes (500-100,000 cells), and using different numbers of nodes (1-256). We compare three types of ...
Simbios is the NIH-funded National Center for Physics-Based Simulation of Biological Structures at Stanford, started in 2004. Simbios is organized around the idea that the same physical and computational methods are applicable to simulation of biological systems of all scales, from running humans to folding proteins-wherever Newtons law f=ma holds. A significant part of our mission is to produce a reusable, high performance open source toolkit SimTK that enables biomolecular and biomechanical medical researchers to use physics-based simulation in their research. To be useful SimTK has to use sound software engineering principles, rigorous theory, and the best methods from computational science. SimTK is a community asset and we are looking for collaborators skilled in software engineering, computational science, algorithm development, and biomedical simulation who would like to contribute to it. Simbios has established a cooperative agreement with SFSU Computer Science and would like to engage ...
SIMUL 2016 continues a series of events focusing on advances in simulation techniques and systems providing new simulation capabilities. While different simulation events are already scheduled for years, SIMUL 2016 identifies specific needs for ontology of models, mechanisms, and methodologies in order to make easy an appropriate tool selection. With the advent of Web Services and WEB 3.0 social simulation and human-in simulations bring new challenging situations along with more classical process simulations and distributed and parallel simulations. An update on the simulation tool considering these new simulation flavors is aimed at too. The conference will provide a forum where researchers shall be able to present recent research results and new research problems and directions related to them. The conference seeks contributions to stress-out large changels in scale system simulation, and advanced mechanisms and methodologies to deal with them.. We solicit both academic, research, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New H∞ FIR smoother for linear discrete-time state-space models. AU - Ahn, Choonki. AU - Han, Soohee. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - This letter propose a new H∞ smoother (HIS) with a finite impulse response (FIR) structure for discrete-time state-space models. This smoother is called an H∞ FIR smoother (HIFS). Constraints such as linearity, quasi-deadbeat property, FIR structure, and independence of the initial state information are required in advance. Among smoothers with these requirements, we choose the HIFS to optimize H∞ performance criterion. The HIFS is obtained by solving the linear matrix inequality (LMI) problem with a parametrization of a linear equality constraint. It is shown through simulation that the proposed HIFS is more robust against uncertainties and faster in convergence than the conventional HIS.. AB - This letter propose a new H∞ smoother (HIS) with a finite impulse response (FIR) structure for discrete-time state-space models. This smoother is ...
EDs are already overcrowded and in crisis, so physicians fear that time and resources spent on HIV testing will detract from their core mission," says Lyons, an assistant professor of emergency medicine at UC and medical director of UCs HIV Early Intervention Program. But we dont know the true opportunity cost of instituting HIV screening in departments. Knowing which methods are least disruptive could provide valuable guidance and help promote adoption of this important public health practice.". If hospitals and physicians were able to quantify the true costs of conducting HIV screening programs, Lyons says they can then either look at options to minimize or avoid those costs, or work with policy makers and hospital administration to secure additional resources to compensate for those costs. Or, if the costs associated with the testing are found to be less than believed, Lyons hopes that providing that clarified information will encourage more hospitals to introduce such programs.. Lyons, ...
Four aspects are important in the design of hydraulic lters. We distinguish between two cost factors and two performance factors. Regarding performance, filter eciencynd lter capacity are of interest. Regarding cost, there are production considerations such as spatial restrictions, material cost and the cost of manufacturing the lter. The second type of cost is the operation cost, namely the pressure drop. Albeit simulations should and will ultimately deal with all 4 aspects, for the moment our work is focused on cost. The PleatGeo Module generates three-dimensional computer models of a single pleat of a hydraulic lter interactively. PleatDict computes the pressure drop that will result for the particular design by direct numerical simulation. The evaluation of a new pleat design takes only a few hours on a standard PC compared to days or weeks used for manufacturing and testing a new prototype of a hydraulic lter. The design parameters are the shape of the pleat, the permeabilities of one or several
Many simulation tools are available on the nanoHUB. The tools have been well-tested and here include supporting materials so that they can be effectively used for education or intelligently used for research. The research tools include a first time users guide and supporting publications and theses. Click here for a list of recommended simulation tools for education.
The basic concepts of optical interferometric imaging through the atmosphere at a low light level are applied to the case of the Calern High Angular Resolution Optical Network (CHARON) stellar interferometric array. The numerical simulation that was implemented to create the interferometric data is presented. The processing algorithms used to process the raw data, to extract the object parameters, and to restore the initial map are pointed out. The multiresolution approach provides an objective way of analyzing the reconstruction procedure. Reconstructed maps under different conditions of brightness and turbulence are shown and discussed. The advantages and the drawbacks of the different steps of the computer simulation are analyzed.. © 1992 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
TY - CPAPER AB - Enhancing Manufacturing Process Education via Computer Simulation and VisualizationIndustrially significant metal manufacturing processes such as melting, casting, rolling, forging,machining and forming are multi-stage, complex and labor, time and capital intensive processes.Mathematical modeling of these processes provides a theoretical framework for understandingthe process variables and their effects on productivity and quality. However it is usually difficultto provide the students with hands-on experience of experimentation with process parameters toarrive at optical process design. In order to solve this problem, interdisciplinary student projectswere undertaken at authors institution to develop computer simulation tools that would facilitateprocess visualization, experimentation, exploration, design and optimization.The first system described in this paper is the visualization of production schedule in anindustrial setting that provides a basis for interactive decisions. ...
Findings challenge one-size-fits-all weight assumptions. Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have created a mathematical model - and an accompanying online weight simulation tool - of what happens when people of varying weights, diets and exercise habits try to change their weight. The findings challenge the commonly held belief that eating 3,500 fewer calories - or burning them off exercising - will always result in a pound of weight loss.. Instead, the researchers computer simulations indicate that this assumption overestimates weight loss because it fails to account for how metabolism changes. The computer simulations show how these metabolic changes can significantly differ among people. Findings will be published Aug. 26 in a Lancet issue devoted to obesity.. However, the computer simulation of metabolism is meant as a research tool and not as a weight-loss guide for the public. The computer program can run simulations for changes in calories or exercise that would never be ...
There are many concepts in science curriculum that are difficult to conduct experiments to prove. A great way to conduct experiments is to use computer simulations. In a simulated environment, time changes can be sped up or slowed down; abstract concepts can be made concrete and forces that cannot be seen because they are deep with in the earth or microscopic can be seen and relationships between variables can be formed. Teachers can also focus students attention on learning objectives because the real-world environments are simplified. Students can also easily see causal relationships between variables ...
A new estimator of effective area surveyed is proposed for use in estimating population sizes or densities. The estimator is based on the cumulative distribution function for the observed detection areas and can be used with the data arising from either a line transect or a variable circular plot survey. Some sampling properties of the estimator are investigated and computer simulation results of comparisons with two previously proposed estimators are included. In addition, a proof of the consistency of the new estimator is given ...
Researchers Say Idea Can Be Tested. A decade ago, a British philosopher put forth the notion that the universe we live in might in fact be a computer simulation run by our descendants. While that s...Source: teebsrant.wordpress.com•The human species is likely to go extinct before reaching a posthuman stage. •We are almost certainly living in a…
In 2003, philosopher Nick Bostrom proposed the simulation hypothesis, which officially put forth the idea that our universe might be a computer simulation. Both scientists and Hollywood directors have since addressed this notion and its variants, but few people have suggested feasible tests for proving or disproving it. In 2012, a team at the University of Washington said that looking for a limitation in the energy of cosmic rays might be indicative of a simulations signature. Others have said that unexplained physics phenomena might be glitches in the simulation, which could never be a perfect copy of a real universe. Building a simulation ourselves would help us to determine what these glitches look like, and subsequently search for them in our own universe. However, the technology needed for simulating a universe (inside our own, which may or may not be a simulation itself) is not yet available.
modeling and simulation of discrete event systems with petri nets, a hands-on approach with gpensim, written for readers familiar with Petri net basics, this book introduces the Petri net simulator GPenSIM (General Purpose Petri Net Simulator). With
Attending to Temporal Assumptions May Enrich Autonomous Agent Computer Simulations: 10.4018/jats.2009010101: Agent-based computer simulations use agents on landscapes to investigate epidemics, social phenomena, decision making, supply networks, the behavior of
Computer simulation is an integral part of advanced materials science and engineering. Atomistic simulation methods are based on fundamental physical and chemical laws and are capable of predicting new phenomena. These capabilities are based on close interaction of the theory and simulation with experiment.. This presentation reviews the physical effects that were predicted and that later were developed into new engineering and industrial directions or have shown their importance for various applications. These include bubble formation in liquid metals and erosion of the first wall of the fusion reactor obtained by a parallel LAMMPS molecular dynamics code. Properties of liquid metals containing bubbles were studied at various temperatures, densities, and negative pressures. Two models of bubble simulation were developed that cover a wide area in the phase diagram with a negative pressure. The bubble cavitation rates were calculated and compared to experiment.. A new field evaporation effect in ...
Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) allows one to perform sub-diffraction fluorescence microscopy of living cells. By analyzing the acquired image sequence with an advanced correlation method, i.e. a high-order cross-cumulant analysis, super-resolution in all three spatial dimensions can be achieved. Here we introduce a software tool for a simple qualitative comparison of SOFI images under simulated conditions considering parameters of the microscope setup and essential properties of the biological sample. This tool incorporates SOFI and STORM algorithms, displays and describes the SOFI image processing steps in a tutorial-like fashion. Fast testing of various parameters simplifies the parameter optimization prior to experimental work. The performance of the simulation tool is demonstrated by comparing simulated results with experimentally acquired data.. ...
Biosimulation refers to a process involving simulation of biological processes with the help of computer sided mathematical models. Biosimulation is an int
Computer simulation of breast anatomy is an essential component of Virtual Clinical Trials, a preclinical approach to validate breast imaging systems. Realism of breast phantoms affects simulation studies and their acceptance among researchers. Previously, we developed a simulation of tissue compartments defined by the hierarchy of Coopers ligaments, based upon recursive partitioning using octrees. In this work, we optimize the simulation parameters to represent realistically the breast subcutaneous and retromammary tissue regions. As seen in clinical images, the subcutaneous and retromammary regions contain predominantly adipose tissue organized into relatively large compartments, as opposed to the predominantly glandular breast interior. To mimic such organization, we divided the phantom volume into "subcutaneous", "retromammary", and "interior" regions. Within each region, parameters controlling the size and orientation of tissue compartments were selected separately. In this preliminary ...
Atheistic evolutionists are becoming increasingly aware of the awesome complexity of the information encoded in the DNA of single celled organisms such as bacteria. In order to maintain their atheistic views, evolutionists must find some way to demonstrate that blind chance can generate biochemical information. In this article well take a look at an attempt to do this by computer that falls hopelessly short.. Oxford professor Richard Dawkins is perhaps the worlds foremost champion of evolution. His books not only defend evolution but promote atheism as a logical outflow of belief in evolution.. Dawkins has taken on the daunting challenge of trying to prove that information can arise from random processes without a guiding intelligence. Toward this end Dawkins developed a computer simulation of evolution that purports to show that the sentence "Methinks it is like a weasel" (from Shakespeares Hamlet) can arise from random shifting of a jumble of letters and spaces. This computer simulation is ...
Computer simulations are an increasingly necessary tool in production processes, both in public and private organizations and companies, in science, and in engineering. The objective of HPCNow!s constitution is accompanying the client through the process of selection and implementation of the infrastructure that better meets its computing needs. The HPC tools implemented by HPCNow! facilitate the computing machines management, obtaining the maximum possible performance and guaranteeing data security.. HPCNow! offers turnkey HPC solutions consisting of an optimal combination of hardware and software that allows users to use it as a single tool that would enhance their day-to-day work.. We design, provide, install, and maintain all necessary hardware and software to always have a computing cluster ready. We propose solutions as (without excluding custom tailored designs):. ...
Computer modeling of rock flow in ore passes is being investigated and compared using MSC Soft-wares Working Model 2D1 (WM2D) and Itasca Corp.s Particle Flow Code in Two Dimensions (PFC2D). This work is being carried out by the Spokane Research Laboratory of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to determine the usefulness of computer modeling to improve ore pass design. The types of tests included pendulum tests to validate WM2D simulations and simulated single-rock drop tests in both WM2D and PFC2D to understand their contact models. Simulated rock impacts at the ore pass chute and the use of inclined ore passes and doglegs were investigated in both programs. A PFC2D simulation showed that dynamic loads at the chute gate were reduced significantly when a dogleg transition was used, and simulations in which the ore pass was inclined showed significant reductions in chute impact loads compared to simulations of a vertical ore pass. A released hang-up was simulated using ...
Author: Joshi, H. et al.; Genre: Conference Paper; Published in Print: 2005-01; Title: Computer simulations of processive enzymes - A molecular dynamics study
Physicists say they may have evidence that the universe is a computer simulation. How? They made a computer simulation of the universe. And it looks sort of like us. A long-proposed thought experiment...
Three examples of genetics and evolution simulation concerning Mendelian inheritance, genetic mapping, and natural selection are used to illustrate the use of simulations in modeling scientific/natural processes. First described is the HERED series, which illustrates such phenomena as incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, lethal alleles, linkage, sex-linkage, complementary genes, and epistasis, and simulates the hereditary mechanisms in particular species. A sample printout is used to explain the series. The second simulation discussed is LINKOVER, which involves genetic mapping and retains the essence of planning and performing crosses with living organisms while greatly speeding up the technique. The last simulation described is SELECT, a population genetics program based on simple colored bead models of natural selection in a one locus/two allele situation. It is concluded that, although some problems exist in using such computer simulations in genetics and evolution
Do you have a compelling story? Want to share a new technique or skill? Are you an individual passionate about Computer Simulation and Gaming? The Computer Simulation & Gaming Conference is now accepting speaker proposals.
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A new method for optimal control design of distributed parameter systems is presented in this paper. The concept of proper orthogonal decomposition is used for the model reduction of distributed parameter systems to form a reduced order lumped parameter problem. The optimal control problem is then solved in the time domain, in a state feedback sense, following the philosophy of adaptive critic neural networks. The control solution is then mapped back to the spatial domain using the same basis functions. Numerical simulation results are presented for a linear and nonlinear one-dimensional heat equation problem in an infinite time regulator framework.
From flocking birds, to organ generation, to swarming bacterial colonies, biological systems often exhibit collective behaviors. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of collective dynamics in cell populations. We argue that understanding population-level oscillations requires examining the system under consideration at three different levels of complexity: at the level of isolated cells, homogenous populations, and spatially structured populations. We discuss the experimental and theoretical challenges this poses and highlight how new experimental techniques, when combined with conceptual tools adapted from physics, may help us overcome these challenges. ...
The object-oriented design of GENESIS and its scripting language are among the greatest strengths of the simulator. The ease with which existing simulations can be modified for new purposes also extends to the graphical user interface (GUI) for a GENESIS simulation as well. A GENESIS GUI is implemented with XODUS, the X-windows Output and Display Utility for Simulations. This provides a higher level and user-friendly means for developing simulations and monitoring their execution. XODUS consists of a set of graphical objects that are the same as the computational modules from the users point of view, except that they perform graphical functions. As with the computational modules, XODUS modules can be set up in any manner that the user chooses to display or enter data. Furthermore, the graphical modules can call functions from the script language, so the full power of the SLI is available through the graphical interface. This makes it possible to interactively change simulation parameters in ...
In identifying the location of tumors in the liver, eddy current characteristics analysis can be applied since the conductivity value of normal tissue and tissue with tumors are different, which are 2.88 mS/cm and 5.33 mS/cm, respectively at 1 MHz. In this letter, simulation based on small scale magnetic induction system was carried out. The system consists of a 10 cm diameter sensor jig and a cone type screen excitation coil as the primary field source. Simulation results showed that eddy current analysis is capable of identifying location and size of tumors in a liver tissue phantom. This result may have an impact in Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT) research since MIT imaging modality is based on electrical conductivity property of the material of ...
Free outflow boundary conditions have been widely adopted in hemodynamic model studies, they, however, intrinsically lack the ability to account for the regulatory mechanisms of systemic hemodynamics and hence carry a risk of producing incorrect results when applied to vascular segments with multiple outlets. In the present study, we developed a multiscale model capable of incorporating global cardiovascular properties into the simulation of blood flows in local vascular segments. The multiscale model was constructed by coupling a three-dimensional (3D) model of local arterial segments with a zero-one-dimensional (0-1-D) model of the cardiovascular system. Numerical validation based on an idealized model demonstrated the ability of the multiscale model to preserve reasonable pressure/flow wave transmission among different models. The multiscale model was further calibrated with clinical data to simulate cerebroarterial hemodynamics in a patient undergoing carotid artery operation. The results ...
Computer simulation and modeling have become powerful tools for understanding the structure and properties of a broad range of materials. Simulations, both atomistic and continuum, are playing an increasingly prominent role in materials science, chemistry, engineering, molecular biology, and nanotechnology. Beyond the relatively conventional studies of point and planar defects or simply providing more detailed and better understanding of experimental data, modern computational chemistry provides tools for studying complex processes involving fracture, fatigue, machining and for examining and extending analytic theories. In this poster we present an overview of a number of novel computational techniques that can be used to examine the structure and properties of materials (ranging from small molecules to polymers) and demonstrate their application to molecular nanotechnology: dynamics of nano-structured materials, nano- fluidics, nano-tribology, control dynamics of nano-sized objects, and ...
This study outlines the design, implementation, and testing of the General Control Model as applied to the Future Theater-Level Model (FTLM) for the control of Joint and Allied Forces for all operational sides. The study develops a notion of battlefield control and describes the characteristics necessary to represent this notion of control in a computer simulation. Central to the implementation of the General Control Model is the robust capability for the user-analyst to describe any control relationship of research interest and to do so without having to alter the programming code. The user-analyst is provided the capability to determine the cause and effect relationship of different control representations in a simulation. A full description of the model is complimented by an explanation of the implementation to facilitate the use of the General Control Model. A discussion of the initial test results leads to a more rigorous test which confirms the intended behavior of the General Control ...
Alamethicin is an antimicrobial peptide that forms stable channels with well-defined conductance levels. We have used extended molecular dynamics simulations of alamethicin bundles consisting of 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 helices in a palmitoyl-oleolyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer to evaluate and analyze channel models and to link the models to the experimentally measured conductance levels. Our results suggest that four helices do not form a stable water-filled channel and might not even form a stable intermediate. The lowest measurable conductance level is likely to correspond to the pentamer. At higher aggregation numbers the bundles become less symmetrical. Water properties inside the different-sized bundles are similar. The hexamer is the most stable model with a stability comparable with simulations based on crystal structures. The simulation was extended from 4 to 20 ns or several times the mean passage time of an ion. Essential dynamics analyses were used to test the hypothesis that correlated motions of
The capacity of pluripotent embryonic stem cells to differentiate into any cell type in the body makes them invaluable in the field of regenerative medicine. However, because of the complexity of both the core pluripotency network and the process of cell fate computation it is not yet possible to control the fate of stem cells. We present a theoretical model of stem cell fate computation that is based on Halley and Winklers Branching Process Theory (BPT) and on Greaves et al.s agent-based computer simulation derived from that theoretical model. BPT abstracts the complex production and action of a Transcription Factor (TF) into a single critical branching process that may dissipate, maintain, or become supercritical. Here we take the single TF model and extend it to multiple interacting TFs, and build an agent-based simulation of multiple TFs to investigate the dynamics of such coupled systems. We have developed the simulation and the theoretical model together, in an iterative manner, with the ...
3 Different modeling approaches Available approaches for modeling antibiotic resistance selection in a population: In large communities (e.g. country): - Compartmental deterministic models  Good prediction of the average behavior In smaller settings (e.g. schools, hospitals): - Compartmental stochastic models  Information on the variability of processes - Agent-based models  Data on the individual level
Autonomie is a most powerful and robust system simulation tool for vehicle energy consumption and performance analysis. Developed in collaboration with General Motors, Autonomie is a MATLAB©-based software environment and framework for automotive control-system design, simulation, and analysis. Its application covers energy consumption, performance analysis throughout the entire vehicle development process (such as model-in-the-loop, hardware-in-the-loop, and software-in-the-loop) by leveraging its Plug-and-Play Powertrain and Vehicle Model Architecture and Development Environment.. ...
Even though digital simulation technology has been widely used in the last two decades, hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation is still an indispensable method for spectral uncertainty research of ground targets. However, previous facilities mainly focus on the simulation of panchromatic imaging. Therefore, neither the spectral nor the spatial performance is enough for hyperspectral simulation. To improve the accuracy of illumination simulation, a new dome-like skylight simulator is designed and developed to fit the spatial distribution and spectral characteristics of a real skylight for the wavelength from 350 nm to 2500 nm. The simulators performance was tested using a spectroradiometer with different accessories. The spatial uniformity is greater than 0.91. The spectral mismatch decreases to 1/243 of the spectral mismatch of the Imagery Simulation Facility (ISF). The spatial distribution of radiance can be adjusted, and the accuracy of the adjustment is greater than 0.895. The ability of the
Simulations can be a valuable part of the chemistry curriculum. Unfortunately, discussions of chemical simulations often become tightly focused on the possibility that simulations will be used as subsitutes for traditional laboratory experiences. For many types of simulations, this discussion is extraneous. This paper will focus on the various types of simulations and the reasons why simulations should be included in the undergraduate curriculum in order to prepare well-educated chemists. It will also attempt to deal with the real issues raised when considering the use of simulations for laboratory.. ...
Fire plumes. Computer simulation of large fire plumes. The simulation reveals turbulence and the unstable nature of fire plumes. The instability causes unsteady heat transfer and makes it hard to predict the outcome of large fires. Computer models such as this help researchers understand the nature of fire. Image created in 2007 at the University of Buffalo, USA. - Stock Image H150/0173
Computer simulations are an attractive means by which to probe the self-assembly and molecular level organization of lipids in biological membranes. In this work, we study a simple skin lipid system to demonstrate the ability of the coarse-grained models used for fatty acids, cholesterol, and water to self-a
The paper presents simulation studies targeting high-power narrow-linewidth emission from semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers. The studies contain analytic and numerical calculations of emission linewidth, side mode suppression ratio and output power for DFB lasers without phase shifts and with 1 × λ/ 4 and 2 × λ/ 8 phase shifts, taking into account the grating and facets reflectivities, the randomness of the spontaneous emission and the longitudinal photon and carrier density distributions in the laser cavity. Single device structural parameter optimization is generally associated with a trade-off between achieving a narrow linewidth and a high output power. Correlated optimization of multiple structural parameters enables the evaluation of achievable ranges of narrow linewidth and high power combinations. Devices with long cavities and low grating coupling coefficients, κ (keeping κL values below the levels that promote re-broadening), with AR-coated facets and with a ...
Computational simulation of SAMTA7 (A) and the SAMTA7-paclitaxel complex (B). The initial system containing SAMTA7 peptides was constructed using the Molecular
Aras is pleased to be a sponsor of the Revolution in Simulation community," said Aras SVP of Strategy, Marc Lind. "With our recent acquisition of Comet Solutions and its unique simulation automation platform, Aras has committed to adding effective and seamless Simulation Process and Data Management (SPDM) to its open and extensible PLM platform, Innovator. This brings the full power of simulation and simulation data to everyone on the Aras Platform, across the enterprise. The revolution in simulation is here and we are a part of it!" ...
Here we learn that replica exchange (RE) is one of the most popular enhanced-sampling simulations technique in use today. Despite widespread successes, RE simulations can sometimes fail to converge in practical amounts of time, e.g., when sampling around phase transitions, or when a few hard-to-find configurations dominate the statistical averages. We introduce a generalized RE scheme, density-of-states-informed RE, that addresses some of these challenges. The key feature of our approach is to inform the simulation with readily available, but commonly unused, information on the density of states of the system as the RE simulation proceeds. This enables two improvements, namely, the introduction of resampling moves that actively move the system towards equilibrium and the continual adaptation of the optimal temperature set. As a consequence of these two innovations, we show that the configuration flow in temperature space is optimized and that the overall convergence of RE simulations can be ...
Engineering Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Develop "Phantoms" To Make Medical Imaging Safer for Overweight Individuals. Most medical imaging equipment is not designed with overweight and obese patients in mind. As a result, these individuals can be exposed to higher levels of radiation during routine X-ray and CT scans.. A new study from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is the first to calculate exactly how much additional radiation obese patients receive from a CT scan. Research results show the internal organs of obese men receive 62 percent more radiation during a CT scan than those of normal weight men. For obese women, it was an increase of 59 percent.. New technology developed at Rensselaer by nuclear engineering expert X. George Xu could help solve this problem. Xu´s research team created ultra-realistic 3-D computer models of overweight and obese men and women, and used computer simulations to determine how X-rays interact with the different body types. These models, ...
apreduce for Bayesian Network Parameter Learning using the E Algorithm Aniruddha Basak Carnegie ellon University Silicon Valley Campus NASA Research Park, offett Field, CA Irina Brinster
Our life is much like a computer simulation, you know? A simulation run on four basic principles - life, death, survival and procreation.
Diffusion of macromolecules and larger entities is the result of a rapid number of collisions with solvent molecules. Often, the detailed information about the solvent molecules is not known, and the macromolecule (particle) appears to move stochastically. The motion of an individual particle can be simulated in two different ways [1]: those in which trajectories are defined on continuous domains and those in which trajectories are defined by a random walk on a lattice. Stochastic simulation of individual particles is appropriate on timescales that are much larger than the time between solvent molecule collisions and, in such circumstances, the particle trajectories may resemble a Wiener process (Brownian motion). Coarse-graining the continuous domain into a lattice of compartments, between which particles undergo a random walk, is a simplification that may be appropriate if the lattice spacing is not too large as to impair good spatial resolution. Both off-lattice [1-3] and on-lattice [4-9] ...
File characteristics: Data file and software (10 files). Physical description: 1 computer diskette; 3 1/2 in.; low density; 360K. System requirements: IBM-PC compatible; IBM-DOS; Meridian Ada Version 4.1.1. A nucleus of routines, along with documentation, for use in Software engineering courses or courses in discrete-event system simulation. Disk includes all ADA routines used, a compiled version of the system, and a template system to create data files for use by SIMPACK.*MAGNETIC DISKS
Ready to run Launcher package containing examples for An Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods by Harvey Gould, Jan Tobochnik, and Wolfgang Christian. Source code for examples in this textbook is distributed in the Open Source Physics Eclipse Workspace.. ...
Human Motion Analysis and Simulation Tools: A Survey: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8823-0.ch012: Computational systems to identify objects represented in image sequences and tracking their motion in a fully automatic manner, enabling a detailed analysis
TY - CHAP. T1 - Computer simulation: dynamical systems and multiscale modeling. AU - Hansen,Per Christian. AU - Hesthaven,Jan. AU - Juul Rasmussen,Jens. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. KW - Fusion energy. KW - Fusionsenergiforskning. KW - Fusionsenergi. M3 - Book chapter. SN - 978-87-985544-4-8. SP - 94. EP - 105. BT - Engineering challenges. PB - Technical University of Denmark (DTU). ER - ...
View Notes - BME210 MeasuringCO - Copy from BME 210 at USC. BME 210 Biomedical Computer Simulation Methods Measuring Cardiac Output I II. Introduction Cardiovascular System A. Function B. Structures
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Synapse assesses the costs, impacts, and technical issues associated with proposed transmission solutions and non-transmission alternatives. As part of this work, we frequently use computer simulation models to analyze market power and reliability impacts, quantify costs and benefits, and investigate power flow.At the distribution level, Synapse evaluates distribution system
Racing teams use numerous computational tools (CAD, FEA, CFD) to aid in the design of racing cars and the development of their performance. Computer simulation of racing car handling through Lap Time Simulation (LTS) packages complements these tools. It also allows teams to examine the effect of different vehicle parameter setups to optimise vehicle performance. In similarity with the automotive industry, time is limited and rapid development of new ideas and technology is essential. Thus, the use of a more sophisticated computer simulation would allow a team to gain a significant advantage over their competitors. As LTS are computationally intensive,previous packages have simulateda full lap using a quasi-static method which splits the path of the vehicle into segments. An analysis is then made of the vehicle at each segment point using the external forces acting on the vehicle. Due to the constant acceleration(i.e. steady state) assumption across each segment, this method does not take into ...
a. From the perspective of simulation an Introduction to the problem which includes aims, objectives, assumptions, key performance indicators and any other relevant information you deem appropriate. b. A table showing entities, state variables, and events. c. An appropriate flowchart with detailed explanations. d. An explanation of which data collection method(s) would be appropriate to capture the required information for modelling this problem. e. A developed simulation model (make any assumptions where appropriate) for one hundred customers to imitate the above system ("As-Is" situation). Five simulation runs are required. f. At least two experiments (What if scenarios) to: ...