Summary: Compressive fatigue properties of whole vertebrae, which may be clinically relevant for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, were determined in untreated, intact rats and zoledronic-acid-treated, ovariectomized rats. Typical fatigue behavior was found and was similar to that seen in other species. Fatigue properties were comparable between both groups. Introduction: Osteoporosis is often treated with bisphosphonates, which reduce fracture risk. Effects of bisphosphonates on fatigue strength, which may be clinically relevant for vertebral fractures, are unknown. We determined vertebral, compressive fatigue properties in normal and zoledronic acid (ZOL)-treated, OVX rats. Methods: Thirty-five-week old Wistar rats were divided into SHAM-OVX (n = 7) and OVX with ZOL treatment (n = 5; single injection, 20 μg/kg b.w. s.c.). After 16 weeks, vertebral trabecular microarchitecture and cortical thickness were determined using micro-CT. Vertebrae were cyclically compressed in load-control at 2 Hz ...
The efficacy of the biphasic poroviscoelastic (BPVE) theory [1] in constitutive modeling of articular cartilage biomechanics is well-established [2-4]. Indeed, this model has been used to simultaneously predict stress relaxation force across confined compression, unconfined compression, and indentation protocols [2,3]. Previous works have also demonstrated success in simultaneously curve-fitting the BPVE model to reaction force and lateral deformation data gathered from stress relaxation tests of articular cartilage in unconfined compression [4]. However, a potential limitation of practical applications of such a successful model is seen in some commonly-employed mechanical testing methods for articular cartilage, such as confined compression and unconfined compression. These methods require the excision of a disk of cartilage from its underlying subchondral base, which likely would compromise the structural integrity of the tissue, causing swelling and curling artifacts of the sample [5]. ...
Regression analysis models are adopted by using SPSS program to predict the 28-day compressive strength as dependent variable and the accelerated compressive strength as independent variable. Three accelerated curing method was adopted, warm water (35ºC) and autogenous according to ASTM C C684-99 and the British method (55ºC) according to BS1881: Part 112:1983. The experimental concrete mix design was according to ACI 211.1. Twenty eight concrete mixes with slump rang (25-50) mm and (75-100)mm for rounded and crushed coarse aggregate with cement content (585, 512, 455, 410, 372 and 341)Kg/m3.. The experimental results showed that the accelerated strength were equal to about (0.356), (0.492) and (0.595) of the 28-day compressive strength for warm water, autogenous and British curing methods respectively. A statistical regression analysis using SPSS program is implemented for the experimental results of the 28-day compressive strength ranging from (16 to 55.2)Mpa and accelerated strength for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Locally measured microstructural parameters are better associated with vertebral strength than whole bone density. AU - Hazrati Marangalou, J.. AU - Eckstein, F.. AU - Kuhn, V.. AU - Ito, K.. AU - Cataldi, M.. AU - Taddei, F.. AU - Van Rietbergen, B.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Summary: Whole vertebrae areal and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) measurements are not ideal predictors of vertebral fractures. We introduce a technique which enables quantification of bone microstructural parameters at precisely defined anatomical locations. Results show that local assessment of bone volume fraction at the optimal location can substantially improve the prediction of vertebral strength. Introduction: Whole vertebrae areal and volumetric BMD measurements are not ideal predictors of vertebral osteoporotic fractures. Recent studies have shown that sampling bone microstructural parameters in smaller regions may permit better predictions. In such studies, however, the sampling location ...
The fundamental mechanisms behind the generation of compressive stresses in polycrystalline thin films, the effects of pulsed deposition fluxes on the dynamics of the early growth stages as well as the generation of energetic Ar+ ions in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges has been studied in this thesis.. It was found that compressive film stresses in Mo films deposited using energetic vapor fluxes are correlated with high film densities while only a slight lattice expansion compared to relaxed Mo was found. This implies that the stress is caused by grain boundary densification and not defect creation in the grain bulk. The compressive stress magnitude should scale with the grain boundary length per unit area, or the inverse grain size, if the stress originates in the grain boundaries. This was found to be the case for dense Mo films confirming that the observed compressive stresses originate in the grain boundaries. Similarly to what has been suggested for conditions ...
Description: The mechanical properties of the polymer-modified mortar are markedly improved over conventional cement mortar. We utilized recycled ABS in powder form and a polymer latex emulsion, polymer percentage ranges from 0 to 25 percent by polymer/cement ratio were investigated. The mechanical properties investigated were compression strength and adhesion strength. Compression strength effects did not have an impact on adhesion strength. Adhesion strength was calculated with pullout testing apparatus designed by the author. Results indicate that recycled ABS had a lower adhesive strength than the acrylic latex emulsion and the base mortar, but did increase in adhesive strength when mixed with maleic-anhydride. The adhesive strength was investigated for a Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) made of an E glass fiber that is a continuous strand roving oriented and pre-tensioned longitudinally in an isopthalic polyester matrix material. The FRP rebar was compared to standard steel rebars, and ...
We have investigated the relationships between trabecular bone compressive strength and elastic modulus and the directly measured apparent density and noninvasively measured CT equivalent mineral density for 49 cylindrical specimens harvested from fresh human proximal femora. Compressive strength demonstrated a high positive correlation with both densities, being proportional to the apparent density raised to the 1.8 power (R² = 0.93) and equivalent mineral density to the 1.5 power (R² = 0.89). Similarly, the compressive modulus demonstrated a high correlation with both density measures, being proportional to the apparent density raised to the 1.4 power (R² = 0.91) and CT equivalent mineral density to the 1.2 power (R² = 0.90). Though variations in architecture and bone marrow fat were observed to influence trabecular properties, the data presented here demonstrate that apparent density, compressive strength, and elastic modulus can be determined accurately using single energy quantitative ...
To assess the influence of the surface zone on the viscoelastic properties of cartilage under compressive loading, the authors prepared osteochondral plugs from skeletally mature steers, with and without the surface zone of articular cartilage, for study in the confined compression creep experiment. The relative contributions of two viscoelastic mechanisms, i.e. a flow-independent mechanism (Hayes and Bodine, ibid., vol.11, p407-19, 1978), and a flow-dependent mechanism (Mow et al., J. Biomech. Engng. ibid., vol.102, p.73-84, 1980), to the compressive creep response of these two types of specimens were determined using the biphasic poroviscoelastic theory proposed by (Mak., ibid., vol.20, p.703-14, 1986). From the experimental results and the biphasic poroviscoelastic theory, the authors found that frictional drag associated with interstitial fluid flow and fluid pressurization are the dominant mechanisms of load support in the intact specimens, i.e. the flow-dependent mechanisms alone with ...
Study of more than 130,000 mammograms shows optimal compression pressure may improve recall rates, false positives and interval cancer rates
Several studies have established that strength development in concrete is not only determined by the water/binder ratio, but it is also affected by the presence of other ingredients. With the increase in the number of concrete ingredients from the conventional four materials by addition of various types of admixtures (agricultural wastes, chemical, mineral and biological) to achieve a desired property, modelling its behavior has become more complex and challenging. Presented in this work is the possibility of adopting the Gene Expression Programming (GEP) algorithm to predict the compressive strength of concrete admixed with Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs). A set of data with satisfactory experimental results were obtained from literatures for the study. Result from the GEP algorithm was compared with that from stepwise regression analysis in order to appreciate the accuracy of GEP algorithm as compared to other data analysis program. With R
Low density foams from polyethylene blends having substantially closed cell structure and improved compressive strength are prepared using gel-forming extrusion technology. The polyethylene blend comprises from about 35 to about 60 weight percent of low density branched polyethylene in admixture with from about 40 to about 65 weight percent of intermediate density linear polyethylene. An exemplary blowing agent is 1,2-dichlorotetrafluoroethane, there being up to about 0.12 gram-mole of such blowing agent per 100 grams of resin blend in the flowable gel.
Compression Test, METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST Tension Test and Lateral Test According to the American Standards ASTM D , ASTM D , ASTM D and Euro Codes EC7 Table of Contents
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Flatwise compressive strength and modulus are fundamental mechanical properties of sandwich cores that are used in designing sandwich ...
Compressive Strength Of Rocks Petrowiki. Estimating compressive strength general rock failure criterion can be reduced to a few parameters dependent on lithology m and the uniaxial compressive strength c 0lithology is commonly derived during log analysis so m may be estimated table 1what is needed still is an initial measure of rock strength provided by c 0 c 0 can be estimated from porosity or sonic velocities but many. Details ...
Because any density gradients caused by the compression are longitudinal rather than radial they will not affect the flow profile along the bed. Thus, the bands remain undistorted and very high efficiencies can be obtained with this technology. In addition, there is no restriction on column diameter, and HPLC columns of this type with diameters as large as 80 cm have been made. A diagram of the axial compression packing system is shown in figure 18.. The apparatus consists of a column (capped at the top with a stainless steel frit) having a precisely controlled internal diameter and finish. The column contains a close fitting piston. The piston, which is mounted on a constant-pressure hydraulic jack, can be moved throughout the entire length of the column. It contains a porous frit at the top and a channel for passage for the mobile phase through its center. The channel is connected to the detector and thence to the fraction collector. To pack the column, the piston is withdrawn to bottom of the ...
Analysis of low moisture solid matrix samples by thermally extracting the volatile and semi-volatile organics directly from the solid matrix without the use of solvents or other sample preparation.
Analysis of low moisture solid matrix samples by thermally extracting the volatile and semi-volatile organics directly from the solid matrix without the use of solvents or other sample preparation.
Estimating compressive strength General rock failure criterion can be reduced to a few parameters dependent on lithology (m) and the uniaxial compressive strength (C 0)Lithology is commonly derived during log analysis, so m may be estimated (Table 1)What is needed still is an initial measure of rock strength provided by C 0 C 0 can be estimated from porosity or sonic velocities, but many ..... Know More ...
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根据海洋环境下抢修抢建的特殊性,利用海水与海砂制备海工磷酸镁水泥砂浆。通过测试其各龄期抗压强度,获得满足抢修抢建基本性能要求的最佳配合比,在此基础上,对海工磷酸镁混凝土、钢纤维增强海工磷酸镁水泥胶砂、海工磷酸镁水泥胶砂在海洋中的水上及水下两种不同环境的长期强度性能进行了初步研究。结果表明,三种海工磷酸盐水泥基材料在水上和水下的早期强度均能满足海洋环境下抢修抢建需要,但长期的强度变化规律不明显,需要进一步研究拌合海水对材料水化硬化作用以及侵蚀作用的影响。 According to the particularity of emergency repair and build under marine environment, marine engineering Magnesium-phosphate Cements were made with seawater and sea sand; the best mixture ratio was obtained which meets the requirement of emergency repair and build by testing compressive strength of each age. Based on previous
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62 SDU International Technologic Science Vol. 5, No 1, June 2013 pp Constructional Technologies SİLİS DUMANI KATKILI KERPİÇLERİN BASINÇ DAYANIMININ…
This test method provides a means of verifying that masonry materials used in construction result in masonry that meets the specified ...
Hi Im installing new plugs (NGK 5542/PFR6T-10G) in my 06 9-3SS 2.0T after doing a compression test. The compression test page in the WIS says to fit the...
To investigate the mechanical properties of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Beads Stabilized Lightweight Soil (EBSLS), Laboratory studies were conducted. Totally 20 sets of specimens according to the complete test design were prepared and tested with unconfined compressive test and consolidated drained triaxial test. Results showed that dry density of EBSLS (0.67-1.62 g/cm3) decreases dramatically with the increase of EPS beads volumetric content, while increase slightly with the increase of cement content. Unconfined compressive strength (10-2580 kPa) increases dramatically in parabolic relationship with the increase of cement content, while decreases with the increase of EPS beads volumetric content in hyperbolic relationship. Cohesion (31.1-257.5 kPa) increases with the increase of cement content because it is mainly caused by the bonding function of hydration products of cement. The more EPS beads volumetric content is, the less dramatically the increase is, which is a result of the cohesion ...
And I thought we were going to have a reprisal of Abe Vigodas role on Barney Miller... cheers, SfM On Tue, May 18, 2010 at 4:36 PM, Ryan M. Ward ,silvercro_magnon at hotmail.com,wrote: , , Hey, I never met a French fish I didnt like. , , -- , Ryan M. Ward , , *Note: This email was sent from a computer running Ubuntu Linux 9.10 , (Karmic Koala) , http://www.ubuntu.com , , **Note: This signature was placed here by me and is not , automatically-generated-annoying-end-of-email-spam placed here by anyone , other than myself. I am a Linux nut and am doing my part to support open , source software and the Linux and Ubuntu communities by getting the word out , with each email I send, I encourage you to do the same. , , , , , , Date: Tue, 18 May 2010 09:30:03 -0700 , , To: homeroast at lists.sweetmariascoffee.com , , From: sweetmarias at sweetmarias.com , , Subject: Re: [Homeroast] Poissons ratio WAS: Re: Compak vs Macap vs , Rocky Grinders , , , , Doesnt this mean Fishs Law? , , , , Are we gonna ...
When a stiff film is bonded to a compliant layer and meanwhile encapsulated by another compliant layer on top, the film may form wrinkles under applied compressive stress. Inspired by the recent development of foldable circuit sealed in an encapsulating layer to improve bendability, unlike the wide study of surface wrinkling in a bilayer system, this paper presents a study of possible sinusoidal interfacial wrinkling in such sandwich system. The film is assumed to be anisotropic with arbitrary orientation of elastic axis while both layers are isotropic. A linear perturbation analysis is performed to predict critical membrane stress, wave number and equilibrium amplitude for the onset of interfacial wrinkles. The effect of parameters such as elastic axis orientation of the film and moduli, thicknesses, and Poissons ratios of the layers on the wrinkling is evaluated in detail. The results show that compared to two compliant layers, the stiffer and thinner the film is, the smaller the values of ...
The strength homogenization of cohesive-frictional solids influenced by the presence of two pressurized pore spaces of different characteristic sizes is addressed in this study. A two-scale homogenization model is developed based on limit analysis and the second-order method (SOM) in linear comparison composite theory, which resolves the nonlinear strength behavior through the use of linear comparison composites with optimally chosen properties. For the scale of the classical configuration of a porous solid, the formulation employs a compressible thermoelastic comparison composite to deliver closed-form expressions of strength criteria. Comparisons with numerical results reveal that the proposed homogenization estimates for drained conditions are adequate except for high triaxialities in the mean compressive strength regime. At the macroscopic scale of the double-porosity material, the SOM results are in agreement with strength criteria predicted by alternative micromechanics solutions for ...
mediven thrombexin 21 has a compression pressure of 21 mmHg in the ankle area, which decreases continuously towards the thigh. It was specially developed for individuals who already have damaged veins.
Relative Backbone is a actual accepted drive oscillator developed by Welles Wilder and activated by forex traders. RSI compares advancement and bottomward movements in closing price. The RSI uses a ...
Promotions. Hz and other phenomena. Augmentation of bone healing by specific frequency and amplitude compressive strains. Brain Wave Basics - What You Need to
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A method to evaluate molecular weight distribution (MWD) from dynamic moduli is presented here. It relies on the least-square fitting of the dynamic data to a model whose parameters depend on the...
In combination with two skins applied on the honeycomb, the structure offers a sandwich panel with excellent rigidity at minimal weight. The behavior of the honeycomb structures is orthotropic, meaning the panels react differently depending on the orientation of the structure. It is therefore necessary to distinguish between the directions of symmetry, the so-called L and W-direction. The L-direction is the strongest and the stiffest direction. The weakest direction is at 60° from the L-direction (in the case of a regular hexagon) and the most compliant direction is the W-direction.[1] Another important property of honeycomb sandwich core is its compression strength. Due to the efficient hexagonal configuration, where walls support each other, compression strength of honeycomb cores is typically higher (at same weight) compared to other sandwich core structures such as, for instance, foam cores or corrugated cores. The mechanical properties of honeycombs depend on its cell geometry, the ...
0026] Once the solid matrix 108 has been flushed, the excess antioxidant solution that is not bound by the silica gel may be rinsed off in order to minimize the precipitation of excess antioxidant solution during the drying step. According to one embodiment, the porous solid matrix 108 is vacuum dried until the moisture content is reduced to approximately 30%. In alternate embodiments, the solid matrix 108 may be dried to have any moisture content ranging from approximately 1% to approximately 99%. During the drying process, precautions need to be taken to ensure that oxygen is excluded. The dried, solid matrix 108 is assembled into the body 102 and flushed with inert gas before and during the sealing process. According to one embodiment, the cartridges 100 are stored in oxygen and gas-tight containers. Oxygen is excluded from the manufacturing process and during storage in order to prevent the ascorbic acid (or other antioxidants) from slowly oxidizing to dehydro-ascorbic acid and other ...
Occasionally, in complex inherent characteristics of certain rocks, especially anisotropic rocks it may be difficult to measure the uniaxial compressive strength UCS. However, the use of empirical relationships to evaluate the UCS of rock can be more practical and economical. Consequently, this study carried out to predict UCS from microfabrics properties of banded amphibolite rocks using multiple regression analysis. Based on statistical results, rock microfabric parameters, which adequately represent the UCS of a given rock type have been selected. The results show that grain size, shape factor and quartz content have high significant correlation with UCS at 95% confidence level. From multiple regression model, approximately 84% of the variance of the UCS can be estimated by the linear combination of these three parameters. However, according to model performance criteria: correlation coefficient (R = 0.919), variance account for (VAF = 97%) and root mean square error (RMSE = 4.16) the
Swedish University dissertations (essays) about COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tension-compression loading with chemical stimulation results in additive increases to functional properties of anatomic meniscal constructs. AU - Huey, Daniel J.. AU - Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.. PY - 2011/11/16. Y1 - 2011/11/16. N2 - Objective: This study aimed to improve the functional properties of anatomically-shaped meniscus constructs through simultaneous tension and compression mechanical stimulation in conjunction with chemical stimulation. Methods: Scaffoldless meniscal constructs were subjected to simultaneous tension and compressive stimulation and chemical stimulation. The temporal aspect of mechanical loadingwas studied by employing two separate five day stimulation periods. Chemical stimulation consisted of the application of a catabolic GAG-depleting enzyme, chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC), and an anabolic growth factor, TGF-β1. Mechanical and chemical stimulation combinations were studied through a full-factorial experimental design and assessed for histological, ...
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The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concretes were examined in the laboratory. The freshly mixed concrete mixes were tested for slump, slump flow, and V-funnel flow. The hardened concretes were tested for compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity after exposing to 20, 35 and 50 °C. In addition, the initial surface absorption and the rate of moisture movement into the concretes were determined at 20 °C. The performance of the concretes in the fresh state was excellent due to their superior deformability and good segregation resistance. In
The compressive strength of plain or conventional concrete is high, but plain concrete possesses a very low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. New generations of concrete such as high strength concrete and ultrahigh strength concrete have been successfully developed. Although these new generation concrete have extremely high compressive strength, their tensile strength, ductility and resistance to drying shrinkage cracking have not been significantly improved which limits their use for structural applications. All current methods to improve the ductility and tensile strength of concrete members such as the addition of discontinuous discrete fibers to concrete during mixing, the use of reinforcement steel bars and restraining techniques are not cost effective. Established literatures show that Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) exhibits ductile behavior under uniaxial tension load. ECC has been repeatedly reported by different researchers to be ...
A spoolable composite member having a sensor and an energy conductor embedded in the composite member. The spoolable composite member is capable of being spooled onto a reel for storage and for use in oil field applications. The spoolable tube exhibits unique anistropic characteristics that provide improved burst and collapse pressures, increased tensile strength, compression strength, and load carrying capacity, while still remaining sufficiently bendable to be spooled onto a reel in an open bore configuration. The spoolable composite tube can include an inner protective layer, an inner pressure barrier layer, an interface layer, fiber composite layers, an outer pressure barrier layer, and an outer protective layer.
Time course of the aggregate modulus (P | 0.01) (a) in collagenase-digested articular cartilage. The relationship between the maximum magnitude and the aggre
Microindentation as a method for determining important material properties of paper coating materials is studied experimentally and numerically. The bulk of the investigation is concentrated upon the short-lived elastic part of a spherical indentation test, but determination of the failure stress of the coating is also discussed. The results indicate that microindentation can be a powerful tool for material characterization of these materials, but only if careful efforts are made to account for the influence from plasticity as well as from boundary effects. ...
The primary species of precipitation strengthening are second phase particles. These particles impede the movement of dislocations throughout the lattice. You can determine whether or not second phase particles will precipitate into solution from the solidus line on the phase diagram for the particles. Physically, this strengthening effect can be attributed both to size and modulus effects, and to interfacial or surface energy.[2][3] The presence of second phase particles often causes lattice distortions. These lattice distortions result when the precipitate particles differ in size and crystallographic structure from the host atoms. Smaller precipitate particles in a host lattice leads to a tensile stress, whereas larger precipitate particles leads to a compressive stress. Dislocation defects also create a stress field. Above the dislocation there is a compressive stress and below there is a tensile stress. Consequently, there is a negative interaction energy between a dislocation and a ...
An 8-by-8-by-16-inch concrete block weighs about 28 pounds. These blocks are used for a variety of different projects because they have a high compression strength of 1,800 pounds per square inch....
An artificial hip joint of the type wherein a metal stem is fitted into the tapered hall of a ceramic stem head via a tapered cone in the stem, the hip joint being characterized in that the tapered stem engages the tapered hall in the deeper portion of the tapered hall, whereby the compression strength (fracture load) of the stem head is improved. Deep engagement of the tapered stem within the tapered hall is accomplished by, for example, making the angle of the taper of the tapered cone slightly smaller than that of the tapered stem. Preferably, the angle of taper of the tapered cone is smaller than that of the tapered hall by about 40 minutes or less. In addition, the diameter at the base of the hall is enlarged to form a cavity.
In this paper we present a model of growth for cartilaginous tissues in which there exists a saturated solid matrix composed of multiple constituents that may grow and remodel independently of each other. Klisch and Hoger recently developed a general theory of volumetric growth for a mixture of ν-1 growing elastic materials and an inviscid fluid, which included a treatment of two special types of internal constraints that are relevant to cartilage. Here, that theory is specialized to construct a cartilage growth model. This theory allows the constituents of the solid matrix to grow independently of each other, and can model the evolution of the constituent pre-stresses and the tissues mechanical properties during developmental growth and degeneration. A simple example is presented which illustrates these features of the theory.