Abstract on continuous flow perfusion of gentamicin with a (Morgan Lens) reduces bacterial colony counts in experimental pseudomonas keratitis.
INTRODUCTION The degradation of organic matter in soil largely results from the interaction between macro- and microorganisms, although microorganisms have a greater participation in this process because of their higher biomass values (7). However, to determine the microbiological characteristics of soil, samples should be promptly analyzed after collection to avoid the risk of obtaining altered results due to the variation in number of microorganisms when the samples are maintained at room temperature. If microbial analysis cannot be performed immediately after collection, Clark (3) recommends conservation at 4oC for a maximum period of 1-2 weeks. Higashida and Takao (8) performed microbial counts in soil samples up to approximately 8 hours after collection. In support of this view, Harding and Ross (6) reported that fresh soil samples are desirable to characterize microbial counts. If the procedures can not be carried out immediately, some form of storage should be used. Dunn et al. (4) and ...
Many studies require the quantitative determination of bacterial populations. The two most widely used methods for determining bacterial numbers are: The standard plate count method. Spectrophotometer (turbid metric) analysis. The standard plate count method is an indirect measurement of cell density ( live bacteria). The spectrophotometer analysis is based on turbidity and indirectly measures all bacteria (cell biomass), dead and alive.
새우를 키토산 단독 코팅하거나 천연항균제(carvacrol, thymol)를 키토산 코팅과 병행 처리하였을 때 중온균수의 변화를 Table 1에 나타내었다. 중온균은 모든 처리구에서 초기 농도가 1.33 log CFU/g이었고 냉장 저장 1일째 1.0 log CFU/g까지 감소되었으나, 6일째부터 계속 증가하기 시작 하였다. 저장기간 중 가장 마지막 날인 12일째에, Control, Chi, Chi-Car 및 Chi-Thy의 중온균수는 각각 5.25, 3.59, 3.29, 1.97 log CFU/g로 모든 처리구가 대조구에 비해 유의 적으로(p , 0.05) 낮은 중온균 수를 나타내어 항균효과가 있음을 알 수 있었다. 그리나 12일째에도 모든 실험구의 총균수는 수용가능한 수준18)인 7 log CFU/g을 초과하지는 않았다. 6일째부터 처리구 간에 유의적 차이가 발생하였 으며, Chi-Thy, Chi-Car, Chi의 순서대로 강한 항균효과를 보였다.. 새우를 키토산 단독 코팅하거나 ...
Dr B.R. Gupta has conducted experiments on effects of Agnihotra on plate count of Aerial bacterial flora. He has found that in human residence where no Agnihotra was performed the bacterial colony count was 123 as against in the human residence where Agnihotra was done regularly the bacterial colony count was as low as a mere 25.. ...
Determined to prove the performance of its own products in a medical environment, Rehau recently commissioned a microbiological analysis of BioCote treated Rehau cable trunking installed at the newly opened Churchfields GP Surgery in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, and compared it with cable trunking installed at the previous Churchfields surgery, which had been out of use for several months.. The results were hugely impressive with a bacterial colony count (CFU) of just three on the cable trunking in the new surgery compared with 228 in the old one - a reduction of 98.69 per cent.. To give an even clearer indication of the performance of the trunking, Rehau also measured the bacterial colony count on the comparable door handle in the new surgery which showed a level of 215 and on the windowsill which showed a level of 160.. Overall, the comparative study between the two buildings showed that the new surgery, which had been open for two months, was in general less contaminated than the old one with ...
The fundamental principle of the microbial challenge (PET) is based on the concept of measuring the survival ability of selected microorganisms that are purposely introduced into a preserved test product system. The test product containing the inhibitory system is inoculated with the desired pool at the target level of bacteria (105-6 cfu/gram) and yeasts and molds (105-4cfu/gram). At the desired sampling interval (day 0, 7, 14 and 28 days) a sample is analyzed to determine the reduction in counts. The vial is tested on the BioLumix instrument for 22 hours for bacteria and for 48 hours for yeast and molds. The DTs are converted to Log cfu/g. and the Log reduction is calculated. The main advantage of this method is the automation of the process and the labor savings that it offers. It was estimated that it takes ~ 1/5 of the labor to perform the BioLumix assay compared to the standard plate count method. The new BioLumix assay offers savings in time, labor, materials, and plate space. Please ...
Looking for colony count? Find out information about colony count. The number of colonies of bacteria growing on the surface of a solid medium Explanation of colony count
The microbial load of cassava tubers that were grown at Awassa, Ethiopia, was analysed. The total viable microbial count of fresh cassava, before cleaning, ranged from 8.7x104 to 2.1x109 ...
It had long been assumed that a bacterial cell was dead when it was no longer able to grow on routine culture media. We now know that this assumption is simplistic, and that there are many situations where a cell loses culturability but remains viable and potentially able to regrow. This mini-review …
Compare the average total cost at facilities in Maine for the procedure: Urine test for bacterial culture: quantitative colony count.
This International Standard gives guidelines for the evaluation of uncertainty in quantitative microbiological analyses based on enumeration of microbial particles by culture. It covers all variants of colony count methods and most probable number estimates. Two approaches, the component (also known as bottom-up or step-by-step) and a modified global (top-down) approach are included. The aim is to specify how values of intralaboratory operational variability and combined uncertainty for final test results can be obtained. The procedures are not applicable to methods other than enumeration methods ...
A preliminary experiment was carried out to study the effect of Agnihotra on the bacterial population in a room where Agnihotra was performed. For this study, two rooms of equal dimensions (134" x 8 x 11) were selected. In both the rooms fire was prepared from dried cowdung cakes in copper pyramids and the basal reading of number of microorganisms in both the rooms was taken by exposing blood agar plates at four corners of the room for 10 minutes. This was done exactly half an hour before Agnihotra time. Agnihotra was performed exactly at sunset in one of the rooms.. Bacterial counts were taken again in both the rooms in a similar manner at half hour intervals. Thus readings were taken in both the rooms up to two hours after performance of Agnihotra. It was quite interesting to note that microbial counts in the room where Agnihotra was performed were reduced by 91.4% (Figs. 1a, 1b and 1c illustrate the reduction in the number of microorganisms) whereas the room where only fire was generated ...
Determining E. coli levels in sediments and its ability to attach to sand and silt and float downstream will help scientists figure out what needs to be done to decrease bacterial levels in streams.
Spontaneous bacterial colonization by CONS in Mgb-/- females versus Mgb+/- and WT controls.Bacteria recovered from urine (CFU/ml), bladders, and kidneys (CFU/or
Sushi and sashimi are traditional Japanese food, mostly consisting of raw seafood alone or in combination with rice. Eating sushi and sashimi has become popular in many countries even outside Japan. This food is not free from health risks such as ingestion of pathogenic bacteria or parasite. The aim of this study was to investigate on hygienic-sanitary quality of sushi and sashimi sold in the cities of Messina and Catania, Southern Italy. Fifty samples (38 sushi and 12 sashimi) were analysed to determinate the aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), psycrophilic bacteria (PB), Enterobacteriaceae, specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), Pseudomonas spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, micrococci, Vibrio spp., Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. In sushi, AMB ranged from 5.00 to 8.18 log CFU/g, PB from 4.70 to 7.13 log CFU/g, Enterobacteriaceae from 1.41 to 6.67 log CFU/g, while SSOs and Pseudomonas spp. from 3.49 to 7.72 and from 3.36 to 8.00 log CFU/g, respectively. Micrococci ...
... Obtained From Three Major Supermarkets on the Island of Bonaire.
KAUME, Lydia; FOOTE, Jerald C. y GBUR, Edward E.. Microbial contamination of herbs marketed to HIV-infected people in Nairobi (Kenya). S. Afr. j. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.108, n.9-10, pp.1-4. ISSN 1996-7489.. Herbal products are used by human immunodeficiency virus (HlV)-infected individuals regardless of safety or efficacy concerns. In this study, we examined the microbiological quality of herbal preparations marketed to HIV-infected individuals. A convenience sample (N = 24) of herbal products was obtained from retailers in Nairobi, Kenya in 2007. Petrifilm plate count methods were used to estimate total aerobic bacteria (APC), coliform, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeast and mould counts. APC counts ranged from an estimated 1.5 x 101 colony forming units (CFU)/g to 7.1 x 108 CFU/g. Total and faecal coliform counts ranged from an estimated ,10 CFU/g to 3 x 106 CFU/g. E. coli load ranged from ,10 CFU/g to 5 x 101 CFU/g and S. aureus counts ranged from an estimated ,10 CFU/g to ...
SummaryThis purpose of this experiment was for students to do the colony count methods, estimating the viable cell number of commercial active dried yeasts (ADY).This experiment allowed the students to perform the plate count technique by serial diluti...
Bacterial populations in some organs, viz., liver, spleen, kidney, gill, and arborescent organ of the catfish Clarias batrachus were enumerated followed by determination of resistance for antibiotics and metals. The total viable counts in these organs, observed, were 2.24x10(4), 2.08x10(4), 1.44x10(4), 1.23x10(4), and 6.40x10(3) colony-forming units/mL, respectively. The random bacterial isolates from these fish organs showed resistance in decreasing order for colistin (98%), ampicillin (82%), gentamycin (34%), carbenicillin (28%), tetracyline (20%), streptomycin (12%), and ciprofloxacin (02%). Most of the isolates exhibited an increasing order of tolerance for the metals (microg/mL) copper (100), lead (200), manganese (400), cadmium (200), and chromium (50), with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from |50 to 1600 microg/mL. These observations indicate that the significant occurrence of bacterial population in organs of fish with high incidence of resistance for antibiotics and metals may
BioLumix is the most advanced microbiological testing system of its kind. This automated, all-in-one microbial testing system is extremely easy to operate. The system is both simple and cost-effective, revolutionizing your current testing methodology. A novel optical system sensing color and fluorescence in ready-to-use vials provides faster results, labor savings, automation, and connectivity. The system has a large repertoire of assays that it can perform including: Total Aerobic Count, Yeast and Mold, Coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Salmonella.. Recently a new assay for the detection of Heterotrophic bacteria in water was developed for the BioLumix system. The developed assay was validated by testing 50 samples of multiple types of water that were tested by the BioLumix method and the plate count method side-by-side. The BioLumix vials were directly inoculated with 0.1 mL of the water sample, or 1.0 mL of a 1:100 dilution (depending on the desired ...
The importance of the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state, with respect to safety of environmental applications of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs), can best be appreciated in risk...
Wrap the agar strip holder with aluminium foil and autoclave at 121°C (15 lbs) for 15 minutes. Carry the Dyna test unit to the test location. Carefully insert the pre sterilized agar strip into the holder and assemble the unit. Load the cells or connect the power point. Keep the timer switch at position one, sample the air for one minute. Focus the agar strip holder towards the area which is to be tested. Switch on the unit. After one minute the instrument will shut off automatically. Remove the agar strip from the holder and keep in the case provided and incubate at desired temperature for 48-72 hours. Report the result as c.f.u/40 L of air samples. The instrument can draw 40 L of air on to the agar strip per minute ...
When the companys fully automated GreenLight® 930 is used, the vials can be batch loaded onto the 48-position carousel, or individually loaded at any time during the units "continuous" mode. As bacteria in the test sample multiply and respire, they consume oxygen. The change in oxygen is used to calculate the milks colony forming units per milliliter. (Bacterial load is calculated in the PC and stored to a secure data base ...
An apparatus for automatically transferring a desired one of bacterial colonies grown in a medium in a culture Petri dish onto a medium in a test Petri dish or a test tube by using a bacterial colony pick-up/transfer element of the disposable type or a bacterial colony pick-up/transfer element of the reuse type and by using various mechanisms controlled by a computer.
Field studies conducted on three separate well pads showed that one 2K7 Water Soluble Pak (WSP) per 10 m3 (63 bbl) surface water effectively reduced bacterial levels from ,106 to,104 with agitation of the fluid reducing the reaction time. This fluid was then used for CT bridge plug milling operations and bacteria levels monitored at various fluid locations in the closed loop throughout the operations.. Evaluation of flowback from the wellbore indicated consistently lower bacterial concentrations than the injected surface water. Despite this, bacteria levels at surface were rebounding. Therefore, the observed increases in surface bacteria were due to the population rebounding while sitting in the surface tanks.. This rebound effect was because the CT fluid for the mill-out operations was reused for each successive pad well. As flowback water was introduced into the surface tanks, so were the additives (polymers, surfactants) from stimulation operations that, along with dissolved formation ...
Field studies conducted on three separate well pads showed that one 2K7 Water Soluble Pak (WSP) per 10 m3 (63 bbl) surface water effectively reduced bacterial levels from ,106 to,104 with agitation of the fluid reducing the reaction time. This fluid was then used for CT bridge plug milling operations and bacteria levels monitored at various fluid locations in the closed loop throughout the operations.. Evaluation of flowback from the wellbore indicated consistently lower bacterial concentrations than the injected surface water. Despite this, bacteria levels at surface were rebounding. Therefore, the observed increases in surface bacteria were due to the population rebounding while sitting in the surface tanks.. This rebound effect was because the CT fluid for the mill-out operations was reused for each successive pad well. As flowback water was introduced into the surface tanks, so were the additives (polymers, surfactants) from stimulation operations that, along with dissolved formation ...
1) Food poisoning The saprophytic bacteria cause decay of our food and make it unpalatable. Toxins are produced as a result of bacterial growth on the foodstuffs. Due to this, food poisoning occurs.
I am looking for a table listing the normal concentrations or concentration range of typical cell metabolites, e.g., amino acids, NAD, ATP, ions, sugars, major proteins, etc. A few years back I once stumbled over such a table. Unfortunately, I did not make a copy. The only entries I can remember: typical cell protein concentration 100-300mg/mL acetate ion 0.2 - 0.25 M Does anybody know where to find such a table ? I am also looking for a database, printed, on CD or diskette, or on the Net, with physiological data; e.g., average yield for fermentative bacterial growth on glucose 10.5g cells / mol ATP; list of average generation times of different bacteria; metabolic specialties; and so on. Any help would be appreciated. Achim ...
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The primary benefit of betain HCL is its effect on stomach acid production It may also help to manage bacterial levels in the stomach, facilitate digestion and support the absorption of nutrients
M. avium CFU counts are higher in lung tissue of infected HO-1 -/- mice as compared to lung tissue form infected HO-1+/+ miceMouse lung tissue was homogenized i
Aerobic microorganisms. Determination in foods at 37 °C, 30 °C, 25 °C, 20 °C, 17/7 °C or 6.5 °C by the colony count method. (NMKL 86, 5. Ed., 2013 ...
Each cell will undergo multiple rounds of cell divisons to produce separate colonies on the plate, so each cell is a colony forming unit. After incubation the number of colonies will reflect the number of CFUs originally present. This test gives the viable count (living cells only) compared to a microscopic count or dry weight test that gives the total cell count (living and dead cells ...
I am suffering from Chronic Lympomatic Lukemia. Initially in 2008 I was diagnosed with high Total count of 33000 when I was pregnant. Me and my husband consulted various doctors and conducted various scans . At that time Doctors advised that this high total count could be because of Pregnancy. And after delivering my child my count became normal and was 13000. ...
Early-season dollar spot control was mentioned in a previous post by Dr. Kaminski. Basically fungicides are applied long before symptoms develop in the field, which results in a significant delay in the onset of symptoms. The proposed theory behind early-season applications is they reduce the pool of initial inoculum of the dollar spot fungus enough […]. ...
Is it okay if I just ignore the cfu and use the value as millimol? Will it remain same? I just want the concentration of ATP inside the bacterial cell ...
The easiest solution would be to add timestamps to logs, or log to different logs from oddjob or from installer (ipareplica-conncheck.local.log and ipareplica-conncheck.remote.log) Actually the easiest solution would be not to log into a file when executed from oddjob ...
The number of bacteria tested by heterotrophic plate count method showed a very high content from the daily used reusable drinking water bottles. It is in the range from 0 to 2.4x105 CFU/mL with an average about 34,000 bacteria counts for bottles used by children and about 75,000 bacteria counts for bottles used by adults (Figures 2 and 4). The difference between the two is expected due to the bottle design since most bottles used by children have straws, and there is less chance of direct contact between the water in the bottle and the mouth of the users or other possible bacteria contamination sources. This may lead to a lower bacteria number in the bottles. Among all the sixty bottles sampled, there is only one bottle (2%) with bacteria number less than 500 CFU/mL. The bacteria number is much higher than those detected in the bottled drinking water which is in the range of 2-150 CFU/ml [10], but it has a similar level to the bottled natural mineral water after storing for a few days. Gonzalez ...
Accurate enumeration of bacterial count in probiotic formulation is imperative to ensure that the product adheres to regulatory standards and citation in consumer product label. Standard methods like plate count, can enumerate only replicating bacterial population under selected culture conditions. Viable but non culturable bacteria (VBNC) retain characteristics of living cells and can regain cultivability by a process known as resuscitation. This is a protective mechanism adapted by bacteria to evade stressful environmental conditions. B. coagulans MTCC 5856(LactoSpore®) is a probiotic endospore which can survive for decades in hostile environments without dividing. In the present study, we explored the use of flow cytometry to enumerate the viable count of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 under acidic and alkaline conditions, high temperature and in commercial formulations like compressed tablets and capsules. Flow cytometry (FCM) was comparable to plate count method when the spores were counted at
The formation of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli O157:H7 induced by high-pressure CO2 (HPCD) was investigated using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) transcriptomics and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomic methods. The analyses revealed that 97 genes and 56 proteins were significantly changed upon VBNC state entry. Genes and proteins related to membrane transport, central metabolisms, DNA replication, and cell division were mainly downregulated in the VBNC cells. This caused low metabolic activity concurrently with a division arrest in cells, which may be related to VBNC state formation. Cell division repression and outer membrane overexpression were confirmed to be involved in VBNC state formation by homologous expression of z2046 coding for transcriptional repressor and ompF encoding outer membrane protein F. Upon VBNC state entry, pyruvate catabolism in the cells shifted from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle toward the fermentative route; this led ...
Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were isolated from diesel impacted sites at the University of Port Harcourt using the vapour phase transfer method. The isolates were identified as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Serratia, and Micrococcus species. Examination of cultures supplemented with glucose revealed that the total viable counts ranged from 1.7 x 104 to 5.9 x 105 cfu/ml. For cultures supplemented with kerosene the total viable counts ranged from 1.18 x 104 to 3.1 x 105 cfu/ml. Bacillus spp. and Micrococcus spp. gave the highest and lowest counts respectively in both media types within 96 h. The other isolates had counts in between these ranges in the respective supplemented media. The growth of the isolates in mineral salts solution supplemented with glucose or kerosene resulted in turbidity of the broth as compared to clear media solutions in controls. Higher turbidity was recorded in media supplemented with glucose than kerosene, and this was reflected in the total viable counts ...
Dr. Clifford Obi*. ABSTRACT. Microbiological and proximate analyses of 50 Home and Industrial Made soymilk samples were carried out using standard analytical procedures. The two soymilk types were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with E. coli having the highest occurrence level (42%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae being the lowest (8%). Two fungi: Aspergillus niger and Penicilium notatum were also recovered from the soymilk samples with A. niger being higher in occurrence (66.7%) than P. notatum (33.3%). The total viable bacterial count (TVBC) for the Home made soymilk was in the range 6.2 x 106 - 4.0 x 105 CFU/ml while the TVBC for the Industry made was in the range 2.0 x102 - 1.0 x 102 CFU/ml. The total fungal count (TFC) for the Home made soymilk was in the range 4.1 x 106-3.0 x 105 CFU/ml while the TFC for the Industry Made was in the range 2 x 102-1.0 x 102 CFU/ml. Antibiotic sensitivity screening result showed that the ...
Reducing microbial contamination in wheat is desirable to ensure consumer safety. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of adding organic acids and NaCl to tempering water to reduce microbial load in hard wheat prior to milling, and to determine the impact that these treatments might have on the microbial quality and functional properties of straight-grade and whole grain flours. Wheat was tempered to 15.5% moisture under controlled (24h, 73-75°F, 60% RH), aseptic conditions by adding water (control) or tempering solutions containing acid (acetic or lactic; 2.5% and 5% v/v) and NaCl (26% w/v). Wheat was analyzed before and after tempering for Total Plate Counts (TPC), yeasts, molds, and Enterobacteriaceae (Eb). The microbial load of the tempered wheat was significantly reduced by all organic acid-NaCl treatments (p,0.05). The combination of lactic acid (5%) and NaCl was the most effective against TPC and Eb (p,0.05), with an average reduction of 3.5 and 4.7 log CFU/g, ...
293335144 - EP 1040841 A1 2000-10-04 - Anticoagulant/sterilizing compositions and methods - Compositions and methods are provided for preventing formation of thrombosis and/or bacterial growth on a liquid-contacting surface of a liquid delivery system, such as a port, catheter or port-catheter system. The liquid delivery system is connected to a patient for delivery of a liquid to the patient. The method involves contacting the surface with a thrombosis-preventing liquid containing taurolidine, taurultam or a mixture thereof, the thrombosis-preventing liquid further containing an anticoagulant agent. In an alternative embodiment, the liquid-contacting surface of the delivery system is contacted with a solution containing an anticoagulant agent, and thereafter contacted with a solution containing taurolidine, taurultam or a mixture thereof.[origin: EP1040841A1] Compositions and methods are provided for preventing formation of thrombosis and/or bacterial growth on a liquid-contacting surface of a liquid
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PILONETTO, Marcelo et al. Hospital gowns as a vehicle for bacterial dissemination in an intensive care unit. Braz J Infect Dis [online]. 2004, vol.8, n.3, pp.206-210. ISSN 1413-8670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702004000300003.. The microbiota from the uniforms of 31 professionals from the general intensive care unit was analyzed. The samples were collected in duplicate at the beginning and at the end of the work period. Total viable counts of microorganisms were determined; there was a significant increase in the counts at the end of the period, when compared with those obtained at the beginning. No significant difference was observed between the first and second counts obtained from the cuffs. However, differences were observed for the samples from the abdominal region. Among the isolated pathogens 11/18 were Staphylococcus aureus, 2/18 were Acinetobacter baumannii, 2/18 were Klebsiela pneumoniae and 1/18 were Serratia rubidae. Some of these isolates were multi-resistant to antibiotics. ...
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The viable cell count (Table 4-1) is typically considered the measure of cell concentration. For this, a 1-mL volume is removed from a bacterial suspension and serially diluted 10-fold followed by plating 0.1-mL aliquots on an agar medium. Each single invisible bacterium (or clump of bacteria) will grow into a visible colony that can be counted (see Chapter 5). For statistical purposes, plates containing between 30 and 300 colonies give the most accurate data. The plate count × the dilution × 10 will give the number of colony forming units (CFU)/mL in the undiluted bacterial suspension. Using this method, dead bacteria within the suspension do not contribute to the final bacterial count. ...
* found in: m-ColiBlue24® Broth, EC Medium with Mug, EC Medium MPN Tubes PK/15, Modified Colitag 16-HR, Peel Plate® Heterotrophic Plate Count Media, Use m..
The volume retrieved is ∼0.001 mL (range 0.01-0.001) of lower respiratory secretions and dilution into the holding medium increases the dilution of the culture plate by 100-1,000-folds. Quantitative bacterial cultures of PSB allow the distinction between colonization and infection. Quantitative cultures represent serial dilutions of the respiratory samples. The colony counts are calculated by the number of colonies visible on the agar plate in relation to the dilution and inoculation factors. The cut-offs for quantitative culture results were established by relating colony counts known to be present in sputum samples of pneumonia patients to the estimated amount of respiratory secretions retrieved by the technique. Thus, it should be noted that the quantitative culture technique is based on rough inferences rather than exact measurements. For PSB, the currently accepted threshold is 103 cfu·mL−1. Growth ≥103 cfu·mL−1 is considered significant for infection (table 1⇑) and corresponds ...
THEMATIC ISSUE ON Viable But Non-Culturable Microbes. Editors: Wolfgang Kneifel, Clemens Kittinger. The scope of this issue will focus on the so called viable but non- ...
Lebanon bologna raw batter was mixed with a five-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to achieve average inoculum levels of 7.79, 7.77, and 7.92 log CFU/g as deter mined on MSA, 202, and PRSA media, respectively ...
Chromogenic/TTC Dipslide Tests for E.coli, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Total Viable Count for enumeration of E.coli. Flexible paddle for effective surface contact ...
Characterization of Culturable Bacteria in the Atmospheric Environment in Incheon, Korea - Atmospheric environment;Total plate counts;
Food poisoning and infection by bacteria are of public health significance to both developing and developed countries. Samples of ogi (akamu) prepared from white and yellow variety of maize sold in Uturu and Okigwe were analyzed together with the laboratory prepared ogi for bacterial quality using the standard microbiological methods. The analyses showed that both white and yellow variety had total bacterial counts (cfu/g) of 4.0 ×107 and 3.9 x 107 for the laboratory prepared ogi while the commercial ogi had 5.2 x 107 and 4.9 x107, 4.9 x107 and 4.5 x107, 5.4 x107 and 5.0 x107 for Eke-Okigwe, Up-gate and Nkwo-Achara market respectively. The Staphylococcal counts ranged from 2.0 x 102 to 5.0 x102 and 1.0 x 102 to 4.0 x102 for the white and yellow variety from the different markets while Staphylococcal growth was not recorded on the laboratory prepared ogi. The laboratory prepared ogi had no Coliform growth while the commercially prepared ogi had counts of 0.5 x103 to 1.6 x 103 for white variety ...
Air sampling during the incision of 40 septic lesions did not produce any evidence of dispersal of pathogenic bacteria. The removal of dressings in a sterile dressing-box was associated with the dispersal of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. From 45 dressings the average total bacterial count was 104 bacteria-containing particles per cubic foot. Thirteen out of 26 staphylococcal lesions dispersed staphylococci when the dressings were removed, the levels of staphylococci ranging from 0.3 to 33.3 colonies per cubic foot.
Antibiotics kill bacteria or cause them to be unable to reproduce. One of the effects of antibiotics on bacterial count is a decrease in the growth of the bacteria. Sample collection prior to beginning antibiotic treatment is essential, for accurate bacterial counts.
The average microbial load of bacteria isolates from the samples ranges between 3.0 -4.7 x 104 cfu/ml., for fungal isolates it ranges between 1.0x104 to 2.9x104 cfu/ml and yeast counts from 0.0 x104 cfu/ml in fura to 5.3 x104 cfu/ml in fura da nono ...
In order to identify and quantify the microorganisms present in a certain ecosystem, it has become necessary to develop molecular methods avoiding cultivation, which allows to characterize only the co
Perfumed with mint, this natural enzymes based spray helps to reduce the bacterial proliferation in your dogs mouth and limits tartar formation on teeth. NON TOXIC, can be safely ingested by your pet. Available in 125 ml tube. ...
Harmless, but very powerful radicals will decrease the microbial load and air particles in your company and disinfect your room complete.
I am new to xsd, and found out that the xsd:enumeration value containing colon is not getting validated.Heres a brief of the value I am trying to include ...
The way to maintain a tree structured enumeration while having all the advantages of the standard ones; Author: Smart K8; Updated: 2 Apr 2008; Section: C#; Chapter: Languages; Updated: 2 Apr 2008
The way to maintain a tree structured enumeration while having all the advantages of the standard ones; Author: Smart K8; Updated: 2 Apr 2008; Section: C#; Chapter: Languages; Updated: 2 Apr 2008
Before you buy Barefoot Moscato, check out 8033 Influenster reviews. Alyssa H. said Barefoot is a just brand you can count on if you are wanting to try a...
In this study, prevalence, biotechnological and safety profiles of 588 Enterococcus isolates isolated from raw milk and Istrian cheese during different stages of ripening were analyzed. Despite the low and variable presence of enterococci in milk ((3.65±2.93) log CFU/mL), highly comparable enterococcal populations were established after 30 days of cheese ripening ((7.96±0.80) log CFU/g), confirming Enterococcus spp. as a major part of the core microbiota of Istrian cheese. The dominant species were E. faecium (53.8 %) and E. faecalis (42.4 %), while minor groups, consisting of E. durans (2.84 %) and E. casseliflavus (0.95 %), also occurred. A pronounced intraspecies variability was noticed based on molecular fingerprinting, with 35 strains (genotypes) detected. Most of the genotypes were farm-specific with one third being shared between the farms. This genotype variability reflected particular differences of Istrian cheese production, mainly variable salt concentration, ripening temperature ...
A clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of in-feed flavophospholipol in reducing Salmonella shedding and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) associated with Salmonella and generic Escherichia coli in naturally infected grower-finisher pigs. Pigs were obtained from a farm with a history of salmonellosis and were housed at a research facility. Over the span of 10 weeks the pigs received either a feed containing 4 ppm of flavophospholipol (treatment, n = 25) or a non-medicated feed (control, n = 20). Weekly fecal samples were collected and cultured for Salmonella and generic E. coli. A subset of Salmonella and E. coli isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to compare the prevalence of Salmonella shedding and AMR in Salmonella and E. coli isolates in treatment and control groups. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella shedding (P , 0.05) and AMR in Salmonella (P , 0.01) and E. coli (P , 0.005) isolates was not ...
This program is designed to provide analysis of the major elements of concern, primarily bacteriological monitoring and limited water chemistry.. Coliform. Coliforms are a broad class of bacteria found in our environment, including the feces of man. The presence of coliform bacteria in drinking water may indicate a possible presence of harmful, disease-causing organisms.. E. coli. E-coli is the most prevalent member of the fecal coliform group. The occurrence of E. coli in water is considered a specific indicator of fecal contamination and the presence of enteric pathogens.. Heterotrophic Plate Count. The HPC formerly known as the standard plate count is a procedure for estimating the number of live Heterotrophic bacteria in water. It is used to measure the changes in water treatment and distribution or in swimming pools. ...
Biostasis is also synonymous for viable but nonculturable state. In the past[when?] when bacteria were no longer growing on culture media it was assumed that they were dead. Now we can understand that there are many instances where bacteria cells may go into biostasis or suspended animation, fail to grow on media, and on resuscitation are again culturable. It should be noted that VBNC state differs from starvation survival state (where a cell just reduces metabolism significantly). Bacteria cells may enter the VBNC state as a result of some outside stressor such as "starvation, incubation outside the temperature range of growth, elevated osmotic concentrations (seawater), oxygen concentrations, or exposure to white light" (9). Any of these instances could very easily mean death for the bacteria if it was not able to enter this state of dormancy. It has also been observed that in may instances where it was thought that bacteria had been destroyed (pasteurization of milk) and later caused ...
Microbiological quality control of pharmaceutical water systems is of importance in ensuring that trends in contamination are detected and responded to. This is not least because water is a niche environment for many types of microorganisms and a vector for their transfer. Trending relates to actual microbial counts recorded, incidents and the types of species recovered. To facilitate species identification, microorganisms need to be subcultured from the isolation medium (R2A agar in Europe). Transfer onto the wrong media can result in the microorganism not growing. This paper describes research into three different media for subculturing: low nutrient (R2A); highly nutritious (TSA) and medium nutrient (R3A) and concludes that a higher recovery is obtained where R3A agar is used ...
Emory immunologists have identified a potential target for treatments aimed at reducing mortality in sepsis, an often deadly reaction to infection.. 2B4 is an inhibitory molecule found on immune cells. You may have heard of PD1, which cancer immunotherapy drugs block in order to re-energize the immune system. 2B4 appears to be similar; it appears on exhausted T cells after chronic viral infection, and its absence can contribute to autoimmunity.. In their new paper in Journal of Immunology, Mandy Ford, Craig Coopersmith and colleagues show that 2B4 levels are increased on certain types of T cells (CD4+ memory cells) in human sepsis patients and in a mouse model of sepsis called CLP (cecal ligation + puncture). Genetically knocking out 2B4 or blocking it with an antibody both reduce mortality in the CLP model. The effect of the knockout is striking: 82 percent survival vs 13 percent for controls.. How does it work? When fighting sepsis, 2B4 knockout animals dont have reduced bacterial levels, but ...
(KudoZ) German to English translation of Vorverkeimung: initial bioburden [Microbiology - Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-) (Science)].
Commas are not used in large numbers. In 4-digit numbers, the digits are set closed up. For numbers of 10 000 or greater, a half-space or thin space is used to separate every 3 digits starting from the right-most integer (or, in numbers with decimals, from the left of the decimal point). For numbers with 5 or more digits to the right of the decimal point, a half-space is used between every 3 digits starting from the right of the decimal point (see also , Units of Measure, Use of Numerals With Units).The exact weight of the salt was 8.453 98 g,
Commas are not used in large numbers. In 4-digit numbers, the digits are set closed up. For numbers of 10 000 or greater, a half-space or thin space is used to separate every 3 digits starting from the right-most integer (or, in numbers with decimals, from the left of the decimal point). For numbers with 5 or more digits to the right of the decimal point, a half-space is used between every 3 digits starting from the right of the decimal point (see also , Units of Measure, Use of Numerals With Units).The exact weight of the salt was 8.453 98 g,
The QPixTM Series can pick up to 3000 clones per hour with a typical efficiency of |98%, significantly increasing speed, throughput and walk-away time.
The five yearly Census of Population and Housing is the primary source of basic population statistics, providing a total count of the population on census night. Population count may be required on a place of enumeration (de facto) basis as well as on a place of usual residence (de jure) basis (United Nations, 1998a). Importantly the Australian Census can provide population counts on a place of enumeration on census night basis or a place of usual residence basis. It can also provide counts of the working population ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Microbiological analysis: Link to the NordVal International validation protocol No. 1 for microbiological methods (June 2016, ed. Sept 2017) (harmonises with ISO 16140-2:2016) is here. Chemical analysis: Link to the NordVal International validation protocol No. 2 for chemical methods is here. ...
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We have found 44 NRICH Mathematical resources connected to Fractions, you may find related items under Fractions, Decimals, Percentages, Ratio and Proportion
We have found 42 NRICH Mathematical resources connected to Ratio, you may find related items under Fractions, Decimals, Percentages, Ratio and Proportion
Please adhere to the decimal points that appear on the form. Do not add decimal positions that do not appear on the form. This is also true if you report online using the web-based forms. The scanner will ignore any decimal points not already on the form. Example: If you enter a value such as "9.0" in a field that requires whole numbers, your result will be recorded as "90". It is also very important to zero fill all positions to the right of the decimal points where applicable ...
Get an answer for Cutoffs:Find the corresponding Z score(s). Round answer to 2 decimal places! Cutoff for the bottom 37%. and find homework help for other Math questions at eNotes
Knowing whether a wound is infected by a bacterial colony is important for monitoring patients and deciding the course of treatment. Currently, the
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I am trying to find a way to format the concatenate command in Excel I want to remove the leading zero infront of the decimal point 0.83...
Combined display of all available logs of Magicpedia. You can narrow down the view by selecting a log type, the username (case-sensitive), or the affected page (also case-sensitive). ...
In this study, it was aimed that production of natural flavor compounds from olive pomace via microbial fermentation by using Torulaspora delbrueckii and Trichoderma atroviride. For this purpose, fermentation of olive pomace solution (10%) by Torulaspora delbrueckii and Trichoderma atroviride was carried out both shake flask and bioreactor scale at 30oC for 120 hours. Growth of microorganisms in olive pomace was investigated during fermentation at both scales. Identification and quantification of flavor compounds which are produced by T. delbrueckii and T. atroviride were determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography olfactometry. It was found that the maximum cell increases of T. delbrueckii and T. atroviride were 1.49 log cfu/mL and 1.07 log cfu/mL respectively in shake flakes, while at the bioreactor scale fermentation, the maximum cell increases were determined as 2.23 log cfu/mL and 0.092 log cfu/mL for respectively. Specific growth rate of T. delbrueckii and T. ...
The effectiveness of a steam pasteurization process for reducing naturally occurring bacterial populations on freshly slaughtered beef sides was evaluated in a large commercial facility. Over a period of 10 days, 140 randomly chosen beef sides were microbiologically analyzed. Each side was sampled immediately before, immediately after, and 24 h after steam pasteurization treatment. Total aerobic bacteria (APC), Escherichia coli (generic), coliform, and Enterobacteriaceae populations were enumerated. The process significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced mean APCs from 2.19 log CFU/cm2 before treatment to 0.84 log CFU/cm2 immediately after and 0.94 log CFU/cm2 24 h after treatment. Before pasteurization (8 s steam exposure), 16.4% of carcasses were positive for generic E. coli (level of 0.60 to 1.53 log CFU/cm2), 37.9% were positive for coliforms (level of 0.60 to 2.26 log CFU/cm2), and 46.4% were positive for Enterobacteriaceae (level of 0.60 to 2.25 log CFU/cm2). After pasteurization, 0% of carcasses ...
Example of the decimal.Compare and static decimal.Equals methods. using System; class DecCompareEqualsDemo { const string dataFmt = "{0,-45}{1}"; // Compare decimal parameters, and display them with the results. public static void CompareDecimals( decimal Left, decimal Right, string RightText ) { Console.WriteLine( ); Console.WriteLine( dataFmt, "Right: "+RightText, Right ); Console.WriteLine( dataFmt, "decimal.Equals( Left, Right )", Decimal.Equals( Left, Right ) ); Console.WriteLine( dataFmt, "decimal.Compare( Left, Right )", Decimal.Compare( Left, Right ) ); } public static void Main( ) { Console.WriteLine( "This example of the " + "decimal.Equals( decimal, decimal ) and \n" + "decimal.Compare( decimal, decimal ) methods " + "generates the \nfollowing output. It creates several " + "different decimal \nvalues and compares them with " + "the following reference value.\n" ); // Create a reference decimal value. decimal Left = new decimal( 123.456 ); Console.WriteLine( dataFmt, "Left: decimal( ...
NOLA, Moïse et al. Assessment of in-situ abundance dynamics of enterobacteria and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria in groundwater in the equatorial region of Central Africa. Water SA [online]. 2012, vol.38, n.5, pp.737-746. ISSN 1816-7950.. The main purpose of this investigation was to assess, in situ, the hourly abundance dynamics of enterobacteria and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (THAB), over a daily period, in 3 wells in Yaounde region, Cameroon. Sampling was done weekly, for 4 months. Water samples were collected in sterile glass bottles and incubated in situ for 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and 12 h. Isolation and enumeration of enterobacteria and THAB were performed on MacConkey agar (Bio-Rad) and standard agar (Bio-Rad) media, respectively, using the plate count method. Using a linear regression model, ln(number of CFUs) was plotted against time. The slope of each regression line was considered as the apparent increase or decrease in cell number. Concentrations of THAB and ...
Question: Is there a difference between total microbe test and a total coliform test. What do the following results mean as far as safe drinking water is concerned, (5-10)(10-20)(400-500) (800-1000) Colony forming units(CFUs) of aerobic bacteria?. Thank you.. Answer: There is a difference between total microbes test and total coliform test. The former is a non-specific test for everything including the coliforms (if they are present). This test is commonly referred to as Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) or Total Aerobic Plate Count. HPC does not give an indication of the types of organisms present or their sources. The total coliform test is designed to detect bacteria belonging to the coliform group.. I am not sure whether the results above were CFUs per litre or per 100 mL. Assuming these were per 100 mL of water the first set of results would be considered insignificant provided coliforms were not present. The second two sets of results suggests the water is either not properly treated or is ...
There has been increasing concern on the emergence of multidrug-resistant foodborne pathogens from foods of animal origin, including poultry. The current study aimed to evaluate antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from raw retail chicken/turkey parts (thigh, wings, breast, and ground) and beef meat (ground and chunks) in Middle Tennessee. Resistance of the collected Enterobacteriaceae to a panel of antibiotics was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. Retail meats were also assayed for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Two hundred thirty-seven samples representing 95.2% of the total of 249 samples tested were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. The level of contamination with Enterobacteriaceae in raw meats ranged from 3.26 log cfu/g to 4.94 log cfu/g with significant differences in counts among meat types (P , 0.05). Contamination was significantly greater (P , 0.05) in ground beef, beef chucks, ground chicken, chicken breast, and turkey wings (4.92, ...
Limited shelf life of meat products due to microbial spoilage is a major problem in meat industry as meat is a good source for growth of microorganisms. Therefore, preservation is essential. Thus, the present study was focused to determine the effect of acetic acid, lactic acid and trisodium phosphate on microbial quality of chicken cold cuts (chicken salami and chicken roll). Samples were randomly collected during the chilling step and treated as groups by immersion in lactic acid (2, 3, 4%), acetic acid (2, 2.5, 3%), trisodium phosphate (8, 10, 12%) for 20 seconds. Samples without any treatment served as the control. All treatments were vaccum packed and stored under chilled condition. Treatments were evaluated for colony forming units (CFU), yeast and molds and pH in 10th, 20th, 30th and 40th day of storage. Based on CFU counts for chicken salami samples on 40th day, acetic acid 2, 2.5, 3% treated samples showed 1.55×105 CFU/g, 1.31×105 CFU/g, 1.16×105 CFU/g, lactic acid 2, 3, 4% treated ...
7.7. Mean values of total bacterial counts were generally less than 105 CFU/g except for brand "F" which contained about 103 CFU/g. Wide variation in the percentage of sporeformers in total count was observed. Mean values of spore counts ranged from 103 to 104 CFU/g. Bacillus cereus was found in variable densities; mean values hardly exceeding 104/g, it was not detected in some samples. Generally, B. Cereus represented 20-70% of the total spore counts. Yeast colony mean counts around 102 CFU/g. Enterobacteriaceae, molds coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis and salmonellae could not be detected in all samples. D10 value of B. cereus was 2.85 KGy, while the D10 values at 85, 90, 95 and 100C were found to be 15.0, 9.5, 8.5 and 2.5 min, respectively. Preirradiation treatment of B. cereus spores had a synergistic effect with heat treatment ...
In this study, different optical, physical and chemical measurements were tested for their capacity to detect changes in water quality. The tests included UV-absorbance at 254 nm, absorbance at 420 nm, turbidity, particle counting, temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC), free chlorine concentration and ATP concentration measurements. Special emphasis was given to investigating the potential for measurement tools to detect changes in bacterial concentrations in drinking water. Bacterial colony counts (CFU) and total bacterial cell counts (TBC) were used as reference methods for assessing the bacterial water quality. The study consists of a series of laboratory scale experiments: monitoring of regrowth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, estimation of the detection limits for optical measurements using Escherichia coli dilutions, verification of the relationships by analysing grab water samples from various distribution systems and utilisation of the measurements in the case of an accidentally contaminated
Drinking Water Quality by Northeast Laboratory Services (NEL). Coliform & E.coli Bacteria Count – MF/Colilert, Coliform & E.coli Bacteria P/A Colilert, Heterotrophic Plate Count, Pseudomonas, Iron Bacteria, Fungi (Mold & Yeast)
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Way back in May 2000, Decision Resources published my short report entitled "New approaches to small-molecule antibacterial drug discovery" as part of its Spectrum Life Sciences series. As might be expected, the report is now out of print.. The report was a brief review of then-novel approaches to antibacterial drug discovery, in the face of the increasing level of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. These approaches included genomics and such technologies as high-throughput screening against bacterial-specific targets.. However, the most interesting part of the report was a section on using the study of bacterial physiology to identify targets that are important for the ability of bacteria to cause disease, but are not essential for bacterial proliferation or survival. The hypothesis behind these studies was that it might be possible to develop compounds that prevent these bacteria from causing disease, without selecting for resistant strains of the bacteria.. Antibiotics typically ...