Collodion is a flammable, syrupy solution of pyroxylin (a.k.a. "nitrocellulose", "cellulose nitrate", "flash paper", and "gun cotton") in ether and alcohol. There are two basic types: flexible; non-flexible. The flexible type is often used as a surgical dressing or to hold dressings in place. When painted on the skin, collodion dries to form a flexible nitrocellulose film. While it is initially colorless, it discolors over time. Non-flexible collodion is often used in theatrical make-up. In 1846 Louis-Nicolas Ménard and Florès Domonte discovered that cellulose nitrate could be dissolved in ether. They devised a mixture of ether (ethoxyethane) as the solvent and ethanol as a diluent that rendered cellulose nitrate into a clear gelatinous liquid. Collodion was first used medically as a dressing in 1847 by the Boston physician John Parker Maynard. The solution was dubbed "collodion" (from the Greek κολλώδης (kollodis), gluey) by Dr. A.A. Gould of Boston, Massachusetts. In 1851, Frederick ...
The collodion process produced a negative image on a transparent support (glass). This was an improvement over the calotype process, discovered by Henry Fox Talbot, which relied on paper negatives, and the daguerreotype, which produced a one-of-a-kind positive image and could not be replicated. The collodion process, thus combined desirable qualities of the calotype process (enabling the photographer to make a theoretically unlimited number of prints from a single negative) and the daguerreotype (creating a sharpness and clarity that could not be achieved with paper negatives). Collodion printing was typically done on albumen paper. As collodion is a sticky and transparent medium, and can be soaked in a solution of silver nitrate while wet, it is ideal for coating stable surfaces such as glass or metal for photography. When a metal plate is coated with collodion, charged with silver nitrate, exposed, and developed, it produces a direct positive image, although backwards on the plate due to ...
1. In three previous publications it had been shown that electrolytes influence the rate of diffusion of pure water through a collodion membrane into a solution in three different ways, which can be understood on the assumption of an electrification of the water or the watery phase at the boundary of the membrane; namely,. (a) While the watery phase in contact with collodion is generally positively electrified, it happens that, when the membrane has received a treatment with a protein, the presence of hydrogen ions and of simple cations with a valency of three or above (beyond a certain concentration) causes the watery phase of the double layer at the boundary of membrane and solution to be negatively charged.. (b) When pure water is separated from a solution by a collodion membrane, the initial rate of diffusion of water into a solution is accelerated by the ion with the opposite sign of charge and retarded by the ion with the same sign of charge as that of the water, both effects increasing ...
Looking for flexible collodion BP? Find out information about flexible collodion BP. solution of pyroxylin pyroxylin , partially nitrated cellulose . It is used in lacquers, plastics, and artificial leathers. Pyroxylin lacquers are made by... Explanation of flexible collodion BP
Welcome to The Silver Sunbeam - online home of Andy Martins forays into, and 21st century resurrection of, the Victorian era Wet Collodion (wetplate) photographic process in the tintype studio and across the North of England since 2010.. The images you see here are taken directly on metal and glass plates using a technique which dates back to 1851, invented by Englishman Frederick Scott Archer. On this site is a mix of studio based tintypes and ambrotypes of people Ive known a long time, some Ive only just met, a selection of scenes of Sunderland, Tanfield Railway, Beamish Museum and across the wider North East.. The wet collodion process involves coating a metal or glass plate with a collodion solution before placing it into a bath of silver nitrate. Once sensitised by the silver, the plate is loaded into the camera and the exposure made, ranging from a second up to a minute (sometimes more), depending on the lighting conditions.. Then, the plate is returned to the darkroom and developed, ...
Now With Old Workhorse Collodion! Bostick & Sullivans pre-mixed Wet Plate Collodion kits come ready-to-use! A complete starter set that will make 65 8x10 plates.
Get information, facts, and pictures about collodion at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about collodion easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Collodion is used in making wetplates. May ship separately from other HazMat items. ORM-D limits apply. Bostick & Sullivan uses only IATA DGR 4.2 4GV UN Certified boxes and IP3 Certified steel containers for our customers safety. Dont accept inferior substitutes.
Egypt, Arab Rep. exported Cellulose nitrates (including collodions); in primary forms to Algeria ($60.70K , 48,000 Kg), Sudan ($4.60K , 300 Kg ...
In 2018, Top exporters of Cellulose nitrates (including collodions); in primary forms to France were Brazil ($8,872.70K , 2,995,000 Kg), Thailand ($7,815.09K , 3,150,480 Kg), Czech Republic ($5,425.53K , 1,227,310 Kg), Germany ($5,415.08K , 1,693,410 Kg), Switzerland ($1,487.90K , 87,586 Kg ...
Proteoglycan (PG) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) samples corresponding to a minimum of 10 ng of uronic acid were reliably quantified as precipitates with the cationic dye Safranin O, collected by vacuum-aided filtration onto a cellulose acetate/nitrate membrane in a standard 96-well dot assay apparatus. The reflectances of the precipitation dots were measured by automatic densitometric scanning of the membrane sheets. Standard GAGs produced reflectance values which were related to the number of anionic groups per unit disaccharide; hyaluronate and keratan sulfate gave lower values while heparin yielded values higher than those of chondroitin sulfates. The presence of 8 m urea, 1% Triton X-100, 30% sucrose, 0.02% NaN3, or mixtures of proteinase inhibitors and various buffers did not markedly influence the reflectances, while 4 m guanidinium chloride and 3 m CsCl reduced the sensitivity of the assay to 30-50 ng. Samples containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were not applicable because SDS ...
In 1851, Frederick Scott Archer invented a new photographic process to replace one-of-a-kind daguerreotypes on metal that were popular for portraits and multiple but imprecise calotypes made from paper negatives. The new process produced a clear negative on transparent glass that could be used to print multiple prints on paper. As its name implies,"wet-plate collodion" exposure and development of the negative had to be done within a ten-minute time frame while the light sensitive chemicals were wet, requiring photographers to bring portable darkrooms into the field. Although the process was capable of rendering fine detail within the shadows, the chemicals were sensitive only to blue light, making it impossible to render cloud-filled skies without exposing a separate negative only for the clouds. Because practical techniques for enlarging were not yet available, the glass negatives had to be the size of the finished print.. To achieve a large, or "mammoth," print, a photographer required a glass ...
After some very disappointing experience, I adopted the following treatment: Immediately, on the discovery of a case of cerebral protrusion, I paint the protruding part with collodion; I order the nurse to do this three times a day. The collodion is carried entirely over the tumor, and down upon the scalp one-half an inch below the lower line of the protrusion. In twenty-four hours the hardened collodion has made a light, strong, cartilaginous-like cap, which fits loosely, yet perfectly, the protruding cerebral substance. From the moment it is applied the child is protected from all ordinary chances of head injury. Its head can be washed, its hair brushed, and it can be laid upon its pillow with but little chance of injuring the diseased parts. If the tumor protrudes much, it raises the plate, and yet is still covered by it. At the expiration of a week or so, I only paint the upper half of the plate and scalp, having the lower half free to permit of spraying or syringing with carbolized water. ...
... : This process is a 19th century photographic process .It requires a lot of patience and low expectation of perfection. With that said, the results are striking. The photograph has many steps that must be donw within a short amount of
MY instructions hitherto have been limited strictly to the chemical and mechanical manipulations that occur in that department of photography denominated the Wet Collodion Process. This process will ever remain the predominant mode of conducting photographic operations in the room; it is preferred, too, by many tourists in the field. The inconvenience, however, of dragging along over mountain and valley, or of stowing away on steamer or on the cars, a complete miniature operating gallery, has suggested the idea of superseding all this trouble by the discovery of a dry process. Several processes have been discovered which are more or less successful, and all very practical; but it must be confessed that the same degree of sensitiveness in the dry process has not yet been attained as in the wet process--instantaneous pictures are the result only of the latter. It appears natural for us to expect such a result; chemical combinations and reductions are effected most easily when the mole-cubes of ...
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Cellulose nitrate, originally known as guncotton, is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid. One of the most tested parameters is the nitrogen content because cellulose nitrate with a higher nitrogen content (e.g. trinitro cellulose) is used as explosives and those with medium content for preparation of jellies explosive and smokeless powders. This application note presents the nitrogen determination in cellulose nitrate according to the Duma
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The wet plate collodion process has many applications. The most historically popular and prevalent has been the tintype. A tintype is an image made on a blackened sheet of metal. Historically, the metal was "Japaned" by baking asphalt onto a metal plate. Today, the material of choice is trophy plate: painted aluminum used for engraving on trophies. Wet plate collodion is a process where a plate of either glass or metal has a salted collodion based emulsion poured over it. The plate is gently put into a silver nitrate solution to make it light sensitive. This is then loaded into a modified plate holder, exposed in camera and developed in the darkroom. The reason it is called "wet plate" is the plate is exposed while wet. As the old whites guys said "We hold these truths to be self-evident." ...
Ian Ruhter had been working as a successful commercial and sports photographer when he first discovered the wet plate collodion process. The nineteenth century photographic process involves pouring a liquid mixture of iodides, bromides, and a solution called collodion over a glass or aluminum plate. The plate is then bathed in silver nitrate, making it light-sensitive. The plate must then be quickly exposed and developed in just a few minutes, before the collodion dries and loses sensitivity. The process is expensive, laborious, and extremely unpredictable as temperature and moisture affect the chemicals greatly and can entirely alter the developing process, ruining a wet plate. But the results of this labor intensive process are undeniable-- a completely unique and incredibly detailed image, with rich layers of silver suspended in emulsion producing a three dimensional effect. Because the process is produced and controlled entirely by hand, each plate is inherently unique, with the chemicals ...
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Hi! I have questions about glycoprotein staining. I have partial purified some protein with con-A sepharose. When I electrophoresed the partial purified eluate, several major and minor bands ranged from 10 to 150 kD were appeared on silver stained gel. But I didnt get any signal from DIG detection on nitrocellulose membrane under about 50 kD. Of course, standard glycoprotein, fetuin was stained well. So, I am wondering whether all of the proteins eluted from lectin chromatography were glycoprotein or a part of the protein was non-glycoprotein. My second question is what product for glycoprotein staining is more sensitive and specific. Any idea will be helpful to me. Thanks. Best regards. Soohyun Kim Korea Basic Science Institute shkim at comp.kbsi.re.kr ...
Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium which replicates within amoebae and macrophages by a similar mechanism. Intracellular replication within both protozoa and mammalian cells requires the bacterial icm/dot genes, encoding a conjugation apparatus related to type IV secretion systems (T4SSs). The inositol carbohydrate moiety of phosphoinositides (PIs) is phosphorylated at positions 3, 4, and/or 5 by specific kinases or dephosphorylated by phosphatases, respectively. Phagocytosis of L. pneumophila by Dictyostelium was determined by a gentamicin protection assay and by flow cytometry. Wild-type L. pneumophila (but not ΔicmT) replicated more efficiently in ΔPI3K1/2 or in wild-type Dictyostelium treated with PI3K inhibitors. To investigate whether Icm/Dot secreted proteins bind in vitro to PIs immobilized on nitrocellulose membranes, the authors performed a lipid protein overlay assay using glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins and an anti-glutathione S-transferase antibody.
A biomarker for RA was identified in the synovial fluid of patients with RA using a modified strategy previously used to identify cancer biomarkers. An Agilent immunodepletion column was used to remove six abundant serum proteins (albumin, antitrypsin, haptoglobin, IgA, IgG, and transferrin) then the depleted synovial fluid was fractionated using a Beckman ProteomeLab PF2D Protein Fractionation System. Proteins were fractionated in the first dimension by chromatofocussing and in the second dimension by reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. This protein fractionation strategy increased the chance of identifying the lower abundance proteins by separating them from the higher abundance proteins, which could mask their presence. The second dimension fractions were used to construct protein arrays on nitrocellulose membranes, which were used to test for the presence of autoantigens by analysing differential reactivity of RA and control sera. Only sera obtained from RA patients is ...
1. This paper gives measurements of the influence of various electrolytes on the cataphoretic P.D. of particles of collodion coated with gelatin, of particles of casein, and of particles of boiled egg albumin in water at different pH. The influence of the same electrolyte was about the same in all three proteins.. 2. It was found that the salts can be divided into two groups according to their effect on the P.D. at the isoelectric point. The salts of the first group including salts of the type of NaCl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4 affect the P.D. of proteins at the isoelectric point but little; the second group includes salts with a trivalent or tetravalent ion such as LaCl3 or Na4Fe(CN)6. These latter salts produce a high P.D. on the isoelectric particles, LaCl3 making them positively and Na4Fe(CN)6 making them negatively charged. This difference in the action of the two groups of salts agrees with the observations on the effect of the same salts on the anomalous osmosis through collodion membranes coated ...
HS Code Of 39121140, Cellulose Nitrate, Dynamic Grade , Indian HS Classification 39121140, Harmonised Code 39121140, Duty Structure Cellulose Nitrate, Dynamic Grade
Two types of composite imprinted membranes, i.e., composite membrane comprised of D-Phe imprinted beads and D-Phe imprinted membrane or DCM and composite membrane comprised of L-Phe imprinted beads and L-Phe imprinted membranes or LCM, were synthesized by phase inversion technique after a uniform dispersion of beads within the polymeric solutions using simple physico-mechanical process. The assemblies of the prepared DCM, LCM and control membranes were employed in ultrafiltration for chiral separation of D, L-Phenylalanine racemate solution. DCM and LCM showed an improved adsorption capacity (0.334 mg g-1 and 0.365 mg g-1 respectively), and adsorption selectivity (2.72 and 2.98 respectively). However, the percent rejection of the template and counter enantiomer were lower than that of control membranes. Compared to control membrane, the DCM and LCM showed inverse permselectivity. These composite membranes having better adsorption and separation ability for Phenylalanine racemate solution will be ...
The primary objective of this project was to prepare and characterize a hydrogen permselective palladium-ceramic composite membrane for high temperature gas separations and catalytic membrane reactors. Electroless plating method was used to deposit a thin palladium film on microporous ceramic substrate. The objective of this paper is to discuss the preparation and characterization of a thin-film palladium-ceramic composite membrane for selective separation of hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures. In this paper, we also present a model to describe the hydrogen transport through the palladium-ceramic composite membrane in a cocurrent flow configuration.
Duncan is a portrait photographer and photographic historian using the historic wet plate collodion process. Invented in 1851, the wet plate process creates unique, handmade photographs on glass (Ambrotype) or Aluminium (Tintype). The process involves coating a glass or aluminium plate with a liquid collodion emulsion, sensitizing the plate in a bath of silver nitrate, exposing the plate in an antique large format brass and wood camera, and developing the plate inside a small mobile darkroom. As the plate needs to be wet during exposure and development, the whole process must take less than ten minutes. After drying, the plate is coated using a traditional organic lavender and sandarac varnish. The wet plate process is a truly handmade and original method of creating portraits, and in many ways stands as an antithesis of modern digital photography. The final work of art is completely unique and is not reproducible. When created properly the images are archival, and will last for more than 100 ...
Toronto. After 1851 when Frederick Scott Archer invented the first practical wet-plate process, you could tell a photographer from his blackened finger-tips. This situation came about by the practitioners need to sensitize his glass plate with a silver nitrate solution.. First, a collodion emulsion was carefully poured over the clean glass plate. This viscous emulsion stuck to the glass and offered a base for the silver halide bath (the silver nitrate and collodion - the viscous emulsion - form light sensitive silver halides). The whole gooey mess had to be moved to the camera, the camera to the scene for the shot, and back to the darkroom to develop the negative, all before the sensitized emulsion dried. Even in bright daylight a tripod was a necessity for sharp images.. And the bottle shown here was an essential ingredient to create a media sensitive to a brief daylight exposure in the camera, suitably mounted on a tripod, of course…. ...
Ambrotypes look… well, they look just like that one of me on this page. I did a bit of retouching on my face and uniform, but all the wonderful frayed bits? Thats just the nature of the process. And if youve ever wondered why nobody in the late 19th century ever seemed to smile, heres why: The exposure on an ambrotype is around 60 seconds. You can blink. It wont matter. It wont show up in the image. Try holding a smile for 60 seconds, though, without having it look like a creepy rictus.. As part of my photo session with Stephen I got to go through the whole process with him. My friend Suzanne and I polished the glass plates. We watched him coat them with a thin layer of collodion before dipping them in a solution of silver nitrate. After he took several exposures of me, we watched him develop the images in his darkroom.. The wet plate collodion process fixes the light parts of the scene. To see the full image you have to hold the plate before a dark background. As the picture is developed ...
Peter, on the long term silvernitrate will eat every metal exept stainless steel and silver. So yes it is really needed to spray the holder. Beside of that, if you dont you will get contaminations on your plates ...
Art Classes, Fashion & Styling Classes, Photography Courses, NOIR Darkroom x VAFF -Analogue Fashion Photography, Brief history of the wet plate process. , Work one-on-one with a professional model, vintage costumes, and studio lighting., Learn all the steps involved in making a tintype, and then make your own! How to focus and shoot a large format camera.
On the Monday night I hardly managed to get any sleep somehow - I shall blame it on the huge list of things-to-do on my list!. After getting up at silly-O-clock (6:00) I check on my collodion mixture - and it looks good! I pour a little on the ends of some narrow-cut plates so I can leave those in the silver bath jar overnight.. no images were found. My mum and I went on an epic shopping round through the area, visiting 6 second-hand shops to find things I still needed for this project. Remember - I may be sponsored but I am on a budget! Lets make that buck go further! This time, I found a good glass bowl, wisk, plate fryer aka BBQ utensil, coffee filter, small bottles with screwcap (these are actually baby bottles and they are a fantastic size! Dont mix them up with the one for the baby though…) and a drying rack.. So having gotten these items, I decant the collodion mixture into 3 of these 300 ml bottles (2 full, 1 to about 1/3rd). I mixed up the egg whites and ammonium iodine to create ...
A lot of my focus has been on Cadmium free Collodion's, so I wanted to show, as best I can, the difference (or same-ness) of a couple of different formulas. Ive done many multiple plates using these formulas, so Ive tried to choose representative samples of each. They are all from my standard shot, using the same silver bath, developer, fixer and varnish. The only variation is exposure time for the UVP #3 All Lithium formula.Collodions shown:Lea Formula #1 - this is a classic Ammonium Iodide, Cadmium Bromide Formula that is similar to Quinns Quick Clear. UVP Formula #1 - this is an Ammonium Iodide, Lithium Bromide Formula that behaves similarly to the Lea#1 UVP Formula #3 - this is a Lithium Iodide, Lithium Bromide Formula that is 1 or more stops faster that the other two standard speed formulas.The Lea 1 and UVP 1 were both exposed for 7 seconds while the UVP 3 was between 2 and 3 seconds.They are all very close, but I prefer the UVP #1. The UVP #3 has less detail in the blacks, so opting
The other day I posted some work by Alexey Titarenko from a project called City of Shadows. Well, theres also a completely unrelated book of the same name that has some amazing police photography from early-20th century Sydney, Australia. Ive … Continue reading →. ...
Make sure you bend the silver wire exactly a the good size before putting in into the small holes, otherwise it is going to be difficult to make it all tight enough. ...
Landscape photography is as old as the medium, and the earliest photographers used the collodion wet-plate process to capture the grand scale of nature to reveal it to the masses. Borderlands is an exploration of panoramic landscapes derived from small areas cropped from the edges of contemporary collodion wet-plate images.… Read more. ...
A porous composite membrane is provided comprising a film of porous, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene whose surfaces, both exterior and within its pores, are coated with a metal salt of a perfluoro-cation exchange polymer. Also provided is the method of avoiding false-positive detection of the presence of organic nerve gas agents by a sensor adapted to detect such presence by employing in the sensor a porous composite membrane comprising a film of porous, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene whose surfaces, both exterior and within its pores, are coated with a metal salt of a perfluoro-cation exchange polymer, the composite acting as a scavenger of unwanted gas components which cause the false-positive signals.
... : Ideal for Western and Southern blotting techniques, prote
A method has been devised for the electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets. The method results in quantitative transfer of ribosomal proteins from gels containing urea. For sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, the original band pattern was obtained with no loss of resolution, but the transfer was not quantitative. The method allows detection of proteins by autoradiography and is simpler than conventional procedures. The immobilized proteins were detectable by immunological procedures. All additional binding capacity on the nitrocellulose was blocked with excess protein; then a specific antibody was bound and, finally, a second antibody directed against the first antibody. The second antibody was either radioactively labeled or conjugated to fluorescein or to peroxidase. The specific protein was then detected by either autoradiography, under UV light, or by the peroxidase reaction product, respectively. In the latter case, as little as 100 pg of protein was ...
A method has been devised for the electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets. The method results in quantitative transfer of ribosomal proteins from gels containing urea. For sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, the original band pattern was obtained with no loss of resolution, but the transfer was not quantitative. The method allows detection of proteins by autoradiography and is simpler than conventional procedures. The immobilized proteins were detectable by immunological procedures. All additional binding capacity on the nitrocellulose was blocked with excess protein; then a specific antibody was bound and, finally, a second antibody directed against the first antibody. The second antibody was either radioactively labeled or conjugated to fluorescein or to peroxidase. The specific protein was then detected by either autoradiography, under UV light, or by the peroxidase reaction product, respectively. In the latter case, as little as 100 pg of protein was ...
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Transglutaminase 1 gene is mapped on chromosome 14q11.2 that contains 15 exons and 14 introns encoded by a membrane protein that catalyzes the addition of an alkyl group from an akylamine to a glutamine residue wherein this protein alkylation leads to cross-linking of proteins and catenation of polyamines to proteins. Transglutaminase 1 is present in a cell that serves a framework of the outermost of the skin which made up of multiple proteins that are linked to one another or crosslinking. It has 2 variant forms that contains 2 nucleotide deletion near the 5 prime end using an alternate initiation codon. Transglutaminase 1 gene mutations is associated withlamellar ichthyosis wherein a single change of DNA building blocks occurs cannot function normally or doesnt produced at all leads to more severe features of the disorder causing skin abnormalities such as collodion membrane at birth, plate-likescales and alopecia. Gene name: TGM1 Protein name: Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase K ...
I wore this shirt regularly over the following years, until the print started to fade. In 2010 I was taking my second wet plate collodion workshop, which would eventually lead toward "Earth Magic." Id somehow avoided ruining any clothes up until this point, but when I started using the 8x10 camera (and officially beginning the new series) I somehow got some silver nitrate on my clothes. Silver nitrate is what makes the coated glass plate sensitive to light - consequently it stains all organic matter black. At this point I decided to make this my official wet plate uniform ...
I wore this shirt regularly over the following years, until the print started to fade. In 2010 I was taking my second wet plate collodion workshop, which would eventually lead toward "Earth Magic." Id somehow avoided ruining any clothes up until this point, but when I started using the 8x10 camera (and officially beginning the new series) I somehow got some silver nitrate on my clothes. Silver nitrate is what makes the coated glass plate sensitive to light - consequently it stains all organic matter black. At this point I decided to make this my official wet plate uniform ...
How it was done: Wetplate photography. Every plate is poured by hand with collodion, then it comes in a silver nitrate bath to get light sensitive and afterwards it has to be shot in 4 minutes, at the end you have develop, fix and wash it. To protect the silver and get the shiny look, the plates get varnished with sandarac and lavender oil (Sandarac varnish). Before every big plate (12x16inch) I am shooting a smaller one (4×5) to get the exposure right. ISO is about 0.5 (depends on the age of the chemistry, can be less too). Time for preparation (makeup and so on) and two plates: 7 ...
Hi, I am wanting to build an ULF camera for wet plate and have no experience with both. I like a challenge :) but I also want good correct info to go off. Can anyone recommend good books or online tutorials to cover - 1. Choosing a lens even lenses that are used for a different purpose like a projector lens to save on cost. Also covering the type of use the lens would be best used for. 2. Collodion and alternative developing. 3. Building an ULF camera. 4. Covering portraits using an ULF