... Designation: pLDR10 TypeStrain=False Application: contains sequence attachment site integrating vector
In the original article it was suggested that bacterial debris controls exhibited no cytokine response when incubated with PBMC. However, a subsequent data audit and additional statistical analysis has revealed that a number of the bacterial debris controls exhibited a positive cytokine response whereas others not, resulting in an inflated mean particularly for the TNF-α response (Supplementary table 1). These means were not significantly different to the response generated by the purified phages. This does not impact on the data presented or the statistical analysis that has been performed as part of Figure 2 (analysis was compared to commercial LPS or medium only) or any of the other analysis performed as part of the manuscript. However, it does mean that the bacterial debris controls are not suitable for showing the efficacy of the phage purification process and as such a component of the cytokine response generated may be due to remaining bacterial debris as suggested by Dufour et al. (2016)
Isolation, Molecular Characterization and Insight into the Genome Sequence of E. coli Bacteriophage ADB-2 from Poultry Fecal Sample Abstract.
In our country Diarrheal epidemics occur seasonally. Two peaks of outbreaks agreeably coincide with dry season and monsoon rain. Several factors control the outbreaks to occur and collapse. Bacteriophages are one of them which have been reported to trigger the collapse of the outbreaks. The concentration of the Vibrio cholerae specific bacteriophages is inversely correlated with the concentration of Vibrio cholerae in the environment. Therefore bacteriophages probably play an essential role in controlling the epidemics to occur or collapse. It is still not clear what factors trigger the onset of Diarrheal outbreaks. This study was design to see the effect of E. coli bacteriophages on the epidemics of Diarrheal disease. Routine isolation, estimation and molecular characterization reveal the prevalence E. coli phage. We have tried to characterize the isolated phages by analyzing the DNA using the technique called restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP ...
A suspension of MS2, an Escherichia coli bacteriophage virus, was used to artificially contaminate the hands of participants prior to using three different handdrying devices: jet air dryer, warm air dryer, paper towel dispenser. Virus was detected by plaque formation on agar plates layered with the host bacterium. Vertical dispersal of virus was assessed at a fixed distance (0.4 m) and over a range of different heights (0.0 - 1.8 m) from the floor. Horizontal dispersal was assessed at different distances of up to three metres from the hand-drying devices ...
The major coat protein of bacteriophage M13 is synthesized as a precursor, the procoat, with a typical leader (signal) sequence of 23 residues at its NH2-terminus. A fusion protein that contains the NH2-terminal 141 residues of cytoplasmic ribulokinase and all but the first ten residues of M13 procoat was made. The fusion protein inserts into the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli and is processed by leader peptidase to give rise to a leader peptide of 155 residues and the mature coat protein of 50 residues. The NH2-terminus of the leader peptide remains in the cytoplasm and is protected from protease added to the medium outside of the cell. This indicates that M13 procoat inserts into the membrane as a loop structure and that the NH2-terminus of a leader peptide remains within the cytoplasm during membrane insertion. ...
This HMM represents a family of phage and plasmid replication proteins. In bacteriophage IKe and related phage, the full-length protein is designated gene II protein. A much shorter protein of unknown function, translated from a conserved in-frame alternative initiator, is designated gene X protein. Members of this family also include plasmid replication proteins. This model is built as a fragment model to better detect translations from alternate intiators and other fragments relative to full length gene II protein ...
Growth characteristics of coliphage viruses indicate that they are adapted to live with their Eschericia coli hosts in the intestinal tract. However, coliphage experimentally introduced by ingestion persist only transiently if at all in the gut of humans and other animals. This study attempted to identify the barriers to long term establishment of exogenous coliphage in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of laboratory mice. Intestinal contents were screened for the presence of coliphage and host bacteria, and strains of E. coli bacteria from different segments of the GI tract were tested for susceptibility to six common laboratory coliphages. Contrary to expectations, coliphage were not evident in the GI tracts of laboratory mice, although they were occasionally detected in feces. Commensal flora showed extreme variability within groups of mice despite identical handling and diet. Less than 20% of 48 mice tested carried E. coli in their gut, and of 22 commensal E. coli strains isolated and tested, 59%
That communication can occur between virus-infected cells has been appreciated for nearly as long as has virus molecular biology. The original virus communication process specifically was that seen with T-even bacteriophages-phages T2, T4, and T6-resulting in what was labeled as a lysis inhibition. Another proposed virus communication phenomenon, also seen with T-even phages, can be described as a phage-adsorption-induced synchronized lysis-inhibition collapse. Both are mediated by virions that were released from earlier-lysing, phage-infected bacteria. Each may represent ecological responses, in terms of phage lysis timing, to high local densities of phage-infected bacteria, but for lysis inhibition also to locally reduced densities of phage-uninfected bacteria. With lysis inhibition, the outcome is a temporary avoidance of lysis, i.e., a lysis delay, resulting in increased numbers of virions (greater burst size). Synchronized lysis-inhibition collapse, by contrast, is an accelerated lysis which is
This thesis analyzes the interaction of two DNA-binding proteins with the plus strand replication origin of bacteriophage f1. The origin has a bipartite structure consisting of a required core origin region and an adjacent A +T- rich enhancer sequence that potentiates replication approximately 100-fold. The core origin binds the initiator protein, and the enhancer contains three binding sites for the E. coli integration host factor (IHF). Both activator proteins bend the DNA sequence to which they bind, implying that together they wrap the origin DNA into a higher order structure that is active in initiation. The replication initiator protein of bacteriophage f1 (gene II protein) is a multifunctional protein that participates in DNA replication at a number of levels. The gene II protein binds to the core origin in a novel two-step fashion. The first binding step involves interaction of two gene II protein molecules with an inverted repeat (β- γ) at the center of the core origin to form a binding
Biosynthesis of streptomyces griseus phage deoxyribonucleic acid by Judith Ann Shearer; 1 edition; First published in 1968; Subjects: DNA, Bacteriophages
Podana liczba cytowań wynika z analizy informacji dostępnych w Internecie i jest zbliżona do wartości obliczanej przy pomocy systemu Publish or Perish. ...
Those poor male bacteria! They have to contend with invading filamentous phage - something that Rogaine just cant cure! Well be talking more about male and female bacteria in a later lecture (sex in bacteria isnt quite the same concept as in eukaryotes).. What is significant here is that the virion of the filamentous phage (i.e. the viral particle) carries a single-strand of DNA - not a double helix. In the cell, this single-stranded genome (2.) is used as a template to synthesize a double-stranded replicative form (RF), which is essentially a plasmid (3.). The replicative form is used as a template to generate new single-stranded genomes (4.) that are packaged into virions (5.) to generate new phage. The cell doesnt die - it just grows more slowly and continues to secrete phage indefinitely.. The practical side of this story - if you use a cloning vector that is based on a filamentous bacteriophage (such as M13mp18 which is an engineered version of the phage M13) or merely contains an ...
Escherichia coli ATCC ® 700078™ Designation: C Na1(r) TypeStrain=False Application: Coliphages in water Detection of bacteriophages Host strain for detection of somatic coliphages Water testing
Accepted name: dCTP diphosphatase. Reaction: dCTP + H2O = dCMP + diphosphate. Other name(s): deoxycytidine-triphosphatase; dCTPase; dCTP pyrophosphatase; deoxycytidine triphosphatase; deoxy-CTPase; dCTPase. Systematic name: dCTP nucleotidohydrolase. Comments: Also hydrolyses dCDP to dCMP and phosphate.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9024-87-7. References: 1. Zimmerman, S.B. and Kornberg, A. Deoxycytidine di- and triphosphate cleavage by an enzyme formed in bacteriophage-infected Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 1480-1486.. ...
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1GVP: Analyses of the stability and function of three surface mutants (R82C, K69H, and L32R) of the gene V protein from Ff phage by X-ray crystallography.
Holin of 77 aas and 1 central TMS from E. coli phage ECBP5, Orf46. This protein is nearly identical to the pin-holin characterized for E. coli phage KBNP1315 (Lee et al. 2015). It infects a pathogenic avian E. coli strain (Lee et al. 2015 ...
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1.Definición de Célula.  Es la unidad anatómico y funcional de todo ser vivo.  Tiene función de autoconservación y autorreproducción.  Es por esto, por lo q…
The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. MS2 is a member of a family of closely related bacterial viruses that includes bacteriophage f2, bacteriophage Qβ, R17, and GA. In 1961, MS2 was isolated by Alvin John Clark and recognized as an RNA-containing phage very similar to bacteriophage f2. In 1976, the MS2 genome was the first genome to be completely sequenced. This was accomplished by Walter Fiers and his team, building upon their earlier milestone in 1972 of the first gene to be completely sequenced, the MS2 coat protein. These sequences were determined at the RNA level, whereas the next landmark achievement, the sequence of the bacteriophage ΦX174 genome in 1977, was determined using DNA. The first effort at a statistical analysis of the MS2 genome was a search for patterns in the nucleotide sequence. Several non-coding sequences were identified, however at the ...
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I am based in the laboratory of Assoc Prof Keith Shearwin (Biochemistry, Molecular and Biomedical Science) https://researchers.adelaide.edu.au/profile/keith.shearwin.. Research in the Shearwin lab integrates biochemistry, genetics and mathematical modelling to characterise fundamental mechanisms of gene control and how these mechanism are combined to create gene regulatory circuits with complex functions. Our primary experimental systems are two E. coli bacteriophages, lambda and 186. These temperate phages can replicate their genomes using alternative developmental pathways, lysis and lysogeny, and are some of the simplest organisms to make developmental decisions. Despite their relative simplicity, the phage systems combine a wide range of gene control mechanisms in complex ways and have many lessons to teach us.. The phage systems have been the springboard for my particular interests in DNA looping, molecular traffic on DNA and epigenetics.. DNA loops are created when proteins bound to ...
The DNA in its circular form contains 48,502 base-pairs...Bacteriophage lambda DNA in its circular form contains 48,502 base-pairs and codes for about 60 proteins. According to abstract phage Lambda has 46 clearly defined ORFs and another ~20 putative ORFs, totaling ~66ORFs (~60 proteins according to p.730 2nd paragraph). The number of bases is for the double stranded circular chromosome. 48,514 bp according to Lewin, Genes VIII, 2004, p.335 fig.12.11 ...
Bacteria and their viruses (phages) are abundant across diverse ecosystems and their interactions influence global biogeochemical cycles and incidence of disease. Problematically, both classical and metagenomic methods insufficiently assess the host specificity of phages and phage-host infection dynamics in nature. Here we review emerging methods to study phage-host interaction and infection dynamics with a focus on those that offer resolution at the single-cell level. These methods leverage ever-increasing sequence data to identify virus signals from single-cell amplified genome (SAG) datasets or to produce primers/probes to target particular phage- bacteria pairs (digital PCR and phageFISH), even in complex communities. All three methods enable study of phage infection of uncultured bacteria from environmental samples, while the latter also discriminates between phage-host interaction outcomes (e.g., lytic, chronic, lysogenic) in model systems. Together these techniques enable quantitative,
Usually bacteriophages lyse their hosts following infection, however a few so-called "temperate" phage undergo lysogeny. In lysogeny, the bacteriophage integrates its genome into that of its host. The phage, then, is replicated each time the bacterial cell divides. In the lysogenic state, the bacteriophage can have considerable influence over host physiology ...
Heineman et al. found that T7 phage could evolve the ability to discriminate between several host strains. T7wild-type "was independently adapted in two mixes of Escherichia coli strains: C with either B or K12. In both adaptations, C was the permissive host, while the other (B or K12, depending on the adaptation) aborted T7 infections due to deletion of a host gene needed for viral replication. Both adapted phages evolved to largely avoid the nonpermissive host but maintained a high adsorption rate to C." Notably the phage evolved the ability to discriminate via single amino acid substitutions in the tail fiber gene (used to bind host receptors ...
Regulation by a cascade in phages, Regulation of Gene Expression Cricuit of Lytic Cycle and Lysogeny in Bacteriophages, Genetics
A stylized image of a bacteriophage. The capsid, tail, tail fibers, base plague and contractile shield are shown. - Stock Image F002/0293
First, related to the question at the beginning of the thread, I do not think you have to take this into account: Hes talking about bacteriophage, You just a sensitive strain of bacteria, the one used for propagating the phage would be good ...
Bacteriophages (phages) are probably the most abundant entities in nature, often exceeding bacterial densities by an order of magnitude. As viral predators
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నెల్లూరు: మనుబోలు మండలం బద్వేలు క్రాస్‌రోడ్డు దగ్గర కారు బోల్తా, ముగ్గురికి గాయాలు,కర్నూలు: 16 వ రోజు జగన్ ప్రజా సంకల్ప యాత్ర,రంగారెడ్డి: మైలార్‌దేవ్‌పల్లిలో కింగ్స్‌ కాలనీలో ముస్తఫా అనే వ్యక్తిపై దుండగుల కాల్పులు,కడప: జగన్ సీఎం అయితే తన ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి..చంద్రబాబు సీఎంగా ఉంటే ప్రజల ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి: మంత్రి సోమిరెడ్డి,సిరిసిల్ల: అన్ని గ్రామాల్లో కేసీఆర్ గ్రామీణ ప్రగతి ...
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The usefulness of a recombinant phage library depends on the ability to screen a large number of phage and identify the clone that carries the DNA sequence of interest
1.Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA. Fully describe 2 of these 3 classical experiments and indicate how each provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene.a. Hershey and Chase- bacteriophage re...
Для выдвижного усилия поршня шприца в инъекционных насосах VIT-FIT и насосах VIT-FIT HP высокого давления установлен качественный швейцарский двигатель. Его новая технология обеспечивает высокий крутящий момент и на порядок более долгий срок службы. Для того чтобы перевести вращательное движение в линейное перемещение применяется шариковинтовая пара, выдерживающая большие механические нагрузки. Тем не менее, эти дорогостоящие компоненты играют решающую роль в обеспечении жесткости хода толкателя. Это важно для неизменной непульсирующей линейной ...
The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and utility of bacteriophage phi X174 immunization as a tool to assess the immune competence of HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease in vivo, and to assess the impact of viral load levels and therapy-induced changes in viral load levels on the response to immunization with the neo-antigen bacteriophage phi X174. Bacteriophage phi X174 immunization is a method that has been in use for more than 25 years to assess the immunity of patients with various types of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, including 48 HIV-infected patients. This is a prospective open-label, controlled study which will enroll 39 HIV-infected patients and 13 healthy volunteers, male or female with 18 years of age and over. The HIV-infected patients will be divided into 3 groups according to their CD4 cell count: less than 200 cells/mm(3), between 200 and 500 cells/mm(3) and greater than 500 cells/mm(3). After screening and a two week pre-study ...
Performance of the SBR in terms of commonly used physical, chemical and biological parameters has confirmed it to be a viable wastewater treatment option. This study further investigates the use of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and coliphages to evaluate the removal of selected microbiological indicators of potential pathogens by the SBR. Results from a pilot-scale SBR which received clarified sewage from a local treatment works treating a combined (domestic and industrial) sewage showed that increases in REACT time led to increases in the overall removal of the selected microorganisms. On average, up to 96% of total coliform and fecal coliform removals and up to 90% of coliphage removal was possible with the SBR operated with 2.5 h of REACT. During FILL, a long FILL (3h) resulted in reduction of coliforms while there was generally only a small reduction of coliphages. During REACT, a short REACT resulted in increase in selected microorganisms and the increase in coliphage numbers was ...
Phage therapy has also proven to be an effective therapeutic tool in fighting pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, particularly in preventing the development of colibacillosis, which initially develops in the respiratory tract and air sacs and then takes the form of sepsis, causing considerable mortality in poultry.. Phage suspensions applied directly to the air sac in 3-day-old birds in a range of titres from 106 to 103 PFU to treat E. coli infections substantially reduced mortality rates to 5% and 25%, respectively. Similar results were obtained after inoculation of a bacteriophage suspension in the drinking water of birds at 1 week of age (103 or 104 PFU of bacteriophages per mL) followed by air sac challenge with 103 CFU of E. coli phages. Mortality was decreased to 25% and 5%, respectively. No mortality was observed in chickens treated with 108 PFU of an E. coli bacteriophage mixture [38]. Bacteriophages have also been shown to be highly effective in treating sepsis and meningitis in ...
Endosialidase (endo-N-acetylneuraminidase) is a tailspike enzyme of bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic Escherichia coli K1, which specifically recognizes and degrades polySia (polysialic acid). polySia is also a polysaccharide of the capsules of other meningitis- and sepsis-causing bacteria, and a post-translational modification of the NCAM (neural cell-adhesion molecule). We have cloned and sequenced three spontaneously mutated endosialidases of the PK1A bacteriophage and one of the PK1E bacteriophage which display lost or residual enzyme activity but retain the binding activity to polySia. Single to triple amino acid substitutions were identified, and back-mutation constructs indicated that single substitutions accounted for only partial reduction of enzymic activity. A homology-based structural model of endosialidase revealed that all substituted amino acid residues localize to the active site of the enzyme. The results reveal the importance of non-catalytic amino acid residues for ...
View DNA Rearrangements from BIOLOGY MCB2010 at Broward College. Examples : Integration of bacteriophage DNA into host bacterial chromosome Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor genes DNA rearrangements
Mouse anti-M13 phage coat protein g8p. Antibodies recognising M13 filamentous phage coat proteins are instrumental in the selection and detection of phages expressing specific antibody fragments or peptide sequences at their surface. The monoclonal antibodies manufactured and supplied by Exalpha react with either the pIII (g3p) or pVIII (g8p) proteins of M13 filamentous bacteriophage. All antibodies are available in a purified format. The antibodies are fully validated and are suitable for a wide range of techniques including ...
Why would they need lysogeny-or even, how could they lysogenize? I cant speak for them all, but MS2 is a (+)-stranded ssRNA phage. On infection, the RNA can be directly translated into proteins that replicate the phage RNA and direct the synthesis of any capsid proteins required to form new phage particles. The replicase enzyme makes copies of both plus and minus strands, though the latter are only used as a template to make more (+) strand for both translation and packaging into phage. To lysogenize, there needs to be a DNA phase to the replication cycle and there isnt any such phase for MS2 ...
During PACE, host E. coli cells flow continuously into a fixed-volume vessel (a lagoon) containing a population of filamentous bacteriophages that encode a library of evolving proteins. The lagoon is continuously drained to a waste container after passing through an in-line luminescence monitor that measures expression from a gene III-luciferase cassette on the AP. Dilution occurs faster than cell division but slower than phage replication. Each phage carries a protein-encoding gene to be evolved instead of a phage gene (gene III) that is required for infection. Phage encoding active library members trigger expression of gene III on the AP in proportion to the desired activity and consequently produce infectious progeny. Phage encoding less active library members produce fewer infectious progeny and are lost by dilution. From: Nat. Chem. Biol. 10, 216-222 (2014). PDF. ...
The number of successful propagations/isolations of soil-borne bacteriophages is small in comparison to the number of bacteriophages observed by microscopy (great plaque count anomaly). As one...
Viruses are parasitic infectious agents with a nanoscale shell, known as the capsid, that encapsulates the genomic material. Most bacteriophage viruses invade bacteria by transferring their genome inside the host cell while leaving the capsid outside. Thus, the foremost event of bacteriophage infection is the ejection of genomic material into the host bacterium after the virus has recognized and bound to surface receptor sites. How ejection is triggered is yet unknown. We show, by manipulating individual mature T7 phage particles, that tapping the capsid wall with an oscillating atomic-force-microscope cantilever triggers rapid DNA ejection via the tail complex. Triggering rate increases exponentially as a function of force, hence follows transition-state theory, across an activation barrier of 23 kcal/mol at 1.2 nm along the reaction coordinate. The conformation of the ejected DNA molecule revealed that it had been exposed to a propulsive force. This force, arising from intra-capsid pressure, assists
1AE3: Analyses of the stability and function of three surface mutants (R82C, K69H, and L32R) of the gene V protein from Ff phage by X-ray crystallography.
Bacteriophages infecting bacteria, computer illustration. A bacteriophage, or phage, is a virus that infects bacteria. It consists of an icosahedral (20-sided) head, which contains the genetic material, a tail and tail fibres, which fix it to a specific receptor site on the bacterium. The tail injects the genetic material into the bacterium, and the cellular machinery of the bacterium is used to produce more copies of the virus. - Stock Image F016/7885
Proteome IDi ,p>The proteome identifier (UPID) is the unique identifier assigned to the set of proteins that constitute the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome,/a>. It consists of the characters UP followed by 9 digits, is stable across releases and can therefore be used to cite a UniProt proteome.,p>,a href=/help/proteome_id target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...