TY - JOUR. T1 - Adherence to treatment with protease inhibitors and therapeutic outcome in an unselected cohort of HIV-infected patients. T2 - A retrospective study. AU - Lazzarini, L.. AU - Lanzafame, M.. AU - Polo, A.. AU - Vento, S.. AU - Concia, E.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Objectives: A retrospective study was carried out to assess the relationship between medication adherence to protease inhibitors and therapeutic outcome in an unselected cohort of HIV infected patients. Methods: 173 patients, undergoing a triple antiretroviral treatment including a protease inhibitor, were recruited. Adherence was assessed through an antiretroviral medicine register. Results: Non-adherence was found in 26.5% of patients on indinavir, in 29% of patients on ritonavir and in 25.7% of patients on saquinavir. No immunological and clinical failure was recorded during the study. At the end of the study, the average plasmatic viremia was lower in adherent than in non-adherent patients (11,587 vs 21,258 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcomes from pandemic influenza A H1N1 infection in recipients of solid-organ transplants. T2 - A multicentre cohort study. AU - Kumar, Deepali. AU - Michaels, Marian G.. AU - Morris, Michele I.. AU - Green, Michael. AU - Avery, Robin K.. AU - Liu, Catherine. AU - Danziger-Isakov, Lara. AU - Stosor, Valentina. AU - Estabrook, Michele. AU - Gantt, Soren. AU - Marr, Kieren A.. AU - Martin, Stanley. AU - Silveira, Fernanda P.. AU - Razonable, Raymund R.. AU - Allen, Upton D.. AU - Levi, Marilyn E.. AU - Lyon, G. Marshall. AU - Bell, Lorraine E.. AU - Huprikar, Shirish. AU - Patel, Gopi. AU - Gregg, Kevin S.. AU - Pursell, Kenneth. AU - Helmersen, Doug. AU - Julian, Kathleen G.. AU - Shiley, Kevin. AU - Bono, Bartholomew. AU - Dharnidharka, Vikas R.. AU - Alavi, Gelareh. AU - Kalpoe, Jayant S.. AU - Shoham, Shmuel. AU - Reid, Gail E.. AU - Humar, Atul. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - Background: There are few data on the epidemiology and outcomes of influenza infection in ...
Jehan, I., Harris, H., Salat, S., Zeb, A., Mobeen, N., Pasha, O., ... Goldenberg, R. L. (2009). Neonatal mortality, risk factors and causes: A prospective population-based cohort study in urban Pakistan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(2), 130-138. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.08.050963 ...
In 1986 a prospective cohort study on diet and cancer was started in the Netherlands among 62,573 women ages 55-69 years. Baseline information on diet and other risk factors was collected with a questionnaire. Cancer incidence was measured by record linkage with cancer registries and a pathology register. A case-cohort approach was used, in which the accumulated person time in the cohort was estimated by follow-up of a randomly selected subcohort (n = 1812). After 3.3 years of follow-up, 471 incident breast cancer cases were available for analysis. Questionnaire data for these cases and the 1716 female subcohort members without a history of cancer other than skin cancer were analyzed. In a multivariate analysis, controlling for traditional risk factors, the relative rates for breast cancer in increasing quintiles of energy-adjusted total fat intake were 1.00, 1.00, 1.34, 1.22, 1.08 (P-trend, 0.32). For saturated fat there was some evidence for a weak positive association when quintiles were used ...
Clinical trial for Mother to Child Transmission of HIV , Prospective Observational Cohort Study on Mother to Child Transmission HIV1/HIV2 and Prevention
The huge value of cohort studies is, in part, due to their versatility. You can study lots of different risk factors and outcomes in the same group of people, and the range of risk factors is wide - lifestyle, environment and genes. You can also tell the order in which things occur, so you can differentiate between the causes of disease and the effects of disease.. At the MRC, we recently completed a review of all of the large, population cohort studies we fund. One of the most heartening findings was the huge support from the general public. Amazingly, 1 in 30 of the UK general public are currently participating in a cohort study.. These people have given huge amounts of their time to support research, and cohort studies are very expensive to set up and run. Therefore, we should make sure that cohort studies are accessible to a large number of researchers so that we can squeeze as much useful information as possible out of them.. Some cohort studies have been exemplary. ALSPAC (also known as ...
article{e1d486dc-0d2e-4f48-b547-d6542d967ba0, abstract = {,p,Prospective observational studies have shown previously that study participants have lower morbidity and mortality than non-participants. The aim of the current study was to determine whether participants in a prospective cohort study on melanoma have a different incidence and mortality of melanoma compared with non-participants and the background population. Information was collected from Swedish National Registers on participants (n = 30,501) and non-participants (n = 10,499) in the Melanoma In Southern Sweden (MISS) study and the background population (n = 243,032). Hazard ratios were calculated for overall incidence of cancer and melanoma, and all-cause and melanoma-specific mortality, using Cox regression. Participants had a lower overall incidence of cancer and all-cause mortality than non-participants and the background population. There was no difference in incidence of melanoma or melanoma-specific characteristics between ...
The Lifelines Cohort Study is a large population-based cohort study and biobank that was established as a resource for research on complex interactions between environmental, phenotypic and genomic factors in the development of chronic diseases and healthy ageing. The Lifelines cohort distinguishes a childrens cohort (aged 0-18), an adult cohort (aged 18-65) and the elderly…
Survival rates in kidney cancer have improved little over time, and diabetes may be an independent risk factor for poor survival in kidney cancer. We sought to determine whether medications with putative anti-neoplastic properties (statins, metformin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)) are associated with survival in diabetics with kidney cancer. We conducted a population-based cohort study utilizing linked healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada. Patients were aged 66 or older with newly diagnosed diabetes and a subsequent diagnosis of incident kidney cancer. Receipt of metformin, statins or NSAIDs was defined using prescription claims. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and the secondary outcome was cancer-specific mortality. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression, with medication use modeled with time-varying and cumulative exposure analyses to account for intermittent use. During the 14-year study period, we studied 613 patients. Current statin use ...
A SNP upstream of the INSIG2 gene, rs7566605, was recently found to be associated with obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) by Herbert and colleagues. The association between increased BMI and homozygosity for the minor allele was first observed in data from a genome-wide association scan of 86,604 SNPs in 923 related individuals from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort. The association was reproduced in four additional cohorts, but was not seen in a fifth cohort. To further assess the general reproducibility of this association, we genotyped rs7566605 in nine large cohorts from eight populations across multiple ethnicities (total n = 16,969). We tested this variant for association with BMI in each sample under a recessive model using family-based, population-based, and case-control designs. We observed a significant (p , 0.05) association in five cohorts but saw no association in three other cohorts. There was variability in the strength of association evidence across ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term mortality in HIV-infected individuals 50 years or older. T2 - a nationwide, population-based cohort study. AU - Legarth, Rebecca. AU - Ahlström, Magnus G. AU - Kronborg, Gitte. AU - Larsen, Carsten S. AU - Pedersen, Court. AU - Pedersen, Gitte. AU - Mohey, Rajesh. AU - Gerstoft, Jan. AU - Obel, Niels. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of HIV-infection among individuals ≥ 50 years of age has increased, the impact of HIV-infection on risk of death in this population remains to be established. Our aim was to estimate long-term mortality among HIV-infected individuals who were 50 years or older, when compared to an individually-matched cohort from the background population.METHODS: Population-based cohort-study including HIV-infected individuals ≥ 50 years, who were alive one year after HIV-diagnosis (n=2,440) and a comparison cohort individually-matched by age and gender extracted from the background population (n=14,588). Cumulative ...
Maria Lorenzi successfully defended her M.Sc. project entitled Analysis of Occupational Cohort Data Using Exposure as a Continuous Time-dependent Variable on 3 August 2005.. In occupational cohort studies, a group of workers is followed over time, and disease and work history information are collected for each individual in order to determine whether exposure to a particular substance is linked to differences in mortality or disease incidence rates. These studies are typically analyzed by treating cumulative exposure as a categorical variable and then comparing disease or mortality rates between different exposure groups. A main shortfall of such analyses is a heavy dependence on the choice of these exposure categories, as certain choices may mask or exaggerate important features of the dose-response curve. In this project, an extension to the Cox proportional hazards model is used to treat cumulative exposure as a continuous variable and model the dose-response curve nonparametrically for a ...
Maria Lorenzi successfully defended her M.Sc. project entitled Analysis of Occupational Cohort Data Using Exposure as a Continuous Time-dependent Variable on 3 August 2005.. In occupational cohort studies, a group of workers is followed over time, and disease and work history information are collected for each individual in order to determine whether exposure to a particular substance is linked to differences in mortality or disease incidence rates. These studies are typically analyzed by treating cumulative exposure as a categorical variable and then comparing disease or mortality rates between different exposure groups. A main shortfall of such analyses is a heavy dependence on the choice of these exposure categories, as certain choices may mask or exaggerate important features of the dose-response curve. In this project, an extension to the Cox proportional hazards model is used to treat cumulative exposure as a continuous variable and model the dose-response curve nonparametrically for a ...
Background: The prognostic value of erythrocyte levels of the n-6 fatty acids (FAs) for total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes remains an open question. Methods: We examined CV outcomes and death in 2500 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort without prevalent CVD (mean age 66 years, 57% women) as a function of baseline levels of different length n-6 FAs (18 carbon, 20 carbon and 22 carbon) in the erythrocyte membranes. Clinical outcomes were monitored for up to 9.5 years (median follow up, 7.26 years). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for a variety of demographic characteristics, clinical status and RBC n-6 and long chain n-3 FA content. Results: There were 245 CV events, 119 CHD events, 105 ischemic strokes, 58 CVD deaths, and 350 deaths from all causes. Few associations between either mortality or CVD outcomes were observed for the n-6 FAs, with those that were observed becoming non-significant after adjusting for n-3 FA levels. Conclusions: Higher
Preservation of the Semantic Verbal Fluency Advantage in a Large Population-Based Sample: Normative Data from the TILDA Study - Volume 22 Issue 5 - Roisin M. Vaughan, Robert F. Coen, RoseAnne Kenny, Brian A. Lawlor
Ponsonby AL, Pezic A, Cochrane J, Cameron FJ, Pascoe M, Kemp A, Dwyer T. Infant anthropometry, early life infection, and subsequent risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus: a prospective birth cohort study. PEDIATRIC DIABETES 12 (4) : 313 - 321(2011) PubMed ...
Background Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4Is) are drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is increasing evidence that DPP4Is may result in suppression of the immune system and may increase the risk of infections such as pneumonia. Aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the use of DPP4Is and the risk of pneumonia in a population-based study. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from the worlds largest primary care database, the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We selected all users of non-insulin antidiabetic drugs (NIADs), including DPP4Is, between 2007 and 2012. To each NIAD user, we matched randomly selected non-users. The NIAD users first prescription defined the index date, which was then assigned to the matched non-users. Patients were followed from their first prescription until end of data collection or the first event of pneumonia, whichever came first. Cox regression analysis estimated the
Morna Cornell and colleagues investigate differences in mortality for HIV-positive men and women on antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.
BACKGROUND: Caffeine intake has been inversely associated with Parkinsons disease (PD) risk. This relationship may be modified by polymorphisms of glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A (GRIN2A) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), but the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. METHOD: We examined the interaction of caffeine intake with GRIN2A-rs4998386 and CYP1A2-rs762551 polymorphisms in influencing PD risk among 829 incident cases of PD and 2,754 matched controls selected among participants in the following 3 large prospective ongoing cohorts: the Nurses Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort ...
A total of 668 adults participated at baseline, 77% followed up at 1 month and 63% at 12 months, of whom 383 (57%) were included in the main analysis. Multiple imputation analysis included all 668 participants. Increasing levels of depression scores and increasing levels of pain at 1 month and an increasing number of nights in hospital were associated with significantly reduced odds of recovery at 12 months, adjusting for age, sex, centre, employment and deprivation. The findings were similar in the multiple imputation analysis, except that pain had borderline statistical significance ...
article{8645532, author = {Seibold, Petra and Webb, Adam and Aguado-Barrera, Miguel E. and Azria, David and Bourgier, Celine and Brengues, Muriel and Briers, Erik and Bultijnck, Renée and Calvo-Crespo, Patricia and Carballo, Ana and Choudhury, Ananya and Cicchetti, Alessandro and Claßen, Johannes and Delmastro, Elena and Dunning, Alison M. and Elliott, Rebecca M. and Fachal, Laura and Farcy-Jacquet, Marie-Pierre and Gabriele, Pietro and Garibaldi, Elisabetta and Gómez-Caamaño, Antonio and Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara and Higginson, Daniel S. and Johnson, Kerstie and Lobato-Busto, Ramón and Mollà, Meritxell and Müller, Anusha and Payne, Debbie and Peleteiro, Paula and Post, Giselle and Rancati, Tiziana and Rattay, Tim and Reyes, Victoria and Rosenstein, Barry S. and De Ruysscher, Dirk and De Santis, Maria Carmen and Schäfer, Jörg and Schnabel, Thomas and Sperk, Elena and Symonds, R. Paul and Stobart, Hilary and Taboada-Valladares, Begoña and Talbot, Christopher J. and Valdagni, Riccardo ...
Participation rates in large cohort studies have decreased during the last 2 decades. The consequences of this trend for relative risk estimation are unknown. The impact of a low participation rate (30%) on the Danish National Birth Cohort was examined among 49,751 women from the source population, including 15,373 participants in the cohort study. On the basis of independent data collection, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) in the source population and among participants for 3 exposure-risk associations: (a) in vitro fertilization and preterm birth, (b) smoking during pregnancy and birth of a small-for-gestational-age infant, and (c) prepregnancy body mass index and antepartum stillbirth. The effect of nonparticipation was described by a relative odds ratio (ROR), calculated as the OR(participants)/OR(source population). Two methods for calculation of confidence intervals for the relative odds ratio also were assessed. The effect of nonparticipation on the selected ORs was small. The relative ORs ...
This study hypothesized that HISD prekindergarten participation consistently correlated with better educational outcomes for students. Taking into account students age differences through kindergarten enrollment, propensity score matching controlled for students background characteristics. Three cohorts of students in this study were eligible or attended HISD prekindergarten during the 2001-2002 (Cohort I), 2002-2003 (Cohort II), and 2003-2004 (Cohort III) academic years. The study found that kindergarten students in Cohorts I, II, and III outperformed students who did not attend HISD prekindergarten on nationally-normed Stanford and Aprenda reading and mathematics tests, indicating a statistically significant positive effect of HISD prekindergarten in the short-term. HISD prekindergarten had extended effects for Cohort II students, given that they consistently outperformed non-HISD prekindergarten students at targeted grades third, fifth, and seventh. Long-term effects related to
A large prospective cohort study published in Stroke by researchers from several universities in Japan has found that people who drank four or more cups of green tea a day had a 20% lower stroke risk compared to those who seldom drank it. The study investigated the dietary habits of 81978 participants who were involved in an ongoing cohort study of Japanese adults aged 40 to 69 which focused on lifestyle and the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Using a food frequency questionnaire the participants recorded their consumption of various foods and drinks including green tea and coffee. During the follow up period of 13 years there were 3425 strokes and 910 incidents of coronary heart disease. The scientists found that those who drank two to three cups of green tea a day were 14% less likely to have any type of stroke than those who seldom or never drank it, people who drank four or more cups of green tea a day were 20% less likely to have any type of stroke than those who seldom or never ...
A prospective cohort study follows a group or of individuals who are initially free of the outcome of interest. Individuals in a cohort generally share some underlying characteristic, such as age, sex, or exposure to a . Some studies may comprise several different cohorts. The study is usually conducted for a predetermined period, long enough for some members of the cohort to develop the outcome of interest. Individuals who developed the outcome are compared with those who did not. The report of the study should include a description of the cohort and the length of follow-up, what were measured and
A prospective cohort study follows a group or of individuals who are initially free of the outcome of interest. Individuals in a cohort generally share some underlying characteristic, such as age, sex, or exposure to a . Some studies may comprise several different cohorts. The study is usually conducted for a predetermined period, long enough for some members of the cohort to develop the outcome of interest. Individuals who developed the outcome are compared with those who did not. The report of the study should include a description of the cohort and the length of follow-up, what were measured and
This design meets the need to confirm a casual relation between exposure and outcome. The investigators choose a group who have been exposed to some sort of treatment or risk, and a control group which is identical in every way other than that exposure. Retrospective cohort studies are NOT the same as case-control studies. List of the Advantages of a Cross-Sectional Study 1. I. In addition, a major advantage of the case-cohort design is the ability to study several disease outcomes using the same subcohort. Participants were 50 045 people in north-eastern Iran aged 40-75 years at baseline. Competency Exam Study Guide HLTH 501 Biostatistics Study designs Know the difference between observational and experimental design Know differences between study designs Know the advantages and disadvantages between study designs Quantifying Extent of disease Be able to compute prevalence and incidence Know the difference between incidence and prevalence Compute odds […] Doll R. Cohort studies: history of ...
It is concluded that the FFQ is able to rank subjects according to intake of food groups and nutrients. Despite a better performance of validation study participants, this conclusion also applies to the cohort at large.
The study population was comprised of 17,059 patients. The VC rate was higher in the overall contemporary cohort compared with the historical cohort (adjusted rates: 2.91% vs. 1.98%; odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.89; p = 0.001). In the contemporary cohort, radial access was associated with fewer VCs compared with femoral access (adjusted rates: 1.44% vs. 4.19%; OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.23-0.48; p < 0.001). There was a higher likelihood of VCs in association with FA in the contemporary cohort compared with the historical cohort (adjusted rates: 4.19% vs. 1.98%; OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.67-2.81; p < 0.001). This finding was consistent for both diagnostic and therapeutic catheterizations separately. ...
OBJECTIVES: Concern about the health hazards of exposure to workers in the ferroalloy industry has initiated this historical cohort study. The aim was to examine the mortality pattern among male employees in 12 Norwegian ferroalloy plants. METHODS: All men employed for at least six months who started their first employment during 1933-91 were eligible for the cohort. Deaths observed during 1962-90 were compared with expected figures calculated from national mortalities. Internal comparisons of rates were performed by Poisson regression analysis. The final cohort comprised 14,730 male employees who were observed for 288,886 person-years. RESULTS: Mortality from all causes of death was slightly increased (3390 deaths, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-1.11). Regression analysis of total mortality showed a significant negative trend for the rate ratios with increasing duration of employment. An increased mortality was found among employees in urban ...
The Original Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study consisted of 5,209 respondents of a random sample of 2/3 of the adult population of Framingham, Massachusetts, 30 to 62 years of age by household, in 1948. Exam 32 for the Original Cohort ended in April of 2014.. ...
APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories New Machi... No public clipboards found for this slide. Prone to bias due to loss to follow-up. Once investigators assemble the study cohorts, they are free to study more than one outcome, provided that the study subjects are free of each outcome of interest when the study begins. The nested case-control study design (or the case-control in a cohort study) is described here and compared with other designs, including the classic case-control and cohort studies and the case-cohort study. By definition, such cases are not free of a specified disease, as in the case of a conventional cohort study (but are free of the outcome of interest). 3. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Looks like youve clipped this slide to already. 2. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. A cohort will ...
Case series are a commonly reported study design, but the label case series is used inconsistently and sometimes incorrectly. Mislabeling impairs the appropriate indexing and sorting of evidence.. This article tries to clarify the concept of case series and proposes a way to distinguish them from cohort studies. In a cohort study, patients are sampled on the basis of exposure and are followed over time, and the occurrence of outcomes is assessed. A cohort study may include a comparison group, although this is not a necessary feature. A case series may be a study that samples patients with both a specific outcome and a specific exposure, or one that samples patients with a specific outcome and includes patients regardless of whether they have specific exposures. Whereas a cohort study, in principle, enables the calculation of an absolute risk or a rate for the outcome, such a calculation is not possible in a case series. ...
In this large, multicentre cohort study, we show that adults hospitalised for seasonal or pandemic influenza have high morbidity and mortality. Apart from the conventional risk factors such as old age and comorbidity, we found that NAI treatment, secondary infections, systemic corticosteroid and statin use may affect clinical outcomes. These findings have important implications for patient care.. Our results are consistent with other cohort studies and recent meta-analyses which showed that early NAI treatment is associated with improved survival in H1N1pdm09 influenza patients [7, 16]. In this analysis, we included both seasonal and pandemic virus subtypes, and carefully controlled for important confounders including patient characteristics, disease severity, propensity to receive NAI treatment and possible immortal time bias, with the aim of providing a more accurate estimate on the effectiveness of antiviral intervention on outcomes. Effects on survival, as well as illness duration, were ...
This 2002 report presents the results of the mortality cohorts implemented through the EMCDDA multi-site study. The report contains: the descriptions of the cohorts, the standardised mortality rates (general and cause-specific, when possible), the standardised mortality ratios (SMR), a survival analysis of cohorts participants by age and site, and a univariate and multivariate analysis of factors related to mortality.. ...
How representative participants in this study were in relation to the original cohort was tested using χ2 tests. Separate analyses were carried out by sex as BMD, skeletal size, and rates of bone loss are known to differ between men and women. Lifecourse effects on adult health have previously been shown to differ by sex for this and other cohorts.11,22,23 Furthermore, the inclusion of variables such as age at menarche, and number of pregnancies prevents the use of a combined lifecourse model. Eleven twins were excluded from all analyses because of the differences in fetal development for multiple births and the fact that data contributed by co-twins are not independent.. Chronic infection in childhood, hormone replacement therapy and physical activity were defined as binary variables. Social class, position in family, alcohol consumption, number of acute illnesses in childhood, quartiles of ranked adult dietary intake of vitamins C and D, protein and calcium, and number of pregnancies were ...
Mansell, Toby, Ponsonby, Anne-Louise, Collier, Fiona, Burgner, David, Pezic, Angela, Vuillermin, Peter, Ryan, Joanne, Saffery, Richard, Carlin, John, Allen, Katie, Tang, Mimi, Ranganathan, Sarath, Burgner, David, Dwyer, Terry and Sly, Peter 2020, Methylation of the LEP gene promoter in blood at 12 months and BMI at 4 years of age-a population-based cohort study, International journal of obesity, vol. 44, pp. 842-847, doi: 10.1038/s41366-020-0553-3. ...
PubMed journal article: Bias correction of estimates of familial risk from population-based cohort studies. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing temporal patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy and after childbirth has important clinical implications for diagnosis, treatment, and maternal and child outcomes. The primary aim of the present study was to distinguish patterns of chronically elevated levels of depressive symptoms v. trajectories that are either elevated during pregnancy but then remit after childbirth, v. patterns that increase after childbirth.. METHODS: The report uses latent growth mixture modeling in a large, population-based cohort (N = 12 121) to investigate temporal patterns of depressive symptoms. We examined theoretically relevant sociodemographic factors, exposure to adversity, and offspring gender as predictors.. RESULTS: Four distinct trajectories emerged, including resilient (74.3%), improving (9.2%), emergent (4.0%), and chronic (11.5%). Lower maternal and paternal education distinguished chronic from resilient depressive trajectories, whereas higher maternal and partner ...
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click Selective Export button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
In most earlier studies and some recent studies the risk associated with a baseline measure of intake is similar to a measure of average lifetime intake Ferrari et al. Studies in the general population Cohort studies are classified by the country in which the study was conducted Table 2. Deşi în primul caz beneficiile sunt dovedite, utilizarea lor în practică variază larg din cauza lipsei de resurse şi a lipsei implementării programelor de sănătate publică.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recovery from mental ill health in an occupational setting. T2 - A cohort study in Japan. AU - Mino, Yoshio. AU - Shigemi, Jun. AU - Tsuda, Toshihide. AU - Yasuda, Nobufumi. AU - Babazono, Akira. AU - Bebbington, Paul. PY - 2000/3. Y1 - 2000/3. N2 - Objectives: The purpose of this study is to clarify the degree of recovery from mental ill health in occupational settings and the nature of perceived job stress associated with recovery. Methods: A 1-year cohort study was carried out in 287 of 763 workers who scored 8 or more on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and the proportion recovering during the year was compared according to the presence of individual perceived job stress items. To control confounding factors, multiple logistic analysis was used. Results: Recovery from mental ill health was observed in 48.7% after the first 6 months and in 66.1% after 1 year. During the first 6-month period, no identified job stress item was associated with recovery. During the ...
Cohort study:. A cohort study is a longitudinal study that identifies a group of subjects sharing some attributes (a cohort) then takes measurements on the subjects at various points in time and records data for the group. A cohort study is often used to compare two groups over time, e.g. those who had treatment A for a condition, and those who had treatment B.. Browse Other Glossary Entries. ...
Background Despite declining US adolescent smoking prevalence from 40% among 12th graders in 1995 to around 10% in 2018, adolescent smoking is still a significant problem. Using the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort (i3C) Consortium, which includes 7 international cohorts recruited in childhood and followed into adulthood, the present study was designed to confirm the important relation between adolescent smoking and daily adult smoking and present new data on adult smoking into the forties and comparison of smoking in the United States, Finland, and Australia. Methods and Results Childhood smoking experience during ages 6 to 19 in the 1970s and 1980s was classifiable in 6687 i3C participants who also provided smoking status in their twenties and forties through 2011-2018. Prevalence of daily smoking in their twenties was directly related to degree of smoking during adolescence and inversely related to the age at which that smoking experience occurred (P trend, <0.001). Similar patterns
This month’s Editor’s Choice selection is “Seizures in preterm neonates: A multicenter observational cohort study” by...
Methods The Million Women Study is a large population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged UK women. This analysis is based on 372 542 women who reported their birthweight, current body size, and other information in a follow-up survey administered approximately 3 years after recruitment (mean age 58 years at follow-up). Logistic regression was used to estimate relative risk for being obese in adulthood (body mass index,30 kg/m2) by birthweight, both unadjusted and adjusted for reported adult height, parental heights, and a range of social and lifestyle factors, including socio-economic status, parental smoking at birth, being breast fed, reproductive history and health behaviours. ...
Study question Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer?. Methods In this cohort study, 308 297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66 632 known deaths by the end of follow-up, 17 957 were due to solid cancers.. Study answer and limitations Results suggest a linear increase in the rate of cancer with increasing radiation exposure. The average cumulative colon dose estimated among exposed workers was 20.9 mGy (median 4.1 mGy). The estimated rate of mortality from all cancers excluding leukaemia increased with cumulative dose by 48% per Gy (90% confidence interval 20% to 79%), lagged by 10 years. Similar associations were seen for mortality ...
Background. Comparative cohort studies are often conducted to identify novel therapeutic strategies or prognostic factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We aimed to evaluate the power of such studies to provide clinically and statistically significant conclusions with regard to mortality differences.. Methods. We searched in PubMed and Scopus for comparative cohort studies that evaluated mortality in patients with VAP. We calculated the central estimates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality differences between compared patient groups. We also calculated the statistical power of the included studies to detect a difference in mortality that corresponds to a risk ratio of 0.80.. Results. We identified 39 (20 prospective) comparative cohort studies on VAP as eligible for inclusion in this analysis. The median absolute risk difference in mortality between compared groups was 10% (interquartile range [IQR], 5%-18%), and the median width of the 95% CI of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Childhood health problems following planned caesarean delivery at term. T2 - a population-based retrospective cohort study of Scottish data. AU - Black, Mairead Eileen. AU - Mclernon, D.. AU - Norman, J.. AU - Bhattacharya, Siladitya. PY - 2015/4. Y1 - 2015/4. M3 - Abstract. VL - 122. SP - 4. EP - 4. JO - BJOG-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. JF - BJOG-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. SN - 1470-0328. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validation of a dietary questionnaire used in a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer. AU - Goldbohm, R.A.. AU - van den Brandt, P.A.. AU - Brants, H.A.M.. AU - van t Veer, P.. AU - Al, M.D.M.. AU - Sturmans, F.. AU - Hermus, R.J.J.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Validation of a dietary questionnaire used in a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer.Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA, Brants HA, vant Veer P, Al M, Sturmans F, Hermus RJ.TNO Toxicology and Nutrition Institute, Zeist, The Netherlands.OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to assess the validity of a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), used in a cohort study on diet and cancer (120,852 men and women, aged 55-69). DESIGN & SUBJECTS: The study was carried out in a subgroup of the cohort (59 men and 50 women) 2 years after the baseline FFQ was completed. A dietary record, kept over three 3-day periods, 4-5 months apart, served as reference method. To evaluate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Osteoporosis increases subsequent risk of gallstone. T2 - A nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan. AU - Klahan, Sukhontip. AU - Kuo, Chun Nan. AU - Chien, Shu-Chen. AU - Lin, Yea Wen. AU - Lin, Chun Yi. AU - Lin, Chia Hsien. AU - Chang, Wei Chiao. AU - Lin, Ching I.. AU - Hung, Kuo Sheng. AU - Chang, Wei Pin. PY - 2014/11/18. Y1 - 2014/11/18. N2 - Background: Osteopontin (OPN) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which is expressed in various tissues. It participates in the bone remodeling process and stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts. It is also a core protein of cholesterol gallstones. We hypothesized osteoporotic patients might have higher risk in developing gallstones and conducted a population-based study to examine the risk of developing gallstone in osteoporotic patients in Taiwan. Methods: A total of 1,638 patients diagnosed with osteoporosis between 2003 and 2005 were identified in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort ...
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Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are widely prescribed in people with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether SGLT2 inhibitor prescription is associated with COVID-19, when compared with an active comparator. We performed a propensity-score-matched cohort study with active …
As Canadas population ages, the location of end of life care (whether at home, extended care facility or hospital) may change depending on the location of death. We carried out a study to identify determinants of the place of death. Data on deaths in British Columbia between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vital Statistics Agency. Place of death was categorized into home, extended care facility, hospital or other. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the effects of age, sex, marital status, residence, place of birth and cause of death on place of death using adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Of the 153,111 deaths in the study, 16.5% occurred at home, 29.0% in extended care, 51.0% in hospital and 3.5% occurred elsewhere. Male deaths were less likely to occur in extended care as compared with female deaths (odds ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.71-0.75). Age (odds ratio 3.31, 95% CI 3.19-3.45 for those for ≥90 vs 70-79 years), marital status (odds ratio 1.42, 95% CI 1
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ABSTRACTObjectiveTo externally validate four commonly used rules in computed tomography (CT) for minor head injury.DesignProspective, multicentre cohort study.SettingThree university and six non-university hospitals in the Netherlands.ParticipantsConsecutive adult patients aged 16 years and over who
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adverse effects of maternal lead levels on birth outcomes in the ALSPAC study. T2 - a prospective birth cohort study. AU - Taylor, Caroline M. AU - Golding, Jean. AU - Emond, Alan M. PY - 2015/2/1. Y1 - 2015/2/1. N2 - Objective To study the associations of prenatal blood lead levels (B-Pb) with pregnancy outcomes in a large cohort of mother-child pairs in the UK.Design Prospective birth cohort study.Setting Avon area of Bristol, UK.Population Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).Methods Whole blood samples were collected and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285). Data collected on the infants included anthropometric variables and gestational age at delivery. Linearregression models for continuous outcomes and logistic regression models for categorical outcomes were adjusted for covariates including maternal height, smoking, parity, sex of the baby and gestational age.Main ...
Background: Recent studies suggest that lactation has long-term effects on risk for cardiovascular disease in women, but the effects on cardiovascular mortality are less well known. Method: In a Norwegian population-based prospective cohort study, we studied the association of lifetime duration of lactation with cardiovascular mortality in 21,889 women aged 30 to 85 years who attended the second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT2) in 1995-1997. The cohort was followed for mortality through 2010 by a linkage with the Cause of Death Registry. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death from all causes and cardiovascular disease were calculated using Cox regression. Results: During follow-up, 1,246 women died from cardiovascular disease. Parous women younger than 65 years who had never lactated had a higher cardiovascular mortality than the reference group of women who had lactated 24 months or more (HR 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28, 5.99). There was some evidence of a U-shaped association, ...
There is growing evidence that early growth influences bone mass in later life but most studies are limited to birth weight and/or early infant growth and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. In a British birth cohort study with prospective measures of lifetime height and weight, we investigated the growth trajectory in relation to bone in males (M) and females (F) at 60 to 64 years old. Outcomes were DXA measures of hip and spine areal bone density (aBMD) (n = 1658) and pQCT measures of distal and diaphyseal radius cross-sectional area (CSA), strength, and volumetric bone density (vBMD) (n = 1350 of the 1658). Regression models examined percentage change in bone parameters with standardized measures of birth weight, height, and weight. A series of conditional growth models were fitted for height and weight gain (using intervals: birth-2, 2-4, 4-7, 7-15, 15-20, 20-36, and 36-64 years) and height gain (using intervals: 2-4, 4-7, 7-15, and 15-36 years). Birth weight was positively related
TY - JOUR. T1 - Size at birth and height in early adolescence. T2 - A prospective birth cohort study. AU - Araújo, Cora L P. AU - Hallal, Pedro C.. AU - Nader, Gisele A.. AU - Menezes, Ana Maria B. AU - Victora, Cesar G.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between size at birth (birthweight and birth length) and height in early adolescence in a prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Interviews were carried out in 1993, including measurements of birthweight and length, and in 2004-2005, including measurements of weight and height. This analysis includes 4,452 individuals, with a mean age of 11.3 years (standard deviation - SD = 0.3), representing a follow-up rate of 87.5%. Mean height at 11 years was 145.8 cm (SD = 7.9), or 144.9 cm (SD = 7.7) in boys and 146.8 cm (SD = 7.9) in girls. Birthweight and birth length were positively associated with height in early adolescence in the crude analysis, but after adjustment ...
The number of children born to foreign-born mothers in Taiwan has significantly increased since the 1990s. These foreign-born mothers are mainly from China and Southeast Asia. Children born to foreign-born mothers, according to media reports, are subject to inferior health. This study sought to determine whether socioeconomic disparities in birth outcomes exist between native and foreign-born mothers in Taiwan. Analysis data were obtained from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study of 20,090 nationally representative 6-month-old babies, born in 2005. The data on the babies were divided into two groups, those of foreign-born mothers and those of Taiwanese mothers. The health outcome variables that were examined included two adverse birth outcomes: low birth weight and preterm birth. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between income and foreign-born status, as well as birth outcomes among both groups. Children of native Taiwanese mothers had a higher prevalence of low birth weight (6
Potential Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed. Forms can be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M11-2633. Reproducible Research Statement:Study protocol: Not available. Statistical code: Available from Dr. Jepsen (e-mail, mailto:[email protected]). Data set: The Danish National Board of Health (www.sst.dk) extracts data from Denmarks publicly available health care registries on request. The instructions given to the Board of Health to identify the nationwide cohort are available from Dr. Jepsen. Data for the Aarhus cohort are not available. Requests for Single Reprints: Peter Jepsen, MD, PhD, Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Nørrebrogade 44, Aarhus 8000 C, Denmark; e-mail, mailto:[email protected] Current Author Addresses: Drs. Jepsen, Ott, and Vilstrup: Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, Aarhus 8000 C, Denmark. Dr. Andersen: University of Copenhagen, O. Farimagsgade 5, PB 2099, Copenhagen K 1014, Denmark.. Dr. ...
Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent regarding risk for breast cancer related to dairy consumption. We performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine the association between diary product consumption and risk of breast cancer. A PubMed database search through January 2011 was performed for relevant studies. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for the association of dairy consumption and breast cancer risk. A random effects model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates. We identified 18 prospective cohort studies eligible for analysis, involving 24,187 cases and 1,063,471 participants. The summary relative risk of breast cancer for the highest intake of total dairy food compared with the lowest was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.95), with evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.01, I 2 = 54.5%). For milk consumption, the summary relative risk was 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.80-1.02), and substantial
Background To assess relationships between age at first birth and cardiovascular risk factors in a large longitudinal study of men and women. By assessing associations for both genders, we were able to investigate biological versus social and behavioural explanations from early life through to adulthood. Methods Multiply-imputed data on more than 7600 men and women of a British birth cohort study (National Child Development Study, 1958 British birth cohort) were used. Cardiovascular risk factors at age 44/45 years included body mass index, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), cholesterol (total, low and highdensity lipoprotein), triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin, C reactive protein, von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen. Age at first birth was categorised as ,20 years, 20-24 years, 25-29 years, 30-34 years or ,34 years. Results Being younger than 20 years of age at time of first birth was associated with an adverse cardiovascular profile by mid-life. Conversely, older ...
Hayashi K, Milloy MJ, Wood E, Dong H, Montaner JS, Kerr T Predictors of liver-related death among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada: a 15-year prospective cohort study Journal of the International AIDS Society PubMed. ...
Mitochondrial function of immune cells in septic shock: A prospective observational cohort study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the prevalence of comorbidity rates in people with severe mental illness (SMI) in UK primary care. We calculated the prevalence of SMI by UK country, English region and deprivation quintile, antipsychotic and antidepressant medication prescription rates for people with SMI, and prevalence rates of common comorbidities in people with SMI compared with people without SMI. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study from 2000 to 2012. SETTING: 627 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a UK primary care database. PARTICIPANTS: Each identified case (346 551) was matched for age, sex and general practice with 5 randomly selected control cases (1 732 755) with no diagnosis of SMI in each yearly time point. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence rates were calculated for 16 conditions. RESULTS: SMI rates were highest in Scotland and in more deprived areas. Rates increased in England, Wales and Northern Ireland over time, with the largest increase in ...
Multiply imputed data from three nationally representative British birth cohorts were used-the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD; 1946 birth cohort, n=3012), the National Child Development Study (NCDS; 1958 birth cohort, n=9614) and the British Cohort Study (BCS; 1970 birth cohort, n=8140). A typology of work-family life course types was developed using multi-channel sequence analysis, linking annual information on work, partnerships and parenthood from 16 to 42 years. Work-family life courses were related to BMI trajectories using multi-level growth models. Analyses adjusted for indicators of prior health, birthweight, child BMI, educational attainment and socioeconomic position across the life course, and were stratified by gender and cohort ...
To study the natural history of a disease, investigators at times resort to cross-sectional cohort studies, whereby participants are randomly sampled at a fixed point in time. Once their baseline information and disease history are recorded, these participants are followed until death, loss to follow-up or study termination. This design is attractive because it generally requires limited resources. The data it generates, however, suffer from various systematic biases. For example, individuals with longer lifetimes tend to be excessively sampled, and among observed cases, individuals with longer disease durations and more recent onsets are usually overrepresented. In this presentation, the analysis of data emerging from either a cross-sectional cohort study, or its related subdesign, the prevalent cohort study, is discussed. The latter arises when only diseased individuals may be recruited at sampling time. Novel methodologies for estimating important epidemiologic measures of disease risk, such ...
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the farming environment and a decreased risk of atopic sensitization, mainly related to contact with farm animals in the childhood. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the association of a farming environment, especially farm animal contact, during infancy, with atopic sensitization and allergic diseases at the age of 31. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort study, 5509 subjects born in northern Finland in 1966 were followed up at the age of 31. Prenatal exposure to the farming environment was documented before or at birth. At age 31, information on health status and childhood exposure to pets was collected by a questionnaire and skin prick tests were performed. RESULTS: Being born to a family having farm animals decreased the risk of atopic sensitization [odds ratio (OR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.80], atopic eczema ever (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66-0.91), doctor-diagnosed asthma ever (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.55-1.00), allergic rhinitis at
In Chinese patients with diabetes, having hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels that are too high or too low may be associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease and death, according to a research letter published Jan. 25 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, Eric Yuk Fai Wan, MSc, CStat, of the University of Hong Kong, and colleagues examined 117,389 adult Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes without any history of cardiovascular disease. After a median follow-up of 54.5 to 58.5 months, a J-shaped curvilinear relationship was observed between HbA1c levels and cardiovascular disease incidence, all-cause mortality and other outcomes. An HbA1c range of ≥7.0 percent to ,7.5 percent had the lowest risk of new cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease-related mortality. By comparison, an HbA1c ,6.5 percent or ≥8.0 percent was associated with a ...
In 1998, it was decided to build a single cohort, named the Swiss Mother and Child HIV Cohort Study (MoCHiV) and in 2003, MoCHiV was integrated in the
b,Objective,/b,,p,,/p, Self-reported general health and mental health are independent predictors of all-cause mortality. This study examines whether they are also independent predictors of incident cancer, coronary heart disease and psychiatric hospitalisation. ,b,Methods,/b,,p,,/p, We conducted a retrospective, population cohort study by linking the 19 625 Scottish adults who participated in the Scottish Health Surveys 1995-2003, to hospital admissions, cancer registration and death certificate records. We conducted Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, socioeconomic status, alcohol, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. ,b,Results,/b,,p,,/p, Poor general health was reported by 1215 (6.2%) participants and was associated with cancer registrations (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.55), coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.86, 2.84) and psychiatric hospitalisations (adjusted HR 2.42, 95% CI ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tea consumption and cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of postmenopausal women. AU - Zheng, Wei. AU - Doyle, Timothy J.. AU - Kushi, Lawrence H.. AU - Sellers, Thomas A.. AU - Hong, Ching Ping. AU - Folsom, Aaron R.. PY - 1996/7/15. Y1 - 1996/7/15. N2 - Tea has consistently been shown to inhibit the occurrence of tumors in experimental animals. The evidence for such a beneficial effect in humans, however, is limited. The authors examined the association between non-herbal tea consumption and cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of 35,369 postmenopausal iowa women. In this cohort, information on the frequency of tea drinking and other dietary and lifestyle factors was collected by mailed survey in 1986. After 8 years of follow-up, 2,936 incident non-skin cancer cases were ascertained in this cohort through the State Health Registry of Iowa. Proportional hazards regressions were used to derive adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for the ...
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
The safety of calcium channel blockers in human pregnancy: a prospective, multicenter cohort study. MgS[O.sub.4] prevents left ventricular dysfunction in an animal model of preeclampsia
TY - JOUR. T1 - History of breast feeding and risk of incident endometriosis. T2 - Prospective cohort study. AU - Farland, Leslie V.. AU - Eliassen, A. Heather. AU - Tamimi, Rulla M.. AU - Spiegelman, Donna. AU - Michels, Karin B.. AU - Missmer, Stacey A.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Objective To investigate the association between lifetime breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and incidence of endometriosis among parous women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses Health Study II, 1989-2011. Participants 72 394women who reported having one or more pregnancies that lasted at least six months, 3296 of whom had laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis. For each pregnancy, women reported duration of total breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, and postpartum amenorrhea. Main outcome measures Incident self reported laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis (96% concordance with medical record) in parous women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard ...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the presentation of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) and identify factors contributing toward misdiagnosis. METHODS: This was an observational study of cases with a final diagnosis of rAAA assessed at nine Emergency Departments and managed at one of two regional vascular centres in the UK. RESULTS: Eighty-five consecutive cases were included. Seventeen [20.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.5-28.5%] patients reported important symptoms up to 3 weeks before index presentation. In the Emergency Department, most patients complained of abdominal and/or back pain, seven (8.2%, 95% CI 2.4-14.0%) additionally reported atypical pain and ten (11.8%, 95% CI 4.9-18.7%) denied pain altogether. Hypotension (36.5%, 95% CI 26.3-46.7%), tachycardia (18.8%, 95% CI 10.5-27.1%) and syncope (36.5%, 95% CI 26.3-46.7%) were documented in a minority of cases. Distracting symptoms were present in 33 (38.8%, 95% CI 28.4-49.2%) patients. The median time to
OBJECTIVE: To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. DESIGN: Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. PARTICIPANTS: 109,118 men and 254,870 women, mainly aged 37-70. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men
At the NIEHS, researchers from the Epidemiology Branch are using biologic samples collected from pregnant Norwegian women to investigate how early-life exposure to environmental contaminants may affect adult health. The samples were collected from women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, or MoBa, an ongoing long-term prospective cohort study of pregnant Norwegian women and their children. NIEHS epidemiologists are analyzing these samples to measure the level of exposure to environmental contaminants in relation to a range of health endpoints, such as obesity and asthma, among the pregnant women and their children.
Abstract Background Many nephrology observational studies use renal registries, which have well known limitations. The Canadian Kidney Disease Cohort Study (CKDCS) is a large prospective observational study of patients commencing hemodialysis in five Canadian centers. This study focuses on delineating potentially reversible determinants of adverse outcomes that occur in patients receiving dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods/Design The CKDCS collects information on risk factors and outcomes, and stores specimens (blood, dialysate, hair and fingernails) at baseline and in long-term follow-up. Such specimens will permit measurements of biochemical markers, proteomic and genetic parameters (proteins and DNA) not measured in routine care. To avoid selection bias, all consenting incident hemodialysis patients at participating centers are enrolled, the large sample size (target of 1500 patients), large number of exposures, and high event rates will permit the exploration of multiple ...
Aim To determine the performance of subjectively defined intoxications, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs in identifying drinkers at risk for adverse health outcomes. Design Prospective population-based cohort study. Setting Working-aged Finnish general population. Participants A total of 21 204 alcohol-drinking men and women aged 20-24, 30-34, 40-44 and 50-54 years at baseline who participated in the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) postal survey in 1998. Measurements Binge drinking was measured by subjectively defined intoxications/drunkenness, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs. Hazardous drinking was defined according to Finnish guidelines as weekly total intake of ,287 g of ethanol for men, and for women , 191 g of ethanol (≥24 and ≥16 standard drinks, respectively). Study participants were followed-up for 7 years for alcohol-specific hospitalizations and deaths. Proportional hazard models and areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC) were used to ...
PubMed journal article: Prenatal thallium exposure and poor growth in early childhood: A prospective birth cohort study. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
This study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between parity and age at first birth and risk of death from brain cancer. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton childbirth between Jan. 1, 1978 and Dec. 31, 1987. We tracked each woman from the time of their first childbirth to December 31, 2009, and their vital status was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of death from brain cancer associated with parity and age at first birth. There were 316 brain cancer deaths during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. The mortality rate of brain cancer was 0.90 cases per 100,000 person-years. The adjusted HR was 1.35 (95% CI= 0.91-2.01) for women who gave birth between 21 and 25, 1.61 (95% CI=1.05-2.45) for women who gave birth after 25 years of age, respectively, when compared with women who gave birth less than 20 years. A trend of
Molsberry SA, Lecci F, Kingsley L, Junker B, Reynolds S, Goodkin K, Levine AJ, Martin E, Miller EN, Munro CA, Ragin A, Sacktor N, Becker JT. Mixed membership trajectory models of cognitive impairment in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. AIDS. 2015 Mar 27; 29(6):713-21 ...
The impact of deferring critically ill children in referral hospitals away from their designated pediatric critical care unit (PCCU) on patients and the healthcare system is unknown. This population-based retrospective cohort studys goal was to identify the factors associated with deferrals of critically ill children away from their designated PCCU, evaluate patient outcomes as they related to deferrals away from a PCCU and study the impact of the 2010 referral policy implementation.
Results: The odds of RTW reduced as depression scores one month post-injury increased (OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.79, 0.95) and as length of hospital stay increased (OR 0.91, 95%CI 0.86, 0.96). Those experiencing threatening life events following injury (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.10, 0.72) and with higher scores on the crisis social support scale (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.88, 0.99) had a lower odds of RTW. Multiple imputation analysis found similar results except crisis social support did not remain significant ...
Our nationwide cohort study of 23 487 prospectively followed CC patients revealed that although patients with RCC were, overall, older, more often of female gender, had modestly higher ASA scores and more advanced UICC stages than patients with LCC, the picture was indeed more complex when assessing the underlying CC subsites. Mortality from RCC was only relatively higher than mortality from LCC during the first 2 years after CC diagnosis, probably due to the observation that the majority of recurrences in colorectal cancer occurs within the first 2 years after primary treatment.12 In analyses of CC subsites, the highest relative mortality was from cancer of the splenic flexure (ie, belonging to the LCC category), while the lowest relative mortality was from sigmoid cancer (also belonging to the LCC category). The differences in mortality from CC of different colon subsites was only to a minor extent explained by the ASA scores, number of harvested lymph nodes, number of lymph nodes with ...
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FederalGrants.com opportunity listing for the Limited Competition Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) Clinical Research Sites (U01) federal grant. Includes information on eligibility, deadlines, requirements, and guidelines.
PhD Project - A study of the natural history of joint hypermobility using a population-based birth cohort at University of Bristol, listed on FindAPhD.com