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Although the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in cocaine addiction, the effects of chronic cocaine on mPFC neurons remain poorly understood. Here, we performed visualized current-clamp recordings to determine the effects of repeated cocaine administration on the membrane excitability of mPFC pyramidal neurons in rat brain slices. Following repeated cocaine administration (15 mg/kg/day i.p. for 5 days) with a 3-day withdrawal, alterations in membrane properties, including increased input resistance, reduced intensity of intracellular injected currents required for generation of Na+-dependent spikes (rheobase), and an increased number of spikes evoked by depolarizing current pulses were observed in mPFC neurons. The current-voltage relationship was also altered in cocaine-pretreated neurons showing reduced outward rectification during membrane depolarization and decreased inward rectification during membrane hyperpolarization. Application of the K+ channel blocker Ba2+ ...
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The effects of cocaine on pulsatile secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in men were studied under controlled clinical research ward conditions. Eight men with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association Version III, revised, diagnosis of concurrent cocaine and opioid dependence provided their informed consent for participation in this study. After an overnight fast, a challenge dose of cocaine (30 mg i.v.) or placebo was administered under single-blind conditions in a randomized order on 2 study days. Blood samples were collected at 2-min intervals for 76 min during base line and for an additional 76 min after i.v. administration of the challenge dose. Peak plasma cocaine levels of 313.8 +/- 46.5 ng/ml were detected within 2 min after cocaine administration. The cluster analysis program originally described by Veldhuis and Johnson (1986) was used to characterize ACTH pulsatile secretion (Iranmanesh et al., 1990). Acute cocaine administration (30 mg ...
Cocaine abuse may contribute to the diverse forms of renal injury. We report a case of a pregnant woman who developed a large subcapsular renal haematoma after cocaine intoxication at 18-week gestation. She stabilized on conservative management and presented again at 29-week gestation with pre-eclampsia, acute renal failure and fetal demise. She required caesarean section delivery and intensive antihypertensive therapy to control severe pre-eclampsia associated with cocaine intoxication. This case is unique in that it is the first report of cocaine intoxication in pregnancy complicated by subcapsular haemorrhage. We discuss the possible mechanisms for the occurrence of this complication.. ...
Cannabinoid signaling via the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor modulates the effects of drugs of abuse and the response to exposure to stressors. In addition, exposure to stressors can alter the effects of drugs of abuse. This study examined the effects of exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in CB1 receptor knockout (CB1 KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates, using cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) to compare their response to cocaine. Mice were untreated or exposed to 2 weeks of CUS. After this period, the acquisition of a cocaine CPP was examined with one of three doses (3.2, 10.0, or 17.0 mg/kg) of cocaine. Untreated CB1 KO and WT mice both acquired the cocaine CPP; however, exposure to CUS enhanced the acquisition of the cocaine CPP in CB1 KO mice, but did not significantly alter the effects of cocaine in WT mice. Taken together, these findings support earlier evidence suggesting a role for the CB1 receptor in the response to stress as well as in the effects of cocaine.
Cocaine intoxication refers to the immediate and deleterious effects of cocaine on the body. Although cocaine intoxication and cocaine dependence can be present in the same individual, these syndromes present with different symptoms. Cocaine increases alertness, feelings of well-being, euphoria, energy, competence, sociability, and sexuality. Common side effects include anxiety, increased temperature, paranoia, restlessness, and teeth grinding. With prolonged use, the drug can cause insomnia, anorexia, tachycardia, hallucinations, and paranoid delusions. Possible lethal side effects include rapid heartbeat, abnormal heart rhythms, tremors, convulsions, markedly increased core temperature, renal failure, heart attack, stroke and heart failure. Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in heavy users. Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters, neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long-term damage to dopamine neurons. Chronic intranasal usage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CREST in the nucleus accumbens core regulates cocaine conditioned place preference, cocaine-seeking behavior, and synaptic plasticity. AU - Alaghband, Yasaman. AU - Kramár, Enikö. AU - Kwapis, Janine L.. AU - Kim, Earnest S.. AU - Hemstedt, Thekla J.. AU - López, Alberto J.. AU - White, André O.. AU - Al-Kachak, Amni. AU - Aimiuwu, Osasumwen V.. AU - Bodinayake, Kasuni K.. AU - Oparaugo, Nicole C.. AU - Han, Joseph. AU - Lattal, Kennon (Matt). AU - Wood, Marcelo A.. PY - 2018/10/31. Y1 - 2018/10/31. N2 - Epigenetic mechanisms result in persistent changes at the cellular level that can lead to long-lasting behavioral adaptations. Nucleosome remodeling is a major epigenetic mechanism that has not been well explored with regards to drug-seeking behaviors. Nucleosome remodeling is performed by multi-subunit complexes that interact with DNA or chromatin structure and possess an ATP-dependent enzyme to disrupt nucleosome-DNA contacts and ultimately regulate gene expression. Calcium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-administration of cocaine increases the release of acetylcholine to a greater extent than response-independent cocaine in the nucleus accumbens of rats. AU - Mark, Gregory. AU - Hajnal, Andras. AU - Kinney, Anthony E.. AU - Keys, Alan S.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Rationale: The neurochemical effects of psychostimulant exposure may depend on how these drugs are encountered. A useful method for examining this issue is to compare neurotransmitter release following response-dependent, or self-administered, drug exposure and response-independent exposure. Objectives: This experiment examined the effect of active and passive cocaine administration on acetylcholine (ACh) efflux in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in rats. Methods: One group of rats (CSA: cocaine self-administration) was trained to lever-press for intravenous infusions of cocaine (0.42 mg/kg per infusion) on a fixed-ratio-1 schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine infusions were accompanied by the onset ...
In the present study, we observed for the first time that the LV and coronary hemodynamic responses to a binge of cocaine were markedly and progressively attenuated in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs. In general, tolerance to cocaine was manifest on rechallenge after a single dose, although progressive decline in the hemodynamic and neurohumoral response to cocaine was observed with subsequent doses. Furthermore, the tolerance was not a function of the increase in baseline hemodynamic measurements before subsequent cocaine doses as the acute hemodynamic effects of cocaine were maintained when baseline hemodynamics were increased independent of cocaine. Finally, the mechanism of tolerance to the LV and systemic effects of repeated cocaine administration did not involve end-organ desensitization to the adrenergic effects of cocaine (Figs 4⇑ and 5⇑) but rather attenuated cocaine-induced catecholamine release as demonstrated by declines in plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine responses ...
Cocaine can be snorted, swallowed, injected, or smoked. Most deaths due to cocaine are accidental but may also be the result of body packing or stuffing with rupture in the gastrointestinal tract. Use of cocaine causes abnormally fast heart rhythms and a marked elevation of blood pressure (hypertension), which can be life-threatening. This can lead to death from acute myocardial infarction, acute respiratory failure (i.e., hypoxemia, with or without hypercapnia), stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, and sudden cardiac arrest.[13] Cocaine overdose may result in hyperthermia as stimulation and increased muscular activity cause greater heat production. Heat loss is also inhibited by the cocaine-induced vasoconstriction. Cocaine and/or associated hyperthermia may cause muscle cell destruction (rhabdomyolysis) and myoglobinuria resulting in kidney failure. Individuals with cocaine overdose should be transported immediately to the nearest emergency department, preferably by ambulance in case cardiac arrest ...
On February 14, 2011, two Swiss psychologists published two years research on cocaine addiction. They found that addicts who gambled were less likely to use cocaine or to relapse on cocaine. They think gambling may refocus the brains reward center from cocaine to gambling. They said that psychotherapy should be used along with gambling. More research is being done on long-term relapse rates (the number of people who eventually start using cocaine again).[33][34][better source needed] However, a more recent study looked at prize-based contingency management: a treatment method that offers addicts chances to win prizes if they do not use cocaine. This study found that prize-based contingency management helped cocaine addicts stay off cocaine, whether or not they had gambled recently. This suggests that it is the chance of a reward, not the gambling itself, that helps cocaine addicts stay off of cocaine.[35] ...
We previously showed that maternal cocaine administration resulted in a decrease in fetal rat body weight [9]. The present study demonstrated that the maternal cocaine treatment caused a significant decrease in fetal brain weight, as compared with the saline control group. This finding is consistent with the previous report in pregnant C57BL/6 mice, in which maternal subcutaneous administration of cocaine from gestation days 12-18 produced significant decreases in fetal body and brain weight [27]. The pair-fed studies demonstrated that maternal undernutrition was not a likely mediator of the effects caused by cocaine [27, 28]. Moreover, our data indicate that cocaine decreases fetal brain/body weight ratio, suggesting that cocaine have higher affinity toxic effects on the fetal brain than the body. Dow-Edwards [29] reported that fetal brain had between 26-42% more concentration of cocaine than fetal plasma after 90 min following either 30 or 60 mg/kg cocaine given via intragastric intubation to ...
Cocaine has damaging effects on the brain, the heart and the mucous membrane of the nose. Significant symptoms of cocaine abuse are therefore paranoia, heart attacks and perforation of the nasal septum. The physical and mental effects of cocaine use are equally severe. The body and mind of a cocaine addict are both at risk.. Cocaine abuse and cocaine addiction cannot easily be distinguished because there may be no withdrawal symptoms. Similarly, users of crack cannot easily be distinguished from crack addicts. The boundary between drug use and drug abuse is not clear-cut and there may be no precise addiction symptoms.. The medical features and physical withdrawal characteristics of cocaine addiction are not as precise as they are in alcoholism or in addiction to some other drugs, such as heroin. Therefore the medical treatment of cocaine and crack abuse differs from that of other drugs.. Blood tests or urine tests would not distinguish between cocaine and crack but can show what other drugs have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Divergent effects of cocaine on cytokine production by lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages. T2 - HIV-1 enhancement by cocaine within the blood-brain barrier. AU - Fiala, A. M.. AU - Gan, X. H.. AU - Newton, T.. AU - Chiappelli, F.. AU - Shapshak, P.. AU - Kermani, V.. AU - Kung, M. A.. AU - Diagne, A.. AU - Martinez, O.. AU - Way, D.. AU - Weinand, M.. AU - Witte, M.. AU - Graves, M.. PY - 1996/10/2. Y1 - 1996/10/2. N2 - Cocaine-related immunosuppression is assumed to have serious consequences, but its evaluation in drug-addicted subjects is lacking. In this study performed with materials from addicted subjects receiving intravenous cocaine and normal control subjects, acute cocaine effects on cytokine production in vivo and in mononuclear cells in vitro were determined. Acute intravenous cocaine administration resulted in (a) increased white blood cell and lymphocyte courts, (b) decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 serum levels; (c) depressed ...
A cocaine vaccine has the following potential advantages over existing drug treatments for cocaine dependence: it blocks cocaine from entering the brain; it may have fewer side effects than drugs that act on the brain, and it may produce better patient compliance and treatment outcome than existing oral drugs.. If a cocaine vaccine proves effective in human clinical trials, it will be ethically justifiable to use it to treat cocaine dependent patients who have given free and informed consent to its use. The major ethical issues are ensuring that the treatment is safe and effective and that patients give free and informed consent to treatment. Protection of patient privacy and confidentiality is not likely to be a major concern. The major uncertainties about its safety arise because it will not completely block the effects of smoked or injected cocaine. Patients who attempt to subvert its effects by increasing their cocaine dose or using other stimulant drugs may put themselves at risk of adverse ...
Cocaine can cause psychological dependence (a strong desire to continue using the medicine because of the high feeling it produces). This may lead to cocaine abuse (more frequent use and/or use of larger amounts of cocaine) and to an increased chance of serious side effects. Cocaine abuse has caused death from heart or breathing failure.. Use of cocaine as a local anesthetic for an examination or surgery is not likely to cause psychological dependence or other serious side effects. However, if cocaine is absorbed into the body too quickly, serious side effects can occur. Also, some people are especially sensitive to the effects of cocaine. Unwanted effects may occur in these people even with small amounts of the medicine. Before receiving cocaine as a local anesthetic, you should discuss its use with your doctor.. Cocaine is applied only by or under the immediate supervision of your doctor.. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
Cocaine Treatment: Early Results From Various Approaches (Letter Report, 06/07/96, GAO/HEHS-96-80).. Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the extent to which federally funded cocaine treatment therapies have proven successful and additional research initiatives that are needed to increase knowledge of cocaine treatment effectiveness.. GAO found that: (1) cocaine treatment research is still in its early stages; (2) preliminary study results have shown that relapse prevention, community reinforcement and contingency management, and neurobehavioral therapy may produce prolonged periods of abstinence among cocaine users; (3) relapse prevention programs have the highest abstinence rates, followed by community reinforcement and neurobehavioral programs; (4) community reinforcement programs have the highest retention rates, followed by relapse prevention and neurobehavioral programs; (5) pharmacological agents have not proven to be consistently effective in preventing cocaine use, and none ...
Cocaine addiction, a serious public health concern associated with significant medical, social, and economic consequences, is difficult to treat using traditional psychosocial and behavioral therapies. Despite testing of a number of different agents for cocaine dependency, there remains no proven pharmacologic treatment for cocaine addiction.. The addictive properties of cocaine have been associated with its actions on mesotelencephalic dopamine reward pathways in the central nervous system (CNS). Cocaine administration increases the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with sensations of pleasure and reward. Therefore, blocking cocaine-induced increases in dopamine levels represents a valid pharmaceutical approach to the treatment of cocaine addiction.. Another neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suppresses striatal dopamine release, and attenuates cocaine-induced increases in extracellular and synaptic dopamine levels in the striatum and nucleus accumbens in animal ...
A method for the determination of cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and ecgonine (ECG) in plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed. The analytes were isolated from human plasma by subsequent solid-phase extraction and were separated on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 narrow-bore column using an ammonium acetate buffer/acetonitrile/methanol gradient. A Turbolonspray® source was used for ionization. The analytes were characterized by their particular molecular ion and several fragments. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for isolation and quantitation. The assay was rapid, highly sensitive, and reliable. The method was applied to monitor the in vitro degradation of cocaine in plasma. Fresh unpreserved and preserved (0.25 % KF) plasma samples were spiked with 1000 ng cocaine/mL. Aliquots of both series were stored at 4°C and 20°C and were analyzed at selected storage times of up to 15 days. In all samples, degradation of cocaine ...
Cocaine abuse is a serious health problem in many areas of the world, yet there are no proven effective medications for the treatment of cocaine dependence.Preclinical studies suggest that the reinforcing effect of cocaine that promotes its abuse is mediated by blockade of the presynaptic dopamine transporter. This results in increased dopamine activity in the mesolimbic or meso-accumbens dopamine reward system of brain. Development of new medications to treat cocaine dependence has focused on manipulation of this dopamine system, either by direct action on dopamine binding sites (transporter or receptors) or indirectly by affecting other neurotransmitter systems that modulate the dopamine system. In principle, a medication could act via one of three mechanisms: (i) as a substitute for cocaine by producing similar dopamine effects; (ii) as a cocaine antagonist by blocking the binding of cocaine to the dopamine transporter; or (iii) as a modulator of cocaine effects by acting at other than the ...
Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. The powdered form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and then injected. Crack is the street name given to the form of cocaine that has been processed to make a rock crystal, which, when heated, produces vapors that are smoked. The term crack refers to the crackling sound produced by the rock as it is heated. The street names of cocaine are coke, snow, flake and blow.. Cocaine usually makes the user feel euphoric and energetic, but also increases body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. Users risk heart attacks, respiratory failure, strokes, seizures, abdominal pain, and nausea. In rare cases, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly afterwards.. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) estimates that in 2008 there were 1.9 million current (past-month) cocaine users, of which approximately 359,000 were current crack users. Adults aged 18 to 25 years have a higher rate of current cocaine ...
Wholesale crack traffickers purchase cocaine in kilogram or multikilogram allotments from traditional cocaine sources, including Colombian and Mexican organizations. They package the cocaine into ounce quantities or convert it into crack and then divide it into ounces for sale at the next level. Wholesalers usually are large groups responsible for most of the interstate transportation of crack and cocaine intended for crack conversion.. Retail distributors convert powdered cocaine into crack, usually in their own kitchens, using a safe and simple method of converting cocaine into cocaine base. Although it produces a product higher in purity than coca paste, the crack conversion process does not eliminate all of the impurities in the cocaine. Adulterants such as lidocaine, procaine, and benzocaine survive the crack conversion process and are inhaled by the user. Federal mandatory minimum sentences are higher for crack than for powdered cocaine, but crack cocaine provides a much higher profit ...
Criteria for Discontinuation Following Initiation:. Participants will be discharged if they have a positive breath test indicating use of alcohol or a urine test indicating illicit use of drugs while in the MED-VAMC, if they do not comply with study procedures, or if they do not tolerate the study drugs.. Subject Selection Criteria Rationale for Route of Administration:. Participants are required to have used cocaine by the IV or smoked route to avoid exposing participants to drugs by routes of administration that produce more intensive interoceptive effects than usually used by the participants. Prior experience with smoked cocaine is allowed (rather than restricting the population to those with experience with IV cocaine) because smoked cocaine reaches brain sites of action as rapidly as does intravenously administered cocaine and smoked cocaine produces effects that are comparable to IV cocaine. Speed of administration (and rate of delivery to brain) of stimulant drugs likely impacts ...
5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) modulate behavioral effects of cocaine. Here we examined the effects of the 5-HT1BR agonist CP94253 on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion and on cocaine-primed reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP) in male mice given daily repeated injections of either saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, IP) for 20 days. In the locomotor activity experiment, testing occurred both 1 and 20 days after the final injection. In the CPP experiment, mice underwent conditioning procedures while receiving the last of their daily injections, which were given either during or ≥2 h after CPP procedures. The CPP procedural timeline consisted of baseline preference testing (days 12-13 of the chronic regimen), conditioning (days 14-19, 2 daily 30-min sessions separated by 5 h), CPP test (day 21), extinction (days 22-34; no injections), CPP extinction test (day 35; no injections), and reinstatement test (day 36). Mice that had not extinguished received additional extinction sessions prior to
Cocaethylene (ethylbenzoylecgonine) is the ethyl ester of benzoylecgonine. It is structurally similar to cocaine, which is the methyl ester of benzoylecgonine. Cocaethylene is formed by the liver when cocaine and ethanol coexist in the blood. Cocaethylene is the byproduct of concurrent consumption of alcohol and cocaine as metabolized by the liver. Normally, metabolism of cocaine produces two primarily biologically inactive metabolites-benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester. The hepatic enzyme carboxylesterase is an important part of cocaines metabolism because it acts as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of cocaine in the liver, which produces these inactive metabolites. If ethanol is present during the metabolism of cocaine, a portion of the cocaine undergoes transesterification with ethanol, rather than undergoing hydrolysis with water, which results in the production of cocaethylene. cocaine + H2O → benzoylecgonine + methanol (with liver carboxylesterase 1) benzoylecgonine + ethanol → ...
Cocaine addiction has become a major problem and epidemic in this country. Thousands of individuals and families are negatively affected by the use and abuse of cocaine every year. Cocaine is expensive, but individuals who use the drug to enhance their nightlife experience or work longer hours certainly are not afraid of long term consequences and repercussions. But as the years went on, studies began to find that long-term cocaine users were at risk for heart disease, heart failure, liver problems and other serious concerns. In addition, the financial burden that cocaine puts on families often lead to broken homes and lost trust. It is apparent that the need for cocaine rehab is immediate and must be confronted and addressed as soon as possible. Cocaine rehab refers to the process of helping an individual overcome their physical and psychological addiction to cocaine. This is accomplished through detoxification, individual counseling and cognitive therapy. In addition, a recovering cocaine ...
Wei-Lun Sun WL, Zhou L, Nazarian A, Quinones- Jenab V and Jenab S. (2015). Acute cocaine differentially induces PKA phosphorylation substrates in male and female rats. Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, in press.. Nygard SK, Klambatsen A, Balouch B, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2015). Region and context-specific intracellular responses associated with cocaine-induced conditioned place preference expression. Neuroscience 287:1-8.. Nygard SK, Klambatsen A, Hazim R, Eltareb MH, Blank JC, Chang AJ, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2013). Sexually dimorphic intracellular responses after cocaine-induced conditioned place preference expressionBrain Res. 1520:121-33.. Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2012). Influence of sex differences and gonadal hormones on cocaine addiction ILAR J. 53:14-22.. Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2010). Progesterone attenuates cocaine-induced responses. Horm Behav. 58:22-32.. Sun WL, Zhou L, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2009). Cocaine effects on dopamine and NMDA ...
Fig. 1 Prior alcohol use enhances persistence, motivation, and compulsivity for cocaine self-administration.. (A) Drug treatment paradigm to study alcohol and cocaine coadministration. Access to voluntary alcohol (10% alcohol, 2 hours per day) and voluntary cocaine (self-administration, 0.8 mg/kg per injection) was restricted to 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. and 11 a.m. to 2 p.m., respectively, to avoid metabolic interaction between the two drugs. (B) Alcohol self-administration. Animals in the alcohol-primed group began drinking alcohol on day 1 of the paradigm; animals in the alcohol-concurrent group began drinking on day 11. All groups start cocaine self-administration (0.8 mg/kg per infusion) on day 11. The average alcohol intake during the alcohol-priming period was 1 g/kg during the first 5 days, increasing to 1.2 g/kg during the second 5 days. Alcohol intake was similar in the alcohol-primed versus alcohol-concurrent groups from days 11 to 32 [two-way repeated-measures (RM) analysis of variance ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic cocaine enhances serotonin autoregulation and serotonin uptake binding. AU - Cunningham, Kathryn A.. AU - Paris, Joseph M.. AU - Goeders, Nick E.. PY - 1992/6. Y1 - 1992/6. N2 - Repeated cocaine intoxication can result in the development of behavioral sensitization in animals and psychosis in humans, phenomena that have been associated with alterations in dopamine (DA) function. Using electrophysiologic and autoradiographic techniques, modifications of central serotonin (5‐hydroxytryptamine; 5‐HT) systems were investigated in rats treated with a regimen of cocaine administration that produced behavioral sensitization. The inhibitory response of single 5‐HT neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) to (−)‐cocaine, the 5‐HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine or the 5‐HT1A agonist 8‐hydroxy‐2‐[di‐N‐propylamino]tetralin (8‐OHDPAT) was significantly enhanced in cocaine‐treated rats. Furthermore, several brain areas that contain either cell bodies (DR) or terminals ...
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If people use cocaine, they may take too much and get sick or even die. This is called an overdose. When people take cocaine, they get intoxicated as well. When a person is intoxicated, they may do dangerous things, such as having unsafe sex with a person they do not know, or getting into a violent fight with a person. If a person uses cocaine for a long time, they can start to get strange feelings, like there are bugs crawling under their skin, or they can get paranoia (a feeling that there are people that want to hurt them). Cocaine is a very addictive drug. It can lead to psychological and/or physical dependence. When a person is addicted to a drug, they might do bad or criminal acts in order to get money for more drugs, such as crimes (for example theft, robbery, fraud, or prostitution). If the person tries to stop using cocaine, they will go through cocaine withdrawal. Another danger from using cocaine is the risk of infection when using unsafe ways of taking cocaine (like using dirty ...
Problem statement: It has been well documented that drugs of abuse such as cocaine can cause enhanced progression of HIV-Associated Neuropathological Disorders (HAND), the underlying mechanisms mediating these effects remain poorly understood. Approach: In present study, we explored the impact of cocaine exposure (I and 10 μM) on the dendritic beading in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Using the approach of transfection with green fluorescent protein, we observed significant dendritic swelling in hippocampal neurons exposed to 10 μM but not 1 μM of cocaine when compared with the saline treated group. Results: Cocaine exposure also resulted in decreased expression of the synaptic plasticity gene, Arc as evidenced by Western blotting. Intriguingly, cocaine exposure of primary neurons in the presence of the neurotoxin-HIV envelope protein gp 120, resulted in increased enhancement of neuronal beading as compared with exposure of neurons to either agent alone. Conclusion: Taken together these
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Projection Targets of Medium Spiny Neurons Govern Cocaine-Evoked Synaptic Plasticity in the Nucleus Accumbens. AU - Baimel, C.. AU - McGarry, Laura M.. AU - Carter, Adam G.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the Carter lab and Nic Tritsch for helpful discussions and comments on the manuscript. This work was supported by a CIHR postdoctoral fellowship (C.B.), NIH grant T32 NS086750 (L.M.M.), and NIH R01 DA038138 (A.G.C.). Publisher Copyright: © 2019 The Authors. PY - 2019/8/27. Y1 - 2019/8/27. N2 - We examine synaptic connectivity and cocaine-evoked plasticity at specific networks within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We identify distinct subpopulations of D1+ medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that project to either the ventral pallidum (D1+VP) or the ventral tegmental area (D1+VTA). We show that inputs from the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), but not the basolateral amygdala (BLA), are initially biased onto D1+VTA MSNs. However, repeated cocaine exposure eliminates the bias of vHPC ...
senior study author Dr. Eric Nestler of New York Citys Mount Sinai School of Medicine said in a statement.. Nestler and colleagues combined highly sensitive genetic isolation and screening techniques to study regulation of gene transcription in the brains of mice repeatedly receiving cocaine. The researchers also found a previously unrecognized family of genes -- called the sirtuins -- involved in cocaine addiction. Chronic cocaine administration was linked with an increase in sirtuin gene transcription while increased sirtuin activity was associated the rewarding effects of cocaine being augmented, while pharmacological inhibition of sirtuins reduced the rewarding effects of cocaine and the motivation to self-administer the drug.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic cocaine disruption of estrous cyclicity in the rat. T2 - Dose-dependent effects. AU - King, T. S.. AU - Canez, M. S.. AU - Gaskill, S.. AU - Javors, M. A.. AU - Schenken, R. S.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - The effects of cocaine on cyclic reproductive function in females remain largely unknown. In this study, we sought to define the range of doses of cocaine effective in disrupting estrous cyclicity and inhibiting ovulation. Estrous cyclicity was monitored daily by vaginal cytology. Group 1 consisted of rats receiving no treatment. Group 2 consisted of rats injected daily with saline s.c. Groups 3 to 6 consisted of rats injected with 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of cocaine HCl s.c., respectively. Group 7 consisted of rats that were food-restricted to allow weight gains comparable to those of group 6. Our results indicate a dose- dependent effect of cocaine on estrous cyclicity with an estimated IC50 of 8.5 mg/kg/day (i.e., the dose of cocaine required to inhibit the ...
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The self-administration of cocaine was compared with that of bupropion, 1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine, mazindol, methylphenidate and nomifensine, drugs that displace [3H]cocaine from its binding sites and have monoamine uptake inhibiting effects in common with those of cocaine. Squirrel monkeys responded under a second-order fixed-interval schedule of consequent i.v. drug injection, and dose-effect curves were established by determining stable rates of responding maintained by saline and a range of doses of each drug. Cocaine (0.01-0.56 mg/kg/injection), bupropion (0.1-3.0 mg/kg/injection), 1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl)-4-(3- phenylpropyl)piperazine-(0.03-1.0 mg/kg/injection), methylphenidate (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/injection) and nomifensine (0.01-0.3 mg/kg) maintained comparable rates and patterns of responding in all subjects, whereas mazindol (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) maintained self-administration behavior in only half the monkeys studied. The present results ...
While there has been a lack of consistency in the results from different studies on cocaine withdrawal, generally, symptoms of cocaine withdrawal include: Anxiety Erratic sleep Irritability Depression Sadness Cravings for cocaine Poor concentration Lethargy These may occur anywhere from a few hours to a few weeks after the suspension of cocaine use. The symptoms can be managed by most people while at home and do not require hospitalization for detox.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cocaine analog coupled to disrupted adenovirus. T2 - A vaccine strategy to evoke high-titer immunity against addictive drugs. AU - Hicks, Martin J.. AU - De, Bishnu P.. AU - Rosenberg, Jonathan B.. AU - Davidson, Jesse T.. AU - Moreno, Amira Y.. AU - Janda, Kim D.. AU - Wee, Sunmee. AU - Koob, George F.. AU - Hackett, Neil R.. AU - Kaminsky, Stephen M.. AU - Worgall, Stefan. AU - Toth, Miklos. AU - Mezey, Jason G.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - Based on the concept that anticocaine antibodies could prevent inhaled cocaine from reaching its target receptors in the brain, an effective anticocaine vaccine could help reverse cocaine addiction. Leveraging the knowledge that E1- E3- adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors are potent immunogens, we have developed a novel vaccine platform for addictive drugs by covalently linking a cocaine analog to the capsid proteins of noninfectious, disrupted Ad vector. The Ad-based anticocaine vaccine evokes high-titer ...
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Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
The results of the present study demonstrate that cocaine self-administration alters dopamine transporter binding and that these changes follow a clear progression over time. In the initial stages of cocaine self-administration (5 d), DAT binding site levels were moderately reduced, whereas after more prolonged cocaine self-administration (3.3 months), large increases in the density of DAT sites were evident. These increases in DAT binding levels persisted even after protracted periods of self-administration (1.5 years). A key characteristic of the alterations in DAT binding was the dose-dependent nature of the effects. Chronic cocaine self-administration at the higher cocaine dose yielded more intense increases in the density of the DAT binding sites and encompassed a wider expanse of the caudal PCS than self-administration of the lower dose. Finally, the majority of significant changes in DAT binding density that occurred after chronic and long-term cocaine self-administration were focused in ...
Protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) is a widely expressed scaffold protein known to interact via its PSD-95/discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-domain with several membrane proteins including the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), the primary target for cocaines reinforcing actions. Here, we establish the importance of PICK1 for behavioral effects observed after both acute and repeated administration of cocaine. In PICK1 knock-out (KO) mice, the acute locomotor response to a single injection of cocaine was markedly attenuated. Moreover, in support of a role for PICK1 in neuroadaptive changes induced by cocaine, we observed diminished cocaine intake in a self-administration paradigm. Reduced behavioral effects of cocaine were not associated with decreased striatal DAT distribution and most likely not caused by the ∼30% reduction in synaptosomal DA uptake observed in PICK1 KO mice. The PICK1 KO mice demonstrated preserved behavioral responses to DA receptor agonists supporting intact downstream DA ...
Previous examination of binge cocaine self-administration and 2 week withdrawal from cocaine self-administration about ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit (iGluRs) protein levels revealed significant alterations in iGluR protein levels that differed between your mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways. and nigrostriatal pathways (substantia nigra SN and dorsal caudate-putamen CPu). Inside the mesolimbic Mouse monoclonal to Histone 3.1. Histones are the structural scaffold for the organization of nuclear DNA into chromatin. Four core histones, H2A,H2B,H3 and H4 are the major components of nucleosome which is the primary building block of chromatin. The histone proteins play essential structural and functional roles in the transition between active and inactive chromatin states. Histone 3.1, an H3 variant that has thus far only been found in mammals, is replication dependent and is associated with tene activation and gene silencing. pathway reductions had been seen in NR1 and GluR5 ...
Background Homologous cocaine self-administration procedures in laboratory animals and humans may facilitate translational research for medications development to treat cocaine dependence. This study, therefore, sought to establish choice between cocaine and an alternative reinforcer in rhesus monkeys responding under a procedure back-translated from previous human studies and homologous to a human laboratory procedure described in a companion paper. Methods Four rhesus monkeys with chronic indwelling intravenous catheters had access to cocaine injections (0, 0.043, 0.14, or 0.43 mg/kg/injection) and food (0, 1, 3, or 10 1 g banana-flavored food pellets). During daily 5 h sessions, a single cocaine dose and a single food-reinforcer magnitude were available in 10 30-min trials. During the initial
The short term effects of crack cocaine can be felt upon users initial hit of crack. The individual begins to feel the effects of crack cocaine immediately; they experience an increase in energy, temperature, mental alertness, heart rate, constricted blood vessels, as well as a decrease in appetite. These temporary effects of crack cocaine are as short lived as the users high. Because crack cocaine is smoked causing it to travel through the blood up to the brain much faster than cocaine which is snorted, the user experiences these short term effects more intensely. The duration and intensity of these short term effects of crack cocaine are based on the amount of crack cocaine that is used.. The long term effects of crack cocaine affect the user physically, mentally, and emotionally. An individuals long term effects from crack cocaine vary from person to person depending on their length and intensity of abuse. In general, the long term effects of crack cocaine include restlessness, mood change, ...
Cocaine aka coca, coke, flake, snow or blow is a powerful stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca plant found in South America. It is estimated that 90% percent of the cocaine that reaches the US originates in Colombia. In the US, cocaine is classified as a Schedule II drug under the Controlled Substances Act. Schedule II drugs are those which have a high potential for abuse and are currently recognized to have some medical value in the United States.. Cocaine can be snorted, injected, or when in the form of crack-cocaine, smoked. The most common method of use is snorting. The high from snorting cocaine can last anywhere from 15-30 minutes. The acute effects of cocaine use may include: increased energy levels, euphoria, elevated heart rate and blood pressure, and decreased appetite. Cocaines physical and mental manifestations are a result of the drugs effect on brain chemistry. The drug blocks the neurotransmitter dopamine from being reabsorbed resulting in elevated ...
Every fall, Duke offers free flu shots to combat the imminent storm of the virus. Thanks to the work of Professor of Pathology Herman Staats, a similar vaccine is on the horizon for those with another debilitating disease: cocaine addiction.. Staats worked with a team of six other researchers to publish a novel study providing evidence of a possible vaccination for cocaine addiction. Following vaccine injection in mice, the researchers were able induce an immune resistance to cocaine in the mice, while reducing the sense of euphoria which accompanies cocaine usage. The vaccine consisted of cocaine attached to carrier proteins, which were introduced in mouse mucosal tissue.. Just like the influenza vaccine induces antibodies that bind to the influenza virus and reduces the infectivity of influenza, our cocaine vaccine induces antibodies that bind to cocaine and reduce the ability of cocaine to cause the euphoria, Staats said. Over the course of one month, scientists infused different amounts of ...
We previously showed that chronic cocaine use by active illicit users produced a longer plasma half-life than expected based on acute low-dose cocaine studies. Here we report urinary excretion patterns of cocaine metabolites as benzoylecgonine (BE) equivalents from 18 of the same individuals, housed …
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Bacterial cocaine esterase: A protein-based therapy for cocaine overdose and addiction. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perinatal cocaine exposure alters sigma binding site density in the placenta. AU - Flynn, D. D.. AU - Sanchez-Ramos, L.. AU - Mash, D. C.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Fetal cocaine exposure in utero leads to direct neurotoxic effects and indirect consequences secondary to intrauterine growth retardation. Regulation of hormone and neurotransmitter receptors in the placenta by cocaine may contribute to the spectrum of adverse effects associated with cocaine use during pregnancy. Previous studies have demonstrated that, in addition to blocking the reuptake of catecholamines, cocaine binds to the putative sigma receptor in brain and peripheral tissues. We report here the identification of a sigma recognition site in the human placenta that has pharmacological characteristics similar to the neural sigma binding site. Placental tissues were obtained from pregnant women that were matched on maternal demographic characteristics. Cocaine exposure was confirmed by toxicology screens ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Once is too much. T2 - Conditioned aversion develops immediately and predicts future cocaine self-administration behavior in rats. AU - Colechio, Elizabeth M.. AU - Imperio, Caesar G.. AU - Grigson, Patricia S.. PY - 2014/4/1. Y1 - 2014/4/1. N2 - Rats emit aversive taste reactivity (TR) behavior (i.e., gapes) following intraoral delivery of a cocainepaired taste cue and greater conditioned aversive TR at the end of training predicts greater drug-seeking and taking. Here, we examined the development of this conditioned aversive TR behavior on a trial-by-trial basis in an effort to determine when the change in behavior occurs and whether early changes in this behavior can be used to predict later drug taking. The results show that conditioned aversive TR to a cocaine-paired cue occurs very early in training (i.e., following as few as 1-2 taste-drug pairings) and, importantly, that it can be used to predict later drug seeking and drug taking in rats.. AB - Rats emit aversive taste ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - One-way generalization of clonidine to the discriminative stimulus produced by cocaine. AU - Wood, Douglas M.. AU - Lal, Harbans. AU - Yaden, Senka. AU - Emmett-Oglesby, M. W.. PY - 1985/10. Y1 - 1985/10. N2 - Rats were trained to discriminate the stimulus properties of either cocaine or clonidine using a food reinforced two-lever choice paradigm. After training, cocaine was generalized to the cocaine lever in a dose-dependent manner, and clonidine was generalized to the clonidine lever in a dose-dependent manner. Yohimbine, an alpha-2 antagonist, blocked the clonidine stimulus but not the cocaine stimulus. Cocaine was not generalized to the clonidine stimulus; however, clonidine was generalized to the cocaine stimulus, and this generalization was blocked by yohimbine. The one-way generalization of clonidine to cocaine suggests that clonidine has at least two discrete stimulus components: a major component that is not cocaine-like, and a minor component that can be detected by ...
The effects of cocaine (150 nM, 300 nM, and 150 μM) on human glioblastoma cell cultures were studied on tunneling nanotube formation (1-h cocaine treatment) and extracellular vesicle release (1-, 3-, and 8-h cocaine treatment). Cocaine significantly increased the number of tunneling nanotubes only at the lowest concentration used. The release of extracellular vesicles (mainly exosomes) into the medium was stimulated by cocaine at each concentration used with a maximum effect at the highest concentration tested (150 μM). Moreover, cocaine (150 nM) significantly increased the number of vesicles with 61-80 nm diameter while at concentrations of 300 nM and 150 μM, and the smaller vesicles (30-40 nm diameter) were significantly increased with a reduction of the larger vesicles (41-60 nm diameter). A time dependence in the release of extracellular vesicles was observed. In view of the proposed role of these novel intercellular communication modes in the glial-neuronal plasticity, it seems possible ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene Expression in Human Hippocampus from Cocaine Abusers Identifies Genes which Regulate Extracellular Matrix Remodeling. AU - Mash, Deborah C. AU - Ffrench-Mullen, Jarlath. AU - Adi, Nikhil. AU - Qin, Yujing. AU - Buck, Andrew. AU - Pablo, John. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - The chronic effects of cocaine abuse on brain structure and function are blamed for the inability of most addicts to remain abstinent. Part of the difficulty in preventing relapse is the persisting memory of the intense euphoria or cocaine rush. Most abused drugs and alcohol induce neuroplastic changes in brain pathways subserving emotion and cognition. Such changes may account for the consolidation and structural reconfiguration of synaptic connections with exposure to cocaine. Adaptive hippocampal plasticity could be related to specific patterns of gene expression with chronic cocaine abuse. Here, we compare gene expression profiles in the human hippocampus from cocaine addicts and age-matched ...
August 16, 2020 (Google Translation) - In a search and control operation, the Colombian Navy, in coordination with the National Police, seized a ton of cocaine hydrochloride during an inspection at a port dock in Santa Marta.. According to information from Naval Intelligence and in coordination with the National Anti-Narcotics Police, an inspection was carried out on a container belonging to the MAERKS Company, which was located in a port dock in the city, finding 1,000 rectangular packages containing substances inside. illicit.. Officials of the Judicial Police of the Anti-Narcotics Directorate carried out the Approved Preliminary Identification Test - PIPH to the seized material, yielding a positive result for cocaine hydrochloride.. The container coming from Turbo - Antioquia, made a stopover at a port dock in Santa Marta, where it was later to be loaded onto a ship that was heading to the city of Antwerp - Belgium, the destination where the cocaine would presumably be sold.. Thanks to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cocaine is self-administered into the shell but not the core of the nucleus accumbens of Wistar rats. AU - Rodd, Zachary. AU - McKinzie, David L.. AU - Li, Ting Kai. AU - Murphy, James M.. AU - McBride, William J.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - The rewarding properties of cocaine have been postulated to be regulated, in part, by the mesolimbic dopamine system. However, the possibility that the rewarding properties of cocaine are mediated by direct activation of this system has yielded contradictory findings. The intracranial self-administration technique is used to identify specific brain regions involved in the initiation of response-contingent behaviors for the delivery of a reinforcer. The present study assessed whether adult Wistar rats would self-administer cocaine directly into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC). For each subregion, subjects were placed in standard two-lever operant chambers and randomly assigned to one of five groups for each site ...
(Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Cognitive Development) Research funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia states: Although numerous animal experiments and some human data show potent effects of cocaine on the central nervous system, we were unable to detect any difference in Performance, Verbal or Full Scale IQ
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cognitive dysfunctions in recreational and dependent cocaine users. T2 - Role of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, craving and early age at onset. AU - Vonmoos, Matthias. AU - Hulka, Lea M.. AU - Preller, Katrin H.. AU - Jenni, Daniela. AU - Baumgartner, Markus R.. AU - Stohler, Rudolf. AU - Bolla, Karen I.. AU - Quednow, Boris B.. PY - 2013/7. Y1 - 2013/7. N2 - Background: Dependent cocaine users consistently display cognitive deficits but cognitive performance of recreational cocaine users has rarely been investigated. Aims: To examine whether cognitive performance is impaired in relatively pure recreational and dependent cocaine users. Method: The cognitive performance of recreational (n = 68) and dependent cocaine users (n = 30) was compared with the performance of stimulant-naive controls (n = 68) employing an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Moreover, the impact of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, craving and early age at onset was ...
Cocaine is an addictive stimulant of the central nervous system. Snorting, injecting and smoking cocaine are the main ways to for a person to use it. When sold on the street, it is common for dealers to cut their cocaine to stretch the supply and make more money. Cheap cocaine can sometimes be cut up to ninety percent. Called fillers, ingredients used for cutting cocaine include baking soda, Vitamin B12, cornstarch and talcum powder.. Recently, however, large supplies of cocaine are being cut with levamisole, a veterinary antibiotic that farmers normally use to deworm cattle, sheep and pigs. Drug cartels from South America are reportedly sending the cocaine overseas and into the U.S. already cut with levamisole, which is baffling officials.. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) first reported seeing significant amounts of levamisole-tainted cocaine in 2005. A 2010 DEA report found that between October 2007 and October 2009, the percentage of seized cocaine bricks containing levamisole ...
Searching for targeted information about cocaine withdrawal? Find answers to questions about withdrawal signs, symptoms, detox and treatment.
Cocaine use has been generally linked to DKA but whether its through its antagonizing effect on insulin action or more indirectly through its association with non-compliance with insulin, or both, is not totally clear. A retrospective study found cocaine users to account for 14% of all DKA admissions.1 Cocaine users were also less likely than…
DAVAO CITY (MindaNews/25 February) - Villagers recovered at least 39 bricks of cocaine off the coast of Barangay Santiago in the coastal town of Caraga, Davao Oriental on Sunday, police said.. Chief Supt. Marcelo Morales, regional director of Police Regional Office 11, suspected that the cocaine may have originated from drug syndicates based in Colombia or Mexico.. Morales added the bricks of cocaine found in Caraga, which is at least 260 kilometers from this city, has similarities in terms of packaging with the ones recovered in Dinagat Island, Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur in the last two weeks.. Eighty eight bricks of cocaine were recovered off the waters of Dinagat Island and Siargao Island in Surigao del Norte while 34 more were found drifting in the coast of Tandag City, Surigao del Sur in the past week.. Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency regional director Antontio Rivera bared that the Dangerous Drugs Board placed the value of cocaine at P5300 per gram.. Only 36 bricks weighing a ...
Cocaine abuse has been associated with numerous cardiovascular consequences, such as depressed myocardial contractility, elevated blood pressure, coronary artery vasoconstriction, and myocardial ischemia and infarction. The multifactorial effects of cocaine often contribute to its sympathomimetic function. However, the direct cytotoxic effects of cocaine on the cardiovascular system, especially vascular endothelium, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The present study was designed to examine the general hypothesis that cocaine induces apoptosis of coronary artery endothelium by suppressing nitric oxide synthesis, stimulating cytochrome c release from mitochondria and subsequently activation of the caspases cascade, which lead to endothelial cell apoptosis. We found that cocaine induces apoptosis of endothelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis by coaine is through the activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Cocaine-induced
Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing behavioral disorder. The high relapse rate has often been attributed to the perseverance of drug-associated memories due to high incentive salience of stimuli learnt under the influence of drugs. Drug addiction has also been interpreted as a memory disorder since drug associated memories are unusually enduring and some drugs, such as cocaine, interfere with neuroepigenetic machinery known to be involved in memory processing. Here we used the honey bee (an established invertebrate model for epigenomics and behavioral studies) to examine whether or not cocaine affects memory processing independently of its effect on incentive salience. Using the proboscis extension reflex training paradigm we found that cocaine strongly impairs consolidation of extinction memory. Based on correlation between the observed effect of cocaine on learning and expression of epigenetic processes, we propose that cocaine interferes with memory processing independently of incentive salience by
(Maternal Cocaine Use and Birth Defects) Our data are from one of the first population-based studies in which trends for defects potentially caused by maternal cocaine use are examined; the results of our study show no significant change in the prevalence of multiple vascular disruption defects over time. We suspect that if cocaine is a teratogen, its teratogenicity is weak or is associated with a small subset of birth defects that are yet to be identified.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blockade of the Serotonin 5-HT 2A Receptor Suppresses Cue-Evoked Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior in a Rat Self-Administration Model. AU - Dhonnchadha, B. Á Nic. AU - Fox, R. G.. AU - Stutz, S. J.. AU - Rice, K. C.. AU - Cunningham, Kathryn. PY - 2009/4. Y1 - 2009/4. N2 - The serotonin 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT 2AR) may play a role in reinstatement of drug-seeking. This study investigated the ability of a selective 5-HT 2AR antagonist to suppress reinstatement evoked by exposure to cues conditioned to cocaine self-administration. Cocaine self-administration (0.75 mg/kg/0.1 mL/6 s infusion; FR 4) was trained in naïve, free-fed rats to allow interpretation of results independent from changes related to food deprivation stress. Pretreatment with the selective 5-HT 2AR antagonist M100907 (volinanserin) failed to reduce rates of operant responding for cocaine infusions. On the other hand, M100907 (0.001-0.8 mg/kg ip) significantly suppressed the cue-induced reinstatement of ...
Cocaine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug extracted from the leaves of coca plant. Listed as a Schedule II drug in the United States, it has a high potential for abuse. As such, the medical usage of cocaine is almost nonexistent and it is a mere recreational drug that surpasses its medical usage. Its only known medicinal usage is as a topical anaesthetic.. Cocaine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that speeds up respiration, blood pressure and heart rate. It also raises energy, alertness, wakefulness, focus and attention while suppressing appetite. Due to its ability to increase energy and confidence, it is a popular party drug at social events. According to the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) report, an estimated 1.9 million people aged 12 and above are the current users of this illicit drug in the U.S.. In the absence of effective interventions, the chronic users of cocaine witness adverse impacts on their brain functions depending on the frequency of ...
By: Ashwin Mohan, Sandeep Denpyam. COLUMBIA, Mo. - About 2 million Americans currently use cocaine for its temporary side-effects of euphoria, which have contributed to making it one of the most dangerous and addictive drugs in the country. Cocaine addiction, which can cause severe biological and behavioral problems, is very difficult to overcome. Now, University of Missouri researchers Ashwin Mohan and Sandeep Pendyam, doctoral students in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, are utilizing computational models to study how the brains chemicals and synaptic mechanisms, or connections between neurons, react to cocaine addiction and what this could mean for future therapies. With cocaine addiction, addicts dont feel an urge to revolt because there is a strong connection in the brain from the decision-making center to the pleasure center, which overwhelms other normal rewards and is why they keep seeking it, Pendyam said. By using computational models, were targeting the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cocaine exposure reorganizes cell type- and input-specific connectivity in the nucleus accumbens. AU - MacAskill, Andrew F.. AU - Cassel, John M.. AU - Carter, Adam G.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank members of the Carter laboratory, M. Farrant and R. Froemke for helpful discussions and comments on the manuscript, P. Kennedy for advice on cocaine administration, and C. Farb, R. Sears and H. Seong for help with anatomy. This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust (A.F.M.), and the Dana Foundation, McKnight Foundation and US National Institutes of Health R01DA038138 (A.G.C.).. PY - 2014/9/1. Y1 - 2014/9/1. N2 - Repeated exposure to cocaine alters the structural and functional properties of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These changes suggest a rewiring of the NAc circuit, with an enhancement of excitatory synaptic connections onto MSNs. However, it is unknown how drug exposure alters the balance of long-range afferents onto different cell types in ...
Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic system that projects from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and to other forebrain sites, is the major substrate of reward and reinforcement for both natural rewards and addictive drugs. Cocaine binds strongly to the dopamine-reuptake transporter, preventing the reuptake of dopamine into the nerve terminal. Because of this blocking effect, dopamine remains at high concentrations in the synapse and continues to affect adjacent neurons, producing the characteristic cocaine high. Activated D1 receptor activates the PKA signaling pathway, and this pathway plays a critical role in mediating the behavioral responses to cocaine administration. Cocaine-induced neuroadaptations, including dopamine depletion, may underlie craving and hedonic dysregulation ...
Watch Reuters News - Season 0, Episode 0 - Did Cocaine Cause the Financial Crisis?: Cocaine - a drug that makes users feel like Masters of the Universe. Probably not what former Fed Chairman Alan Greenspa...
This study investigated infant neurobehavioral functioning during the newborn period in 334 full-term, African American neonates (187 cocaine exposed, 147 non-cocaine exposed) enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of drug exposure statu
Area of Interest: Human stem cells; Cocaine addiction; Schizophrenia; Synaptogenesis; Estrogen hormones and synaptic plasticity. Project 1: Study the molecular mechanism of cocaine addiction using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) (funded by National Institute of Drug Abuse/NIH). Cocaine abuse remains a major public health problem. The long-lasting nature of addiction leads to relapse and makes it especially difficult to treat. Despite decades of research, no effective treatment is available for cocaine addiction. A better understanding of the development of addiction is essential for creating effective therapy for cocaine addiction. Our knowledge about cocaine addiction has been generated mostly from studies with animal models, with limited contributions from information about human neuronal pathology obtained by analyzing PET (Positron emission tomography) images and postmortem brain tissues of end-stage cocaine addicts. However, the cellular/molecular mechanisms of human cocaine ...
Powder cocaine (also called coke), freebase and crack are all forms of cocaine. When the effects start to wear off, people experience a long comedown, when they feel Although the powerful psychological dependence that can easily develop is more of a problem than the physical withdrawal symptoms, people who ...
Aaron King, also known as A-Mo, is the last of 24 people from Danbury and New York City sentenced for participating in a large-scale cocaine and crack cocaine distribution ring led by another Danbury resident, Alex Luna, according to the U.S. Attorneys office.|br/||br/|According to a press release from the U.S. Attorneys office, Luna regularly received kilogram-sized quantities of cocaine by individuals based in New York City.|br/||br/|The governments investigation revealed that King purchased cocaine from Lunas associates, which he then sold to his own customers, the release said.|br/||br/|Danbury police and Bridgeport-based members of the federal Drug Enforcement Administration conducted months of surveillance, including numerous purchases by undercover officers and federally authorized wiretaps on five telephones, the U.S. Attorneys office said.|br/||br/|A kilogram of cocaine goes for about $30,000 to $40,000 in todays market, although it was less expensive in 2005, according to Tom
If that went over your head, heres the simple version - The researchers have found a way to deliver a protein-based gene via virus that bonds to cocaine in the bloodstream. This protein prevents the cocaine from ever reaching the brain, thus stopping the effects of the drug.. So couldnt this vaccine be abused by people who would want to take cocaine without the negative side effects? The protein stops all the effects, including the high, thus making cocaine worthless to people who took the vaccine. It would be especially helpful for those trying to quit as they would no longer experience the high that they seek. Of course, there still is the problem that people may turn to other drugs once cocaine loses its splendor.. Still, this is the kind of innovation thats needed in the war on drugs. You can have all the law enforcement in the world, but people are still going to do drugs. You win if you can take away the only reason people use the drug in the first place.. [h/t: Sci-News ...
5.1 percent of residents in Perus capital of Lima abused cocaine in 2013, according to a report by a drug monitoring organization. 8.9 percent of the citys residents used marijuana.. Across the entire country, 2.4 percent of the population aged 12 to 65 abused cocaine in Peru, an increase of over 60 percent from the 1.5 percent who used cocaine in 2010. Marijuana use in Peru also increased during that time period, from 5.6 percent to 7.5 percent.. (Marijuana prices by country.). Source: Natalie Southwick, Cocaine Use in Peru Increases 60% in 3 Years, Insight Crime, November 7, 2013.. ...
Freud credits Dr. Bentleys report in the Detroit Therapeutic Gazette with demonstrating the use of cocaine as a treatment for morphine and alcohol addiction. Freud elaborated on its antimorphine properties, reaching an extreme claim in this part of his first paper: cocaine was so powerful a specific to morphine-addiction as well as alcoholism that inebriate asylums can be entirely dispensed with. Ueber Coca concluded with brief comments on cocaines use in asthma, as an aphrodisiac and, lastly, in local applications as an anesthetic. Its anesthetic effects are sketched in only one paragraph, a brevity for which Freud later reproached himself, since Rollers anesthetic application, made public a month after publication of Ueber Coca, eventually was the most applauded use of cocaine and remained so for years to come ...
We present three patients whose angiographic and pathological data suggest that vasospasm and/or thrombus formation may be important mechanisms of crack cocaine-induced cerebral infarction. Patients 1 and 3 had intra-arterial clot without angiographic evidence of vasospasm, and patient 2 had vasospasm without evidence of clot. The vasospasm changes were more prominent in the left- than the right-sided cerebral arteries, which, with the smaller size of the left-sided vessels at autopsy, is consistent in our opinion with more severe cerebral vasoconstriction on the left side.. Multiple mechanisms for the neurovascular complications of crack cocaine use have been previously proposed.1 2 3 4 5 Cocaine and its metabolites (norcocaine and benzoylecgonine) are potent vasoconstrictors, and the chronic use of crack cocaine may lead to prolonged vasoconstriction due to the more protracted half-lives of active metabolites,6 which are perhaps even longer in association with ethanol,7 as in our third ...
Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant. Physical effects of cocaine use, including crack, include constricted blood vessels and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Users may also experience feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety.10 Smoking crack delivers large quantities of the drug to the lungs, producing effects comparable to intravenous injection. These effects are felt almost immediately after smoking, are very intense, but do not last long.11 For example, the high from smoking cocaine may last from 5 to 10 minutes, while the high from snorting the drug can last for 15 to 20 minutes.12 Evidence suggests that users who smoke or inject cocaine may be at even greater risk of causing harm to themselves than those who snort the substance.. Cocaine smokers may suffer from acute respiratory problems including coughing, shortness of breath, and severe chest pains with lung trauma and bleeding.13 Smoking crack cocaine can also cause particularly ...
Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have identified an impairment in a brain region that might explain why it is difficult for persons with cocaine addiction to cease using the drug.. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging data, the research team found among cocaine-addicted individuals an impairment in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which governs impulse and self-control, possibly explaining why these individuals cannot form new associations for certain stimuli.. Our study data suggests that it will be hard for longtime cocaine users to unlearn what once was a positive experience if this unlearning or new learning relies on this brain region to be effective, said Anna Konova, PhD, formerly with the Icahn School and now a postdoctoral fellow at New York Universitys Center for Neural Science.. The study compared 18 chronic cocaine users to 15 non-using controls on extinction learning activities resembling the exposure therapy often used to treat anxiety ...
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The chemical cocaine hydrochloride is commonly known as crack. Some users chemically process cocaine in order to remove the hydrochloride. It is called
Security personnel in Qatar arrested 50 drug smugglers entering the country in 2012. Customs officials in the country cliam that they are able to catch 90 pecent of the drug smugglers attempting to enter the country.. A kilogram of cocaine can be sold for up to $90,000 in the Middle East, a value that is 3 times higher than the rate in the United States.. (More cocaine prices by country.). 75 percent of the cocaine seized in the Middle East region was shipped from Brazil.. Source: Charles Parkinson, Persian Gulf is Growing Drug Hub For LatAm Groups, Insight Crime, September 17, 2013.. ...
Medicinal agents, beside occupational and environmental agents, remain one of the most common causes for interstitial lung diseases (ILD). A major problem with ILD is the recognition of the causative agent. In some cases more or less characteristic features of presentation are described. Often, the connection between drug-use and the development of related inflammatory damage or idiosyncratic toxicities is hard to recognize and objectify. Cocaine, a xenobiotic and the most commonly used illicit drug, causes serious medical and social problems. An increasing incidence of lung toxicity related to cocaine or crack-use is being reported worldwide. However, the mechanism of the resulting lung injury is not fully understood. This review summarizes possible molecular mechanisms explaining intraindividual variability in cocaine response and lung toxicity. The importance of including pharmacogenomics in the work-up of patients with suspected drug-induced lung toxicity is highlighted ...
by Guerretto Question by desperatedesirex3: Can snorting cocaine cause a common cold or sinus infections? if it can would either illness be contagious to n
Antibody 7A1 hydrolyzes cocaine to produce nonpsychoactive metabolites ecgonine methyl ester and benzoic acid. Crystal structures of 7A1 Fab and six complexes with substrate cocaine, the transition state analog, products ecgonine methyl ester and benzoic acid together and individually, as well as h …
UK authorities found 1.2 tons of cocaine on a luxury yacht at the port of Southampton, in the countrys largest ever seizure of a Class A drug.. The drugs were found in June, but the seizure was only made public on Wednesday after several arrests were made in the Netherlands.. The yacht had been due to arrive in the Netherlands with its cargo. (See video below).. Authorities had been tracking the vessel since May, after suspicions were raised by French authorities while the boat was in the Caribbean. The drugs are believed to have originated in South America, and to have been packed and loaded onto the vessel in Venezuela.. A Dutch official said that about 40 percent of all cocaine brought into Europe is trafficked using smuggling routes from the Caribbean.. The cocaine was found in a hidden compartment after officials combed the 65-foot vessel for six days.. UK said that the cocaine, which was 90 percent pure, would have been cut with other substances to produce eight tons for sale on the ...
Abstract: Cocaine dependence continues to be a significant public health concern. Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health indicate that the number of Americans who had used cocaine in the past month has remained relatively stable since 2002 and cocaine remains the most frequently mentioned drug in emergency-room admissions according to the Drug Abuse Warning Network. Because of the public-health concerns and costs associated with its abuse, identifying a pharmacotherapy for the treatment of cocaine dependence is a priority for the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Despite intense research efforts, a widely accepted medication for cocaine dependence has not yet been identified. A number of non-pharmacological treatments for cocaine dependence have also been examined. Specifically, behavioral treatments for cocaine dependence seek to reinforce non- drug related behaviors. For example, contingency management uses monetary incentives to decrease cocaine use and is associated with ...
Bolivias daily La Razón had an interesting feature on cocaine production in the country, last weekend. La Razón interviews Julio, a Bolivian drugs trafficker in jail, who has connections with Colombian traffickers. The Colombians go to Bolivia in order to look for high quality cocaine, Julio says. They make sure their business will turn out well. Julios wife or his daughter are the guarantee. If something turns out badly they hit you where it hurts most, he tells La Razón.. The cocaine is picked up by heavily armed men in small planes and brought to a foreign country. From there it is transported to the United States and Europe, according to Julio.. Bolivian authorities told that the situation isnt so bad yet and only mid level gangs operate in the country, but if Julio tells the truth there is a lot to worry about.. La Razón explains how Colombians train the Bolivians in production of cocaine. They teach them a quicker production process and they teach them how to use ...