Looking for acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning? Find out information about acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning. a morbid condition caused by the action of poison on the body and accompanied by disruption of bodily systems and functions. In humans. Poisoning in humans... Explanation of acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning
Cocaine abuse may contribute to the diverse forms of renal injury. We report a case of a pregnant woman who developed a large subcapsular renal haematoma after cocaine intoxication at 18-week gestation. She stabilized on conservative management and presented again at 29-week gestation with pre-eclampsia, acute renal failure and fetal demise. She required caesarean section delivery and intensive antihypertensive therapy to control severe pre-eclampsia associated with cocaine intoxication. This case is unique in that it is the first report of cocaine intoxication in pregnancy complicated by subcapsular haemorrhage. We discuss the possible mechanisms for the occurrence of this complication.. ...
Cannabinoid signaling via the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor modulates the effects of drugs of abuse and the response to exposure to stressors. In addition, exposure to stressors can alter the effects of drugs of abuse. This study examined the effects of exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in CB1 receptor knockout (CB1 KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates, using cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) to compare their response to cocaine. Mice were untreated or exposed to 2 weeks of CUS. After this period, the acquisition of a cocaine CPP was examined with one of three doses (3.2, 10.0, or 17.0 mg/kg) of cocaine. Untreated CB1 KO and WT mice both acquired the cocaine CPP; however, exposure to CUS enhanced the acquisition of the cocaine CPP in CB1 KO mice, but did not significantly alter the effects of cocaine in WT mice. Taken together, these findings support earlier evidence suggesting a role for the CB1 receptor in the response to stress as well as in the effects of cocaine.
Cocaine intoxication refers to the immediate and deleterious effects of cocaine on the body. Although cocaine intoxication and cocaine dependence can be present in the same individual, these syndromes present with different symptoms. Cocaine increases alertness, feelings of well-being, euphoria, energy, competence, sociability, and sexuality. Common side effects include anxiety, increased temperature, paranoia, restlessness, and teeth grinding. With prolonged use, the drug can cause insomnia, anorexia, tachycardia, hallucinations, and paranoid delusions. Possible lethal side effects include rapid heartbeat, abnormal heart rhythms, tremors, convulsions, markedly increased core temperature, renal failure, heart attack, stroke and heart failure. Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in heavy users. Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters, neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long-term damage to dopamine neurons. Chronic intranasal usage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CREST in the nucleus accumbens core regulates cocaine conditioned place preference, cocaine-seeking behavior, and synaptic plasticity. AU - Alaghband, Yasaman. AU - Kramár, Enikö. AU - Kwapis, Janine L.. AU - Kim, Earnest S.. AU - Hemstedt, Thekla J.. AU - López, Alberto J.. AU - White, André O.. AU - Al-Kachak, Amni. AU - Aimiuwu, Osasumwen V.. AU - Bodinayake, Kasuni K.. AU - Oparaugo, Nicole C.. AU - Han, Joseph. AU - Lattal, Kennon (Matt). AU - Wood, Marcelo A.. PY - 2018/10/31. Y1 - 2018/10/31. N2 - Epigenetic mechanisms result in persistent changes at the cellular level that can lead to long-lasting behavioral adaptations. Nucleosome remodeling is a major epigenetic mechanism that has not been well explored with regards to drug-seeking behaviors. Nucleosome remodeling is performed by multi-subunit complexes that interact with DNA or chromatin structure and possess an ATP-dependent enzyme to disrupt nucleosome-DNA contacts and ultimately regulate gene expression. Calcium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-administration of cocaine increases the release of acetylcholine to a greater extent than response-independent cocaine in the nucleus accumbens of rats. AU - Mark, Gregory. AU - Hajnal, Andras. AU - Kinney, Anthony E.. AU - Keys, Alan S.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Rationale: The neurochemical effects of psychostimulant exposure may depend on how these drugs are encountered. A useful method for examining this issue is to compare neurotransmitter release following response-dependent, or self-administered, drug exposure and response-independent exposure. Objectives: This experiment examined the effect of active and passive cocaine administration on acetylcholine (ACh) efflux in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in rats. Methods: One group of rats (CSA: cocaine self-administration) was trained to lever-press for intravenous infusions of cocaine (0.42 mg/kg per infusion) on a fixed-ratio-1 schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine infusions were accompanied by the onset ...
In the present study, we observed for the first time that the LV and coronary hemodynamic responses to a binge of cocaine were markedly and progressively attenuated in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs. In general, tolerance to cocaine was manifest on rechallenge after a single dose, although progressive decline in the hemodynamic and neurohumoral response to cocaine was observed with subsequent doses. Furthermore, the tolerance was not a function of the increase in baseline hemodynamic measurements before subsequent cocaine doses as the acute hemodynamic effects of cocaine were maintained when baseline hemodynamics were increased independent of cocaine. Finally, the mechanism of tolerance to the LV and systemic effects of repeated cocaine administration did not involve end-organ desensitization to the adrenergic effects of cocaine (Figs 4⇑ and 5⇑) but rather attenuated cocaine-induced catecholamine release as demonstrated by declines in plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine responses ...
On February 14, 2011, two Swiss psychologists published two years research on cocaine addiction. They found that addicts who gambled were less likely to use cocaine or to relapse on cocaine. They think gambling may refocus the brains "reward center" from cocaine to gambling. They said that psychotherapy should be used along with gambling. More research is being done on long-term relapse rates (the number of people who eventually start using cocaine again).[33][34][better source needed] However, a more recent study looked at prize-based contingency management: a treatment method that offers addicts chances to win prizes if they do not use cocaine. This study found that prize-based contingency management helped cocaine addicts stay off cocaine, whether or not they had gambled recently. This suggests that it is the chance of a reward, not the gambling itself, that helps cocaine addicts stay off of cocaine.[35] ...
We previously showed that maternal cocaine administration resulted in a decrease in fetal rat body weight [9]. The present study demonstrated that the maternal cocaine treatment caused a significant decrease in fetal brain weight, as compared with the saline control group. This finding is consistent with the previous report in pregnant C57BL/6 mice, in which maternal subcutaneous administration of cocaine from gestation days 12-18 produced significant decreases in fetal body and brain weight [27]. The pair-fed studies demonstrated that maternal undernutrition was not a likely mediator of the effects caused by cocaine [27, 28]. Moreover, our data indicate that cocaine decreases fetal brain/body weight ratio, suggesting that cocaine have higher affinity toxic effects on the fetal brain than the body. Dow-Edwards [29] reported that fetal brain had between 26-42% more concentration of cocaine than fetal plasma after 90 min following either 30 or 60 mg/kg cocaine given via intragastric intubation to ...
Cocaine has damaging effects on the brain, the heart and the mucous membrane of the nose. Significant symptoms of cocaine abuse are therefore paranoia, heart attacks and perforation of the nasal septum. The physical and mental effects of cocaine use are equally severe. The body and mind of a cocaine addict are both at risk.. Cocaine abuse and cocaine addiction cannot easily be distinguished because there may be no withdrawal symptoms. Similarly, users of crack cannot easily be distinguished from crack addicts. The boundary between drug use and drug abuse is not clear-cut and there may be no precise addiction symptoms.. The medical features and physical withdrawal characteristics of cocaine addiction are not as precise as they are in alcoholism or in addiction to some other drugs, such as heroin. Therefore the medical treatment of cocaine and crack abuse differs from that of other drugs.. Blood tests or urine tests would not distinguish between cocaine and crack but can show what other drugs have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Divergent effects of cocaine on cytokine production by lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages. T2 - HIV-1 enhancement by cocaine within the blood-brain barrier. AU - Fiala, A. M.. AU - Gan, X. H.. AU - Newton, T.. AU - Chiappelli, F.. AU - Shapshak, P.. AU - Kermani, V.. AU - Kung, M. A.. AU - Diagne, A.. AU - Martinez, O.. AU - Way, D.. AU - Weinand, M.. AU - Witte, M.. AU - Graves, M.. PY - 1996/10/2. Y1 - 1996/10/2. N2 - Cocaine-related immunosuppression is assumed to have serious consequences, but its evaluation in drug-addicted subjects is lacking. In this study performed with materials from addicted subjects receiving intravenous cocaine and normal control subjects, acute cocaine effects on cytokine production in vivo and in mononuclear cells in vitro were determined. Acute intravenous cocaine administration resulted in (a) increased white blood cell and lymphocyte courts, (b) decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 serum levels; (c) depressed ...
A cocaine vaccine has the following potential advantages over existing drug treatments for cocaine dependence: it blocks cocaine from entering the brain; it may have fewer side effects than drugs that act on the brain, and it may produce better patient compliance and treatment outcome than existing oral drugs.. If a cocaine vaccine proves effective in human clinical trials, it will be ethically justifiable to use it to treat cocaine dependent patients who have given free and informed consent to its use. The major ethical issues are ensuring that the treatment is safe and effective and that patients give free and informed consent to treatment. Protection of patient privacy and confidentiality is not likely to be a major concern. The major uncertainties about its safety arise because it will not completely block the effects of smoked or injected cocaine. Patients who attempt to subvert its effects by increasing their cocaine dose or using other stimulant drugs may put themselves at risk of adverse ...
Cocaine can cause psychological dependence (a strong desire to continue using the medicine because of the "high" feeling it produces). This may lead to cocaine abuse (more frequent use and/or use of larger amounts of cocaine) and to an increased chance of serious side effects. Cocaine abuse has caused death from heart or breathing failure.. Use of cocaine as a local anesthetic for an examination or surgery is not likely to cause psychological dependence or other serious side effects. However, if cocaine is absorbed into the body too quickly, serious side effects can occur. Also, some people are especially sensitive to the effects of cocaine. Unwanted effects may occur in these people even with small amounts of the medicine. Before receiving cocaine as a local anesthetic, you should discuss its use with your doctor.. Cocaine is applied only by or under the immediate supervision of your doctor.. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
... (Letter Report, 06/07/96, GAO/HEHS-96-80).. Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the extent to which federally funded cocaine treatment therapies have proven successful and additional research initiatives that are needed to increase knowledge of cocaine treatment effectiveness.. GAO found that: (1) cocaine treatment research is still in its early stages; (2) preliminary study results have shown that relapse prevention, community reinforcement and contingency management, and neurobehavioral therapy may produce prolonged periods of abstinence among cocaine users; (3) relapse prevention programs have the highest abstinence rates, followed by community reinforcement and neurobehavioral programs; (4) community reinforcement programs have the highest retention rates, followed by relapse prevention and neurobehavioral programs; (5) pharmacological agents have not proven to be consistently effective in preventing cocaine use, and none ...
Cocaine addiction, a serious public health concern associated with significant medical, social, and economic consequences, is difficult to treat using traditional psychosocial and behavioral therapies. Despite testing of a number of different agents for cocaine dependency, there remains no proven pharmacologic treatment for cocaine addiction.. The addictive properties of cocaine have been associated with its actions on mesotelencephalic dopamine reward pathways in the central nervous system (CNS). Cocaine administration increases the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with sensations of pleasure and reward. Therefore, blocking cocaine-induced increases in dopamine levels represents a valid pharmaceutical approach to the treatment of cocaine addiction.. Another neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suppresses striatal dopamine release, and attenuates cocaine-induced increases in extracellular and synaptic dopamine levels in the striatum and nucleus accumbens in animal ...
A method for the determination of cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and ecgonine (ECG) in plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed. The analytes were isolated from human plasma by subsequent solid-phase extraction and were separated on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 narrow-bore column using an ammonium acetate buffer/acetonitrile/methanol gradient. A Turbolonspray® source was used for ionization. The analytes were characterized by their particular molecular ion and several fragments. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for isolation and quantitation. The assay was rapid, highly sensitive, and reliable. The method was applied to monitor the in vitro degradation of cocaine in plasma. Fresh unpreserved and preserved (0.25 % KF) plasma samples were spiked with 1000 ng cocaine/mL. Aliquots of both series were stored at 4°C and 20°C and were analyzed at selected storage times of up to 15 days. In all samples, degradation of cocaine ...
Cocaine abuse is a serious health problem in many areas of the world, yet there are no proven effective medications for the treatment of cocaine dependence.Preclinical studies suggest that the reinforcing effect of cocaine that promotes its abuse is mediated by blockade of the presynaptic dopamine transporter. This results in increased dopamine activity in the mesolimbic or meso-accumbens dopamine reward system of brain. Development of new medications to treat cocaine dependence has focused on manipulation of this dopamine system, either by direct action on dopamine binding sites (transporter or receptors) or indirectly by affecting other neurotransmitter systems that modulate the dopamine system. In principle, a medication could act via one of three mechanisms: (i) as a substitute for cocaine by producing similar dopamine effects; (ii) as a cocaine antagonist by blocking the binding of cocaine to the dopamine transporter; or (iii) as a modulator of cocaine effects by acting at other than the ...
Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. The powdered form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and then injected. "Crack" is the street name given to the form of cocaine that has been processed to make a rock crystal, which, when heated, produces vapors that are smoked. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound produced by the rock as it is heated. The street names of cocaine are coke, snow, flake and blow.. Cocaine usually makes the user feel euphoric and energetic, but also increases body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. Users risk heart attacks, respiratory failure, strokes, seizures, abdominal pain, and nausea. In rare cases, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly afterwards.. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) estimates that in 2008 there were 1.9 million current (past-month) cocaine users, of which approximately 359,000 were current crack users. Adults aged 18 to 25 years have a higher rate of current cocaine ...
Wholesale crack traffickers purchase cocaine in kilogram or multikilogram allotments from traditional cocaine sources, including Colombian and Mexican organizations. They package the cocaine into ounce quantities or convert it into crack and then divide it into ounces for sale at the next level. Wholesalers usually are large groups responsible for most of the interstate transportation of crack and cocaine intended for crack conversion.. Retail distributors convert powdered cocaine into crack, usually in their own kitchens, using a safe and simple method of converting cocaine into cocaine base. Although it produces a product higher in purity than coca paste, the crack conversion process does not eliminate all of the impurities in the cocaine. Adulterants such as lidocaine, procaine, and benzocaine survive the crack conversion process and are inhaled by the user. Federal mandatory minimum sentences are higher for crack than for powdered cocaine, but crack cocaine provides a much higher profit ...
Criteria for Discontinuation Following Initiation:. Participants will be discharged if they have a positive breath test indicating use of alcohol or a urine test indicating illicit use of drugs while in the MED-VAMC, if they do not comply with study procedures, or if they do not tolerate the study drugs.. Subject Selection Criteria Rationale for Route of Administration:. Participants are required to have used cocaine by the IV or smoked route to avoid exposing participants to drugs by routes of administration that produce more intensive interoceptive effects than usually used by the participants. Prior experience with smoked cocaine is allowed (rather than restricting the population to those with experience with IV cocaine) because smoked cocaine reaches brain sites of action as rapidly as does intravenously administered cocaine and smoked cocaine produces effects that are comparable to IV cocaine. Speed of administration (and rate of delivery to brain) of stimulant drugs likely impacts ...
5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) modulate behavioral effects of cocaine. Here we examined the effects of the 5-HT1BR agonist CP94253 on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion and on cocaine-primed reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP) in male mice given daily repeated injections of either saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, IP) for 20 days. In the locomotor activity experiment, testing occurred both 1 and 20 days after the final injection. In the CPP experiment, mice underwent conditioning procedures while receiving the last of their daily injections, which were given either during or ≥2 h after CPP procedures. The CPP procedural timeline consisted of baseline preference testing (days 12-13 of the chronic regimen), conditioning (days 14-19, 2 daily 30-min sessions separated by 5 h), CPP test (day 21), extinction (days 22-34; no injections), CPP extinction test (day 35; no injections), and reinstatement test (day 36). Mice that had not extinguished received additional extinction sessions prior to
Cocaethylene (ethylbenzoylecgonine) is the ethyl ester of benzoylecgonine. It is structurally similar to cocaine, which is the methyl ester of benzoylecgonine. Cocaethylene is formed by the liver when cocaine and ethanol coexist in the blood. Cocaethylene is the byproduct of concurrent consumption of alcohol and cocaine as metabolized by the liver. Normally, metabolism of cocaine produces two primarily biologically inactive metabolites-benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester. The hepatic enzyme carboxylesterase is an important part of cocaines metabolism because it acts as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of cocaine in the liver, which produces these inactive metabolites. If ethanol is present during the metabolism of cocaine, a portion of the cocaine undergoes transesterification with ethanol, rather than undergoing hydrolysis with water, which results in the production of cocaethylene. cocaine + H2O → benzoylecgonine + methanol (with liver carboxylesterase 1) benzoylecgonine + ethanol → ...
Wei-Lun Sun WL, Zhou L, Nazarian A, Quinones- Jenab V and Jenab S. (2015). Acute cocaine differentially induces PKA phosphorylation substrates in male and female rats. Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, in press.. Nygard SK, Klambatsen A, Balouch B, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2015). Region and context-specific intracellular responses associated with cocaine-induced conditioned place preference expression. Neuroscience 287:1-8.. Nygard SK, Klambatsen A, Hazim R, Eltareb MH, Blank JC, Chang AJ, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2013). Sexually dimorphic intracellular responses after cocaine-induced conditioned place preference expressionBrain Res. 1520:121-33.. Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2012). Influence of sex differences and gonadal hormones on cocaine addiction ILAR J. 53:14-22.. Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2010). Progesterone attenuates cocaine-induced responses. Horm Behav. 58:22-32.. Sun WL, Zhou L, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2009). Cocaine effects on dopamine and NMDA ...
Fig. 1 Prior alcohol use enhances persistence, motivation, and compulsivity for cocaine self-administration.. (A) Drug treatment paradigm to study alcohol and cocaine coadministration. Access to voluntary alcohol (10% alcohol, 2 hours per day) and voluntary cocaine (self-administration, 0.8 mg/kg per injection) was restricted to 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. and 11 a.m. to 2 p.m., respectively, to avoid metabolic interaction between the two drugs. (B) Alcohol self-administration. Animals in the alcohol-primed group began drinking alcohol on day 1 of the paradigm; animals in the alcohol-concurrent group began drinking on day 11. All groups start cocaine self-administration (0.8 mg/kg per infusion) on day 11. The average alcohol intake during the alcohol-priming period was 1 g/kg during the first 5 days, increasing to 1.2 g/kg during the second 5 days. Alcohol intake was similar in the alcohol-primed versus alcohol-concurrent groups from days 11 to 32 [two-way repeated-measures (RM) analysis of variance ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic cocaine enhances serotonin autoregulation and serotonin uptake binding. AU - Cunningham, Kathryn A.. AU - Paris, Joseph M.. AU - Goeders, Nick E.. PY - 1992/6. Y1 - 1992/6. N2 - Repeated cocaine intoxication can result in the development of behavioral sensitization in animals and psychosis in humans, phenomena that have been associated with alterations in dopamine (DA) function. Using electrophysiologic and autoradiographic techniques, modifications of central serotonin (5‐hydroxytryptamine; 5‐HT) systems were investigated in rats treated with a regimen of cocaine administration that produced behavioral sensitization. The inhibitory response of single 5‐HT neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) to (−)‐cocaine, the 5‐HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine or the 5‐HT1A agonist 8‐hydroxy‐2‐[di‐N‐propylamino]tetralin (8‐OHDPAT) was significantly enhanced in cocaine‐treated rats. Furthermore, several brain areas that contain either cell bodies (DR) or terminals ...
Cocaine Treatment Center in Reading, PA. Find phone numbers, addresses and information about Cocaine Treatment Center in Reading.
Cocaine Treatment Center in Newport, RI. Find phone numbers, addresses and information about Cocaine Treatment Center in Newport.
If people use cocaine, they may take too much and get sick or even die. This is called an "overdose". When people take cocaine, they get intoxicated as well. When a person is intoxicated, they may do dangerous things, such as having unsafe sex with a person they do not know, or getting into a violent fight with a person. If a person uses cocaine for a long time, they can start to get strange feelings, like there are bugs crawling under their skin, or they can get paranoia (a feeling that there are people that want to hurt them). Cocaine is a very addictive drug. It can lead to psychological and/or physical dependence. When a person is addicted to a drug, they might do bad or criminal acts in order to get money for more drugs, such as crimes (for example theft, robbery, fraud, or prostitution). If the person tries to stop using cocaine, they will go through cocaine withdrawal. Another danger from using cocaine is the risk of infection when using unsafe ways of taking cocaine (like using dirty ...
Problem statement: It has been well documented that drugs of abuse such as cocaine can cause enhanced progression of HIV-Associated Neuropathological Disorders (HAND), the underlying mechanisms mediating these effects remain poorly understood. Approach: In present study, we explored the impact of cocaine exposure (I and 10 μM) on the dendritic beading in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Using the approach of transfection with green fluorescent protein, we observed significant dendritic swelling in hippocampal neurons exposed to 10 μM but not 1 μM of cocaine when compared with the saline treated group. Results: Cocaine exposure also resulted in decreased expression of the synaptic plasticity gene, Arc as evidenced by Western blotting. Intriguingly, cocaine exposure of primary neurons in the presence of the neurotoxin-HIV envelope protein gp 120, resulted in increased enhancement of neuronal beading as compared with exposure of neurons to either agent alone. Conclusion: Taken together these
senior study author Dr. Eric Nestler of New York Citys Mount Sinai School of Medicine said in a statement.. Nestler and colleagues combined highly sensitive genetic isolation and screening techniques to study regulation of gene transcription in the brains of mice repeatedly receiving cocaine. The researchers also found a previously unrecognized family of genes -- called the sirtuins -- involved in cocaine addiction. Chronic cocaine administration was linked with an increase in sirtuin gene transcription while increased sirtuin activity was associated the rewarding effects of cocaine being augmented, while pharmacological inhibition of sirtuins reduced the rewarding effects of cocaine and the motivation to self-administer the drug.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic cocaine disruption of estrous cyclicity in the rat. T2 - Dose-dependent effects. AU - King, T. S.. AU - Canez, M. S.. AU - Gaskill, S.. AU - Javors, M. A.. AU - Schenken, R. S.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - The effects of cocaine on cyclic reproductive function in females remain largely unknown. In this study, we sought to define the range of doses of cocaine effective in disrupting estrous cyclicity and inhibiting ovulation. Estrous cyclicity was monitored daily by vaginal cytology. Group 1 consisted of rats receiving no treatment. Group 2 consisted of rats injected daily with saline s.c. Groups 3 to 6 consisted of rats injected with 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of cocaine HCl s.c., respectively. Group 7 consisted of rats that were food-restricted to allow weight gains comparable to those of group 6. Our results indicate a dose- dependent effect of cocaine on estrous cyclicity with an estimated IC50 of 8.5 mg/kg/day (i.e., the dose of cocaine required to inhibit the ...
Find the best cocaine metabolites doctors in Kolkata. Get guidance from medical experts to select cocaine metabolites specialist in Kolkata from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
While there has been a lack of consistency in the results from different studies on cocaine withdrawal, generally, symptoms of cocaine withdrawal include: Anxiety Erratic sleep Irritability Depression Sadness Cravings for cocaine Poor concentration Lethargy These may occur anywhere from a few hours to a few weeks after the suspension of cocaine use. The symptoms can be managed by most people while at home and do not require hospitalization for detox.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cocaine analog coupled to disrupted adenovirus. T2 - A vaccine strategy to evoke high-titer immunity against addictive drugs. AU - Hicks, Martin J.. AU - De, Bishnu P.. AU - Rosenberg, Jonathan B.. AU - Davidson, Jesse T.. AU - Moreno, Amira Y.. AU - Janda, Kim D.. AU - Wee, Sunmee. AU - Koob, George F.. AU - Hackett, Neil R.. AU - Kaminsky, Stephen M.. AU - Worgall, Stefan. AU - Toth, Miklos. AU - Mezey, Jason G.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - Based on the concept that anticocaine antibodies could prevent inhaled cocaine from reaching its target receptors in the brain, an effective anticocaine vaccine could help reverse cocaine addiction. Leveraging the knowledge that E1- E3- adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors are potent immunogens, we have developed a novel vaccine platform for addictive drugs by covalently linking a cocaine analog to the capsid proteins of noninfectious, disrupted Ad vector. The Ad-based anticocaine vaccine evokes high-titer ...
Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
The results of the present study demonstrate that cocaine self-administration alters dopamine transporter binding and that these changes follow a clear progression over time. In the initial stages of cocaine self-administration (5 d), DAT binding site levels were moderately reduced, whereas after more prolonged cocaine self-administration (3.3 months), large increases in the density of DAT sites were evident. These increases in DAT binding levels persisted even after protracted periods of self-administration (1.5 years). A key characteristic of the alterations in DAT binding was the dose-dependent nature of the effects. Chronic cocaine self-administration at the higher cocaine dose yielded more intense increases in the density of the DAT binding sites and encompassed a wider expanse of the caudal PCS than self-administration of the lower dose. Finally, the majority of significant changes in DAT binding density that occurred after chronic and long-term cocaine self-administration were focused in ...
Protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) is a widely expressed scaffold protein known to interact via its PSD-95/discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-domain with several membrane proteins including the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), the primary target for cocaines reinforcing actions. Here, we establish the importance of PICK1 for behavioral effects observed after both acute and repeated administration of cocaine. In PICK1 knock-out (KO) mice, the acute locomotor response to a single injection of cocaine was markedly attenuated. Moreover, in support of a role for PICK1 in neuroadaptive changes induced by cocaine, we observed diminished cocaine intake in a self-administration paradigm. Reduced behavioral effects of cocaine were not associated with decreased striatal DAT distribution and most likely not caused by the ∼30% reduction in synaptosomal DA uptake observed in PICK1 KO mice. The PICK1 KO mice demonstrated preserved behavioral responses to DA receptor agonists supporting intact downstream DA ...
Previous examination of binge cocaine self-administration and 2 week withdrawal from cocaine self-administration about ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit (iGluRs) protein levels revealed significant alterations in iGluR protein levels that differed between your mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways. and nigrostriatal pathways (substantia nigra SN and dorsal caudate-putamen CPu). Inside the mesolimbic Mouse monoclonal to Histone 3.1. Histones are the structural scaffold for the organization of nuclear DNA into chromatin. Four core histones, H2A,H2B,H3 and H4 are the major components of nucleosome which is the primary building block of chromatin. The histone proteins play essential structural and functional roles in the transition between active and inactive chromatin states. Histone 3.1, an H3 variant that has thus far only been found in mammals, is replication dependent and is associated with tene activation and gene silencing. pathway reductions had been seen in NR1 and GluR5 ...
Background Homologous cocaine self-administration procedures in laboratory animals and humans may facilitate translational research for medications development to treat cocaine dependence. This study, therefore, sought to establish choice between cocaine and an alternative reinforcer in rhesus monkeys responding under a procedure back-translated from previous human studies and homologous to a human laboratory procedure described in a companion paper. Methods Four rhesus monkeys with chronic indwelling intravenous catheters had access to cocaine injections (0, 0.043, 0.14, or 0.43 mg/kg/injection) and food (0, 1, 3, or 10 1 g banana-flavored food pellets). During daily 5 h sessions, a single cocaine dose and a single food-reinforcer magnitude were available in 10 30-min trials. During the initial
Cocaine abuse has become the most abused major stimulant in the USA and statistics show that emergency room visits for it are increasing. Cocaine abuse has been around for as long as anyone can remember.. Derived from the "innocent" cocoa plant, it is considered the "champagne" of drugs, one of its street names. There is an array of street names describing the different uses.. There are various ways that an addict will use this drug, amongst them being snorting, smoking one of the derivatives known as crack or rock. Historically, cocaine was known as the rich mans drug. This is changing rapidly as teenagers have found a new sensation in mixing it with marijuana.. The highly addictive nature of cocaine makes it an extremely dangerous drug and many a user will tell you that theyre not addicted. This is so far from the truth to be ridiculous. If cocaine abuse isnt a problem to the addict, how come they are still using it?. No-one would willingly remain addicted. The penalties are extreme. ...
Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
Because DSM-IV cocaine dependence (CD) is heterogeneous, it is not an optimal phenotype to identify genetic variation contributing to risk for cocaine use and related behaviors (CRBs). We used a cluster analytic method to differentiate homogeneous, highly heritable subtypes of CRBs and to compare their utility with that of the DSM-IV CD as traits for genetic association analysis. Clinical features of CRBs and co-occurring disorders were obtained via a poly-diagnostic interview administered to 9,965 participants in genetic studies of substance dependence. A subsample of subjects (N = 3,443) were genotyped for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 130 candidate genes related to addiction. Cluster analysis of clinical features of the sample yielded five subgroups, two of which were characterized by heavy cocaine use and high heritability: a heavy cocaine use, infrequent intravenous injection group and an early-onset, heavy cocaine use, high comorbidity group. The utility of ...
Our data suggest a metabolic component for both the cocaine-induced reductions in myocardial performance and their attenuation with thiazolidinedione pretreatment. This connection is supported by the observation that coronary vascular resistance was much less affected by cocaine infusion in hearts from pioglitazone-fed rats than those from controls. Cocaine is an indirect vasoconstrictor and increases, in a dose dependent manner, coronary perfusion pressures in control hearts under constant flow conditions. This effect was significantly reduced by pioglitazone. Pioglitazone treatment typically reduces systolic blood pressure in patients by a few Torr16 but has not been reported to exert direct or indirect effects on coronary vessels. Buchanan et al . reported that pioglitazone blunted the contractile response of aortic rings to norepinephrine in vitro but did not alter the resting tension of intact or denuded rings.17 Moreover, baseline values of line pressure were not different in our two ...
You can become addicted to cocaine, meaning that you crave and need more and more cocaine. If this happens cocaine use can become an expensive habit to keep and can spiral out of control. You may lose your job, home; and your relationships with friends and family can be damaged or destroyed.. Cocaine can make you feel depressed and run down after using it. It can bring previous mental health problems to the surface. You can develop serious problems with anxiety, paranoia and panic attacks. Large or frequent use of coke tends to knock sexual desire on the head.. Cocaine is highly risky for anybody with high blood pressure or a heart condition. Perfectly healthy, young people can have a fit or heart attack after taking too much coke and you may not know youve got a pre-existing heart condition. ...
Cocaine is a stimulant, which means that it produces a fast, intense feeling of power and energy. Then it wears off (crack wears off very quickly) and the user feels depressed and nervous and craves more of the drug to feel good again.. Cocaine is so addictive that someone can get hooked after trying it just once.. Snorting cocaine can damage the septum between the nostrils, causing a hole in the middle of the nose.. Cocaine makes the heart beat faster and blood pressure and body temperature go up. It also can make the heart beat abnormally. Cocaine is so dangerous that using it just once can cause a heart attack, stroke, or even death.. ...
Cocaine is a stimulant, which means that it produces a fast, intense feeling of power and energy. Then it wears off (crack wears off very quickly) and the user feels depressed and nervous and craves more of the drug to feel good again.. Cocaine is so addictive that someone can get hooked after trying it just once.. Snorting cocaine can damage the septum between the nostrils, causing a hole in the middle of the nose.. Cocaine makes the heart beat faster and blood pressure and body temperature go up. It also can make the heart beat abnormally. Cocaine is so dangerous that using it just once can cause a heart attack, stroke, or even death.. ...
We investigated the interaction between ontogeny, stress and environment where the drug is administered on the behavioral sensitization to cocaine and related neuroadaptations. This study was divided in two parts. In the first one we evaluated the behavioral sensitization to cocaine and alterations of glutamate receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme following repeated cocaine administrations or stress exposure on adolescent rats. These alterations were evaluated from adolescence to adulthood. The results showed that cocaine administration during adolescence produced long-term behavioral sensitization to cocaine until adulthood and increased of GluR1 glutamate receptor subunit in the medial prefrontal cortex. The stress-induced behavioral sensitization was evident during adolescence but did not reach adulthood. In the second part, we evaluated the environmental modulation of behavioral sensitization to cocaine and alterations of CREB and upstream kinases activation in adult rats. The results ...
This invention includes an antigenic conjugate of ecgonine and a carrier which elicits anti-benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) serum useful for the detection of cocaine metabolites in human organs a
1] M. Gossop, V. Manning, and G. Ridge, "Concurrent use of alcohol and cocaine: differences in patterns of use and problems among users of crack cocaine and cocaine powder," Alcohol Alcohol., vol. 41, pp. 121-125, 2006.. [2] H. R. Sumnall, G. F. Wagstaff, and J. C. Cole, "Self-reported psychopathology in polydrug users," J. Psychopharmacol., vol. 18, pp. 75-82, 2004.. [3] M. Graziani, P. Nencini, and R. Nisticò, "Genders and the concurrent use of cocaine and alcohol: Pharmacological aspects," Pharmacol. Res., vol. 87, pp. 60-70, 2014.. [4] L. J. Bierut, J. R. Strickland, J. R. Thompson, S. E. Afful, and L. B. Cottler, "Drug use and dependence in cocaine dependent subjects, community-based individuals, and their siblings," Drug Alcohol Depend., vol. 95, pp. 14-22, 2008.. [5] T. Apantaku-Olajide, C. D. Darker, and B. P. Smyth, "Onset of cocaine use: Associated alcohol intoxication and psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in substance abuse treatment," J. Addict. Med., vol. 7, pp. ...
There is a chemical out and about in the world today called cocaine hydrochloride. We commonly refer to it as cocaine. Some cocaine users, in order to make the drug more potent, remove the hydrochloride, a process call "freebasing." The solid form of this freebased cocaine is called "crack", getting its name from the snapping and cracking sounds it makes when being heated and smoked. Once considered a rich mans drug, it is currently being sold at prices that even juveniles can afford-at least in the beginning. Once addicted, the crack habit increases along with the cost. Continue reading →. ...