Guidance Note 1: 12 reasons why climate change adaptation M&E is challenging Guidance Note 2: Selecting indicators for climate change adaptation programming Excerpt ToCs can and are tailored to various levels of analysis and intervention. ToCs are not solely reserved for long-term and large-scale planning. They can also be very effective for mapping out community-based and
Guidance Note 1: 12 reasons why climate change adaptation M&E is challenging Guidance Note 2: Selecting indicators for climate change adaptation programming Excerpt ToCs can and are tailored to various levels of analysis and intervention. ToCs are not solely reserved for long-term and large-scale planning. They can also be very effective for mapping out community-based and
Climate change adaptation is the ability of a society or a natural system to adjust to the (changing) conditions that support life in a certain climate region, including weather extremes in that region. The current discussion on climate change adaptation began in the 1990s, with the publication of the Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Since the beginning of the 21st century, most countries, and many regions and municipalities have started to develop and implement climate change adaptation strategies and plans. But since the implementation of adaptation measures must be planned and conducted at the local level, a major challenge is to actually implement adaptation to climate change in practice. One challenge is that scientific results are mainly published on international or national levels, and political guidelines are written at transnational (e.g., European Union), national, or regional levels-these scientific results must be downscaled, interpreted, ...
The 2012 report entitled BC Agriculture: Climate Change Adaptation, Risk + Opportunity Assessment provides a high level overview of the implications of climate chang for the BC agriculture sector, including the key areas of risk and opportunity and the factors that will influence the industrys ability to adapte and thrive. It will provide a baseline assessment of the potential impacts of climate change across the province for the agriculture sector.
Representatives from across the Bay of Plenty gathered in Te Puke yesterday [subs 19 October 2020], to start work on developing a plan for climate change adaptation and building climate resilience in our Bay of Plenty communities.
June 13, 2014) US government action can curb the risks climate change poses to global food security, says a new report (PDF) released by The Chicago Council on Global Affairs.. Building on the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change report and National Climate Assessment, The Chicago Councils study explains how higher temperatures, changes in rainfall and natural disasters caused by climate change could undermine food production and put food supplies at risk. In total, climate change could reduce food production growth by 2 percent each decade for the rest of this century.. The report calls on the US government to integrate climate change adaptation into its global food security strategy. Recommendations include:. -Passing legislation for a long-term global food and nutrition security strategy.. -Increasing funding for agricultural research on climate change adaptation. Research priorities should include improving crop and livestock tolerance to higher temperatures and volatile ...
In late June of this year, a major milestone was reached in the National Adaptation Plan process. An inception workshop was held for the Strengthening the integration of climate change adaptation into development planning in Côte dIvoire project on 25 and 26 June. It is financed to the tune of USD 2.4 million by the Green Climate Fund and supported by the United Nations Development Programme. The workshop was chaired by His Excellency Joseph Séka Séka - the Minister of Environment - and welcomed 68 participants representing a range of stakeholders. These included sectoral ministries, research and development institutions, universities, the private sector, technical and financial partners, NGOs, local community organizations, as well as women organizations ...
Eventbrite - Melbourne School of Design presents MSD Deans Lecture - Increasing Urban Resilience: Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Planning and Governance - Tuesday, 10 October 2017 at B117 Theatre, Basement, University of Melbourne, VIC. Find event and ticket information.
Cyclone SIDR hit the coastal districts of Bangladesh on November 15, 2007 in the evening when it started crossing the country from northern Bay of Bengal with high tidal surges and strong winds of up to 260 km/hr. This study has been undertaken to assess the severity of the damage caused by SIDR, and identify causes of such cyclonic storms in recent years in order to suggest possible adaptive measures for the coastal people to cope with such situations in the future. The study reveals that both natural and human induced factors are responsible for such devastating catastrophes. The study suggests a number climate change adaptation andmitigation options that can be taken to reduce the severity of damages caused by cyclones in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. These include: developing an early warning system; constructing adequate cyclone shelters and tree plantations in the remote coastal areas; constructing structured and fortified houses and livestock shelters; livelihood diversification; and ...
Tribal Climate Change Adaptation Planning Toolkit: The Northern Arizona University Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) established its Tribal Climate Change (TCC) Program in 2009 to provide support and be responsive to the needs of tribes that are preparing for and currently contending with climate change impacts. This program offers training, technical assistance, educational resources, and tools to build the capacity of tribes to address climate change impacts. Tribal Climate Change Adaptation Planning Toolkit collection of templates and other resources assists tribes in their climate change adaptation planning process. The Bureau of Indian Affairs Climate Change Program provides annual travel support grants to permit tribes to attend this and other climate trainings and helps fund the TCC program ...
The Institute of Risk Management and Imperial College London team up to deliver the go-to practical training course on Climate Change Risk Management. Building on world-leading expertise in the science of climate change, business management and enterprise risk management, this practical course not only allows learners to explore why managing climate change risk is important to their organisation but also how to do it. No matter what sort of organisation you work in, you will be impacted in some way by both the physical effects of our changing climate and the wealth of regulations and targets we are increasingly required to meet. Be it the meeting of requirements outlined in TCFD or the opportunities posed by COP26, now is the time to ensure you not only understand what your climate change risks are, but also how to manage them. ...
The Global Climate Change Specialist will provide technical support and advice to USAID field missions and bureaus with strategy development, design, performance monitoring and evaluation of USAID-sponsored climate change programs, particularly those related to climate change adaptation and integration. S/he will be responsible for improving indicators, tools, and guidance related to monitoring the results of USAID climate change programs, in particular climate change adaptation and integration programs. The Specialist will provide quality control on performance reporting, help maintain a system of consolidating performance data, and analyze data for management and communications purposes. S/he will coordinate the collection of contextual data relevant to USAID climate change programs. The Specialist will interact regularly with field missions, provide regular updates on performance monitoring guidance to the field, coordinate with other donor agencies, and help improve and deliver training on ...
Dnva.no. This study arises from the concern that changes in weather patterns will be one of the principal effects of climate change and with these will come extreme weather. This is of considerable consequence in Europe as it impacts on the vulnerability of communities across the continent and exposes them to environmental risks. It is now widely recognised that failures in international efforts to agree on the action necessary to limit global climate change mean that adaptation to its consequences is necessary and unavoidable (Solomon et al., 2007).. The changes anticipated in the occurrence and character of extreme weather events are, in many cases, the dominant factor in designing adaptation measures.. Policy communities within the EU have begun to consider appropriate responses to these changes and an EU adaptation strategy is under active development and implementation. There are also sectoral EU initiatives, for example on water shortages and heat waves, and, at a regional level, on ...
International trade enables us to exploit regional differences in climate change impacts and is increasingly regarded as a potential adaptation mechanism. Here, we focus on hunger reduction through international trade under alternative trade scenarios for a wide range of climate futures. Under the current level of trade integration, climate change would lead to up to 55 million people who are undernourished in 2050. Without adaptation through trade, the impacts of global climate change would increase to 73 million people who are undernourished (+33%). Reduction in tariffs as well as institutional and infrastructural barriers would decrease the negative impact to 20 million (−64%) people. We assess the adaptation effect of trade and climate-induced specialization patterns. The adaptation effect is strongest for hunger-affected import-dependent regions. However, in hunger-affected export-oriented regions, partial trade integration can lead to increased exports at the expense of domestic food
PARIS, Dec. 3, 2015 - Jean Lebel, President of Canadas International Development Research Centre (IDRC), along with Aron Cramer, President and CEO of Business for Social Responsibility (BSR), today announced a joint initiative to help companies protect their businesses and assets from the impacts of climate change.. The two-year research initiative, entitled Mobilizing Private Sector Investment in Adaptation to Climate Change, will outline key gaps in the understanding of longer term adaptation by companies. This includes identifying risks, barriers, and opportunities, and helping to build the business case for taking action on climate change.. Todays announcement took place at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), as part of an official side event titled: The private finance gap: Challenges and opportunities in funding adaptation. This new initiative complements existing work between IDRC and CTI PFAN (Climate ...
Map of the observed surface temperature change from 1901 to 2012 derived from temperature trends determined by linear regression from one dataset (orange line in panel a). Trends have been calculated where data availability permits a robust estimate (i.e., only for grid boxes with greater than 70% complete records and more than 20% data availability in the first and last 10% of the time period). Other areas are white. Grid boxes where the trend is significant at the 10% level are indicated by a + sign. (Graphic from the The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) less ...
Photo from UNITAR Project Report This project aims to develop a community-driven adaptation plan of action, as well as to facilitate the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into the sustainable development planning process. Primary beneficiaries will include poor and marginalized farmers, agricultural laborers, landless women, indigenous people, small traders and students.. Through the identification of livelihood vulnerabilities to climate change, climate variability and other natural hazards, this project will develop strategies to reduce such vulnerabilities identified in the risk assessment process. The project will adhere to the standard community risk assessment procedures of the Ministry of Food and Disaster Management of Bangladesh and its ongoing Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme.. Risk communication strategies, materials and means will be developed to facilitate government and development agencies involvement and the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into ...
The Climate Change Risk Perception Model (CCRPM, Van der Linden, 2015) has been used to characterize public risk perceptions; however, little is known about the models explanatory power in other (online) contexts. In this study, we extend the model and investigate the risk perceptions of a unique audience: The polarized climate change blogosphere. In total, our model explained 84% of the variance in risk perceptions by integrating socio-demographic characteristics, cognitive factors, experiential processes, socio-cultural influences, and an additional dimension: Trust in scientists and blogs. Although trust and the scientific consensus are useful additions to the model, affect remains the most important predictor of climate change risk perceptions. Surprisingly, the relative importance of social norms and value orientations is minimal. Implications for risk and science communication are discussed.. ...
Downloadable! Adaptation to the consequences of climate change can depend on efficient use of ecosystem services (ES), i.e. a better use of natural services through management of the way in which they are delivered to society. While much discussion focuses on reducing consumption and increasing production of services, a lack of scientific instruments has so far prevented other mechanisms to improve ecosystem services efficiency from being addressed systematically as an adaptation strategy. This paper describes new methodologies for assessing ecosystem services and quantifying their values to humans, highlighting the role of ecosystem service flow analysis in optimizing the efficiency of ES provision.
By Lawrence Flint - ENDA TM, 2007. ENDA is one of the few truly international African NGOs whose constituency comprises African populations in urban and rural Africa, many of which have suffered the effects of unequal development since absorption into the European world economy which became global from around 1900. ENDA focuses on a development first agenda, building capacity and resilience among communities and their representative leaders, institutions and decision makers across the continent from its base in Dakar.. Climate change and variability represent serious threats in much of Africa due to the immediacy of their impacts on local communities whose survival, socio-economic and cultural well-being is premised primarily on the natural environment. Nevertheless, climate change is not a new phenomenon and African communities have, over time and space, developed coping strategies, successfully managing livelihood resources from a gradually expanding indigenous knowledge base.. However, the ...
Our project will draw on a comprehensive literature review (using WISE), expert/stakeholder workshops, available hydrological and climate models, and ecological and socio-economic databases developed by the organisations collaborating for this proposal (UNSW, CSIRO and Sydney University). This would result in a significant report for Work Package 4: the Macquarie Marshes. Our objectives are to:. • Identify the likely risks, impacts of climate change, adaptation strategies and limits for the ecological and social communities of the Macquarie Marshes through a comprehensive literature review. The ecological community will include waterbirds, vegetation, fish, invertebrates, carbon cycling, woodland birds and frogs. The socio-economic dimension will identify wetland values (ecosystem goods and services), indigenous values, grazing, irrigation and recreation. Adaptation strategies include; migration, environmental flow allocations, water savings, restoration of deep pools, protection of core ...
The impacts of climate change-such as increased droughts or more erratic storms- threaten to undermine decades of development gains and future development trajectories. Many of the main drivers of poverty in developing countries are intertwined with climate change impacts. Thus, supporting countries to adapt to these impacts and prepare for future expected impacts will be essential for advancing sustainable and equitable development.. UNDPs support in climate change adaptation includes integrating information on climate change risks and adaptation options into national and sub-national planning processes and budgets; and promoting and implementing integrated investments on the ground that safeguard livelihoods and protect development from possible impacts.. For example, through UNDP, nearly 10,000 households in Cambodia have been directly supported to strengthen livelihoods resilience against climate change. This has been done by strengthening practices around water harvesting, soil ...
Cities are facing increasing risks caused by extreme climate events, making housing, infrastructure, traffic, health, ecosystems and cultural and historical heritage vulnerable. Continuous climate change is expected to further increase this risk, and thus the need for adequate and timely response of decision makers at all administrative levels. Accordingly, planning adaptation measures has become a high priority for local government authorities and property owners in cities. However, the cost-effective planning of adaptation strategies is very complicated. The integrated assessment of climate events, associated flooding, damage costs and adaptation measures requires multidisciplinary work and close interaction between professionals and decision-makers. Damage cost assessments and adaptation planning also require context-specific data and modelling, which, all together, can be very demanding in the development of solid local adaptation plans for decision-making.. ...
Speakers: Megan Linkin (Swiss Re), Gary Yohe (Wesleyan University), and Christopher Zeppie (The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey)How will cities manage the risks associated with climate change? Join us to learn how experts are developing risk management tools for identifying, assessing, and managing risks posed by climate change.
It has become apparent that the effects of climate change will be especially important for Southwestern US water users. The NSF-funded EPSCoR project Climate Change Impacts on New Mexicos Mountain Sources of Water focuses on improving hydrometeorological measurements, developing basin-wide and sub-basin snow cover mapping methods, generating snowmelt runoff simulations and long-term climate change assessments, and informing the public of the results through outreach and educational activities. Five new and 12 upgraded SNOTEL sites, four SCAN stations and about 30 new automated weather stations are being added to New Mexico measurement networks. 25 sub-basins of the Rio Grande have been identified as important snowmelt basins where development and testing of snow cover mapping methods will be conducted. High spatial resolution Landsat TM data (30 m) are being used to evaluate estimates of snow cover from Terra MODIS moderate spatial resolution data (250m and 500 m). We aim to identify the best ...
There has been a remarkable scientific output on the topic of how climate change is likely to affect plant diseases in the coming decades. This review addresses the need for review of this burgeoning literature by summarizing opinions of previous reviews and trends in recent studies on the impacts of climate change on plant health. Sudden Oak Death is used as an introductory case study: Californian forests could become even more susceptible to this emerging plant disease, if spring precipitations will be accompanied by warmer temperatures, although climate shifts may also affect the current synchronicity between host cambium activity and pathogen colonization rate. A summary of observed and predicted climate changes, as well as of direct effects of climate change on pathosystems, is provided. Prediction and management of climate change effects on plant health are complicated by indirect effects and the interactions with global change drivers. Uncertainty in models of plant disease development ...
Growing food could become harder which could lead to a food crisis says the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The apex body on climate change science released its report on March 31, 2014 in Yokohama Japan. It paints a very disturbing picture for the years to come. This report-Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability-has been prepared by the Working Group II of the IPCC and details the impacts of climate change that have already occurred, the future risks from a changing climate, and scope of reducing these risks ...
This framework provides the approach to be used in completing the National Climate Change Risk Assessment (NCCRA). It includes the framing and templates, along with guidance materials that will be used to assess climate change risks at a national level.
Assigning numbers to the consequences or impacts of climate change might be used in a variety of ways. First, the public might then realize that climate change impacts are happening now, and be more supportive of comprehensive climate change legislation. Second, lawsuits based on climate change and pollution are already being filed in the courts. Third, an analysis of specific events and their causes will help governments and people try to be prepared for the climate change impacts with adaptation and mitigation. And, a United Nations fund to assist developing countries with adapting to climate change might be able to use the numbers to help determine which regions are suffering the most from climate change impacts ...
Climate change has become a major challenge globally. Human activities have several direct and indirect impacts on health. In Nigeria, the impacts of climate change are more devastating due to their vulnerability and low coping capability. Studies on the impacts of climate change on health risks in Nigeria are scare. With this rationale, this study investigates the effects of climate change on health risks in Nigeria. Evidence abounds that climate change impacts in Nigeria arise from climate change-related causes such as increase in temperature, rainfall, sea level rise, extreme weather events and, especially, increased health risks. Health risks such as cerebra-spinal meningitis, cardiovascular respiratory disorder of elderly, skin cancer, malaria, high blood pressure and morbidity were identified as the direct consequences of climate change. The study concluded that government should raise awareness on adverse effects of climate change which is common among vulnerable groups, like women, children and
Climate change is affecting the worlds natural ecosystems, according to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In Latin America, researchers have observed substantial changes in precipitation, temperature, climate variability, and the number and severity of extreme events. This project aims to assess population vulnerability and climate change impacts on waterborne and water-related diseases in Bolivia and Colombia. It will use a participatory, multistakeholder, and transdisciplinary research approach in two Andean Region watersheds, the Lauca River Basin in Bolivia and the Cauca River Basin in Colombia, to develop ecosystem and human health policy adaptation strategies. These river basins are home to indigenous communities and large urban centres, such as Cali. Although on different development paths, communities in both regions are dealing with changes in water availability and quality due to climate change. This affects commercial and subsistence ...
Those of us who have hoped for a magical, Big Bang, or global agreement on Climate Change, may feel disappointed at Christiana Figueress (Executive Secretary, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) conclusion that we cannot have one. Certainly, the past attempts at Climate Change negotiations among the world powers have been dismal. So much so that were happy countries are still talking to each other about Climate Change at all-regardless of what they say. Progress on Climate Change, according to Figueres, will be incremental. (From Global Meltdown: Christiana Figueres, Climate One.) Incremental progress, a rate comfortable to nations around the world, sounds comforting, until you realize the intractability of this issue. That once-in-a-thousand-year heat wave that hit France in 2003 and killed 15,000 people is predicted by climate models to occur every other year by the 2040s. (Read The Weather of the Future: Heat Waves, Extreme Storms, and Other Scenes from a ...
Regional Gateway for Technology Transfer and Climate Change Action in Latin America and the Caribbean (ROLAC UNEP) Characterizing and addressing SLOW ONSET EVENTS climate change impacts on BIODIVERSITY
UK - Adaptation measures to help us cope with climate change have the potential to generate further threats for both local and global ecosystems, according to a new study from the University of East Anglia.
Climate change prevents us from being able to predict how and where droughts and floods will occur. Development of alternative water sources can help us adapt.
This Policy Guidance is intended to provide policy makers and practitioners in development co-operation agencies with information and advice on how to mainstream climate change into development.
In Québec, like elsewhere in the world, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans (zoonoses), which account for about 60% of diseases communicable to humans, are currently emerging. The complex dynamics of zoonoses can be affected by climate change. In response to this complexity, the Observatoire initiated a zoonosis prioritization approach in 2015 in the
The Climate Ready Estuaries program works with the National Estuary Programs (NEP) and the coastal management community to: (1) assess climate change vulnerabilities, (2) develop and implement adaptation strategies, and (3) engage and educate stakeholders. CRE shares NEP examples to help other coastal managers, and provides technical guidance and assistance about climate change adaptation. Estuaries and coastal areas are particularly vulnerable to climate variability and change. CRE seeks to help coastal managers protect ecosystems from projected impacts of sea level rise, increasing temperatures, and other effects. The Climate Ready Estuaries website offers information on climate change impacts to different estuary regions, access to tools and resources to monitor changes, and information to help managers develop adaptation plans for estuaries and coastal communities.. ...
...Regional climate changes can be very rapid. A German-British team of g...The team around Christine Lane (Oxford University) and Achim Brauer fr...But how did the researcher revealed such a accurate time marking? 12 ...Furthermore lake sediments are very accurate climate archives especi...,Rapid,climate,changes,,but,with,a,120,year,time,lag,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
How does climate change affect seed and pollen dispersal, an essential process for plant reproduction? To gain an in-depth understanding, Dr. Céline Born traveled to Marion Island in the sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean to study Azorella selago, a keystone plant species due to its critical importance to ecosystem function. Using the genotyped specimens found on the island, she is studying the impact of wind patterns on pollen dispersal of Azorella. Our research will be used for the development of a conservation plan for the sub-Antarctic region, which is particularly affected by climate change, she explained. This data will be used to predict colonization of the plant based on various global warming scenarios.. To add or modify information on this page, please contact us at the following address: [email protected] ...
Climate variability and change has been considered to be posing the greatest threat to agriculture and food security in many of the poor, agriculture - based countries in Africa. In recognition of t his, an assessment of climate change impacts on small - scale farmers was conducted in Nyandarua South District to assess the impacts of climate variability and change on the small - scale farmers in the area. The area is nationally known as a high agricultura l potential area producing all year round horticulture produce. Data was obtained through administration of questionnaires, observation and focused group discussions. Through systematic random sampling the researcher administered 375 households questionna ires representing 10% of the total households in the study area. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages) and inferential statistics (chi square) were used to produce associations between variables assessed. The results indicate that small - sca le farmers in North Kinangop ...
The climate group uses a range of archives and proxies to document past climate change. The aim is to elucidate the processes governing climate change, providing empirical evidence to test theories and models, including those used to predict future climate change. Our evidence comes from archives including marine and lake sediments and ice cores. We have developed a range of chemical, isotopic and sedimentary proxies of the critical parameters needed to describe past climatic states and the processes that force change. Among other topics we use these tools to look at climate change, ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles and ice sheet changes, with a strong emphasis on glacial cycles and rapid climate change within the last glacial cycle. However we also study earlier periods of Earth History, and more recent climate change and its impact on societies. We have increased the links between workers on marine, ice-core and terrestrial records and promoted collaboration with the climate modelling ...
UNECE is a driving force in combating climate change in the region. UNECE contributes to define a legal and regulatory framework that facilitates climate change mitigation: from the inclusion of black carbon and particulate matter in the Air Convention to the various regulations and standards reducing emissions and resource use. Extensive work has been carried out on climate change adaptation strategies for water management under the Water Convention. Infrastructure will play a major role in adaptation and UNECE has been engaged in assessing and offering solutions in transport.. ...
Future food production is highly vulnerable to both climate change and air pollution with implications for global food security1, 2, 3, 4. Climate change adaptation and ozone regulation have been identified as important strategies to safeguard food production5, 6, but little is known about how climate and ozone pollution interact to affect agriculture, nor the relative effectiveness of these two strategies for different crops and regions. Here we present an integrated analysis of the individual and combined effects of 2000-2050 climate change and ozone trends on the production of four major crops (wheat, rice, maize and soybean) worldwide based on historical observations and model projections, specifically accounting for ozone-temperature co-variation. The projections exclude the effect of rising CO2, which has complex and potentially offsetting impacts on global food supply7, 8, 9, 10. We show that warming reduces global crop production by ,10% by 2050 with a potential to substantially worsen ...
Fresh off the Press: How Climate Change Impacts Water Supply | A new report by the consulting firm Tetra Tech reveals the impact climate change will have on…
Robust monitoring and evaluation (M&E) frameworks that measure the impact of resilience programs can help by providing clear, systematic steps and processes to gather and analyze evidence. But new research [4] from WRI conducted while developing the Assessing Climate Change Adaptation Framework (ACCAF), an M&E framework for LoCAL, reveals challenges that are characteristic of the broader thorny bundle of obstacles [5] associated with climate change adaptation, such as the contextual nature of resilience and a lack of standard indicators to measure adaptation progress. This new WRI working paper, Assessing the Effectiveness of Climate Resilience Grants to Local Governments in Least Developed Countries [4], [4] outlines practical approaches to some of these methodological challenges. It identifies three broader lessons learned from creating an M&E framework for resilience:. 1. M&E systems for adaptation must also be adaptable. LoCALs existing assessment system exemplified good practice for ...
Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations (essays). Full text. Free. Dissertation: Disaster risk management and climate change adaptation in urban contexts: Integration and challenges.
This project examined genetic divergence and phenotypic plasticity in two widespread Eucalyptus species (E. tricarpa in South-Eastern Australia, E. salubris in South-Western Australia), to determine the nature of adaptation to climate in these species, and whether genomic screening might be a useful tool to assess climate adaptation. Evidence of both plastic response and genetic specialisation for climate was found in both species, indicating that widespread eucalypts utilise a combination of both mechanisms for adaptation to spatial variation in climate. Widespread eucalypts are likely to possess a capacity to respond plastically to a changing climate to some extent, but selection of seed sources to match projected climate changes may confer even greater climate resilience. The assessment characterised responses in functional traits relevant to climate adaptation, including leaf size, thickness, tissue density, and carbon isotope ratio. Genetic variation was assessed with genome scans using ...
Acclimation, a form of physiological plasticity, is the capacity for organisms to physiologically adjust to temperature variation. Such changes can potentially reduce climate change impacts on animal populations. Research synthesizing the current state of knowledge about physiological plasticity in ectotherms shows that freshwater and marine animals seem to have a greater capacity for acclimation than terrestrial ones. Understanding how climate change affects natural populations remains one of the greatest challenges for ecology and management of natural resources. Animals can remodel their physiology to compensate for the effects of temperature variation, and this physiological plasticity, or acclimation, can confer resilience to climate change1,2. The current lack of a comprehensive analysis of the capacity for physiological plasticity across taxonomic groups and geographic regions, however, constrains predictions of the impacts of climate change. Here, we assembled the largest database to date to
TY - JOUR. T1 - An economic analysis of agricultural adaptation to climate change impacts in Sri Lanka. T2 - An endogenous switching regression analysis. AU - Suresh, Kanesh. AU - Khanal, Uttam. AU - Wilson, Clevo. AU - Managi, Shunsuke. AU - Quayle, Annette. AU - Santhirakumar, Samithamby. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. PY - 2021/10. Y1 - 2021/10. N2 - Climate change and its impact on the agricultural sector in developing economies is a matter of considerable academic and political debate. This paper examines the impact of climate change and variability on Sri Lankan agriculture and identifies the potential adaptation practices and their impacts on rice productivity. More specifically, this study investigates how farming households decisions to adapt to climate change affects agricultural productivity in the Batticaloa district of Sri Lanka. The data were collected through a primary survey of 238 farming households. We employ a simultaneous equations model with endogenous ...
Abstract. East Africa is highly affected by neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), which are projected to be exacerbated by climate change. Consequently, understanding what research has been conducted and what knowledge gaps remain regarding NTDs and climate change is crucial to informing public health interventions and climate change adaptation. We conducted a systematic scoping review to describe the extent, range, and nature of publications examining relationships between NTDs and climatic factors in East Africa. We collated all relevant English and French publications indexed in PubMed®, Web of Science™ Core Collection, and CAB Direct© databases published prior to 2019. Ninety-six publications were included for review. Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia had high rates of publication, whereas countries in the Western Indian Ocean region were underrepresented. Most publications focused on schistosomiasis (n = 28, 29.2%), soil-transmitted helminthiases (n = 16, 16.7%), or human African trypanosomiasis (n =
Literature Review. Scientists claim with a high degree of confidence that the Earths climate is changing and will continue to change throughout the 21st century and beyond, but that the actual cause and the net consequences of these changes, including finding solutions, are not fully understood (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2014; National Research Council, 2011). The difficulty in understanding global climate change arises from the fact that the processes and driving forces inducing changes in the global climate occur slowly and are sometimes too trivial to be gauged quantitatively. Over time these creeping processes and forces become titanic in causes and consequences, to the extent that anyone seeking to analyse them might be astounded by the multiple ecological and social issues linked to them, none of which can be comprehended fully through normal scientific procedures (Moser & Dilling, 2004; Van der Sluijs, 2012).. Climate change science is a human attempt to explain ...
Bonn, Germany Background The Conference of the Parties (COP), by its decision 5/CP.7, requested the secretariat to organize a workshop on insurance and risk assessment in the context of climate change and extreme weather events. Discussions and the exchange of information at the workshop covered the following main issues: Overview of insurance and risk assessment in the context of climate change and extreme weather events; the perspectives on risk assessment methodologies provided by the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC; Insurance industry perspectives; National and international approaches to managing and insuring against natural disaster risks; Public-private partnerships; and insurance and adaptation/maladaptation to climate change. Report of the workshop Background paper ...
Guest Opinion by Dr. Tim Ball. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.. George Santayana (Original quote from his book The Life of Reason, much paraphrased.). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its supporters urge action because the planet and humans are threatened by global warming. We must modify our behavior, mitigate the warming, or die by the millions. In the centuries prior to the First World War (WWI) these reactions were classified as climatic determinism, the idea that human behavior is dictated by climate. As one research group explains.. Climatic determinism has a very long and checkered history. It gave a framework for thinking about the relationship between the human and natural environments by making the climate a demiurge of social universe.. Later, they explain why they are discussing the concept.. While most of such thinking has been discredited, in recent years, the omnipresence of anthropogenic climate change has caused a resurgence ...
The third assessment report (TAR) prominently featured[124] a graph labeled Millennial Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction based on a 1999 paper by Michael E. Mann, Raymond S. Bradley and Malcolm K. Hughes (MBH99), which has been referred to as the hockey stick graph. This graph extended the similar graph in Figure 3.20 from the IPCC Second Assessment Report of 1995, and differed from a schematic in the first assessment report that lacked temperature units, but appeared to depict larger global temperature variations over the past 1000 years, and higher temperatures during the Medieval Warm Period than the mid 20th century. The schematic was not an actual plot of data, and was based on a diagram of temperatures in central England, with temperatures increased on the basis of documentary evidence of Medieval vineyards in England. Even with this increase, the maximum it showed for the Medieval Warm Period did not reach temperatures recorded in central England in 2007.[123] The MBH99 ...
The book Climate Change Denial: Heads in the Sand, by Haydn Washington and John Cook and published by UK publisher Earthscan, is now available for sale. You can order from Earthscan, Amazon or NewSouth Books (for Australians).The book examines the phenomenon of climate change denial. It looks at the many techniques of literal denial, where skeptics deny the evidence for man-made global warming. It exposes denial within governments, who make a lot of noise about climate change but fail to back it up with action. And it examines the denial within most of us, when we let denial prosper. This book explains the climate science and the social science behind denial.Climate change can be solved - but only when we cease to deny that it exists. This book shows how we can break through denial, accept reality, and thus solve the climate crisis. It will engage scientists, university students, climate change activists as well as the general public seeking to roll back denial and act.
Today, President Obama signed a Presidential Memorandum on Climate Change and National Security, a historic measure in addressing the national security implications of our changing climate. The memorandum establishes a policy to consider the impacts of climate change in the development of national security-related doctrine, policies, and plans and provides practical guidance to ensure these climate risks are considered. This includes the establishment of a Federal Climate and National Security Working Group (consisting of more than 20 federal agencies and offices), which will identify priorities related to climate change and national security; facilitate the exchange of climate data and information with the intelligence community and identify gaps; recommend research guidelines concerning the federal governments ability to detect climate intervention activities; identify the most current information on regional, country, and geographic areas most vulnerable to current and projected impacts of ...
To the editor: Stanford political scientist Jon A. Krosnick is puzzled that legislators ignore popular opinion on climate change. Years of polling data, he says, show a majority of people acknowledge climate change and that government needs to control greenhouse gas emissions. Krosnick wishes that polls played a more prominent role in governance. (Stanfords Jon Krosnick: On climate change, most Americans want action, op-ed, May 5). ...
Description: .This Asian Development Bank (ADB) study examined the economic costs associated with the impacts of climate change and the cost and benefits of adaptation in Bangladesh,Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. The study aimed to (i) assess the biophysical impacts of climate change in the region, including individual country impacts, and (ii) estimate the total economic loss to the countries in the region by 2100, taking into account the different scenarios and impacts projected across vulnerable sectors, and then to estimate the magnitude of funding for adaptation measures required to avert such potential losses. Results of the study will aid development of future policies and programs for climate change adaptation in the region, including initiatives for regional cooperation and capacity building in climate change management. The study covered the following sectors: agriculture, terrestrial ecosystems, water, marine and coastal resources (except Bhutan and Nepal), health, ...
As part of its most comprehensive study of climate change to date, the National Research Council today issued three reports emphasizing why the U.S. should act now to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and develop a national strategy to adapt to the inevitable impacts of climate change. The reports by the Research Council, the operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering, are part of a congressionally requested suite of five studies known as AMERICAS CLIMATE CHOICES.. These reports show that the state of climate change science is strong, said Ralph J. Cicerone, president of the National Academy of Sciences. But the nation also needs the scientific community to expand upon its understanding of why climate change is happening, and focus also on when and where the most severe impacts will occur and what we can do to respond.. POSES SIGNIFICANT RISKS. The compelling case that climate change is occurring and is caused in large part by human activities is ...
Senior Climate Policy Analyst. Climate Change has now created a public health emergency, according to the medical and public health community at large in an urgent call to action. Climate change is one of the greatest threats to health America has ever faced-it is a true public health emergency, a letter issued this week to policymakers warns. The American Medical Association, the American Heart Association, the American Lung Association, and the American Academy of Pediatrics are among the 75 signatory organizations. Earlier this year, the World Health Organization declared climate change to be the greatest health challenge of the 21st century. Health professionals are deeply concerned that scores of people are getting sick and dying - from heat stroke, cardiovascular disease, asthma, respiratory allergies, malaria, encephalitis, dysentery, dehydration, malnutrition, and other life-threatening maladies - as the result of human-caused global warming and associated climate change impacts. ...
Examining environmental and management effects on crop quality draws on plant-defense theories of chemical ecology as well as the related area of secondary metabolite chemistry. According to plant-defense theories, plants are continuously exposed to a plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses in their environment such as pathogens, herbivores, and ultraviolet radiation. As sessile organisms, plants can not protect themselves from these stress factors through movement and have evolved secondary metabolites as defense compounds to protect themselves from various abiotic and biotic stresses (Fraenkel, 1959; Feeny, 1976; Coley et al., 1985; Harborne, 1993) such as mediating interactions with pathogens and other organisms (Piasecka et al., 2015). Some secondary metabolites also serve as signal compounds to attract pollinating and seed-dispersing animals (Wink, 2015). Unlike primary metabolites (e.g. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) that are ubiquitous across the plant kingdom for their crucial role in ...
This volume deals with the consequences of climate change and issues of international climate policy relating to Africa from a social science perspective. The contributions by international authors question dominant political approaches and key concepts of the climate debate. They explain how the effects of climate change are linked to existing social, economic and political-institutional structures and action by the State. The authors show how social movements in Africa shape climate policy «from below». The volume serves as an introduction into climate change in Africa. It wants to stimulate a critical debate on dominant strategies and points out that there can be no simple answers to the complex socio-ecological and political challenges linked to climate change in Africa.. ...
Data and research on agriculture and fisheries including food supply, sustainability, biological resources, and seed, tractor, forest, fruit and vegetable standards., Climate change is becoming more evident and, as it increases, will alter the productivity of fisheries and the distribution of fish stocks. From an economic point of view, the changes will have impacts on fisheries and coastal communities in different ways. These expected changes require adaptable and flexible fisheries and aquaculture management policies and governance frameworks. However, the forms of future climate change and the extent of its impact remain uncertain. Fisheries policy makers therefore need to develop strategies and decision-making models in order to adapt to climate change under such uncertainty while taking into account social and economic consequences. While most work on climate change in the fisheries sector has focused on fisheries science, this book highlights the economic and policy aspects of adapting
Public opinion on climate change is the aggregate of attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population concerning the science, economics, and politics of global warming. It is affected by media coverage of climate change. A 2007-2008 Gallup Poll surveyed individuals in 128 countries. This poll queried whether the respondent knew of global warming. For those individuals who were aware of the issue, they thought it was human-induced. Over a third of the worlds population were unaware of global warming. Developing countries have less awareness than developed, and Africa the least aware. Of those aware, residents of Latin America and developed countries in Asia led the belief that climate change is a result of human activities while Africa, parts of Asia and the Middle East, and a few countries from the former Soviet Union led in the opposite. Opinion within the United Kingdom was divided. Opinions in the United States vary intensely enough to be considered a culture war. A Gallup poll in 2014 ...
Using a regionally calibrated model, Sinervo et al. (Reports, 14 May 2010, p. 894) predicted potential climate change impacts on lizard populations and estimated that many extinctions are under way. We argue that this model is not sufficient for predicting global losses in lizard species in response to anthropogenic climate change.. ...
Many studies have found associations between climatic conditions and dengue transmission. However, there is a debate about the future impacts of climate change on dengue transmission. This paper reviewed epidemiological evidence on the relationship between climate and dengue with a focus on quantitative methods for assessing the potential impacts of climate change on global dengue transmission. A literature search was conducted in October 2012, using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search focused on peer-reviewed journal articles published in English from January 1991 through October 2012. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria and most studies showed that the transmission of dengue is highly sensitive to climatic conditions, especially temperature, rainfall and relative humidity. Studies on the potential impacts of climate change on dengue indicate increased climatic suitability for transmission and an expansion of the geographic regions at
by Judith Curry A novel method for causal inference has been motivated by . . . sardines. Scripps has a press release entitled Predictions of climate impacts on fisheries can be a mirage, with subtitle New mathematical tool developed by a Scripps scientist can help avoid misleading conclusions for species management. Cause and effect This press…
Coral reefs are delicate ecosystems that are particularly sensitive to human influences such as climate change and environmental pollution. Even if the warming of the earth does not exceed 1.5 to 2 degrees Celsius - a limit set by the International Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) - more than 70 percent of coral reef ecosystems are likely to be lost, resulting in an economic and ecological catastrophe.. How do corals adapt to changing environmental conditions? How can we protect corals? Christian Voolstra, Professor of Genetics of Adaptation in Aquatic Systems at the University of Konstanz, assigns great importance to bacteria and other microorganisms. He emphasizes that no animal or plant lives alone - they are constantly interacting with bacteria and other microbes. Researchers call this a metaorganism - a tribute to the notion that all animal and plant hosts interact closely with their associated microbes. Corals are particular illustrative examples of metaorganisms, given that their ...
Today is Blog Action Day 2009. This is an annual event, held every October 15, with a goal of encouraging an outpouring of simultaneous comment on an important issue calling for global action. This year, the designated subject is climate change. Back in January, I wrote a blog post summarizing my position on climate change. Entitled Pascals Wager and Climate Change, the post makes the argument that even if youre a skeptic about climate change or humanitys role in causing it, the risks of ignoring the issue are great, and the benefits from addressing it are significant even if scientists are completely wrong about the causes.
This research explored the consequences of climate change and climate variability in the Niger River Basin for human security and the risk of conflict. The research examined the linkages between climate, conflict, human security, adaptation and resilience in a multi-scale study that included three case studies of water management and climate impacts on the River Niger. Two of the case studies are in Mali and one is in Nigeria.. The River Niger traverses a region of the Sahel that has experienced significant reductions in rainfall and river flow since the late 1960s as well as extreme rainfall events and significant flooding impacts in recent years. The impacts of future climate change in the region are highly uncertain. This research assessed the tensions and risks of conflict associated with water resources and climate stresses, as well as the impacts on the livelihoods and human security of vulnerable populations. The significance of climate stresses is carefully assessed in the context of ...
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This website, produced by Natural Resources Canada, provides an explanation of climate change in general and in terms of its affect on health and safety, communities, land resources, water resources and coastal regions. It also discusses the effect on each province. It is linked to the Natural Resources Canada Climate Change website, http://www.ec.gc.ca/climate/resources-e.html, which offers an electronic newsletter, links to relevant newspaper articles, publications, speeches, other relevant sites, a teachers guide, and a series of posters depicting the regional impacts of climate change in Canada.. ...
Insurance Journal: ... 2007 marked a turning point on climate change. In February, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued the first of three reports. It confirmed: 1) the temperature in the atmosphere and the oceans has grown warmer and can be expected to continue to do so. 2) The amount of greenhouse gasses, mainly CO2 and some methane, has increased markedly since 1750. 3) These gasses are the most significant cause for the temperature increase. 4) Human activity is primarily responsible for their production. Examinations of the likely impact and the remedial steps needed to slow or reverse it followed. Al Gore also played a major role in this debate, going from politician to Oscar winning filmmaker - for An Inconvenient Truth - to Nobel Peace Prize winner (shared with the IPCC). But his political stances have alienated a lot of people, particularly in the United States. The insurance industry, however, has taken a leading role in documenting climate change and in attempting to ...
1990-26. Climate change is of key importance. We are committed to undertake common efforts to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. We strongly support the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and look forward to the release of its full report in August.. 1990-27. We reiterate our support for the negotiation of a framework convention on climate change, under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).. 1990-28. The convention should be completed by 1992.. 1990-29. Work on appropriate implementing protocols should be undertaken as expeditiously as possible and should consider all sources and sinks.. 1990-30. We welcome the amendment of the Montreal Protocol to phase out the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by the year 2000 and to extend coverage of the Protocol to other ozone-depleting substances.. 1990-31. We acknowledge that enhanced levels of cooperation will be necessary with ...
8 References. AMBRIZZI, T. et al. Sumário Executivo do Volume 1 - Base Científica das Mudanças Climáticas. Contribuição do Grupo de Trabalho 1 para o 1º Relatório de Avaliação Nacional do Painel Brasileiro de Mudanças Climáticas. PBMC, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. 2012. 34p. [ Links ] AYLETT, A. Progress and challenges in the Urban Governance of Climate Change: Results of a Global Survey. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2014. [ Links ] BARBI, F. Governing Climate Change in China and Brazil: Mitigation Strategies. Journal of Chinese Political Science, 21 (3), 357-370, 2015. [ Links ] BASSO, L.; VIOLA, E. From co-leader to loner: Brazilian wavering positions in climate change negotiations. In: ISSBENER, L.; LÉNA, P. (ed.). Brazil in the Anthropocene: Conflicts between predatory development and environmental policies. London: Routledge, 177-201, 2017. [ Links ] BRASIL. 2012. Política Nacional de Proteção e Defesa Civil - PNPDEC. [ Links ] BULKELEY, H. Cities and governing of climate change. Annu. ...
While many studies have found associations between climate change and factors affecting Chagas disease transmission, the future impact of climate change on the global spread of Chagas disease remains debatable. A qualitative, systematic review was conducted to assess the impact of climate change on Chagas disease transmission in the Americas (Central America, South America, and North America). The literature search was performed in January 2019 using the keywords climate, Chagas, and
The researchers simulations suggest that while there are many uncertainties, at least a third of species are likely to lose more than half their range under climate change. Early action is often viewed as critical to preventing species loss under climate change but relies on models predicting into the future that are surrounded by uncertainty. Whilst predictions for a specific species may be considered unreliable, we can identify where the impact of climate change on freshwater biodiversity in NSW is most consistent, as well as where different sources of uncertainty are influential, said Dr Alex Bush, co-author of the Freshwater Biology study.. We hope that by better communicating the distribution of modeling uncertainty, more strategic approaches can be employed to improve adaptive management and balance risks.. ...
Strengthening capacity for climate change adaptation through support to Integrated Watershed Management Programme in Lesotho (FSP ...
At a climate summit at the Vatican, Gov. Jerry Brown said the world may have reached a tipping point on global warming and that humanity must reverse course or face extinction.. Brown is at the Vatican amid stepped up efforts to bring support for policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The summit was called by Pope Francis following the recent release of his encyclical on climate change.. We have to respond, and if we dont the world will suffer, we will all suffer, Brown said. In fact, many people, millions are suffering already.. Brown addressed dozens of mayors and other local government officials from around the world Monday, issuing criticism of Republican politicians and business interests skeptical of climate change. The governor is scheduled to also address the gathering Tuesday and Wednesday.. Brown, a onetime Jesuit seminarian, has made climate change a central theme of his tenure in his second stint as California governor. He is promoting a plan to set what the administration ...
Fifth Assessment Report - Mitigation of Climate Change assesses the options for mitigating climate change and their underlying technological, economic and institutional requirements. It transparently lays out risks, uncertainty and ethical foundations of climate change mitigation policies on the global, national and sub-national level, investigates mitigation measures for all major sectors and assesses investment and finance issues.
Due to the increasing global population, the demand for energy resources is also growing quickly. As early as 2012, researchers reported that a large portion of the worldwide energy requirement (80%) is still fulfilled by fossil fuels, including petroleum, nature gases, and coal.1 However, the use of such resources results in an increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHS) and many associated environmental problems, including climate change, acid rain, depletion of the ozone layer, sea level rises, and global warming.2,3 According to the studies of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the CO2 gas emitted by the burning of fossils fuel among all other anthropogenic gases is supposed to be the chief source of climate change and global warming.4,5 Thus in an ideal scenario, there should be a balance between CO2 production and consumption, but unfortunately this has been disrupted.6 It has been reported that the atmospheric level of CO2 reached up to ∼403.95 ppm by July 2017 ...
A series of international meetings on climate policy were held starting in 1990 and culminating in the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, which called for significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Since then substantial differences have developed between the American and European Union approaches to Kyoto. Dr. Thorning will discuss the economic, political and cultural fctors leading to the differences in climate change policies favored by the U.S. and the E.U. She will also discuss recent changes in the E.U. climate change policy and explore options for a global solution to the potential threat of climate change.. Dr. Thorning is Senior Vice President and Chief Economist of the American Council for Capital Formation. She also serves as Senior Vice President and Director of Research for the ACFF Center for Policy Research, which focues on tax and environmental policies. Previously she served at the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Commerce and the Federal Trade Commission. Dr. ...
During the last week of September prominent figures from government, finance, business, and civil society came together in New York for the United Nations Climate Summit 2014 to catalyse meaningful action to address climate change. Many climate-related actions may bring co-benefits for the reduction of air pollution both locally and globally. However, this is not a given: it is crucial that such policies are carefully designed to ensure they do not shift the problem from climate change to air pollution. That could pose implementation problems for States wanting, on the one hand, to comply with their climate-related obligations and, on the other hand, to comply with their air pollution reduction obligations under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Air Convention) and its protocols. Earlier this year the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that in 2012 almost 600,000 deaths in the European region were attributable to air pollution, with the vast majority ...
Dr. Dubrow has been heavily involved in the educational mission of Yale School of Public Health, as well as in research. Moved by what he sees as the greatest public health challenge in this century, Dr. Dubrow has committed himself to a new direction of education, training, and research on climate change and health. He serves as Faculty Director for a new Climate Change and Health Initiative at Yale School of Public Health, which aims to 1) create a cohort of leaders dedicated to addressing climate change and health; 2) establish an educational program on climate change and health for students across the University; 3) catalyze research on climate change and health utilizing Yales multidisciplinary expertise to generate innovative interventions and policy prescriptions; and 4) utilize public health science to support legislative, litigative, regulatory, executive, community, and other efforts to mitigate or adapt to climate change and to achieve climate justice. Dr. Dubrow serves on the ...
14 November 2002 CIESIN is pleased to announce the availability of a new set of disaggregated population and income projections derived from the scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). These national-level estimates of population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) density for 1990-2100 and gridded population and GDP estimates for 1990 and 2025 were developed under the guidance of the IPCC Task Group on Scenarios for Climate Impact Assessment (TGCIA). The data are accessible through the IPCC Socioeconomic Data Distribution Centre hosted by SEDAC. The site also contains a draft guidance paper and other supporting documentation. see: http://sres.ciesin.columbia.edu/tgcia/ ...
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IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Solomon S., Qin D., Manning M., Chen Z., Marquis M., Averyt K.B., Tignor M., and Miller H.L. (eds.). http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm ...
IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Solomon S., Qin D., Manning M., Chen Z., Marquis M., Averyt K.B., Tignor M., and Miller H.L. (eds.). http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm ...