Get this from a library! Climatic effects on pavement and geotechnical infrastructure : proceedings of the International Symposium on Climatic Effects on Pavement and Geotechnical Infrastructure 2013, August 4-7, 2013, Fairbanks, Alaska. [Jenny Liu, (Civil engineer); Construction Institute.;]
Local Climate Information for Milwaukee and Madison. Daily: Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport Issued: 10/29/2020 03:28:22 PM ...
Temperate Climate refers to climates between Polar and Tropical. However, there is a gradual change from polar to tropical climates across the middle latitude temperate zones. Normally, in the northern hemisphere, the northern portions of the temperate zone feature Boreal, Continental, and Oceanic climates, while the southern portions of the temperate zone are often Mediterranean and humid subtropical climates. These different climates all fall within the temperate zone which has a basic definition as being any climate with a mean temperature above −3 °C (26.6 °F) but below 18 °C (64.4 °F) in the coldest month. Obviously winter temperatures will be more mild in southerly portions and colder in the more northerly portions of the northern temperate zone and vice-versa in the southern temperate zone. From a floristic standpoint, each of these climate zones have generally temperate vegetation. There is however, an obvious change in flora from the far northern portions of the temperate zone ...
Join the Climate Adaptation Forum as their guest speakers discuss Creating Connections: Resilience and Equity in Transportation.. Transportation infrastructure is some of the most expensive to build and maintain, especially in the face of the climate crisis. Everything from public transportation to roads and bridges to the port are deeply impacted by sea level rise, extreme storms and even sweltering heat. Join the Climate Adaptation Forum as we explore initiatives around the country to improve transportation resilience and the resilience of the communities that rely on this infrastructure to get around. We will hear from experts at multiple levels of government who are thinking creatively about how to protect our infrastructure and how to make it responsive to changing needs.. Registration is required. For more information on speakers and a detailed agenda, please visit the event webpage.. ...
Areas with subpolar oceanic climates feature an oceanic climate but are usually located closer to polar regions. As a result of their location, these regions tend to be on the cool end of oceanic climates. Snowfall tends to be more common here than in other oceanic climates. Subpolar oceanic climates are less prone to temperature extremes than subarctic climates or continental climates, featuring milder winters than these climates. Subpolar oceanic climates feature only one to three months of average monthly temperatures that are at least 10 °C (50 °F). As with oceanic climates, none of its average monthly temperatures fall below -3.0 °C (26.6 °F) or 0 °C depending on the isotherm used. Typically, these areas in the warmest month experience daytime maximum temperatures below 17 °C (63 °F), while the coldest month features highs near or slightly above freezing and lows just below freezing. It typically carries a Cfc designation, though very small areas in Yunnan, Sichuan and parts of ...
Cold semi-arid climates (type BSk) tend to be located in elevated portions of temperate zones, typically bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate. They are typically found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates usually feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are typically not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters. These areas usually see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, and tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C (36 °F) or more in that time frame. These large diurnal temperature variations are seldom seen in hot semi-arid climates. Cold semi-arid ...
Climate Science Literacy is an understanding of your influence on climate and climates influence on you and society. People who are climate science literate know that climate science can inform our decisions that improve quality of life. They have a basic understanding of the climate system, including the natural and human-caused factors that affect it. Climate science literate individuals understand how climate observations and records as well as computer modeling contribute to scientific knowledge about climate.
Hosted by Metro on August 21st, 2013, the Climate Adaptation Planning for Transit and Fleet Operators webinar was the final outreach component of the FTA Climate Adaptation Pilot. The goal was to build upon the roundtable event, and to provide resources on both mitigation and adaptation strategies ...
Timing of cirque formation and the climate necessary to initiate glaciation are fundamental to the understanding of the landscape of the northern Scandinavian mountains. Empty cirques in the Rassepautasjtjakka massif are located near a glaciated area and thus appear near the glaciation limit. In order to investigate the climate conditions necessary for glacier formation in the cirques, we applied a spatially distributed temperature index melt model. After calibration under present climate conditions, the model was run with different combinations of increased initial winter snow cover and lowered summer air temperatures to assess the climate conditions needed for snow to survive summer and hence form a base for glaciation. Results indicate that a significant increase in precipitation or decrease in summer air temperature or a combination of both is necessary to initiate glaciation. Thus current climate conditions are far from favorable for glaciation. If summer temperature is decreased by ...
Cold semi-arid climates (type BSk) tend to be located in temperate zones or elevated portions in subtropical zones, typically bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate. They are typically found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates usually feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are typically not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters. These areas usually see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, and tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C (36 °F) or more in that time frame. These large diurnal temperature variations are seldom seen in hot semi-arid ...
Solar Influences on Holocene Climate: A review of what is known about the potential climatic effects of solar variability and observed climate variability throughout the Holocene suggests that the former may have been responsible for the latter, and that solar variability may have played a greater role in the warming of the past century than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change would like people to believe. Jet Aircraft Contrails Reduce the Diurnal Amplitude of Earths Surface Air Temperature: A model study of the climatic effects of jet aircraft contrails suggests that they tend to cool the earths surface during the day and warm it at night.. Ship Emissions Perturb Radiation Balance Over the Sea: A data-plus-model approach to evaluating the climatic consequences of ship emissions suggests that they have a modest cooling effect on the planet.. Solar Forcing of Climate Change: In reviewing what is known about relationships between the abundance of cosmogenic isotopes (14C and 10Be) and ...
Before interpreting the temporal variability in any climate proxy record we first need to study the reproducibility of the measured signal. One way of doing this is to compare variations in nearby records that were subject to the same history of the target climate variable, such as local temperatures. In simple terms, features that appear only in individual records most likely represent non-climate variability, whereas those that reproduce across multiple proxy records potentially represent variations in climate. Such a comparison provides an upper limit on the climate information contained in the record.. Reproducibility is a necessary but not sufficient condition for a reconstructed signal to be inferred as climatic in origin. Spatially coherent variability can also be caused by environmental changes independent of the variable of interest. For example, changes in ocean circulation might cause large-scale changes in water masses that affect the preservation of marine climate proxies and thus ...
(Phys.org)-A team of researchers with affiliations to several universities in the U.S. has helped uncover the frequency of El Niño events during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age by obtaining Eastern ...
In September, Climate Fringe Week will take place at the same time as Great Big Green Week, an initiative from The Climate Coalition. The timing also coincides with Climate Week NYC (20-26 September), when international leaders from business, government and civil society will meet for talks in New York. This is a vital time to show that communities across Scotland and the rest of the UK support strong action on climate change, prior to the COP26 climate conference taking place in Glasgow in November.. Climate Fringe Week is being spearheaded by Stop Climate Chaos Scotland, a diverse coalition of over 60 non-profit organisations, with further organisations supporting the week itself.. Kat Jones, COP26 Project Manager at Stop Climate Chaos Scotland, said:. Climate Fringe Week is an amazing opportunity for communities throughout Scotland to showcase the work they are doing on climate action, celebrate some of our successes, and point clearly to where we need to see change.. People and groups who ...
Large-scale shifting of the weight of the atmosphere between mid- and high latitudes creates climate patterns known as the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations. These patterns have a big influence on winter weather in the Eastern U.S.
The idea of a National Climate Service has circulated at NOAA since the late 1970s, but data-gathering efforts remain spread over many programmes and agencies. NOAA draws on a host of different observing systems, including satellites, instruments that measure atmospheric carbon dioxide, and ocean buoys that monitor water temperature and salinity. NOAAs National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, NC, keeps archives of long-term climate records, and regional NOAA centres work on climate research problems specific to their geographical area. Outside NOAA, the US Geological Survey collects stream flow data, and the US Department of Agriculture monitors snowpack melt. There is so much information floating around on climate change that it is difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff, says Larry Larson, executive director of the Association of State Floodplain Managers in Madison, Wisconsin. Forest and shoreline managers, utility companies, insurance companies and policy-makers are all looking ...
Ill be heading to Geneva this coming Sunday to attend the World Meteorological Organisations third World Climate Conference. The conference, which runs from August 31 until September 4, takes climate prediction as its theme, and aims to establish an international framework to guide the development of climate services, linking climate predictions with climate-risk management and adaptation. This should an interesting opportunity to look in more depth at the issue of whether climate prediction is indeed scientifically feasible and if so, at what it will take to move from climate projections to predictions. Read more. ...
Earlier we added this to the list, now here is the description of the excuse. Basically what they are saying is that natural climate variability has overtaken the posited powerful effects of CO2 on climate.. From the EUs JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE Last decades slow-down in global warming enhanced by an unusual climate anomaly:. A hiatus in global warming ongoing since 2001 is due to a combination of a natural cooling phase, known as multidecadal variability (MDV) and a downturn of the secular warming trend. The exact causes of the latter, unique in the entire observational record going back to 1850, are still to be identified, according to a JRC article which analysed the phenomena.. The earth hasnt warmed at the same pace during the 20th century. The noticeable temperature increases during some periods interspersed with fairly stable or decreasing levels during others have been explained as a combination of secular global warming (likely manmade) and natural climate variability. We are currently, ...
The December 2004 issue of BAMS contains an article warning of the threats of abrupt climate change (Epstein and McCarthy 2004, hereafter EM04). The article seeks to raise awareness of the risks of an abrupt change in climate related to human influences on the climate system, but, in doing so it repeats a common factual error. Specifically, it identifies the recent growth in economic damages associated with weather and climate events, such as Hurricanes Mitch and Jeanne and tornadoes in the United States, as evidence of trends in extreme events, arguing the rising costs associated with weather volatility provide another derived indicator of the state of the climate system . . . the economic costs related to more severe and volatile weather deserves mention as an integral indicator of volatility. Although the attribution of increasing damages to climate changes is but one of many assertions made by EM04, the repetition of this erroneous claim is worth correcting because it is not consistent ...
Use the Climate-,Local link (on the left sidebar of most of our web pages) to view current climate products. Those products include the Daily Climate Report (CLI), Preliminary Climatology Data (CF6), Record Event Report (RER), Monthly Weather Summary (CLM) and the Regional Summary (RTP). Archived climate products from 2002 to the present are available on this page ...
Hundreds of millions of urban dwellers are at risk from the direct and indirect impacts of climate change. Climate adaption means anticipating those adverse effects and taking appropriate action to prevent or minimize the damage they can cause, or taking advantage of opportunities that may arise. It has been shown that when well planned, early climate adaptation action saves money and lives later on. Adaptation strategies are needed at all levels of urban administration; local, regional, national, EU ...
Welcome to the Bureaus online home of the Australian Climate and Weather Extremes Monitoring System. This website provides comprehensive and timely information about climate and weather extremes of temperature and rainfall. Weather and climate extremes can have significant social, environmental and economic costs, with heat waves and floods prime examples. One of the greatest impacts of climate variability and climate change occurs through changes in the frequency and severity of extreme events. This system has been designed to provide a better basis for monitoring such changes, so that we will be better able to understand, prepare for and adapt to future changes in extreme events. ...
Fire is an intrinsic element of many forest ecosystems; it shapes their ecological processes, determines species composition and influences landscape structure. However, wildfires may: have undesirable effects on biodiversity and vegetation coverage; produce carbon emissions to the atmosphere; release smoke affecting human health; and cause loss of lives and property. There have been increasing concerns about the potential impacts of climate variability and change on forest fires. Climate change can alter factors that influence the occurrence of fire ignitions, fuel availability and fuel flammability. This review paper aims to identify tools and methods used for gathering information about the impacts of climate variability and change on forest fires, forest fuels and the probability of fires. Tools to assess the impacts of climate variability and change on forest fires include: remote sensing, dynamic global vegetation and landscape models, integrated fire-vegetation models, fire danger rating systems,
Identifying the effect of climate on societies is central to understanding historical economic development, designing modern policies that react to climatic events, and managing future global climate change. Here, I review, synthesize, and interpret recent advances in methods used to measure effects of climate on social and economic outcomes. Because weather variation plays a large role in recent progress, I formalize the relationship between climate and weather from an econometric perspective and discuss their use as identifying variation, highlighting tradeoffs between key assumptions in different research designs and deriving conditions when weather variation exactly identifies the effects of climate. I then describe advances in recent years, such as parameterization of climate variables from a social perspective, nonlinear models with spatial and temporal displacement, characterizing uncertainty, measurement of adaptation, cross-study comparison, and use of empirical estimates to project the ...
The identification of properties that contribute to the persistence and resilience of ecosystems despite climate change constitutes a research priority of global relevance. Here we present a novel, empirical approach to assess the relative sensitivity of ecosystems to climate variability, one property of resilience that builds on theoretical modelling work recognizing that systems closer to critical thresholds respond more sensitively to external perturbations. We develop a new metric, the vegetation sensitivity index, that identifies areas sensitive to climate variability over the past 14 years. The metric uses time series data derived from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index, and three climatic variables that drive vegetation productivity (air temperature, water availability and cloud cover). Underlying the analysis is an autoregressive modelling approach used to identify climate drivers of vegetation productivity on monthly timescales, in addition to
Amawom, Nigeria - Current weather, an hourly forecast for today, tomorrow, detailed 10-day weather forecast and long range monthly outlook. Climate information with charts. Country: Nigeria, City: Amawom.
These and other Federal efforts will be amplified by a number of ambitious private commitments. For example, Esri, the company that produces the ArcGIS software used by thousands of city and regional planning experts, will be partnering with 12 cities across the country to create free and open maps and apps to help state and local governments plan for climate change impacts. Google will donate one petabyte-thats 1,000 terabytes-of cloud storage for climate data, as well as 50 million hours of high-performance computing with the Google Earth Engine platform. The company is challenging the global innovation community to build a high-resolution global terrain model to help communities build resilience to anticipated climate impacts in decades to come. And the World Bank will release a new field guide for the Open Data for Resilience Initiative, which is working in more than 20 countries to map millions of buildings and urban infrastructure.. Every citizen will be affected by climate change-and ...
As world leaders gather in Madrid for the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP25), they must address more than future targets for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions.
Starry stonewort (Nitellopsis obtusa) is an alga that has emerged as an aquatic invasive species of concern in the United States. Where established, starry stonewort can interfere with recreational uses of water bodies and potentially have ecological impacts. Incipient invasion of starry stonewort in Minnesota provides an opportunity to predict future expansion in order to target early detection and strategic management. We used ecological niche models to identify suitable areas for starry stonewort in Minnesota based on global occurrence records and present-day and future climate conditions. We assessed sensitivity of forecasts to different parameters, using four emission scenarios (i.e., RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6, and RCP 8.5) from five future climate models (i.e., CCSM, GISS, IPSL, MIROC, and MRI). From our niche model analyses, we found that (i) occurrences from the entire range, instead of occurrences restricted to the invaded range, provide more informed models; (ii) default settings in Maxent did
Scientists use very fast supercomputers to run Global Climate Models (GCMs). GCMs are a good tool to use to better understand Earths climate. We know that climate is not the same everywhere in the world. In some parts of the world it is pretty easy to model the climate. In other places, it is much more tricky to model the climate. It turns out that theSoutheast Pacific, near the west coast of South America, is one of those tricky places ...
The international journal Climate Dynamics provides for the publication of high-quality research on all aspects of the dynamics of the global climate ...
President Donald Trumps first budget proposal took a big swing at the centers, proposing to cut their numbers in half and reduce their budget by a third. But the Trump administration didnt try to eliminate them outright as it has many other Obama climate change initiatives. The key to their resilience is that they dont focus on the kinds of climate science that the Trump administration likes least - research into the human role in climate change and how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Now supporters of the Climate Science Centers believe theres hope the centers will ride out the Trump administration.. Even in this administration, theres a recognition that we still need to prepare for increased flooding and drought and the knock-on effects of climate change, says Bruce Stein, chief scientist of the National Wildlife Federation. Thats why the Trump administrations budget also proposed adding the word adaptation to the centers name: Climate Adaptation Science Centers. We believe that ...
However, even scientists skeptical of global warming alarmism tend to think that human activity is indeed the cause of this increase.3 Remember, the global warming debate is ultimately not about whether atmospheric CO2 is increasing. Nor is it really a debate about whether or not humans are primarily responsible for the increased CO2. Nor is it even a debate about whether or not an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide would result in an eventual temperature increase. It would, but this increase would be very slight. The real debate is whether or not climate feedbacks would either enhance or impede the warming, once started. In other words, does our climate self-correct to avoid climate extremes, or can small changes to the climate system bring about a climate catastrophe?6 Biblically, we would expect the Earths climate system to self-correct, since God promised a degree of climate stability since the Genesis Flood (Genesis 8:22 ...
Many people hold the mistaken belief that reconstructions of past climate are the sole evidence for current and future climate change. They are not. However, they are very interesting and useful for all sorts of reasons: for modellers to test out theories of climate change, for geographers, archaeologists and historians to examine the impact of climate on past civilizations and ecosystems, and for everyone to get a sense of what climate is capable of doing, how fast it does it and why. As a small part of that enterprise, the climate of the medieval period has received a very high (and sometimes disproportionate) profile in the public discourse - due in no small part to the mistaken notion that it is an important factor for the attribution of current climate change. Its existence as a period of generally warmer temperatures (at least in the Northern hemisphere) than the centuries that followed is generally accepted. But the timing, magnitude and spatial extent are much more uncertain. All ...
images/sst/sst.anom.gif .. This multi-year Pacific Decadal Oscillation cool trend can cause La Niña-like impacts around the Pacific basin, said Bill Patzert, an oceanographer and climatologist at NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The present cool phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation will have significant implications for shifts in marine ecosystems, and for land temperature and rainfall patterns around the Pacific basin. According to Nathan Mantua of the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington, Seattle, whose research contributed to the early understanding of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Even with the strong La Niña event fading in the tropics last spring, the North Pacifics sea surface temperature anomaly pattern has remained strongly negative since last fall. This cool phase will likely persist this winter and, perhaps, beyond. Historically, this situation has been associated with favorable ocean conditions for the return of U.S. west coast Coho ...
The NYC Cloudburst Resiliency Planning Study & pilot project is a world-class example of an integrated planning & analysis process shaping a solid basis for future decisions on how to implement climate adaptation initiatives fully or partly based on green infrastructure.
Page 0 The Mobilization for Climate Justice is a North America-based network of organizations and activists who have joined together to build a North American climate justice movement that emphasizes non-violent direct action and public education to mobilize for effective and just solutions to the climate crisis. The Mobilization for Climate Justice invites communities, organizations and activists across North America to join us in organizing mass action on climate change on November 30, 2009 (N30). N30 is significant because it both immediately precedes the upcoming UN Climate Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15) and is the ten-year anniversary of the successful shut down of the WTO in Seattle, when activists worldwide came together to demonstrate the power of collective action. The Copenhagen climate meetings will be a major focus for international mass actions this November and December, and the MCJ is linked to these efforts as well.
The second issue of the WHS newsletter is now available here. (http://www.worldhealthsummit.org/) Online registration has began and profiles of some of the keynote speakers. The Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina will host a panel on Climate Change and Health.. With reference to the impact of climatic change on parasitic diseases the Colombian Academy of Medicine informs us that a symposium is being organized at the XX Congress of the Latin American Federation of Parasitology in Bogotá, Colombia from 27 September to 1 October 2011. Topics covered will include: Climatic and non-climatic factors affecting tick borne diseases emergence and spread in Europe, Impact of climatic change on transmisssion of Ascaris lumbricoides and Distribution of Leishmaniasis. More information is available here. www.saludtropicalcolombia.org. An IAMP sponsored workshop on Scientific Writing will be held next week in Paris at the Académie des Sciences & Académie Nationale de Médecine. The aim is to ...
1. Introduction. Climate from geological epoch has been changing with time and it is reasonable to assume that it will change. Recently, the severe drought conditions have disrupted human societies in Bundelkhand region of central India and got the attention of India on reality of climate variability and its significance. The information on annual and seasonal rainfall of a region is useful to design water harvesting structure for agricultural operations, field preparation, seeding, irrigation, fertilizer application and overall in field of crop planning [1] [2] . Climatic variability, particularly rainfall is the major factor influencing the agricultural productivity and sustainability in the tropics [3] . Around 60% of the Indian agriculture is rain-dependent, distress-prone and vulnerable to climate. Constant increase in green house gas concentrations, since pre-industrial times, has led to positive radiative forcing of the climate, tending to warm the surface. The fourth assessment report of ...
Dow Jones Industrial Average, which is based on the stock prices of 30 companies, is used to represent the fluctuations in the stock market as a whole, climate indices are used to represent the essential elements of climate. Climate indices are generally identified or devised with the twin objectives of simplicity and completeness, and each typically represents the status and timing of the climate factor it represents. By their very nature, indices are simple, and combine many details into a generalized, overall description of the atmosphere or ocean which can be used to characterize the factors which impact the global climate system. Because the climate indices are generally determined from measurements made in a localized area, they can have impacts in other areas around the globe, through processes sometimes called teleconnections.. References: ...
by Judith Curry Are values of equilibrium climate sensitivity | 4.5 C plausible? For background, see these previous posts on climate sensitivity [link] Here are some possibilistic arguments related to climate sensitivity. I dont think the ECS example is the best one to illustrate these ideas [see previous post], and I probably wont include this…
Abstract. Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feedbacks related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature variability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature. Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect ...
Temperature variability in the Southwest US is investigated using skew-normal probability distribution functions (SN PDFs) fitted to observed wintertime daily maximum temperature records. These PDFs vary significantly between years, with important geographical differences in the relationship between the central tendency and tails, revealing differing linkages between weather and climate. The warmest and coldest extremes do not necessarily follow the distribution center. In some regions one tail of the distribution shows more variability than does the other. For example, in California the cold tail is more variable while the warm tail remains relatively stable, so warm years are associated with fewer cold extremes but not necessarily more warm extremes. The opposite relationship is seen in the Great Plains. Changes in temperature PDFs are conditioned by different phases of El Nino-La Nina (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). In the Southern Great Plains, La Nina and/or negative PDO ...
The failure of the Madrid climate negotiations, the Cop25, was not really unexpected. Even today, very few people, be they politicians or citizens, understand the risks of whats happening, and those who do are accused of alarmism. But how long can we carry on as if nothing is happening? What do we risk if we do nothing?. The answer is that we risk much more than we can afford. Many studies tell us this, among others also a recent article published in Nature titled Climate tipping points - too risky to bet against. Even without going into the details, the title is clear enough to understand that the matter is becoming dramatic. But why so much concern among scientists?. We can summarize the problem in one short sentence: the Earths climate is unstable. It is something that is emerging with ever greater force from all studies in climate science. Of course, the fact that the climate always changes is a favorite argument of those who deny climate science. Their reasoning is: the climate has ...
Our climate is changing because of distinctive variables affecting earth at large. The need of measuring stations in numerous remote regions and particularly over the endless sea zones implies that satellites are the only way to assemble information on Essential Climate Variables - ECVs. By utilizing Earth observation strategies from space, we can screen global natural change not possible with other procedures. , monitoring, prediction, and related administrations depend on exact perceptions of the climate, land, and sea, adequately tested universally and over adequately long time periods. Satellite estimations have given coordinate observational proves that later increases in greenhouse gas concentrations have created the anticipated changes to the active energy transmitted by the Earth. However, while they play a basic part in assessing and improving the models used to make future climate projections required by policymakers they are not however of sufficient exactness to absolutely set up ...
Guest post by Bart Verheggen, Department of Air Quality and Climate Change , Energy research Institute of the Netherlands (ECN). The impacts of aerosols on climate are significant, but also very uncertain. There are several reasons for this, one of which is the uncertainty in how and how fast they are formed in the atmosphere by nucleation. Here, in part I, Ill review some of the basic processes that are important in determining the climate effects of aerosols, focusing in particular on their formation. This is also relevant in order to better understand -and hopefully quantify- the hypothetical climate effects of galactic cosmic rays which Ill discuss in a follow-up post.. Background. Aerosols are liquid or solid particles suspended in the atmosphere (but not including water droplets or ice crystals). They can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere (primary aerosols like dust), or they can be formed in the atmosphere by condensation (secondary aerosol like sulfates). Almost all of ...
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and leptospirosis are seasonal rodent-borne infections in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The occurrences of HFRS and leptospirosis are influenced by climatic variability. However, few studies have examined the effects of local climatic variables on the development of these infections. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of climatic factors on the occurrence of HFRS and leptospirosis in Korea. Daily records on human cases of HFRS and leptospirosis between January 2001 to December 2009 were analyzed. The associations of climatic factors with these cases in high incidence provinces were estimated using the time-series method and multivariate generalized linear Poisson models with a maximal lag of 12 weeks. From 2001 to 2009, a total of 2912 HFRS and 889 leptospirosis cases were reported, with overall incidences of 0.67 and 0.21 cases per 100,000, respectively, in the study areas. The increase in minimum temperature (1 °C) at a lag of 11 weeks
One of the most challenging tasks of climate science is to determine climate sensitivity. It is often defined as the equilibrium response of the global mean surface temperature to the doubling of atmospheric CO2. Unfortunately, currently available models have sensitivities that vary across a wide range. According to the report of the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment (1), about two-thirds of the current climate models have sensitivities that range between 2 °C and 4.5 °C. Although this range is itself large, the sensitivities of one-third of the models lie outside of this range. The need to reduce this sizable uncertainty is one of the important reasons it is urgent to understand and reliably quantify the mechanisms that determine climate sensitivity.. Climate sensitivity is inversely proportional to the strength of the radiative feedback that operates on the global-scale perturbation of surface temperature. Here, we describe our attempt to estimate the ...
Those of us who have hoped for a magical, Big Bang, or global agreement on Climate Change, may feel disappointed at Christiana Figueress (Executive Secretary, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) conclusion that we cannot have one. Certainly, the past attempts at Climate Change negotiations among the world powers have been dismal. So much so that were happy countries are still talking to each other about Climate Change at all-regardless of what they say. Progress on Climate Change, according to Figueres, will be incremental. (From Global Meltdown: Christiana Figueres, Climate One.) Incremental progress, a rate comfortable to nations around the world, sounds comforting, until you realize the intractability of this issue. That once-in-a-thousand-year heat wave that hit France in 2003 and killed 15,000 people is predicted by climate models to occur every other year by the 2040s. (Read The Weather of the Future: Heat Waves, Extreme Storms, and Other Scenes from a ...
The results of the work by Ko et al,1 combined with past such studies, also have potentially critical relevance to the challenge of climate change that faces all nations of the world. The most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report5 has concluded, in the most definitive terms yet, that global climate change is occurring, stating that: Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. The fact that the man-made contribution to the climate change pollutants is largely caused by the same activity that causes the air pollution discussed by Ko et al indicates that, if a city, state, or nation acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the air pollution caused by them, it will reap not only the climate change benefits but also the localised health benefits associated with that reduction in air pollution. ...
Climate change has become a major challenge globally. Human activities have several direct and indirect impacts on health. In Nigeria, the impacts of climate change are more devastating due to their vulnerability and low coping capability. Studies on the impacts of climate change on health risks in Nigeria are scare. With this rationale, this study investigates the effects of climate change on health risks in Nigeria. Evidence abounds that climate change impacts in Nigeria arise from climate change-related causes such as increase in temperature, rainfall, sea level rise, extreme weather events and, especially, increased health risks. Health risks such as cerebra-spinal meningitis, cardiovascular respiratory disorder of elderly, skin cancer, malaria, high blood pressure and morbidity were identified as the direct consequences of climate change. The study concluded that government should raise awareness on adverse effects of climate change which is common among vulnerable groups, like women, children and
800) 877 8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In cooperation with NOAA and other Federal, State, and tribal partners, we are soliciting public comments on the draft National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (Strategy). The adverse impacts of climate change transcend political and administrative boundaries. No single entity or level of government can safeguard wildlife and society against the effects of climate change. When finalized, this draft Strategy will present a unified approach reflecting shared principles and science-based practices for reducing the negative impacts of climate change on fish, wildlife, plants, habitats, and our natural resource heritage. The Strategy will provide a basis for sensible actions that can be taken now, in spite of the uncertainties that exist about precise impacts of climate change. It also will provide guidance about what further actions are most likely to promote natural resource adaptation to climate change, and will describe mechanisms ...
SAN JOSÉ, Apr 9 2014 (IPS) - There are few experiences more frustrating than a delay in travel plans caused by bad weather. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), this may be something we will have to get used to in the future.. In March 2014, the IPCC released the 5th assessment of the impacts, adaptation strategies, and vulnerabilities related to global climate change. The report makes it clear that travelling in the future will become more of an ordeal.. Extreme weather events related to climate change, such as heat waves, storms and coastal flooding, are predicted to increase in frequency with only a 1°C increase in average global temperature - and current trends indicate even higher rises in average temperature. Besides the more serious effects, this is a recipe for more travel delays, larger numbers of travellers stranded and a greater overall risk associated with travelling.. And the news gets worse if your destination involves beaches or coral reefs.. As ...
Based on current global climate anomaly conditions and forecasts, El Niño is likely to develop during late 2014 and persist into early 2015. The expected effects on regional weather patterns include persistent high temperatures and drought in some areas, and heavy rainfall and flooding in others. This may enhance populations of particular vectors and the transmission of various infectious diseases in human and animal populations.. Although local weather conditions mediate part of ENSOs influence on infectious disease transmission (teleconnections), incorporating ENSO indicators into disease risk predictions offers advantages. ENSO forecasts typically can anticipate local weather effects several months before they manifest, providing lead-time for public health risk communication, enhancement of disease and vector surveillance programs, provisioning of clinical resources (for example, vaccines and diagnostics), and other preparedness measures. Also, a large-scale climate phenomenon such as ...
How will the current risk areas be affected by climate change? This depends on the underlying assumptions regarding the future course of global climate change on which ones calculations are based. The researchers in Bayreuth and Stockholm used two different climate change scenarios. One of the two scenarios assumes that climate change will progress moderately and that the IPCC target of 2 degrees Celsius per year will only be slightly missed. The average global temperature would increase by 2.6 degrees Celsius by the year 2100 compared to pre-industrial times. On this assumption, the calculations point to a general trend that will make the climate conditions around the world more favourable for Chikungunya infections.. By contrast, the second scenario assumes that climate change will be left unchecked to a large extent. Here the average global temperature would increase by around 4.6 degrees Celsius by the year 2100 compared to pre-industrial times. In this case, the regions at high risk of ...
Climate exerts a powerful influence on biological processes, but the effects of climate change on ecosystem nutrient flux and cycling are poorly resolved. Although rare, long-term records offer a unique opportunity to disentangle effects of climate from other anthropogenic influences. Here, we examine the longest and most complete record of watershed nutrient and climate dynamics available worldwide, which was collected at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the northeastern United States. We used empirical analyses and model calculations to distinguish between effects of climate change and past perturbations on the forest nitrogen (N) cycle. We find that climate alone cannot explain the occurrence of a dramatic ,90% drop in watershed nitrate export over the past 46 y, despite longer growing seasons and higher soil temperatures. The strongest climate influence was an increase in soil temperature accompanied by a shift in paths of soil water flow within the watershed, but this effect ...
There has been an overall decline in copepod populations across the North Atlantic over the past few decades. Reasons for these declines are unclear, and several major species, including the cyclopoid copepod Oithona similis, have maintained stable populations at station L4 in the western English Channel. To identify the factors contributing to this stability, we conducted a 1-year intensive study of O. similis at L4 over 2017-2018, a period of high climatic variability. For context, dominant frequency state analysis was applied to the 30-year L4 time series to derive the baseline dynamics of the Oithona spp. population. The Oithona spp. baseline demonstrated stable densities and a bimodal annual cycle. These dynamics, as well as those of reproductive output and phaenological timings, were upheld in 2017-2018, indicating resilience to climatic variability. During 2017-2018, all life stages of O. similis were relatively scarce in the top 2 m of the water column, despite the presence of abundant food.
141 Kahya, E., & Dracup, J. A. (1993). U.S. Streamflow Patterns in Relation to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation. Water Resources Research 29 (8), 2491 2503. Kaplan, A., Cane, M., Kushnir, Y., Clement, A., Blumenthal, M., & Rajagopalan, B. (1998). Analyses of Global Sea Surface Temperature 1856 1991. Journal of Geophysical Research 103 (18), 567 589. Kardioglu, M., Tulunay, Y., & Borham, Y. (1999). Variability of Turkish Precipitation Compared to El Nino Events. Geophysical Research Letters 26 (11), 1597 1600. Kennedy, A. M., Garen, D. C., & Koch, R. W. (2009). The association between climate teleconnection indices and Upper Klamath seasonal streamflow: Trans Nino Index. Hydrological Processes 23 973 984. doi:10.1002/hyp.7200 Kock, R.W., & Fisher, A.R. (2000). Effects of Inter annual and Decadal scale Climate Variability on Winter and Spring Streamflow in western Oregon and Washington. Pro ceedings of the Western Snow Conference (pp. 1 11). Port Angeles, Washington. Martinez, C. J., Risko, S. L., ...
Abstract. Climate, fire and soil nutritional limitation are important elements that affect the vegetation dynamics in areas of forest-savanna transition. In this paper, we use the dynamic vegetation model INLAND to evaluate the influence of climate variability, fire and phosphorus limitation on the Amazon-Cerrado transitional vegetation structure and dynamics. We assess how each element affects the net primary production, leaf area index and biomass and compare the simulations of aboveground biomass to observed biomass map. We used two climate datasets - the 1960-1990 average seasonal climate and the 1948 to 2008 interannual climate variability, two regional datasets of total soil P content in soil, based on regional (field measurements) and global data and the INLAND fire module. Our results show that climate interannual variability, phosphorus limitation and fire occurrence gradually improve simulated vegetation types and these effects are not homogeneous along the latitudinal/longitudinal ...
Dear colleagues The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has just released a new report about climate changes Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation IPCCs WGII report. The report finds that climate change has detrimental effects on every continent, it warns about food and water shortages, rising sea levels, and serious impacts on human health and shows that current emission trends mean that the world will start exceeding limits to adaptation in both natural and human systems. For the first time the IPCC health chapter has a dedicated section to gender and covers the co-benefits of mitigating against climate change and improving health. These co-benefits include reducing local pollution and emissions of climate altering pollutants from energy production through shifting to renewables, better combustion and energy efficiency, shifting diets in rich countries to less animal products, redesigning communities to promote active transport and providing access to reproductive health ...
Heat is the most direct route from climate change to human health. The links between high temperatures and increased mortality and morbidity have been described in great detail in many settings around the world,1 and the physiological mechanisms are well understood.2 The effects are frequently magnified when there are consecutive days of very high temperatures (heat waves). Indeed extreme events such as the European heat wave of 2003 may provide some of the first evidence of impacts of climate change on human health. (The probability that the 2003 heat wave was caused by human modification of the global climate is more than 75%, according to one recent estimate3: it is more likely than not that the heat wave, and the accompanying tens of thousands of excess deaths, can be attributed to climate change.). It is virtually certain, according to the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate (IPCC) assessment of the science of climate change, that there will be warmer and/or more frequent hot ...
The potential withdrawal of the United States from the Paris climate agreement has broad implications for society and the environment. While much attention has concentrated upon melting glaciers, rising sea levels and conflicts over scarce resources, another area represents a major cause for concern: human health. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global climate change has direct health impacts tied to changes in the frequency of extreme weather events including heat, drought and intense rain. Additionally, increasing temperatures alter ecosystem dynamics, making it easier for mosquitoes and other organisms to come into contact with human populations and spread infectious disease (Smith et al. 2014).
Eastern spruce-fir forest ecosystems are among the most vulnerable to climate change within the continuous US. The goal of this project was to develop tools to identify refugia sites most likely to support spruce-fir forest and its associated high-priority obligate spruce-fir bird species over the long-term under projected climate change scenarios. Specific research objectives included: (1) producing high-resolution (temporal and spatial) projections of spruce-fir forests, including stand characteristics like structure and composition; (2) estimating future changes in the distribution, productivity and stand characteristics of the spruce-fir forest type due to potential changes in climate; (3) comparing the distribution and condition of spruce-fir forest for different climate change scenarios to identify areas with key physiographic settings likely to support refugia for this forest type; (4) modeling bird occurrence, distribution, nesting phenology and productivity as functions of climate and ...
Solve a big problem and get a big reward. Thats how our market economy works. The granddaddy of problems in the 21st century is climate disruption. Our increasingly unstable climate brings unacceptable economic and social risks. Solving that problem means massive global investment in low-carbon energy technologies and infrastructure. The potential rewards are massive.. The threat of climate disruption is clear. The IPCCs (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) recent report - their Fifth Assessment - is but the latest in a series of increasingly urgent warnings from our most august institutions. The Royal Society, the US National Academies of Science, the International Energy Agency, NASA, the Pentagon - all confirm business as usual takes us to a dangerous place. We can no longer stop climate disruption, but we can slow it down - reducing the costs of adaptation: more extreme weather; increasing frequency of floods and droughts; rising ocean levels; food scarcity. The solution is to ...
Posted on 03/22/2014 9:47:13 AM PDT by Oldeconomybuyer. Junk Science: Climate change deniers, as global warm-mongers call those who think empirical evidence is more reliable than computer models, may soon count among their number a 50,000-strong body of physicists. At the risk of being accused of embracing what alarmists call the flat-earth view of climate change, the American Physical Society has appointed a balanced, six-person committee to review its stance on so-called climate change that includes three distinguished skeptics: Judith Curry, John Christy and Richard Lindzen. Their credentials are impressive. Christy is director of the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama, Huntsville, and was a lead author of the 2001 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Curry is a professor and chairwoman of the School of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Lindzen, an Alfred P. Sloan professor of meteorology at MIT from 1983 to 2013, ...
This project compiled, synthesized, and communicated tailored climate change information to NE CASC stakeholders, including Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCC), state and federal agencies, and tribal communities. Our mission is to make climate science actionable by getting to know our stakeholders and the decisions they face, and delivering climate information that is directly relevant to their decisions and priorities. Our project team served as a resource to answer individual inquiries related to climate model projections in order to aid climate change adaptation. Additionally, our team contributed to the development of a synthesis document to help the Midwest and Northeast states prepare their threatened wildlife for climate change through their State Wildlife Action Plans (SWAPs). Other efforts included assisting tribal communities to prepare their landscapes and economies for future climate, as well as helping planners in the region adapt and adjust their infrastructure for the ...
Europe is experiencing wide-ranging changes in average climate and in weather extremes. The magnitude and pace of global climate change in the future depends on the development of society and economies on a global scale. These changes are captured in global socio-economic and climate scenarios. Socio-economic scenarios provide plausible descriptions of possible future states of the world based on the choices made by society - they are not predictions. Global socio-economic scenarios inform greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, which are used by global climate models to provide projections of future climate change at a global scale. These projections can be downscaled, using regional climate models or statistical downscaling techniques, to calculate more detailed climate projections for Europe.. The Global Framework for Climate Services enables better management of the risks of climate variability and change through the development of science-based climate information and prediction, and its ...
Recently, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt and Energy Secretary Rick Perry have called for the establishment of an adversarial Red Team/Blue Team (RT/BT) process to assess the credibility of key findings of climate science. These highly publicized requests echo earlier calls for an RT/BT process by New York University physicist Steven Koonin. The underlying premise is that previous assessments of climate science are untrustworthy, self-serving, underestimate key uncertainties, and lack participation from critical voices. The implicit message in RT/BT requests is simple: only the current administration can conduct a fair and unbiased assessment of climate science.. Both the underlying premise and the implicit message are wrong. Climate science has been reviewed for decades, by the national academies of dozens of countries, relevant professional societies, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and many other entities with real domain expertise. Review processes are arduous. They typically ...
AIR: The Intersection of School Climate and Social and Emotional Development. A deep dive into SELs role in school climate, including SEL frameworks, needs of schools, and measurement. You can use this resource if you are interested in the natural alignment between school climate and SEL programs.. AIR: Measuring School Climate. A review of school climate evaluation systems as a method of assessing school principal performance employing school climate surveys in a novel way.. AIR: Ten Key Ideas for Social Emotional Learning School Climate. Useful if you are seeking actionable steps to build a foundation of mutual support for SEL and school climate.. National School Climate Council: National School Climate Standards. Five standards with indicators and subindicators to improve and promote positive school environments.. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation: School Climate and Social and Emotional Learning: The Integration of Two Approaches. A discussion of the mutually beneficial relationship between ...
Climate change is one of the most significant challenges to the Caribbeans future prosperity. The impacts of climate change on economically important sectors such as tourism, agriculture and fishing threaten Caribbean nations ability to achieve their economic and social development goals. By 2050, the costs to the region are expected to reach US$22 bn each year; this represents 10% of regional gross domestic product, based on 2004 figures. Paying for recovery efforts after natural disasters causes significant budgetary pressures and diverts funds from other pressing development issues such as health and education. However, responding to climate challenges is highly complex. Climate change has cross-cutting impacts that span sectors and spatial scales, and involves multiple stakeholders. Delivering effective climate change adaptation is therefore a question of governance.. Bottom-up, community-level approaches are important in meeting the challenges that climate change poses, but in isolation ...
Observed Climate Data. Q. Should I take 1961-90 or 1990 as my baseline?. A. IPCC have usually taken the year 1990 as the baseline year for the presentation of emissions scenarios and for calculations of future climate and sea-level change. 1990 has also been adopted by the UN FCCC in their definition of emissions reductions targets. Choosing a single year as a baseline is appropriate for some applications, but not for others.. With regard to climate, for example, a single year is not appropriate to use as the baseline. Climate variability means that a single year may be unusually warm or cold or dry or wet and does not therefore make a useful reference point for measuring climate change. More common in climatological applications is the use of the average climate over a 30-year period to define the reference or baseline climate. A 30-year climatic average smoothes out many of the year-to-year variations in climate, while the individual 30 years of such a period captures much of the ...
1] The impact of extreme sea ice initial conditions on modelled climate is analysed for a fully coupled atmosphere ocean sea ice general circulation model, the Hadley Centre climate model HadCM3. A control run is chosen as reference experiment with greenhouse gas concentration fixed at preindustrial conditions. Sensitivity experiments show an almost complete recovery from total removal or strong increase of sea ice after four years. Thus, uncertainties in initial sea ice conditions seem to be unimportant for climate modelling on decadal or longer time scales. When the initial conditions of the ocean mixed layer were adjusted to ice- free conditions, a few substantial differences remained for more than 15 model years. But these differences are clearly smaller than the uncertainty of the HadCM3 run and all the other 19 IPCC fourth assessment report climate model preindustrial runs. It is an important task to improve climate models in simulating the past sea ice variability to enable them to make ...
There has been a remarkable scientific output on the topic of how climate change is likely to affect plant diseases in the coming decades. This review addresses the need for review of this burgeoning literature by summarizing opinions of previous reviews and trends in recent studies on the impacts of climate change on plant health. Sudden Oak Death is used as an introductory case study: Californian forests could become even more susceptible to this emerging plant disease, if spring precipitations will be accompanied by warmer temperatures, although climate shifts may also affect the current synchronicity between host cambium activity and pathogen colonization rate. A summary of observed and predicted climate changes, as well as of direct effects of climate change on pathosystems, is provided. Prediction and management of climate change effects on plant health are complicated by indirect effects and the interactions with global change drivers. Uncertainty in models of plant disease development ...
At the core of the Ecology Centers local climate work, there is an understanding of the science and a strong belief that each individual can make a difference. Climate solutions require innovation, and innovation usually starts on a small scale -- like right here in our own backyard.. The Ecology Centers work on climate change and greenhouse gas reduction is strategic, comprehensive, and innovative. Recognizing that local, individualized action is critical to addressing the climate crisis, we started this work with Ann Arbor 350, a project to organize residents to support policies and programs throughout the state that reduces our overall carbon footprint. While Ann Arbor 350 is no longer in operation. Now, we are coordinating the A2 Climate Partnership to implement Ann Arbors Climate Action Plan.. Ann Arbors Climate Action Plan was first created in 2012. While much work has been done, there is a lot of work left to do. ...
Global climate change has emerged as a major driver of ecosystem change. Here we present evidence for globally consistent responses in vegetation dynamics to recent climate change in the worlds mountain ecosystems located in the pan-tropical belt (30°N -30°S). We analysed decadal-scale trends and s
The Global Climate Change Specialist will provide technical support and advice to USAID field missions and bureaus with strategy development, design, performance monitoring and evaluation of USAID-sponsored climate change programs, particularly those related to climate change adaptation and integration. S/he will be responsible for improving indicators, tools, and guidance related to monitoring the results of USAID climate change programs, in particular climate change adaptation and integration programs. The Specialist will provide quality control on performance reporting, help maintain a system of consolidating performance data, and analyze data for management and communications purposes. S/he will coordinate the collection of contextual data relevant to USAID climate change programs. The Specialist will interact regularly with field missions, provide regular updates on performance monitoring guidance to the field, coordinate with other donor agencies, and help improve and deliver training on ...
Increasingly, climate change impact assessments rely directly on climate models. Assessments of future water security depend in part on how the land model components in climate models partition precipitation into evapotranspiration and runoff, and on the sensitivity of this partitioning to climate. Runoff sensitivities are not well constrained, with CMIP5 models displaying a large spread for the present day, which projects onto change under warming, creating uncertainty. Here we show that constraining CMIP5 model runoff sensitivities with observed estimates could reduce uncertainty in runoff projection over the western United States by up to 50%. We urge caution in the direct use of climate model runoff for applications and encourage model development to use regional-scale hydrological sensitivity metrics to improve projections for water security assessments. Model estimates of future hydroclimate are uncertain, especially at the regional scale. This Perspective argues that constraining model runoff and
Description. From Joseph Romm, Chief Science Advisor for National Geographics Years of Living Dangerously series and one of Rolling Stones 100 people who are changing America, Climate Change offers user-friendly, scientifically rigorous answers to the most difficult (and commonly politicized) questions surrounding what climatologist Lonnie Thompson has deemed a clear and present danger to civilization. New questions about climate change addressed in this guide include: - Analysis of the Paris climate agreement, including the United States withdrawal - Implications of the clean energy revolution, from solar and wind power to batteries and electric cars - The latest on climate science, including updates on efforts to stem or slow climate change - Insights into what Donald Trumps presidency means for climate action in the US and internationally As the global response to climate change continues to evolve, Climate Change: What Everyone Needs to Know® offers smart, unbiased answers to the ...
The El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) constitutes a major source of potential predictability in the tropics. The majority of past seasonal prediction studies have concentrated on precipitation anomalies at the seasonal mean timescale. However, fields such as agriculture and water resource management require higher time frequency forecasts of precipitation variability. Regional climate models (RCMs), with their increased resolution, may offer one means of improving general circulation model forecasts of higher time frequency precipitation variability. Part I of this study evaluated the ability of the Rossby Centre regional atmospheric model (RCA), forced by analysed boundary conditions, to simulate seasonal mean precipitation anomalies over the tropical Americas associated with ENSO variability. In this paper the same integrations are analysed, with the focus now on precipitation anomalies at subseasonal (pentad) timescales. RCA simulates the climatological annual cycle of pentad-mean ...
Science forms the core of our understanding of the rapidly unfolding climate crisis, as well as the foundation upon which the world can and must build solutions.. Since 2012, the UN Foundation has supported the premiere global climate science body-the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)-to build and execute a communications strategy capable of breaking into the mainstream conversation. The IPCCs reports, and our work to communicate them to the public, are indispensable in informing both broad public understanding of the risks we face as well as the decisions that policymakers and elected officials need to make around the world. As we saw with the 2018 Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, the IPCC has the power to permanently shift the global climate conversation through science.. ...
The increasing urgency for developing effective adaptation responses to climate change suggests several research areas: enhancing existing climate risk management, more effective representation of the processes by which key climate drivers impact on agriculture, assessing the effectiveness of adaptation options, understanding likely adoption rates and how to improve these, and developing more resilient agricultural systems.. Agriculture in many regions remains sensitive to climate variability, and the capacity to manage this risk is variable (e.g., ref. 32). Given that climate change will be expressed via changes in variability at several temporal ranges, enhancing the capacity to manage climate risk is a core adaptation strategy (e.g., refs. 10 and 48). Developing this capacity involves increasing the climate knowledge of decision makers so they become more cognizant of climate impacts on their systems and of how to use management options to intervene, thereby reducing negative impacts and ...
Annually resolved coral delta O-18 and Sr/Ca records from southwestern Puerto Rico are used to investigate Caribbean climate variability between 1751 and 2004 C. E. Mean surface ocean temperatures in this region have increased steadily by about 2 degrees C since the year 1751, with Sr/Ca data indicating 2.1 +/- 0.8 degrees C and delta O-18 data indicating 2.7 +/- 0.5 degrees C. Coral geochemical records from across the tropics demonstrate that regional variability is important for understanding climate variations at centennial time scales. A strong multidecadal salinity signal in the oxygen isotope data correlates with observed multidecadal temperature variations in the Northern Hemisphere. Instrumental wind and precipitation data indicate that the most recent coral isotopic variations are caused by expansion and contraction of the steep regional salinity gradient, forced by trade wind anomalies through meridional Ekman transport. The timing of the fluctuations suggests that the ...
Agder, Norway. In May 2009, a scientific commission declared that climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. In June 2015, a second scientific commission concluded that tackling climate change could be the greatest global health opportunity of the 21st century.. Both commissions were organized from London, by University College London and one of the top medical journals, The Lancet. This work now continues through a new collaboration launched in November to develop indicators for health and climate change and then to track them until 2030: The Lancet Countdown: Tracking Progress on Health and Climate Change.. Norway, as one of the healthiest countries in the world with a long-standing interest in climate change, could have a strong role in global health and climate change research. Yet the topic remains a gap to be filled.. The Lancet Countdown project comprises five groups, the first of which is the health impacts of climate change. These impacts are frequently ...
This post comes from Chantal Bilodeaus Artists and Climate Change Blog. When someone asked me recently what kind of photography I do, my response climate change photography elicited this comment: Oh, you mean chasing glaciers? He was referring, of course, to the documentary film Chasing Ice about still photographer James Balogs Extreme Ice Survey, which provides hauntingly beautiful visual proof of one of the (many) impacts of climate change.. I found myself explaining to this dinner party acquaintance that climate change photography is not limited to melting glaciers or stranded polar bears. Ideally, climate change photography should focus on all aspects of climate change - causes, impacts, mitigation and adaptation. Then he asked me what mitigation was…. Thats when I realized I had some homework to do. I needed a simple definition of climate change photography, one that would resonate with the masses. In short, I needed to develop a 30-second elevator pitch to describe what I do and ...
Read Prognosis of the impact of global climate change on zonal ecosystems of the Volga River Basin, Russian Journal of Ecology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In the popular, scientific, and politically directed press, and in all kinds of media, e.g., television debates, fictional films, pseudoscientific programs, and animations for children, global climate change is presented as a future reality as a result of human activity. The contrary perspectives on global climate as a global climate stability or a global climate that is independent of human activity, and global climate dependency on other-than-human (e.g., lunar or solar) activities have not been presented in official press, and have been suppressed in popular and
As a natural scientist Mauritsen is driven by a desire to understand how the climate system works. In this regard less uncertainty around climate sensitivity could help, for instance, confirm and reject competing hypotheses on cloud feedbacks and help unravel the role of aerosol particles in driving climate change. The current level of uncertainty leaves too much room for interpretation. To this end, he wants to employ a holistic approach involving both recent observations, pre-historic climate change indicators (proxies), high-resolution satelite imagery and high-resolution computer simulations. To tie the results together he will develop a hierarchy of climate models that incorporate various scientific hypotheses, such as the iris-effect, which can be tested on the observational data. Mauritsen and many of his scientist colleagues hope that, with such and other complementary efforts, they will reduce the uncertainty in climate sensitivity substantially already within the next five to ten years ...
There is an old trick for remembering the difference between stalactites and stalagmites in a cave: Stalactites hold tight to the ceiling while stalagmites might one day grow to reach the ceiling. Now, it seems, stalagmites might also fill a hole in our understanding of Earths climate system and how that system is likely to respond to the rapid increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since preindustrial times.. Many existing historical climate records are biased to the high latitudes- coming from polar ice cores and North Atlantic deep ocean sediments. Yet a main driver of climate variability today is El Niño, which is a completely tropical phenomenon. All of this begs the question: How do we study such tropical climate influences? The answer: stalagmites.. Stalagmites are the ice cores of the tropics, says Jess Adkins, professor of geochemistry and global environmental science at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). He and geochemist Kim Cobb of the Georgia Institute of ...
At the first Log Lunch of the spring semester, Katy Hall, associate professor at Williams-Mystic, and Natalie DiNenno 18 presented Americas Vanishing Coastline: Climate Adaptation and Decision-Making in Southern Louisiana. The presentation was adapted from research DiNenno conducted for Halls marine policy class when she attended Williams-Mystic in spring 2017.. In the talk, Hall and DiNenno gave an overview of the land loss that is currently occurring in Louisiana. In an area that is already subsiding, climate change exacerbates sea level rise, flooding, and storm surge. With no future action, Louisiana could lose up to 2,250 square miles of coastal land in the next 50 years. The options for action are, however, limited. In accordance with the federal Coastal Zone Management Act, Louisiana has developed a Coastal Master Plan, the most recent version of which was approved in 2017. The $50 billion plan lays out projects that are intended to restore, build and maintain land. But as Hall and ...